HEROI NOBILISSIMO There is probably no need to invent a rationale for any contemporary literary dedication to Sidney, but Fraunce did have a couple of special motives: a.) both Sidney and Fraunce had attended the Shrewsbury school, although of course Sidney was older and the two were not contemporaries there, and b.) Sir Francis’ brother Philip defrayed the cost of Fraunce’s Cambridge education (Smith, p. xviii). The meter of the following dedicatory poem is elegiac distichs.
2 The pun on “horns” in the husband’s name is transparent.
3 Cf. Juvenal x.353, orandum est ut sit mens sana in corpore sano [Sm.].
5f. Cf. Ovid, Tristia I.i.39f. [Sm.]:

Carmina proveniunt animo deducto sereno:
Nubila sunt subitis tempora nostra malis.

Quatuor extruendae sunt domus In a special Appendix I discuss the problem of the number of “houses” employed in academic drama. Fraunce gives no indication of the play’s location. Il Fidele was set in Naples, but nothing in Victoria suggests that this is retained. The only writer to have ventured an opinion on the subject is Hosley (p. 88), who argued that Fraunce has transferred the setting to Rome, on the basis of mention of Romulus and Remus and of the pileus cap and toga, the badges of Roman citizenship, and a number of similar hints. He could have added that the Forum is repeatedly mentioned, and that (whether or not this is historically true, since the Cardinal in question died near Spoleto) Rome would be a likely place to find a Cardinal’s tomb. Certainly nothing in the play contradicts the idea of a Roman setting.
I.i This scene is based on Pasqualigo’s Il Fidele I.i (in which Fortunio’s servant is named Renato). The setting is before Fortunius’ house.
8 He quotes Terence, Andria 555 [Sm.].
18 For the idiom cf. habes despicatui at Plautus, Menaechmi 693 [Sm.].
I.ii This scene is based on Il Fidele I.i; the setting remains the same. As was the custom in academic drama of the time, the Þve Acts of the play are subdivided into numbered scenes. Each of these, prefaced by a list of the speaking parts in it, is precipitated either by a change in the grouping of characters or when the stage is momentarily cleared. As such, these scene-divisions often serve as a rather imperfect means of indicating entrances and exits, and no discontinuity of time or place is necessarily implied.
21 For quid tute tecum cf. Terence, Heauton Timorumenos 200 [Sm.], and also Plautus, Mostellaria 512 and 551.
25 Cf. Terence, Andria 354, item alia multa quae nunc non est narrandi locus [Sm.].
28 Cf. Terence, Eunuchus 103, quae vera audivi taceo et contineo optume [Sm.].
37 Ut sus Minervam doceat is a colorful Roman proverb recorded by Cicero, Academica I.v.18 (cf. also Epistulae ad Familiares IX.xviii) [Sm.].
39 For the amans / amens word-play cf. Plautus, Mercator 82 and Terence, Andria 218 [Sm.].
41 Cf. Sallust, Bellum Iugurthinum lxxxvii, mihi benefacere ex consuetudine iam in naturam vertit [Sm.].
42 For the idiom cf. Cicero, de Officiis I.xxvi.90, in rebus prosperis et ad voluntatem nostram fluentibus [Sm.].
52 Cf. Terence, Andria 889, immo habeat, valeat, vivat cum illa [Sm.]. Cf. also Ovid, Ars Amatoria I.59, quot caelum stellas, tot habet tua Roma puellas [Sm.]
53 Cf. Terence, Eunuchus 973, ubi satias coepit fieri commuto locum [Sm.].
55 Cf. Cicero, de Senectute III.viii, est istuc quidem, Laeli, aliquid quod dicis, tamen in hoc aliquo non insunt omnia (also imitated at Forsett’s Pedantius 1057 [Sm.].
58 Cf. Terence, Andria 1 - 3 [Sm.]:

Poeta quom primum animum ad scribendum adpulit,
id sibi negoti credidit solum dari,
populo ut placerent quas fecisset fabulas.

Here, this sentence could have been written out as three iambic lines, although the substitution of amandum for scribendum of course ruins the meter of the first line.
61 Onophrius quotes Vergil, Eclogue x.59 [Sm.]. The fact that Onophrius cannot identify Vergil as the author is the first of a number of indications that his actual erudition is slight.
64 Cf. Terence, Eunuchus 3, in is poeta hic nomen profitetur suom [Sm.].
68 Nemo adeo…accommodet aurem = Horace, Epistulae I.i.39f. with qui non for ut non and accommodet for commodet [Sm.].
72 Smith quotes from the article Mulier in Gartner’s Dicteria (1574), Mentiri, nere, lachrymari, nihilque tacere, decipere, hae verae dotes sunt in muliere.
I.iii The present scene is based on Il Fidele I.iii.
79 I. e., Fidelis taught him the following maxims. The first one is from Roger Bacon’s Opus Magnum I.vii (translating Ammonius’ life of Aristotle p.399 Westermann), Amicus est Socrates magister meus sed magis est amica veritas [Sm.]. Fraunce repeated this at Lawiers Logike p. 67. Smith also compared Cervantes, Don Quixote II. cap. 51, Amicus Plato, sed magis amica veritas.
80 According to Smith, the maxim frustra sapit qui sibi non sapit appears in Culmann’s Sententiae Pueriles. It is paraphrase of a fragment of Ennius quoted by Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares, qui ipse sibi sapiens prodesse non quit, nequiquam sapit. A similar paraphrase, substituting male for frustra is found in the anonymous 1618 comedy Stoicus Vapulans, 853. The next maximum comes from Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics IX.viii.7 [Sm.].
81 The maxim semper tibi proximus esto comes from Dionysius Cato, Distychia ii, Cum fueris foelix semper tibi proximus esto [Sm.]. Smith noted that Barabas quotes the maxim at Marlowe, The Jew of Malta I.1.
82 For the saying lupus est in fabula (i. e., don’t talk about the wolf, for if you do he’s bound to appear) cf. Terence, Adelphoe 537 and Cicero, Epistulae ad Atticum XIII.xxxiii [Sm.].
85 J. Howell, Epistulae Ho-Elianae IV.27 quotes some lines of Latin verse by John Skelton, beginning Salve plus decies and ending as follows [Sm.]:

Quot coeli setellae, quot sunt miracula Thomae,k
Quot sunt virtutes, tantas tibi mitto salutes.

I.iv This scene is based on Il Fidele I.iv.
89 Cf. Terence, Adelphoe 715, perreptavi usque omne oppridum [Sm.]. Cf. also Plautus, Amphitruo 1011 and Rudens 223.
93 This usage of Hesperia for Spain can be added to the instances I have noted in connection with John Milton’s In Quintum Novembris.
99 Non progredi est plane regredi appears to be a proverb: Smith cites J. Spencer, Things new and old (1658) pp. 560 and 589, and Bacon, Colours of Good and Evil 10.
100 For the idiom cf. Terence, Eunuchus 245, tota erras via [Sm.].
103 Smith glossed this line with Horace Epodes XV.i.2f:

Nox erat et caelo fulgebat luna sereno
Inter minora sidera.

But of course this sort of comparison is a stock classical topos.
105 A captatio benevolentiae at the beginning of an oration is recommended by Cicero, de Oratore II.lxxix.322 [Sm.].
107 With mock-modesty Onophrius claims expertise about Dionysius Cato’s Distycha (a moralizing schoolbook) and Ovid’s fragmentary de Medicamina Faciei [Sm.]. Again, boasting about familiarity with these two trivial works calls the depth of his learning into question.
108 Cf. Cicero, de Officiis III.i, Si minus imitatione tantam ingenii praestantiam consequi possumus, voluntate certe proxime accedimus [Sm.].
109 Cf. Horace, Odes II.xiii.29, sacro digna silentio [Sm.].
112 For the word-play cf. Plautus, Amphitruo 821, tu si me inpudicitiai captas, capere non potes [Sm.].
126 Smith wondered if cum exclusio unius est exclusio alterius is taken from a disjunctive proposition in logic.
130 Cf. Cicero, Paradoxa Stoicorum VI.iii.51, virtus que nec eripi nec surripi potest neque naufragio neque incendio amittitur.
133 Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto II.ix.47 [Sm.]
138f. A near-quotation of lines 49f. of the poem De rosis nascentibus that used to be attributed to Ausonius [Sm.].
140 The outspoken misogyny that Onophrius affects in this speech is more than a little reminiscent of the similar views of Dromodotus in Forsett’s Pedantius. Usus promptos facit is foiund in Bacon’s Short notes for civil conversation, ad. fin. The phrase foeminae ludificantur viros comes from William Lily’s A Short Introduction of Grammer (1577), the standard Elizabethan textbook [Sm.].
141 Cf. Terence, Heauton Timorumenos 233, mage nunc me amicae dicta stimulant “da mihi” atque “adfer mihi” [Sm.].
142 Cf. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations II.xi ad fin., nervos omnes virtutis elidunt.
145 Lines 27f. of a poem de Contemptu Mundi ascribed variously to Jacobus de Benedictis or to St. Bernard, found in R. C. Trench’s Sacred Latin Poetry (1864) p. 264. The following two lines are vv. 3f. of the same poem. [Sm.].
155 Nam…tertium = Publilius Syrus, Sententiae xlii [Sm.].
159 Benefacta…arbitror is a fragment of Ennius quoted at Cicero, de Officiis II.xviii [Sm.].
160 A Roman proverb first quoted by Plautus, Poenulus 332 in the form tum pol ego et oleum et operam perdidi. The following words come from Lily’s A shorte Introduction of Grammer [Sm.].
164f. Horace, Ars Poetica 161 and 163, with Adultus for Imberbus [Sm.].
166 The internal jingle in this sentence creates the acoustical effect of a speech-concluding rhymed couplet.
167 For the sentiment, Smith compared Boetius, de Consolatione Philosophiae 4, Sed hoc est quod recolentem vehementius coquit. Nam in omni adversitate fortunae infelicissimum genus est infortunii fuisse felicem.
170 For the idiom cf. Terence, Phormio 85, restabat aliud nil nisi oculos pascere [Sm.].
I.v This scene is based on Il Fidele I.v.
176 See the discussion of this window in the special Appendix on “houses.”
184 Smith complained that Fraunce should have written poterunt. But the rules governing usages of the subjunctive were not formulated until the nineteenth century, and Fraunce may have thought that use in a rhetorical question was sufficient grounds to employ the subjuncive.
191 The proverb nullum violentum sit perpetuum is quoted at Forsett, Pedantius 1128 [Sm.].
209 Cf. aculeos orationis at Cicero, pro Sulla xvi.47 {Sm.].
226 Smith thought that nunquam peccem amplius might be a deliberate echo of John 8:11. Pamphila comes to Cornelius’ house looking for Fidelis. On the street she meets his servant Narcissus. This scene is based on Il Fidele (which is equally short).
242 Cf. the first two lines of Plautus’ Persa [Sm.]:

Qui amans egens ingressus est princeps in Amoris vias,
superavit aerumnis suis aerumnas Herculi.

249 Cf. the servant’s reply after being asked whether Euripides is at home at Aristophanes, Acharnians 396, “He’s at home but he’s not at home, if you catch my drift” [Sm.].
I.vii Narcissus departs and Victoria’s servant Virgina comes out of Cornelius’ house. This scene is based on Il Fidele I.vii (in which Vittoria’s servant is called Beatrice).
251 Cf. Ovid, Tristia V.viii.18 (of Fortuna), et tantum constans in levitate sua est [Sm.].
262 It would seem that Robert Burton remembered this line in The Anatomy of Melancholy, in which (III.ii.3.4) he write of woman, fugientem sequitur, sequentem fugit [Sm.].
265 See the note on 100.
268 Sero sapit was evidently a Roman proverb — cf. Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares II.xvi [Sm.].
271 Smith quoted Seton’s Dialectica (1577), Numerus est unitatum collectio, ut viginit. Unitas est quiddam, non quantum, unde quemvis numerum licet procreare. Binarius est numerorum minimus.
283 Cf. Aeneid I.222, spemque metumque inter [Sm.].
286 One would expect istam rather than huius. But as Pamphila speaks this word she gestures meaningfully towards Cornelius’ house.
299 Cf. the note on 81. Cf. also Catullus lxii.49 - 56 [Sm.]:

Ut vidua in nudo vitis quae nascitur arvo,
numquam se extollit, numquam mitem educat uvam,
sed tenerum prono deflectens pondere corpus
iam iam contingit summum radice flagellum;
hanc nulli agricolae, nulli coluere iuvenci:
at si forte eademst ulmo coniuncta marita,
multi illam agricolae, multi coluere iuvenci.

I.viii This scene is based on Il Fidele I.viii, save that the Italian play lacks this business with the lute and the subsequent song and dance. Fraunce added these elements to cater to his audience’s tastes (almost all academic comedies and tragedies contain some amount of instrumental and/or vocal music, and many have dance, often introduced on pretexts no less flimsy than this one). And perhaps he also added these bits because St. John’s College has an actor talented along these lines. Smith thought that Gallulus’ song is a cento of lines from various hymns, as indicated in individual commentary notes below, and it is not unlikely that an expert in hymnology could discover more than Smith did. He could have added that the song contains a palpable undercurrent of mockery againt Catholic Mariolatry. Indeed, facilitating this special form of humor may have been the reason that Fraunce switched around the names of his characters, so that Il Fidele’s Beatrice is renamed Virgina, and Il Fidele’s Virgina is consequently renamed Barbara (a name, as we shall see below, selected to permit some further humor).
309ff. The first two stanzas are from the hymn Hodiernae lux diei [Sm.].
316 This line and 318 are from the hymn Ave mundi spes Maria [Sm.].
321 The phrase vas virtutis occurs in the hymn Stella maris, o Maria [Sm.].
323f. The hymn Laudes crucis attolamus contains the following lines [Sm.]:

Atque servos tuae crucis
Post hanc vitam, verae lucis
Transfer ad palatia.

326 According to Smith, in a manuscript treatise on Logic, Fraunce wrote of Aristotle’s Organanon, “as it was alwayes caled, so it shall ever be, ὄργανον ὀργάνων ἢ ἡ τῶν φιλοσόφων χείρ.” The understanding that there is some joking reference to the Organon would help explain the strange insistence with which the word is repeated in this passage.
327 A Roman proverb meaning “I can’t do two things at once.” Cf. Plautus, Mostellaria 791, simul flare sorbereque haud factu facilest [Sm.].
328 Smith quotes a passage from John Boys’ An Exposition of the Festivall Epistles (1615), at his [the Pope’s] inauguration the Master of the Ceremonies used to burne an handfull of flaxe before him, as in solemne procession he passed by, saying with a loude voyce, ecce pater sancte sic transit gloria mundi.
329 Cf. Terence, Eunuchus 232f. [Sm.]:

Dii inmortales, homini homo quid praestat? stulto intellegens
quid inter est?

332 See the discussion of this stage-direction in the special Appendix on “houses.”
340 This line is a quotation of Prudentius’ translation of a Greek epigram [Sm.].
343 Thraso is the miles gloriosus in Terence’s Eunuchus. In the translation, I could not find a suitably ambiguous adjective (gloriosus can mean “glorious” or “boastful”).
350 Aeneid I.172 [Sm.].
I.ix Onophrius departs and Medusa arrives. This scene is based on Il Fidele I.ix.
384 Smith thought of the rather similar magic ceremony described by Vergil, Eclogue viii.81f.:

Limus ut his durescit et haec ut cera liquescit
Uno eodemque igno, sic nostro Daphnis amore.

II.i The setting is before the monument containing the Cardinal’s tomb. It is obvious from 413 and the following stage-direction that this tomb is adjacent to Cornelius’ house. This scene is based on Il Fidele II.i.
391 For the idiom cf. Terence, Eunuchus 589, fucum factum mulieri [Sm.].
395 For Lesbia’s kisses cf. Catullus v [Sm.].
II.ii Fidelis and his servant Narcissus appear before Cornelius’ house. This scene is based on Il Fidele II.ii.
411 Cf. Terence, Eunuchus 83f., totus, Parmeno, / tremo horreoque [Sm.].
431 Cf. Dionysius Cato, Distycha III.20, lacrimis struit insidias cum femina plorat [Sm.].
438 This maxim is Publilius Syrus, Sententiae A 21 [Sm.].
II.iii This scene is based on Il Fidele II.iii.
II.iv This scene is based on Il Fidele IV.iv.
504f. Aeneid I.204f. {Sm.].
506 Sic me servavit Apollo is Horace, Satires I.ix.78 [Sm.].
512 For the story of Hercules’ death on Mt. Oeta cf. Ps. - Seneca, Hercules Oetaeus.
514f. The first line is quoted by Antonius de Arena Provencalis Ad suos compagnones (1574) and other writers [Sm.], the provenance of the second is known, unless Fraunce created it himself.
517 Effugi malum, inveni bonum translates a Greek initiatory formula quoted by Demosthenes, de Corona 313, etc. [Sm.].
II.v This scene is based on Il Fidele II.v. This scene is based on Il Fidele
II.vii This scene is based on Il Fidele II.vii.
569 Ibo… duxero = Plautus, Amphitruo 930 [Sm.].
594 Cf. Terence, Eunuchus 585, quo pacto Danaae misisse aiunt quondam in gremium imbrem aureum [Sm.].
601 The Stoics taught that the passions were to be avoided, and that apathea was the proper condition for a wise man, which provided the subject for the anonymous 1618 Cambridge comedy Stoicus Vapulans. There is a similar joke at Forsett’s Pedantius 574. It hardly needs be to be observed that the equivalent scene in Il Fidele is devoid of all this academic humor. This is one of a number of passages in which Fraunce has tailored his play to suit the interests of his specialized audience.
603 Smith quotes John Seton’s Dialectica, individuum vagum dicitur singulare de quo fit mentio (cf. also Aquinas, Summa c). But whatever this term meant to the Schoolmen, the prime point here is the pun on the word “vagabond.” Narcissus is inviting Attilia to run away and join him in the wandering life.
604 Smith quotes J. Stierius, Praeceptae Logicae p. 3, Species specialissima seu infima est quae alias in species dividi nequit, ut homo. Species subalterna (e. g. animal) est genus respectu inferiorum, est vero species respectu superiorum. He noted the similar humor at Forsett’s Pedantius 1045.
605 Smith continues quoting the same passage. Genus generalissimum seu summum est supra quod non est aliud genus superius. Huiusmodi genera sunt decem: substantia, quantitas, qualitas, relatio, actio, passio, quando, ubi, situs, habitus. These summa genera are the same as Artistotle’s Categories. “The five Transcendents (Thing, Something, The One, The True, The Good) were so called as being still more general.” (Narcissus may be talking about intercourse positions).
611 Eia…Iovi = Plautus, Casina 230. Cf. also Plautus, Miles Gloriosus 682, nam procreare liberos lepidumst onus [Sm.].
612 For a similar double entendre cf. Plautus, Curculio 31, quod amas amato testibus praesentibus [Sm.].
II.viii After Narcissus and Attilia have gone off, Fortunius passes by on the street. This scene is based on Il Fidele II.viii.
618 See the note on 242.
II.ix Fortunius leaves, Fidelis and Onophrius come along the same street. This scene is based on Il Fidele I.ix.
629 Cf. Cicero, Paradoxa Stoicorum I.iii.xiv, sic te ipse abicies atque prosternes ut nihil inter te atque quadrupedem aliquam putes interesse? [Sm.].
632 Smith found the phrases potentiae sensitivae and virtus visiva in Stierius’ Quaestiones controversae (1648).
II.x This scene is based on Il Fidele II.x.
639 Out of her head with fear, Medusa enters gabbling snatches of prayer.
641 Smith found this phrase in Garlandia’s poem De Contemptu Mundi (published in the 1494 Octo Auctores) and in a hymn for the festival of St. Monica.
655 Cf. Terence, Andria 354, item alia multa quae nunc non est narrandi locus [Sm.].
658 Cf. Seneca, Phaedra 671ff. [Sm.]:

Magne regnator deum,
tam lentus audis scelera? tam lentus vides?
et quando saeva fulmen emittes manu,
si nunc serenum est? omnis impulsus ruat
aether et atris nubibus condat diem.

Compare also such other Senecan passages as Hercules Furens 1202 - 5 and Medea 1042.
II.xi This scene is based on Il Fidele II.xi.
672 Onophrius quotes Plautus, Truculentus 489 [Sm.].
676 Par pari appears in some texts of Terence, Eunuchus 445 (others have par pro pari) [Sm.].
II.xii This scene is based on Il Fidele II.xii.
694 Cf. Terence, Andria 868, ah ne saevi tanto opere [Sm.].
701 Cf. Terence, Hecyra 516, Perii, quid agam? quo me vortam? [Sm.].
II.xiii This scene is based on Il Fidele II.xiii.
II.xiv The setting now shifts to Fidelis’ house. This scene is based on Il Fidele II.xiv.
733 Cf. Terence, Adelphoe 713, Defessu’ sum ambulando, and Heauton Timorumenos 512, Hac illac circumcursa [Sm.].
736 Iliad IX.646 as translated by Cicero, Tusculan Disputations III.ix.18 [Sm.].
738 See the note on 780.
743 Smith points out that Pamphilus is the son of Simo in Terence’s Andria. He could have added that this is another sign of Onophrius’ shallow learning.
747 With reference to Binder’s Thesaurus nr. 1668, Smith showed that lingua mentem ne praecurrat was a Latin proverb.
754 Onophrius quotes Dionysius Cato, Distycha III, praefatio [Sm.].
II.xv Though there is no stage-direction, Pamphila must knock on Fidelis’ door and bring him out. This scene is based on Il Fidele II.xv.
II.xvi A house for Frangipetra is not called for in Fraunce’s initial note on houses,and it is unclear what, if any, stage feature is meant by the angiporta. Virginia probably encounters him on the street. This scene is based on Il Fidele II.xvi.
III.i The setting is before Cornelius’ house. This scene is based on Il Fidele III.i.
780 “The servant’s mispronunciation of a cordiale’”: Smith. A couple of servants in this play display a tendency to lapse (or evolve?) from Latin into Italian: thus Onophrius feels the need to correct Pamphila’s Ottaviani into Octaviani at the beginning of II.xiv.
789 Cf. Terence, Andria 271, quasi nunc non norimu’ nos inter nos [Sm.].
805 The proverb is found at Cicero, de Senectute iii . The next sentence is Ovid, Heroides i.32 [Sm.].
III.ii The setting is before Octavianus’ house. This scene is based on Il Fidele III.ii.
843 For a teneris unguiculis cf. Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares [Sm.].
851 Smith compared the exchange at Plautus, Persa 624f., VIR. Lucridi nomen in patria fuit. TOX. Nomen atque omen quantivis iam est preti.
III.iii This scene is based on Il Fidele III.iii.
866 Cf. Terence, Andria 322, hodie postremum me vides [Sm.]. “Titius” is Tityus, punished for his sins by having has liver perpetually rent by vultures.
885 Although this speech cannot be analysed as metrical, it creates the same acoustical effect as scene-concluding rhymed couplet in vernacular drama.
889 Cf. Ovid, Ibis 113, Exul inops erres, alienaque ilimina lustres.[Sm.].
890 Aliena vivere quadra comes from Juvenal v.2 [Sm.].
899 The exclamation conflates Terence, Adelphoe 790, O caelum, o terra, o maria Neptuni, and Cicero, in Catilinam I.i.2. Pauper ubique iacet comes from Ovid, Fasti I.218. Pauper…Aemiliane is Martial V.lxxxi.1, with the word-order slightly rearranged [Sm.].
III.iv The setting is, first, Fortunius’ house, and then, towards the end of the following scene, Octavianus’ house. This scene is based on Il Fidele III.iv.
III.v Pamphila is wrongly included in the list of parts. Possibly Fraunce meant for there to be some dumb show in which she turns Narcissus away from Octavianus’ house, but no such mimed action is suggested by the text. Far more likely, he mechanically inserted her name because she is included in the initial list of speaking parts for Il Fidele III.v, a considerably longer scene, in which she does appear as a speaker. But it is surprising that in producing his fair copy Fraunce forgot he had shortened the scene and omitted the part. The setting is in front of Cornelius’ house. This scene is based on Il Fidele
912 Cf. Ovid, Heroides ii.180, si vires experiere tuas [Sm.].
926 Cf. Terence, Eunuchus 789, omnia prius experiri quam armis sapientem decet [Sm.].
931 Vergil, Eclogue iii.111.
III.vii The setting is on the street before the monument that will be featured in the following scene.
934 Qui…praemeditari is a proverb quoted in Gartner’s 1574 Dicteris s. v. Lingua, and in Carminum proverbialium loci communes (London, 1579) s. v. Sermo [Sm.].
939ff. A mangled parody of Catullus xlviii [Sm.]:

Disertissime Romuli nepotum,
quot sunt quotque fuere, Marce Tulli,
quotque post aliis erunt in annis,
gratias tibi maximas Catullus
agit pessimus omnium poeta,
tanto pessimus omnium poeta,
quanto tu optimus omnium patronus.

In doctoring the poem to fit his needs, Onophrius botches the meter in line 940.
946f. Horace, Ars Poetica 9f. [Sm.].
950 Ovid, Heroides iv.10.
952 Cf. Plautus, Pseudolus 23f. [Sm.]:

Ut opinor, quaerunt litterae hae sibi liberos:
alia aliam scandit.

953 Ovid, Heroides iii.3 [Sm.].
954f. The source of this couplet is unidentified. In the absence of a context, I am not quite sure how ordine verso is to be translated
956ff. The next poem is a farrago of lines from Ovid’s Heroides. The first two are xvi.271f., the third is iv.3, the fourth is xvi.162, and the last two are xiii.1f. (with claudetur in 961).
963 In a sense, of course, one can readily appreciate the justice of Pegasus’ remark. On the other hand, Renaissance verse composition as taught in schools and practised by even the best poets involved plenty of pasting together of classical tags, so that no poet of the time, no matter how original and excellent, was very immune from this criticism. For an illustration of this principle, see my Introduction and commentary notes to John Milton’s In Quintum Novembris.
969 So we learn Onophrius knows no Greek.
970 Cf. Ovid, Heroides ix.135, mens fugit admonitu, frigusque perambulat artus [Sm.].
971 Ovid, Remedium Amoris 557 [Sm.].
972 Ovid, Amores III.xiv.13 [Sm.].
973 Evidently this is a verse of Fraunce’s own composition, modeled after Horace, Sermones, infans namque pudor prohibebat plura profari.
974 Cf. Ovid, Heroides xv.198, Musa dolore tacet, muta dolore lyra [Sm.].
976f. Vergil, Eclogues iii.90f. [Sm.].
980 Manum de tabula tollere comes from Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares VII.xxv [Sm.].
984 Ovid, Amores II.xii.1 [Sm.].
985f. Vergil, Eclogues iii.90f. [Sm.], written about two contemporary poetasters.
988f. Eclogues v.45f. [Sm.].
990f. Horace, Epodes I.iv.6f. [Sm.]. Smith noted that the substitution of dederint for dederunt (or dederant in some texts) is peculiar. Could this just be a copying mistake in this ms?
III.viii This scene is based on an episode from Boccaccio’s Decameron (II.5) in which two ruffians enlist a young horse-dealer to help them rob a Cardinal’s tomb and the young man manages to enrich himself with a ring. Fraunce had no reason to give his two vagrant names of two milites gloriosi in Plautus (Pyrgopolynices in Miles Gloriosus, Therapontigonus in Curculio) save that the names sound funny and impressive.
994 Cardinal Nicolas de Cusa [1401 - 1464], a distinguished writer on scientific and theological matters.
1005 Aeneid II.148 [Sm.].
1014ff. The source of these two dactylic hexameters is unidentified. The rhymes of the next two lines suggests they may be Medieval work.
1019 Vergil, Eclogues iii.79 (with Iolla) [Sm.].
1022 Allecto was one of the three Furies (Tisiphone, mentioned below, was another).
1024f. The second line is quoted in Gartner’s 1574 Dicteria s. v. Meretrices in the form Scribatur portis, meretrix est ianua mortis [Sm.]. Fraunce’s change of the verb’s mood makes a dactylic hexameter, and presumably the preceding one is his own invention.
1030 Nashe ended his Strange News with a similar proverb, aut nunquam tentes aut perfice [Sm.].
III.ix During his previous speech Onophrius must have crossed over to Fortunius’ house. This scene is based on Il Fidele III.vii, and the possible awkwardness of this change of setting was created by Fraunce’s insertion of the two preceding extra scenes.
1037 This line is quoted s. v. Aenigmata in Carminum proverbalium…loci communes (1579) [Sm.].
1040 Cf. Martial IX.viii.4, Iam satis est: non vis, Afer, avere: Vale [Sm.].
1043 See the note on 843.
1045 Cicer. de Amicitia xxi.80 [ Sm.].
1046 The Greek proverb is found in Plato, etc., and its Latin equivalent in Cicero, etc. according to Smith. Amicus certus…is a fragment of Ennius quoted at de Amicitia xvii.64, and Monere et… is from ib. xxv.91 [Sm.].
1047 If humanum…ingemiscere is a quotation, Smith could not locate its source. For what follows cf. Cicero, de Officiis I.xxvi.90, in rebus prosperis et ad voluntatem nostram fluentibus [Sm.].
1051 Smith showed that this triple definition of munus comes from Julius Paulus as cited by L. Valla, Elegantiae VI.xxxix.
1054 Cf. Terence, Andria 50, ita ut ingeniumst omnium hominum ab labore proclive ad libidinem [Sm.].
1062 The allusion is to Cicero’s Orator xxvii.92 [Sm.].
1065 Horace, Ars Poetica 25f. [Sm.].
1069 Cf. Terence, Heauton Timorumenos 549, non est mentiri meum [Sm.].
1072 Prophesizing on the basis of past events what Aristotle says one should not do at Nicomachean Ethics vi.2. Cf. Forsett’s Pedantius 2101 [Sm.].
1077 Cf. Cicero, Paradoxa Stoicorum V.i, tum incipiat aliis imperare, quum ipse improbissimis dominis, dedecori ac turpitudini, parere desierit [Sm.].
1080 Cf. frons calamistri notata vestigiis at Cicero, post Reditum in Senatum vii.16 [Sm.].
1082 Heauton Timorumenos 240, dum moliuntur, dum conantur, annus est [Sm.].
1083 Both phrases are from Phaedra 559 [Sm.]. Onophrius’ idea that Seneca the philosopher and Seneca the playwright were two separate individuals is the crowning glory of his ignorance.
1084 Smith pointed out that Sir Philip Sidney mentions poetic frenzy at the end of his Defense of Poesie.
1088 See the note on 1555.
III.x The setting is Cornelius’ house. The present scene is based on Il Fidele III.viii. That scene is followed by another, involving Vittoria, Beatrice, and Renato, which Fraunce did not translate. Perhaps, since he had added to extra scenes to this Act, he felt the necessity of eliminating Il Fidele III.ix and also III.xii in the interest of avoiding an over-long Act III.
III.xi Narcissus encounters Fidelis in front of Cornelius’ house. This scene is based on Il Fidele III.x.
III.xii This scene is based on Il Fidele III.xi. It is followed by a scene between Medusa and Beatrice, which Fraunce omits.
1130 For toto erras coelo cf. Macrobius, Sat. III.xii [Sm.]. The phrase is used as an explicit quotation at Forsett’s Pedantius 879.
1132 This line (with the addition of quod) = Terence, Andria 805 [Sm.].
1138 See the note on 655.
III.xiii This scene is based on the equally short Il Fidele III.xiii.
IV.i The setting is Fidelis’ house. It is based on Il Fidele IV.ii (Fraunce omits IV.i, an interview between Medusa and Beatrice).
1146 Cf. Cicero, pro Milone vii.18, eius Appiae nomen quantas tragoedias excitat! [Sm.].
1149 The allusion is to Epistulae ad Familiares IV.ix [Sm.].
1150 Cf. Terence, Andria 305f. [Sm.]:

Quaeso edepol, Charine, quoniam non potest id fieri quod vis,
id velis quod possit.

This sentiment is also imitated at Forsett’s Pedantius 283.
1154ff. Aeneid IV.93 - 5 (with refertis for reportas) [Sm.].
1159 See the note on 694.
1160 Dionysius Cato, Distycha II [Sm.].
1163 This legal dictum is found in Culmann’s Sententiae Puerιles (1544) and is also quoted in Langland’s Pers Plowman (C text, Pas. VIII, 87) [Sm.].
1171 For miseris…modis Smith cited Terence, Eunuchus 955. He could have added Plautus, Aulularia 630, Epidicus 667, and Mostellaria 54.
IV.ii This scene is based on Il Fidele IV.iii.
IV.iii The setting is Fortunius’ house. This scene is based on Il Fidele IV.iv.
1200 “Barbara, the mnemonic term for the first mood of the first figure of the Syllogism”: Smith. The passage that begins here is incomprehensible to most modern readers, but presumably was a laugh riot to Cambridge students who had to study this Scholastic logic and rely on the strange-louding mnemonics associated with it. Fraunce himself wrote several treatises on the subject, one of which, The Lawiers Logike, exemplifying the praecepts of Logike by the practise of the Common Lawe, was printed in 1588. Others exist in manuscript.
1210 Felapton is a similar mnemonic term for one of the moods of the third figure of the Syllogism [Sm.].
1213 These mnemonic lines are found at Stierius’ Praecepta doctrina logicae s. v. reductio qomodo perficiatur [Sm.].
1217 Per impossibile is one of the reductions of the syllogism (ostensiva being the other). According to Seton’s Dialectica, Book III, Baroco reducitur ad Barbara non ostensive sed per impossibile. According to J. Prideaux, Hypomnemata (ca. 1640), Reductio…per impossibile est cum illationis evidentia ostenditur ex absurditate admittendae contradictionis, quam necesse est ut incurrat is, qui consequentias secundae ete tertiae figurae non probat. [Sm.].
1219 According to Smith, Transpositio seems here used for contrapositio, and quotes Stierius, Praecepta Logica p. 18, Conversio per contra positionem est, cum ita enunciatio convertitut ut ex finita negante fiat infinita affirmans, cel contra, ex finita affirmante fiat infinita negans.
1222 Anagogica = having a secondary or higher meaning [Sm.].
IV.iv The setting is in front of Cornelius’ house. This scene is based on Il Fidele IV.v.
IV.v This scene is based on Il Fidele
1297 Operta… praestigiae = Plautus, Captivi 524 [Sm.].
1298 Cf. Plautus, Mostellaria 351, nec Salus nobis saluti iam esse, si cupiat, potest, and Terence, Adelphoe 761f., ipsa si cupiat Salus, / servare prorsu’ non potest hanc familiam [Sm.].
1310 Cf. Terence, Andria 845, omni’ res est iam in vado [Sm.].
1316 Smith compared III Henry VI. I.iv.137, O tiger’s heart wrapt in a woman’s hide. The setting is either Fortunius’ house or some street where he is passing by. This scene is based on Il Fidele IV.vii (which is not quite so abrupt).
1313 Cf. Terence, Andria 339, atque expleam animum gaudio [Sm.].
IV.vii The setting is Fidelis’ house. This scene is based on Il Fidele IV.viii. The following scene of the Italian play, a soliloquy by Onofrio, is omitted by Fraunce.
1315 Ludit amor sensus is from Baptista Mantuanus’ first Eclogue. Cf. also Cicero, de Amicitia xv.54, Non solum ipsa fortuna caeca est, sed eos etiam plerunque efficit caecos quos complexa est [Sm.].
1323 Cf. Plautus, Mercator 772f. [Sm.]:

Nunc ego verum illud verbum esse experior vetus:
aliquid mali esse propter vicinum malum.

1324 Horace, Epodes I.xviii.84 [Sm.].
1325 Cf. Cicero, Philippics XII.ii, cuiusvis hominis est errare, the evident origin of the Latin proverb {Sm.].
1327 Cf. Terence, Andria 920, si mihi perget quae volt dicere, ea quae non volt audiet [Sm.].
IV.viii The remainder of Act III is played in front of Cornelius’ house. This scene is based on Il Fidele IV.x.
1335 The quotation is Andria 68 [Sm.].
1337 Cf. Terence, Andria 423, quantum audio, uxore excidit [Sm.].
1338 Totus in toto, et totus in qualibet parte is a scholastic phrase. Smith noted that it is also used at Forsett’s Pedantius 1044.
1339 Antiperistatis = “opposition or counteraction of the surrounding parts.” Cf. J. Stierius’ Praecepta doctrinae sphaericae (1647) p. 3, Primum mobile ab ortu in occasum…spatio 24 horarum circumvolvitur secumque rapit reliquos orbes inferiores. [Sm.].
1340ff. Aeneid I.459f. [Sm.].
1343f. Ib. I.8f. [Sm.].
1346 The first half of Ovid, Ibis 113 conflated with the end of Aeneid I.364. [Sm.].
1348 From Carminum proverbialium loci communes (London, 1579) p.91 [Sm.].
1349f. From ib. p.104. [Sm.].
1354 Cf. J. Stierius, Praeceptae Physicae (Cambridge, 1647), Cor est praecipua animalis pars, vitae fons et vitalis facultatis domicilium, in quo spiritus vitales elaborantur, et per arterias a corde ortas distribuuntur in tutum corpus [Sm.].
1356 Cf. vox faucibus haesit at Aeneid II.774, III.48, etc. [Sm.].
1357f. These lines are from J. de Garlandia’s poem De contemtu mundi from the 1494 Octo Auctores. The following four lines of verse are from the same work, with studiosi substituted for sanctorum [Sm.].
1366 Smith did not identify the original for this epitaph, but VATES DIVINUS probably substitutes for some other words that formed a dactylic hexameter.
1367 The Venerable Bede’s epitaph in Durham Cathedral is HAC SUNT IN FOSSA BEDAE VENERABILIS OSSA [Sm.].
1368 The reference is to the mock-epitaph for Rosamund printed in Carminum Proverbalium Loci Communes (1579) [Sm.]:

Hic iacet in tumba rosa mundi, non Rosamunda:
Non redolet, sed olet, quae redolere solet.

1373 Grande tamen toto nomen ab orbe fero is Ovid, Tristia II.118 [Sm.].
1374 The immediate echo is Cicero, Tusculan Disputations V.xxxvi.103, insurrantis “his est ille Demosthenes,” as Smith appreciated, but Fraunce was really thinking of Persius i.28, at pulchrum est digito monstrari et dicier “hic est.” These two passages were already linked at Forsett’s Pedantius 1529ff., where Pedantius says, with equally fatuous self-confidence, Me (dum in curia versabar) praetereuntem demonstrabant omnes digito, insusurrantes, hic est ille (quod, nisi Demostheni olim, contigit mortalium nemini). In his satiric travelogue Iter Boreale (1583) Richard Eedes of Oxford employs this same line of Persius of a Canon of Durham Cathedral who was a bad preacher but had a high opinion of himself.
1377 This silly etymology was floated by Isidorus Hispalensis, Originum (Basle, 1577) p. 104, and had already been held up for ridicule at Forsett’s Pedantius 497 [Sm.]
1390 Ovid, Tristia IV.x.22 [Sm.].
1396 Fortem… tuli = Horace, Satires II.v.20. There following rather confused reference fo Alexander, son of King Perseus of Macedon, is based on Plutarch, Aemilius Paullus xxxvii [Sm.].
1399 This adage comes from Jullius Caesar Scaliger, de Subtilitate (1612 ed., p. 1093), where it is absurdly attributed to the Aeneid.[Sm.].
1407 Doctor Doddypoll or Dottipoll is a disparaging title found in various works of the time, beginning with J. Bell’s Haddon’s answer to Osorius (1581) 29 b [Sm.].
1408 Binder’s Thesaurus (nr. 37) has accidit in puncto quod non speratur in anno [Sm.].
1412 Cf. Aeneid X.284, audentis fortuna iuvat [Sm.], and for omnia vincit amor cf. the note on 61.
1413 Smith quoted the saying dum spiro, spero, sed dubito quis ero from Gartner’s 1574 Dicteria s. v. spes.
1421 An allusion to the Latin proverb Fortuna favet fatuis [Sm.].
IV.ix This scene is based on Il Fidele IV.xii. The rather odd way that IV.viii ends with the stage direction that Narcissus is to remain, and this information is repeated in the speaker-list for IV.ix, is perhaps explicable by the fact that Fraunce omitted Il Fidele IV.xi, a scene in which Narciso overhears a lengthy soliloquy by Frangipietra. Were that scene included, the reader would perhaps need to be reminded that Narcissus is still present; in its absence, the reminder is unnecessary.
1422f. The first two lines of Ovid’s Ars Amagoria [Sm.].
1427 This joke caught on and was echoed or repeated in the the Oxford comedy Narcissus, in P. Hausted’s comedy Senile odium (1633) III.2, and in Abraham Cowley’s Naufragium ioculare (1638) III.6 [Sm.].
1429f. Evidently Onoprhius composed these two verses himself.
1432 Posse et nolle nobile is given as a proverb in J. Clarke’s Paroemiologia (1639) p. 324. Cf. Ovid, Heroides xvii.98, estg virtus placitis abstinuisse bonis [Sm.].
1433 Non ex…robore comes from Cicero, Academica II.xxxi.101 [Sm.].
1434 Cf. Terence, Eunuchus 312, si adeo digna res[es]t ubi tu nervos intendas tuos {Sm.].
1435 The allusion is to the myth of Apollo serving as a shepherd to King Admetus.
1439 An allusion to the myth dramatized humorously by Plautus in the Amphitruo.
1448 This remark about the initial nervousness of the orator is suggested by Cicero’s personal confession at de Oratore I.xxvi [Sm.].
1452 In his Arcadian Rhetorike (1588) Fraunce quotes tauro Iove digna vel auro as an example of paronomasia, and at the end of his 3rd Part of Yvychurch (“Amintas Dale”) (1592) he has these lines [Sm.]:

Ergo vale, Phillis, longum formosa valeto,
Digna Iovis solio, tauro Iove digna vel auro.

1459 A slightly modified version of Ovid, Heroides ii.87 [Sm.].
1472 Cf. Terence, Heauton Timorumenos 364f., in tempore ad eam veni, quod rerum omniumst / primum. This line is also imitated at Forsett’s Pedantius 716 [Sm.].
1479 Cf. spem iuvat amplecti at Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto III.vii.21 [Sm.].
1483 “The maxim Cum bonis ambula is among those prefixed to Cato’s Distycha (Lond. 1572) but is not included among those assigned to Periander in the Dicta Sapientum appended to the same book:” {Sm.]. Smith also compared Cicero, de Officiis III.xix.77, cum enim [rustici] fidem alicuius bonitatemque laudant, dignum esse dicunt ’quicum in tenebris mices.’
1484 Smith explains this as an erroneous substitution of Scipio’s name for that of Marcus Nobilior, mentioned by Cicero at Tusculan Disputations I.ii.3, quoted by Fraunce immediately below. Ennius is reported to have made this claim by Cicero, pro Archia Poeta viii.18 [Sm.].
1485 Cf. the same passage in the Tusculan Disputations, cum apud Graecos antiquissimum sit e doctis genus poetarum [Sm.].
1488f. “Quoted in this form by Binder, No. 2452, from Zincgref, Teutscher Nation Weisheit (1683) IV p. 221” [Sm.].
1491 Cf. Pliny, Natural History VIII.xvi, semper Africa novi aliquid affert [Sm.].
IV.x This scene is based on Il Fidele IV.xiii.
1500 Vir bonus, dicendi peritus is from Quintilian’s Institutes XII.i.1 [Sm.].
1503 Mala parta…is a fragment from a tragedy by Naevius quoted by Cicero, Philippics II.lxv.10. Quod non capit…is quoted from Neander’s Ethica (1590, p. 91) by Binder’s Thesaurus nr. 2889, and appears at Alciati’s Emblemata (1551) p. 158 [Sm.].
1504f. Variants on this couplet are found J. de Garlandia’s Opus Synonymorum (11th c.) and the Carminum Proverbialium Loci Communes (1579) pp. 60 and 94 [Sm.].
1507f. Onophrius’ variant on a couplet on Vergil by Alcimus from the Anthologia Latina [Sm.]:

De numero vatum si quis seponat Homerum
Proximus a primo tunc Maro primus erit.

1530 Hipponax was an early Greek poet known for the vigor and acerbity of his iambic lampoons. What he wrote about a pair of sculptors is reputed to have impelled them to suicide.
1531 Ovid, Tristia II.53 [Sm.].
1533 Triform Diana comprised within herself Diana (the Greek Artemis), Luna, and Hecate.
1535 Smith explained that the colacasium was an Egyptian water-plant. For crepericrepantes, he noted that this echoes a line from Julius Caesar’s Hymnus in Bacchum, digitos crepericrepantes, fingers that are snapped in the dark (?). But this does not explain the rest of Fraunce’s parody of somebody’s attempt to imitate in Latin the extravagant stylistic effects of late fifth century B. C. dithyramb (besides the novel compounds, per super denique supremum is very peculiar Latin).
1537ff. These lines appear to be verse with a heavy dose of Leonine internal rhyming, but Smith does not not identify their source or model.
1541 Maenaleis = belonging to a mountain range in Arcadia.
1543 This saying is found, in the foirm foemina res ficta, res subdola, res maledicta in the Carminum proverbialium loci communes (1579), and in an expanded form in Gartner’s Dicteria (1574) s. v. meretrices, est meretrix dicta quae reddit verbula ficta. Exterius picta, verum interius maledicta [Sm.].
1544 Smith cites a line from the Carminum proverbialium p. 169, Ultio iusta Dei digna refundit ei. But is it not likelier that this line should be taken with those of the preceding poem?
1546 Cf. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations III.xxiii.56, saepe est etiam sub palliolo sordido sapientia [Sm.].
1548 Cf. Plautus, Captivi 750, Vis haec quidem hercle est, et trahi et trudi simul [Sm.].
1551 The allusion is to the beginning sentence of Aristotle’s Metaphysics [Sm.].
1554 Boethius, de Cons. V Prosa iv, defined Man with the words Homo est animal bipes rationale, a definition picked up by numerous subsequent writers [Sm.].
V.i The setting is in front of Cornelius’ house. This scene is based on Il Fidele V.i.
1572 See the note on 209.
1601 Cf. Cicero, de Officiois, subiciunt se homines imperio alterius [Sm.].
1609 Smith quotes several adages to this effect, such as Joseph Scaliger’s Iambi gnomici (1607), formido mortis morte peior and Seneca, Thyestes 572, peior est bella timor ipse belli.
V.ii This scene is based on Il Fidele V.ii.
V.iii This scene is based on Il Fidele V.iii.
V.iv This scene is based on Il Fidele V.iv (but Attilia has no part in the Italian original).
1660 Executing a felon at the scene of the crime was a common English custom.
1666f. Aeneid I.93f. [Sm.].
1668 This line is one version of the first line of a poem de Fortuna of the Vergilian Catalectica (but that is more likely the work of Coelius Firmianus Symposius) [Sm.].
1670 This line is found in the Carminum Proverbialium Loci Communi (1579) in the form O bona Fortuna, cur non es omnibus una? [Sm.].
1671 Ambrosius Calepinus [1435 - 1511], author of the Dictionarium (1502). Aldus Pius Manutius Thesaurus Cornucopiae (1496) was an important grammatical work [Sm.].
1675 Aeneid V.230 [Sm.].
1677 These words are from Martial VIII.iii.3 [Sm.].
1679 Quid…supersunt is from Ovid, Tristia I.ii.1 [Sm.].
1680ff. From a medieval hymn for the feat of St. Nicholas, Congaudentes exultemus. In 1583 Fraunce has substituted transmontane for Nicolae [Sm.].
V.v This scene is based on Il Fidele V.v, except that Fraunce has written in a part for Narcissus.
1690 Dionysius Cato, Distycha III [Sm.].
1693 Horace, Odes Odes I.xxii.1 [Sm.]. The setting is Octavianus’ house. This scene is based on Il Fidele Fraunce omits, as scene involving Narciso and Frangipietra, in which the latter is humilitated by being dragged through the streets in a net. Fraunce’s omission of this scene makes Frangipetra’s change of heart and disappearance seem feeble and inconvincing.
1754 Festina lente was a favorite saying of Augustus (Suetonius, Augustus xxv, where it is quoted in Greek) [Sm.].
1764 See the note on 676.
1766 The adage is quoted in this form by Culmann, Sententiae Pueriles with a reference to Plautus, Aulularia 741, Quid vis fieri? factum est illud: fieri infectum non potest [Sm.].
V.vii The setting is Cornelius’ house. This scene is based on Il Fidele V.viii.
1813 Smith explains that because of a supposed derivation from venum dico, when vindico is used in the sense “claim for one’s own” it was sometimes spelled vendico.
1820 Cf. Sallust, Oratio Macri Tribuni Plebis ad Plebem 41 (from the Historiae), quantae denique nunc mihi turbae concitantur! [Sm.].
1839 Cf. Seneca, Epistula xliv,omnis ista sursum deorsum fortuna versavit [Sm.].
1883 Omnia mea mecum porto (a saying of Bias) is quoted by Cicero, Paradoxa Stoicorum I.viii [Sm.].
V.viii This scene is based on the latter part of Il Fidele V.viii, after Onofrio enters (Pasqualigo does not count this section as a separate scene).
1898 Sub Iove frigido is from Horace, Odes I.i.25 [Sm.].
1908 Thalassio was a traditional Roman wedding-shout. Hymenaeus was the Roman marriage-god.
1911 A reference to Theodorus Zvingerus. Morum philosophia poetica ex veterum utriusque linguae Poetarum thesaurus (Basel, 1575), a collection of poetic commonplaces topically arranged. [Sm.]. Because of the Renaissance method of Latin versification mentioned in the note on 963, such collections of poetic snippets were highly useful aids to composition.