COMMENTARY NOTES

Stephen Broellmann’s poem to Watson Stephen Broellmann, a Cologne jurist, was also a student of the classics, and in 1608 published a study of the antiquities of his native city. There is a life by Rochus von Lilencron in the Allegemeinen Deutschen Biographie (Leipzig, 1876).

spacer7f. These lines would seem to suggest that Watson had tried his hand at heroic verse as well as erotic poetry. If so, his work of the former kind has disappeared without trace.

spacer9f. Broelmann alludes to Watson’s translation of Petrarch’s sonnets, mentioned in the headnote to Passion I of the Ἑκατομπαθία.

spacer13 Doctus poeta is not a bad designation for Watson, since he, like Catullus, was preeminently a learned poet and possessed a relation to Petrarch and the other Italian sonneteers not entirely unlike that which Catullus had to the poets of Alexandria.

spacer15 Zoilus was a captious critic of the fourth century B. C. who did not shrink from finding fault with Homer himself.

spacerDedicatory epistle For the Earl of Arundel, see the life in the O. D. N. B.

spacer2 Aonian = Boeotian (Boeotia was the home of Helicon and the Muses).

spacer5 Philetus of Cos was a poet of the early Alexandrian period; author epigrams, elegies, and other works, he was Theocritus’ teacher. The names of Philetus (sometimes spelled Philitus) and the better-known Alexandrian poet Callimachus are linked by Propertius II.ii.253, III.i.1, and Statius, Silvae I.ii.252.

spacer6 The allusion is to the proverbial Latin verse pelle magis rabida nihil est de vulpe petendum [“nothing more of a rabid fox is to be sought than its skin”], quoted in the headnote to Passion LX of the Ἑκατομπαθία.

15 Marsyas was Apollo’s rival at singing, Arachne competed against Minerva in a weaving contest, and Irus (the beggar in the Odyssey) is paired off against Croesus, the richest of men. Smintheus was a cult title of Apollo, and Tritonia one belonging to Minerva.

spacer27 Momus was a caustic critic who appears in a couple of Lucian’s satrical dialogues. Momus and Zoilus are frequently cited as prototypes of captious critics in Elizabethan literature.

spacer40 He means the Corpus Iuris Civilis.

spacer45f. Bartolus de Saxoferrato and his student Baldus de Ubaldis were authors of standard textbooks on Roman law.

spacer56 An allusion to Broellmann’s poem, and possibly other similar ones as well.

spacer66 Maecenas was the great patron of letters under Augustus.

spacer68f. The reference would seem to be to Aesop, Fable 151, in which the lion is amazed that the mouse shows leonine courage.

spacer72 I cannot find any story in classical literature of either King Pyrrhus of Epirus or the mythological Pyrrhus (i. e., Neoptolemus) taking water from a humble man.

spacer89 It is far from self-evident how Antigone is supposed to teach how the common people uncritically obey the whim of their prince. If this line were to describe the behavior of the Chorus, it would be remarkably inaccurate: it is the Chorus, after all, which persuades Creon to relent and release Antigone from her entombment (Ant. 1098ff.), and a correct appraisal of the Chorus’ function is made at Theme I.116f.

spacer93 The stag was supposed to be a very long-lived animal: cf. Juvenal, Satire xvi.251, iam torquet iuvenem longa et cervina senectus with the Scholiast ad loc.

spacerGratulatory poem by John Cooke John Cooke [b. 1516], a former member of King’s College, Cantab., took the M. A. in 1541 and was appointed headmaster of St. Paul’s School in about 1558. He wrote a number of such gratulatory poems, such as for Thomas Wilson’s Discourse uppon usurye (1572); cf. Charles Henry Cooper and Thomas Cooper, Athenae Cantabrigenses.
spacer
Boyle (p. 45) wrongly asserted that this poem “is written in Romaic, the contemporary Greek vernacular”: it is composed in normal classical Greek.

spacer4f. An obvious echo of line 50 of Watson’s dedicatory poem to the Earl of Arundel, Antigonem docui verba Latina loqui. It is a notable sign of Cooke’s Humanism that he could call Latin “our language.”

spacer8 Watson was the first Englishman to translate a Sophoclean tragedy, at least for publication.

spacerGratulatory poem by Philip Harrison Harrison, a licentiate in civil and canon law and a former member of Trinity College, Cantab., had been admitted to the B. A. in 1572. Boyle (p. 46) noted that “he speaks of Watson as a ‘dear colleague,’ and probably was associated with him in the civil and ecclesiastical courts in London.” Cf. also Mark Eccles, Watson and Marlowe (diss. Harvard, 1933) 167 - 74.

spacer1 Mycenae was in a sense the capital of Greece when Agamemnon commanded the forces at Troy, so Harrison uses it to designate Greece as a whole.

spacer3 In writing divisis...Britannis, Harrison was no doubt thinking of Vergil, Eclogue i.5, et penitus noto divisos orbe Britannos.

spacer8 Another echo of line 50 of the dedicatory poem.

spacerGratulatory poem by Francis Yomans Yomans (or Yeomans) was one of the eight original scholars of Jesus College, Oxon., founded in 1571. In 1594 he would be appointed Headmaster of St. Saviour’s Free Grammar School, a position previousliy held by the poet Christopher Ocland. Cf. William M. Murphy, Thomas Watson’s Hecatompathia or Passionate Century of Love, 1582 (diss. Harvard, 1942), xlvi; Eccles, loc. cit. supra, and p. Boyle 46.

spacerGratulatory poem by Christopher Atkinson Atkinson, a former member of Trinity College, Oxon., received the M. D. in 1585 (Antony à Wood, Athenae Oxonienses I.129).

spacer8 The book has evehere excubias. Excubiae means a night vigil, or the soldiers who keep such a vigil, and makes no sense in the present context. Exuvia, “the special attributes of a god, carried in processions,” would suit the context of understood metaphorically (for which usage the Oxford Latin Dictionary cites Valerius Maximus I.i.6, Suetonius, Augustus xciv.6, and Apuleius, Metamorphoesis XI.10 and 29). While not entirely sure whether the confusion of words was the responsibility of author or printer, I have substituted exuvias n the text in order to render the Latin intelligible.

spacerGratulatory poem by C. Downhall Downhall also contributed two gratulatory poems for the Ἑκατομπαθία. David H. Horne suggested that his name is a misprint for “G. Downhall” in both books, and that the author was Gregory Downhall, formerly of Pembroke College, Cantab., who was admitted to the B. A. in 1574 and subsequently became a Master in Chancery (The Life and Minor Works of George Peele, New Haven, 1952, 67f., cf. also Franklin B. Williams Jr., Index of Dedications and Commentary Verses in English Books before 1641, London, 1962, index s. v.). But it does seem improbable that the same misprint would occur independently in two volumes (unless, perhaps, his signature was such that it invited the confusion of the two letters).

spacerGratulatory poem by William Camden At the time he wrote this, Camden was Hypodidascalus (Second Master) of the Westminster School and working on the Britannia, destined to make his reputation when it appeared in 1586.

spacerVita Sophoclis This is Watson’s translation of the biographical article on Sophocles in the Suda, a Byzantine lexicon that was formerly attributed to the phantom writer “Suidas.”

spacerIpse etiam incepit This is a slightly periphrastic translation of the Suda’s words, which may be rendered “he was the first to compete with play against play, instead of the trilogy,” i. e., according to this source, Sophocles was the first to compete with trilogies of plays written on disparate subjects, rather than unified (durchkomposierte) trilogies such as Aeschylus’ Oresteia.

spacerScena huius fabulae Sidenote: Mutatum ex Naogeorgi annotationius in Sophoclem [“Taken from Naogeorgus’ notes on Sophocles.”]

spacerPersonae In the book this is printed after Nature’s “second Argument.” But, clearly, that passage spoken by Nature is meant as the play’s Prologue: a.) “C. Dowhall”calls Nature a praefatrix in his laudatory poem (12); b.) it is exactly comparable to the new Prologue William Gager wrote for an Oxford production of Seneca’s Phaedra. In Watson’s case, adding this Prologue was part of the same programme that led him to impose a five-Act structure on the Antigone: shoehorning Sophocles’ play into the standard Renaissance format for a tragedy, based on Seneca rather than Greek models. The reason why he did not identify this new passage as the play’s formal Preface is that he understood the initial dialogue between Antigone and Ismene as already being such (cf. his initial stage direction Praefatur autem Antigone). Hence it makes more sense to have the Dramatis Personae list first. I have nonetheless assigned this passage its own line-numbers, so as to have the lineation of the play itself match that of Sophocles’ Greek as closely as possible.

spacer12 Nature’s assertion that she is the aequi columna, iuris et legum basis seems calculated to remind Watson’s audience of the concept of natural law.

spacer13 Natura duce was a favorite phrase of Cicero: Brutus cciv, de Finibus I.lxxii, II.xxxii, II.cix, de Natura Deorum I.ii, II.cxxviii, de Officiis I.cxxx, II.lxxiii, de Oratore III.ccv, pro Rabirio Postumo iv, and Tusculan Disputations I.xxx.

spacer16f. Cf. Seneca, Agamemnon 112f.:

Periere mores, ius, decus, pietas, fides,
Et qui redire cum perit nescit pudor.

spacer19 Understandably, this passage contains several echoes of Seneca, Oedipus. At Oed. 975f. Oedipus is reported to have called to the gods, after having blinded himself:

spacerspacerspacerspacerParcite en patriae, precor:
Iam iusta feci, debitas poenas tuli.

spacer21 Cf. Oed. 812f.:

spacerspacerspacerspacerForata ferro gesseras vestigia,
Tumore nactus nomen ac vitio pedum.

spacer25f. Cf. Oed. 635f.:

Sceptra et nefandos occupat thalamos patris
Invisa proles.

spacer29f. Cf. Lucretius IV.1134, aut cum conscius ipse animus se forte remordet, as well as the description of Oedipus’ self-blinding at Oed. 960 - 4:

spacerspacerspacerspacerGemuit et direum fremens
manus in ora torsit. At contra truces
Oculi steterunt et suam intenti manum
Ultro insecuntur, vulneri occurrunt suo
.

spacer32 Cf. Oed 652f.:

Letum Luesque, Mors, Labor, Tabes, Dolor,
Comitans illo dignus, excedunt simul.

spacer33 Cf. Ps.-Seneca, Octavia 188, NUTRIX Nondum unor est. OCT. Iam fiet, et genetrix simul.

spacer36 Now Watson shifts to narrative material covered in Seneca’s Phoenissae and begins to borrow phrases from that play. Paternum sceptrum is used at Phoen. 275.

spacer43ff. Cf. Phoen. 324f.:

Nam regna repetens frater et pactas vices
In bella cunctos Graeciae populos agit.

spacer46f. Cf. Phoen. 555f.:

spacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerNe, precor, ferro erue
Patriam ac penates, neve, quae regere expetis,
Verte Thebas.

spacer51 Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses III.123, Cadunt subiti per mutua vulnera fratres, VII.1412, Terrigenae pereunt per mutua vulnera fratres, Tristia II.i.319, Cur tacui Thebas et vulnera mutua fratrum?, and Statius, Thebais VIII.415f., et mutua perdunt / vulnere.

spacer53 At line 30 of his translation of the Antigone, Watson converts Sophocles’ statement that Polynices’ corpse will feed birds into a more specific announcement that he will be a prey for hungry vultures. At Soph, Antigone 1198 the corpse is described as having been eaten by dogs.

spacer56 Antigone will be the first character to enter and speak: Nature succinctly indicates the contents of the play’s first scene.

spacer58 Animosa (“high-spirited”) is a word that closely relates to Watson’s diagnosis of Antigone’s character. In the second Pomp she is represented by Magnanimitas (“Greatness of Spirit), and at Theme II.230f. he writes:

Pessima virtus animosa sui
In perniciem facta attentat.

[“High-spirited virtue attempts the worst of deeds, to its own destruction.”]

Affectus is another key word in his appraisal of her motivation. He uses the phrase affectus levis, which designates emotions that are easily changed or excited, two lines below and also at Pomp II.156. By comparing these passages one sees that, although Greatness of Spirit proclaims that it will scarcely be fitting for her to be swayed by affectus levis, line 6o of the Prologue insinuates that this is precisely Antigone’s motivation for violating the law. The source of this appraisal is Soph., Ant. 875, σὲ δ᾿ αὐτόγνωτος ὤλεσ᾿ ὀργά [“Your headstrong temper (or pride) has destroyed you,”] which at line 868 of his translation Watson rendered in Latin as sed perdidit te affectus amens [“Your mindless emotion has destroyed you.”]

spacer65 Summo with supplicio to be understood.

spacerThe play 32 Sidenote: Ironice [“Said with irony.”]

spacer100 Sidenote: Hic Thebani senes, occisis iam pridem suis hostibus, canunt epinicion [“Here the old men of Thebes, their enemies now dead, sing a victory song.”]

spacer108 Sidenote: De Adrasto loquitur [“The Chorus speaks of Adrastus.”]

spacer155 Sidenote: Chorus adventare videt Creontem [“The Chorus sees Creon approaching.”]

spacer178 Sidenote: Magistratus Creon indicat [“Creon means the magistracy.”]

spacer199 Sidenote: Solebant enim arma et instrumenta, canes et equi, vestesque cum mortuis cremari, aut sepeliri [“For they were wont to cremate or bury weapons and implements, dogs, horses, and garments with the dead.”]

spacer213 Sidenote: Adulatorium, et quod placeat tyranno [“Flattery, and what pleases a tyrant.”]

spacer266 Sidenote: Hoc olim faciebant ethnici et Christiani ad probandam innocentiam [“For the pagans and Christians used to do this to prove innocence.”]

spacer277 Sidenote: Ironice [“Ironically.”]

spacer293 Sidenote: Pecuniae studium ad omne flagitium impellit [“Lust for money drives us to every crime.”]

spacer335 Sidenote: Audaciam hominum, industriamque ac prudentiam a multis rebus laudat [“The Chorus praises human boldness, industry and prudence on many counts.”]

spacer337 Sidenote: A navigatione [“Because of navigation.”]

spacer341 Sidenote: Ab agricultura [“Because of agriculture.”]

spacer346 Sidenote: Ab aucupio et venatione [“Because of birding and hunting.”]

spacer349 Sidenote: <A> piscatione [“Because of fishing.”]

spacer352 Sidenote: A cicuratione belluarum [“Because of the taming of beasts.”]

spacer357 Sidenote: A variis linguis et scientiis [“Because of various languages and science.”]

spacer359 Sidenote: Ab aedificationibus [“Because of buildings.”]

spacer365 Sidenote: A medicina [“Because of medicine.”]

spacer367 Sidenote: Ab artium inventione [“Because of the invention of arts.”]

spacer377 Sidenote: Hic chorus vident attrahi Antigonem deprehensam apud cadaver Polynicis [“Here the Chorus sees Antigone being dragged in, arrested by Polynices’ body.”]

spacer397 Sidenote: Prius enim sortiebantur quis nunciaret Creonti cadaver Polynicis esse humatum [“For previously they had drawn lots who should tell Creon that Polynices’ body had been buried.”]

spacer445 Sidenote: Nuncio alloquitur [“He addresses the Messenger.”]

spacer447 Sidenote: Iterum affatur Antigonem [“He speaks to Antigone again.”]

spacer487 Sidenote: Ismenem quoque ex sola quamvis suspicione ad mortem condemnat [“He condemns Ismene to death as well, on suspicion alone.”]

spacer505 Sidenote: Ironice hoc dicit [“He says this with irony.”]

spacer518 Sidenote: I. e. ut omnes mortui sepeliantur [“I. e., that all the dead be buried.”]

spacer525 Sidenote: Chorus videt Ismenem lacrimoso vultu prodeuntem [“The Chorus sees Ismene enter with a tear-stained face.”]

spacer530 Sidenote: Erumpit in convicia contra Ismenem [“He breaks forth with invective against Ismene.”]

spacer535 Sidenote, I. e., Antigone.

spacer537 Sidenote: Falso hoc dicit pro salute sororis [“She lies in saying this, for the safety of her sister.”]

spacer626 Sidenote: Venit Haemon, et cum patre suo disputat de morte Antigonis [“Haemon enters, and disputes with his father about Antigone’s death.”]

spacer665 Sidenote: Tyranni vox [“A tyrant’s statement.”]

spacer670 Sidenote: Contra inobedientiam [“Against disobedience.”]

spacer673 Sidenote Obedientia [“Obedience.”]

spacer703 Sidenote: Contra φιλαυτίαν [“Against self-love.”]

spacer709 Sidenote: Solonis dictum est γηράσκω δ᾿ ἀεὶ πολλὰ διδασκόμενος, duobus dimilitudinibus eleganter probat credendum esse [“In two images he elegantly demonstrates Solon’s dictum, I always grow older learning many things.”]

spacer722 Sidenote: Haemonem alloquitur [“He addresses Haemon.”]

spacer750 Sidenote: Creon de se dictum putat, dum tamen Haemon semetipsum intelligit [“Creon imagines he is being spoken of, while Haemon is thinking of himself.”]

spacer769 Sidenote: Ismenem morti prius temere adiudicatam hic liberat [“Here he frees Ismene, whom he had rashly condemned to death.”]

spacer800 Sidenote: Communem thalamum, id est mortem [“‘A common marriage chamber’ means death.”]

spacer812 Sidenote: Chorus eam consolatur, sed argumentis inefficacibus [“The chorus consoles here, but with ineffectual arguments.”]

spacer877 Sidenote: Increpat lictores quod non abducant puellam [“He rails at his bodybuard for not taking the girl away.”]

spacer882 Sidenote: Pilati puritas [“Pilate’s purity.”]

spacer932 Sidenote: A lictoribus abducitur [“She is taken away by the bodyguards.”]

spacer937 Sidenote: Consolatur eam chorus ab exemplo Danaes [“The Chorus consoles her, by the example of Danae.”]

spacer948 Sidenote: Aliud adducitur exemplum Lycurgi [“Another example is adduced, that of Lycurgus.”]

spacer963 Sidenote: Intellige Plexippen et Pandionem, quos excaecavit noverca [“Understand this to refer to Plexippe and Pandion, blinded by their step-mother.”]

spacer971 Sidenote: Matris, id est Cleopatra [“His mother, that is to say Cleopatra.”]

spacer988 Sidenote: Id est, in summo periculo [“I. e., in extreme danger.”]

spacer1036 Sidenote: Creon suspicatur Tiresiam pecunia corruptum esse [“Creon suspects that Tiresias is corrupted by money.”]

spacer1079 Sidenote: Puerum suum affatur, a quo ducitur {“He speaks to the boy by whom he is led.”]

spacer1080 Sidenote: Hic id est Creon [“Here this is Creon.”]

spacer1107 Sidenote: Id est, Semeles Cadmi filiae. Chorus Bacchum invocat, ut rebus afflictis opem ferat [I. e., of Cadmus’ daughter Semele. The Chorus invokes Bacchus, that he might bear help in troubled times.”]

spacer1124 Sidenote: Nissa est mons Phocidis Baccho sacer [“Nissa is a mountain in Phocis, sacred to Bacchus.”]

spacer1141 Sidenote: Naxus insula est sacra Baccho [“Naxos is an island sacred to Bacchus.”]

spacer1146 Sidenote: Tristissima fabulae catastrophe [“The play’s most grievous catastrophe.”]

spacer1157 Sidenote: Hic versus integer deerat in nostris exemplaribus Graecis, dum admonitione Ioachimi Chamerarii ex Athenaeo restitutus erat [“Here a complete verse was missing in our manuscripts, until at the admotion of Joachim Camerarius it was restored from Athenaeus.”] The verse was actually restored by Adrianus Turnebus in 1553, from Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae XII p. 547C.

spacer1170 Sidenote: Hanc Euridicen Hesiodus Heniochen vocat [“Hesiod calls this Eurydice Henioche.”] The reference is to Hesiod, Scutum 83.

spacer1210 Sidenote: Id est Antigonem.

spacer1213 Sidenote, Id est Haemon.

spacer1235 Sidenote: Eurydice dolore victa domum se recipit [“Eurydice betakes herself homeward, overcome by grief.”]

spacer1251 Sidenote: Creon apud chorum sua facta deplorat [“In the presence of the Chorus, Creon deplores his actions.”]

spacer1293 Sidenote: Id est Haemonis.

spacer1336 Sidenote: Ictus piscator sapit; et Homerus ῥεχθὲν δέ τε νήπιους ἔγνω [“The fisherman is clever once the fish has struck, and Homer says, ‘The fool understands the deed when it is done’”]. Cf. Iliad XVII.32 and XX. 198.

spacerPomps and Themes 3 Watson may have been thinking of Cicero’s definition at De Inventione I.vii, materiam artis eam dicimus, in qua omnis ars et ea facultas, quae conficitur ex arte, versatur.

spacer15 An echo of Antigone 1096f. as translated by Watson (1088f.):

spacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerat reluctanem tamen
Animum aspera clade opprimi gravissimum.

spacer19 An echo of Nature’s Prologue 66, Sed usque durus mente in incepta manet. Watson translated Antigone 1265, ὤμοι ἐμῶν ἄνολβα βουλευμάτων as o incepta iam meis infaustissima (1266f.).

spacer22f. Evidently Watson was recalling Seneca, Phoenissae 349f.:

Tu pacis auctor, generis humani arbiter,
Electus orbem spiritu sacro regis.

spacer35 Contrast line 65 of the Prologue, in which it is said of Creon, Dum vult remittere de summo nihil.

spacer50 At lines 1103 - 6 of the play, Watson translated Antigone 1111 - 14 as:

Quando huc trucis deflexus est animi rigor,
Solvam ipse praesens, qui prius constrinxeram.
Namque vereor ne constituta iura dum spacer
Retineo, non sit optimum vitam aedere.

spacer53 Similarly, in his translation of Ant. 673 Watson says of rebellio (Sophocles’ anarchia), haec integras labefactat urbes (671).

spacer70 Cf. Martial VII.ii.1, invia Sarmaticis domini lorici sagittis.

spacer87 There are many proverbs to the effect that justice is slow but sure. A familiar one is at Horace, Odes III.ii.31f.:

Raro antecedentem scelestum
spacerDeserit pede Poena claudo.

spacer88ff. The figure of Late Repentance is suggested by the final two lines of the Antigone, rendered by Watson (1335f.) as:

Sapere extrema spacer
Tandem didicere senecta.

spacer91f. For Creon learning the truth too late, cf. Antigone 1270f., rendered by Watson (1262f.):

CHOR. Ut sero quid iustum est videris cernere!
CRE. Tandem miser cognosco.

For his death wish, cf. Antigone 1307., rendered by Watson (1297f.) as:

Quid hoc pectus ne-
spacerspacermo mortifero ense traiecit?

spacerTheme I Compare Watson’s marginal gloss against line 703 of his translation, Contra φιλαυτίαν [“Against self-love.”] The meter of this Theme consists of alternating iambic trimeters and dimeters, a meter employed by Horace in some of his Epodes as well in the Senecan chorus noted in the Introduction.

spacer94 Cf. Watson’s translation of Antigone 156f. (which contains a moral evaluation of Creon not found in the Greek) at lines 159f. of this translation:

Creon stirps Menaecei, recenti
Divium solio tumidus.

spacer104 Cf. Ps. - Seneca, Octavia 431f.:

Quo scelera regnant, saevit impietas furens,
Turpi libido Venere dominatur potens.

spacer110 These words recall the Poet’s earlier analysis of Creon’s condition at 16f.:

Quam sit nefandum dura mens, animi et rigor
Inflexus.

spacer114 Compare Watson’s translation of Antigone 1028 (spoken by Tiresias to Creon), nam pertinacia dura stultitiam arguit (1020).

spacer116 - 9 The first two lines refer to the Chorus’ attempt to dissuade Creon, and the second pair to Tiresias.

spacer123 For peccandi...modus cf. Seneca, Phaedra 141.

spacer124f. These lines paraphrase Seneca, Hercules Furens 208f.:

spacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerFinis alterius mali
Gradus est futuri.

spacer126 Cf. Phaedra 1210, exsequer vindex severus.

spacer130f. It is impossible to read these lines without recalling Jesus’ saying (Matthew 7:3 - 5, cf. also Luke 6:41 - 42), And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye? Or how wilt thou say to thy brother, “Let me pull out the mote out of thine eye,” and, behold, a beam is in thine own eye? You hypocrite, first cast out the beam out of your own eye; and then shall you see clearly to cast out the mote out of your brother's eye.

spacer132 Cf. Martial XII.lxx.4, udorum tetricus censor et asper erat.

spacer141 The allusion is of course to that famous Delphic injunction, KNOW THYSELF.

spacerPomp II In these lines Watson manages to catalogue a number of the attitudes of the English aristocracy with remarkable succinctness.

spacer165ff. Much of Country’s argument is taken from Cicero, De Oratore I.cxcvi:

Ac si nos, id quod maxime debet, nostra patria delectat, cuius rei tanta est vis ac tanta natura, ut Ithacam illam in asperrimis saxulis tamquam nidulum adfixam sapientissimus vir immortalitati anteponeret, quo amore tandem inflammati esse debemus in eius modi patriam, quae una in omnibus terris domus est virtutis, imperi, dignitatis? Cuius primum nobis mens, mos, disciplina nota esse debet, vel quia est patria parens omnium nostrum, vel quia tanta sapientia fuisse in iure constituendo putanda est quanta fuit in his tantis opibus imperi comparandis.

spacer171 Doubtless the reader was supposed to recognize the allusion to Horace, Odes II.ii.13, Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori.

spacer176 Cf., perhaps, Ovid, Heroides xiv.122, infelix uno fratre manente cadam? and also Horace, Odes I.xxxii.14f. laborum / dulce lenimen.

spacer186 Possibly Watson was thinking of Ovid, Metamorphoses III.531, ab obice saevior ibat (sc. torrens).

spacer192f. Watson translated Antigone 496 Factum tamen iactare gestit impudens (495).

spacerTheme II This Theme is composed of a meter of four anapaestic feet per line, variously resolved.

spacer206f. In the Prologue (12) Nature has already proclaimed sum aequi columna, iuris et legum basis.

spacer217f. The people need constant nourishment from their sovereign, as a river needs constant nourishment from its source.

spacer224 Cf. Ovid,Amores III.iv.17, Nitimur in vetitum semper cupimusque negata.

spacer227 This echoes line 62 of Nature’s Prologue (said of Antigone), Mox ergo regis iussa perfringens palam.

spacer230 Virtus is called animosa at Seneca, Hercules Furens 201.

spacer240 Lerna was a Greek swamp, the home of the Hydra.

spacer245f. Cf. Seneca, Oedipus 519, Quid arma possint regis irati scies.

spacer255 Cf. Seneca, Hercules Furens 736f.:

Quod quisque fecit, patitur; auctorum scelus
Repetit suoque premitur exemplo nocens.

spacer268 The allusion is to Publilius Syrus, Sententiae A22, amare et sapere vix deo conceditur. See the discussion of Watson’s use of this slogan in the General Introduction.

spacer271ff. This description of Cupid contains to themes that are repeated in Watson’s later works, that he is blind and that he has power over Jove himself. Watson explains the first characteristic in Passion LXXXVI of the Ἑκατομπαθία (7f.):

They paint him blinde in that he cannot spy
What difference is twixt vertue and default.

By the time he wrote this, perhaps Watson had already composed the Ovid-based poem developing this same theme that he partially quotes in introductiong Passion LXXV of the Ἑκατομπαθία, destined to be reworked as Eclogue V of Amintae Gaudia (this same poem also stands behind the shorter passage at Amyntas, Lamentation V.35ff.).

spacer273 The liver was thought to be the seat of the passions: cf. Theme III.308, and such later lines as Amyntas, Lamentation III.97, Amintae Gaudia Epistles I.4, I.63, and II.81.

spacer279 Watson rendered Sophocles’ ἀβουλία as praeceps temeritas at 1233.

spacer288 The allusion is of course to Haemon’s rebellion against Creon’s paternal authority.

spacer292 Cf. Watson’s translation of Antigone 766 (the Chorus is speaking of Haemon), discessit, o rex, bile acerba concitus (764).

spacer299 In his translation of Antigone 461f. Watson uses the phrase rupta vitae stamina.

spacer304ff. These lines are modeled on Seneca, Medea 579 - 81:

Nulla vis flammae tumidive venti
Tanta, nec teli metuenda torti,
Quanta cum coniunx viduata taedis
spacerArdet et odit.

spacer306ff. These lines (with 308f. suppressed) are quoted in the headnote to Passion LXIX of the Ἑκατομπαθία. which develops the same idea.

spacer308 See the note on Pomp III.273.

spacer312f. Cf. vigilesque trahit...noctes at Ps. - Seneca, Hercules Oetaeus 647.

spacer319 Cf. Seneca, Phaedra 644, Ut agilis altas flamma percurrit trabes.

spacer325 Cf. discrimen...exulat at Theme I.100 amd exul it ratio at Pomp III.294.

spacer327 Cf. line 17 of Nature’s Prologue, pietas, pudorque, ac exulat mundo fides.

spacer330 Cf. Pomp III.265 (of Haemon), nescit regi. Cf. also Seneca, Medea 591 - 4:

Caecus est ignus stimulatus ira
Nec regi curat patiturve frenos
Aut timet mortem: cupit ire in ipsos
spacerObvius enses.

spacer350 For rectum capesso cf. Horace, Sermones II.vii.7.

spacer353ff. In her meek way, Ismene fulfills her obligations both to country (Creon’s imperative) and to the gods (Antigone’s).

spacer360ff. These lines expand on Waton’s translation of Antigone 66, Illi obediam ultro, quisquis imperio praeest (67). For remisso pectore cf. Seneca, Hercules Furens 219 and Phoenisae 187.

spacer364 This and lines 371f. below are suggested by Seneca, Hercules Furens 197ff.:

Me mea tellus lare secreto
spacerspacerTutoque tegat
Venit ad pigros cana senectus,
Humilique loco sed certa sedet
Sordida parvae fortuna domus:
Alte virtus animosa cadet.

spacerTheme IV Boyle (p. 57) argued that “Horace expresses a moral idea similar to Watson’s in the same verse form: Intger vitae scelerisque purus (Odes I.22).” This Theme is morel visibly indebted to two other Horatian odes that both urge moderation and contentment with one’s lot, II.x and II.xvi.

spacer391 Cf., perhaps, the Vergilian Elegiae in Maecenatem i.32, maior reas magnis abstinuisse fuit.

spacer399f. Cf. Seneca, Thyestes 605f.:

Cuncta divinat metuitque casus
Rerum dubiumque tempus.

spacer401f. In view of the general indebtedness of this theme, cf. Orace, Ode II.x.15 - 18:

Informis hiemes reducit
spacerIuppiter; idem
Summovet. Non, si male nunc, et olim
Sic erit.

spacer407ff. Cf. ib. 9 - 12:

Saepius ventis agitatur ingens
Pinus et celsa graviore casu
Decidunt turres feriuntque summos
spacerFulgore montes.

spacer415 Cf. line 88 of Nature’s Prologue, quam vertat celerem Sors malesana rotam.

spacer419f. Cf. Seneca, Thyestes 451f.:

spacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerScelera non intrant casas,
Tutusque mensa capitur angusta scyphus.

spacer420f. For humble and rustic folk sleeping on turf, cf. Seneca, Phaedra 511 and Lucan, Bellum Civile VII.761.

spacer421 Watson describes the reverse of the situation at Horace, Odes II.xvi.11f., curas laqueata circum / tecta volantis.