I.16 In order to translate this line without reading imperium for imperio, I must assume that sustinuique is used intransitively (Gallum = Gallorum).
I.17 After the death of Charles the Bold of Burgundy in 1477 Louis XI was able to recapture Boulogne from the English. For the treacherous instrumentality of Philippe de Crevecouer, Sieur de Cordes in achieving this transfer, see Phiippe de Commynes, Memoirs V.xv.2.
I.23 Edward IV declared war on France in 1475, but was in effect bought off by the Treaty of Picquigny soon thereafter.
I.25 Henry VII made an abortive attempt to retake Boulogne in 1492, capturing only the lower city.
I.29 The Muse of history.
I.33 Two Celtic tribes inhabiting the regions of Boulogne and nearby Flanders respectively when the Romans arrived.
I.36 The Scythians were a nomadic people in antiquity, so writing of a “Scythian horse” conjures up a romantic image Henry riding a coursing steed. In point of fact, by the time of this campaign Henry was so old and fat that he had to be lifted into the saddle by a crane, and no doubt his mount more closely resembled a Percheron.
I.41ff. Henri de Valois, the future Henri II, led an unsuccessful attempt to retake the city in October 1545.
I.49 Oudard du Biez, Marshal of France, who was defeated outside the city by Edward Seymour in February 1454.
I.53 Edward Seymour, the future Duke of Somerset. On the showing of this line, he seems to have participated in the taking of the old bridge which led to the fortress of Boulogne.
I.54 Henry Grey, currently Marquess of Dorset (subsequently Duke of Suffolk).
I.55 John Dudley, Earl of Northumberland and Lord High Admiral of England, captured Boulogne.
I.62 Here munia = munimenta (if it is not a simple printing error for moenia), and refers to the massive (and massively expensive) fortifications erected by Henry after the capture of the city in July 1544.
I.63 Sir Edward Poynings, son of Henry VII's viceroy of Ireland.
Bononia illustrissimum 1 The “Rhutupine shores” are the coast of Kent (where Caesar landed). Cf. Camden's Britannia (1607 ed.) for Kent:
Deinde Stour per Fordich (qui parvus burgus de Forewich Guilielmi Primi libro dicitur) laudatis trutis insignem ad Sturemouth fertur, ubi duo itinera dispensatis aquis sibi aperit, nomenque reliquens Wantsume dicitur, Thanaton ob occasu et austro insulam faciens, ab aliis enim partibus oceano abluitur. Hanc Solinus Athanathon et Thanaton aliis exemplaribus dixit, Britanni Inis Ruhin (teste Asserio) fortasse pro Rhutupin ab urbe Rhutupina adiacante, Saxone Tanet et Tanetland, nos Tenet.
Below Stour-mouth, Stoure, dividing his streame, taketh two severall waies, and leaving that name is called In-lade and Wantsume, making the Isle of Tenet on the West and South side: for that on all other sides it is washed with the maine Sea. This Iland Solinus named Athanaton, and in other copies Thanaton, the Britains Inis Ruhis, as witnesseth Asserius, happily for Rhutupin, of Rhutupinae a Citie adjoining.
II.48 See the note on I.41ff.
II.75 Tonitru is a neologistic neuter equivalent of tonitrus (a back-formation from the alternative nom./acc. plural tonitrua).
II.89 The Romans marked lucky days with white stones, and unlucky days with black ones. Cf. Horace, Odes I.xxxvi.10 cressa nota with any good commentary ad loc.
II.101 Two remote and savage nomadic peoples of antiquity.
II.109 The Italian Humanistic poet Govianus Pontanus [1426 - 1503].
II.111 A Roman proverb, “to stand between the victim and the altar.” “To be between a rock and a hard place” would seem to be our nearest English equivalent.
II.135 Germanicus, Aratea 112f.
II.140 Ib. 138f.
II.179 Euripides, Orestes 1682f.
II.180 Euripides, Suppliants 488ff.
II.184 Although Aristophanes wrote other “peace plays” (Acharnians, Lysistrata), Leland was probably thinking of his Peace.
II.187 Bacchylides, fr. 1.61ff. Irigoin.
II.187ff. These words translate no single passage in Plato, and appear to represent a pastiche of things the philosopher wrote about peace.
II.200 I. e., they are worthy of preservation (the ancients kept scrolls in cedar to protect them from moths: cf. Persius, Satire i.46, cedro digna locutus).
II.202ff. Ovid, Fasti I.711ff.
II.207f. Ib. I.703f.
II.210 Ovid, Ars Amatoria III.502.
II.212ff. Tibullus I.x.45ff.
II.218ff. Silius Italicus, Punica XI.592ff.
II.224 The reference is to Isocrates, Oration VI (On the Peace).
II.230 He of course means Cicero, who praises concord in such passages as De Amicitia xxiii.14, De Republica I.xlix.5, and Philippics VIII.viii.4.
Applausus 12 See the note on I.55.
Applausus 17 Claude d’Annebault, Admiral of France.