COMMENTARY NOTES

1.3 royal paper (Or paper royal), paper measuring 24 by 19 inches, as used for writing and 25 by 20 inches as used for printing; a ream of paper is, properly, 20 quires or 480 sheets of paper, but the term often designates 500 or more sheets (which makes allowance for accidental waste); a printer’s ream is made up of 211/2 quires (i.e. 516 sheets). A work occupying a ream of royal paper would, therefore, be a very substantial piece.
2.2 oaten quill the “oaten reed” or “oaten pipe” is one of the conventional props of the pastoral poet. Here, the distance from pastoral ’song’ is registered by the use of quill. Stradling affects (?) modesty in describing his work as the product of his “slender oaten quill”. Stradling uses the same phrase in his Divine Poems of 1625 (The fourth Classis, stanza 8):

To treat of Doctrines full of deepe dispute,
I never had the purpose, nor the will:
Great Doctors, erring Doctors must confute,
That subject sutes not with my oaten quill.
I'll pipe of Precepts teaching pietie,
Confine my Muse to Countrey Divinitie.

4.1-4 “And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising god, and saying, (13) Glory to God in the highest, and on earth, good will toward men (14)” (Luke 2, 13-14).
6.1 parts Presumably used with a pun on the musical sense of the word.
7.1-2 To choose but one from many examples in elder writ (i.e. the Old Testament) God is, for example, designated so in Psalm 24.8-10: “Who is this King of glory? The Lord strong and mighty, the Lord mighty in battle. (8) Lift up your heads, o ye gates; even lift them up, ye everlasting doors; and the King of glory shall come in. (9) Who is this King of glory? The Lord of hosts, he is the King of glory. Selah. (10)”.
9.6 “If a man say, I love God, and hateth his brother, he is a liar: for he that loveth not his brother whom he hath seen, how can he love God whom he hath not seen” (I John 4.20).
10.1-2 “He that loveth his brother abideth in the light, and there is none occasion of stumbling in him” (I John 2.10); “In this the children of god are manifest, and the children of the devil: whosoever doth not righteousnesss is nnot of God, neither he that loveth not his brother” (I John 3.10).
11.3 Erasmus describes Dulce bellum inexpertis as “among the choicest proverbs, and widely used in literature” (quoted from Margaret Main Philips, The ‘Adages’ of Erasmus, Cambridge, C.U.P., 1964, p.308). Erasmus’ discussion appears as Adagium 3001 in the 1515 Froben edition of the Adagia (it was also published by Froben as a separate work in 1517). Stradling’s familiarity with Erasmus’ text is evident at several points in Beati Pacifici.
14.1-2 “Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you; not as the world giveth, give I unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid” (John 14.27).
15.1 “For he is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us” (Ephesians 2.14).
20.1 make-bate “One who or that which creates contention; a breeder of strife” (OED).
21.3 “Therefore, being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ” (Romans 5.1).
32.4-5 One James I.
33.6 reflect Rebound.
35.4 he that made …Tamburlaine.
50.2
as treene As if it were made of wood.
51.5-6, 52.1 Stradling translates, rather loosely, Aeneid
VI.851-3:

tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento
(hae tibi erunt artes) pacique imponere morem,
parcere subiectis et debellare superbos

(Remember, thou Roman, to rule the nations by thy power (these shall be your arts) to crown Peace with law, to spare those who have been humbled, and to make tame, by war, the proud).
52.1-2 Basilikon Doron (literally ‘the gift of the king’) was first published in 1599, in an edition of just seven copies. It was reprinted in London in 1603. In it King James effectively sets out his theory of kingship in the form of advice to his son, Prince Henry. It presents an image of a monarch as a kind of benevolent despot, and is rooted in the Christian humanist tradition of the ideal prince. “Spare subjects, Rebels proud lay in the dust” appears to be Stradling’s own translation of Aeneid
VI.853, completing the quotation begun at the end of the previous stanza. As the sidenote’s reference to Basilikon Doron acknowledges, James I quotes these lines (in the original Latin) as the final words of Book III of Basilikon Doron.
53.3 “Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. For there is no power but of god: the powers that be are ordained of God. (1) Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation. (2) For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil. Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power? Do that which is good, and thou shalt have praise of the same: (3) For he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain: for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil. (4) (Romans 13.1-4).
56.1-4 See The General Epistle of James 2.21-23.
56.5 See Genesis 14.8-12.
58.6 bangle A verb originally used of hawks, meaning to flutter aimlessly in the air, rather than going directly for the quarry; it is used as a metaphor for any other kind of wasteful or pointless activity. Cf. George Chapman in ‘The Teares of Peace’ (ll.435-7): “See how like Kites they bangle in the Ayre / To stoope at scraps, and garbidge; in respect, / Of that which men of true peace should select” (Euthymiæ Raptus, 1609).
60.1 “But the word of the Lord came to me, saying, Thou hast shed abundantly, and hast made great wars: thou shalt not build an house unto my name, because thou hast shed much blood upon the earth in my sight” (I Chronicles 22.8).
61.5-6 Stradling’s stanza paraphrases verse 6 of Isaiah 11.
74.4 pelting “Paltry, mean, insignificant, trumpery; worthless” (OED).
76 Arrius Born c. 250 A. D. and died in 356 A. D, and probably of Libyan descent, Arrius was brought up in Antioch and was ordained a deacon of the church. He was excommunicated before, in 313, being readmitted to the church and made a Presbyter. He began to preach and expound the scriptures in Alexandria. In 318 the church was seriously split by quarrels occasioned by his teachings (Arianism). At the core of his ideas was a belief that Jesus was, as it were, a second or inferior God, standing at a kind of midpoint between God and the created world. Jesus, therefore, could not be of one nature, substance or essence with God.
77 Anti-Islamic propaganda frequently asserted that “prophecy by demoniac possession … [explained] … Muhammed’s revelations” and some accounts stated that “the Devil appeared to Muhammed in the form of an angel of light, and foretold future events” (see Norman Daniel, Islam and the West: The Making of an Image (revised ed., Oxford, Oneworld, 1993, pp. 90, 358)). The belief that Muhammed and, indeed, all Muslims were either the offspring of the devil or worshippers of the devil was a frequent assertion; see Maximilian Rudwin, The Devil in Legend and Literature (originally published 1931), La Salle, Illinois, Open Court, 1959, pp.147, 230.
80.6 nifles Things of little or no value.
82.5 Pelagians Followers of Pelagius
[c. 360 - c. 420], a British monk who denied the doctrine of original sin and insisted that humanity was, of itself, capable of being good, even without the assistance of divine grace.
82.6 Solifidians Christians who believe that faith alone, without works, is sufficient for justification.
87.1 Precisians Those who insists on rigid precision in religious observations; in the seventeenth century the term was frequently applied to the Puritans.
87.2 Phineas The grandson of Aaron, who objected to the consorting of an Israelite with a Midianite woman and slew them both. He was granted the "covenant of priesthood" by which the line of Aaron was given the privilege of the priestly office forever. See Numbers 25.10-13
87.6 Moabites A people who lived in land which adjoined that of the trans-Jordanic Israelites. In Stradling’s time the term was sometimes applied (opprobriously) to Roman Catholics.
90.2 hot-spur “One whose spur is hot with impetuous or constant riding; hence, one who spurs or pushes on recklessly; a heady or rash person” (OED). The word is an eponym, derived from the surname of Sir Henry Percy, son of the Earl of Northumberland, who was killed in the rebellion against Henry V.
92.1 The Athenasian Creed is a statement of Christian faith, originally written in Latin in the fifth century; it is sometimes called quicunque vult after its opening words, it is said to embody the ideas of Athanasius
[c. 296 - 37] as regards the Trinity.
93.3 Cardinal Robert Francis Romulus Bellarmine (also known as Bellarmino) was a major Jesuit theologian. He was born in Montepulciano in 1542 and died in 1621 (thus giving a particular topicality to Stradling’s description of him as “late”). After quickly establishing his reputation as a preacher, in 1576 he was appointed to the recently founded Chair of Controversies in Rome. In 1588 he was made Spiritual Father to the Roman College. He continued to play a prolifically active role in the theological controversies of the day, both within the Catholic church and vis-à-vis the various European Protestant movements. Stradling’s respect for Bellarmine was, naturally, not shared by all. On the title-page of John Rainolds’ A Defence of the Judgment of the Reformed Churches (1610), for example, the reader is promised “A taste of Bellarmins dealing in controversies of religion: how he depraveth scripturs, misalleageth fathers, and abuseth reasons to the perverting of the truth of God, and poysoning of his church with errour”. My search of the 5,359 folio pages of Bellarmine’s Opera omnia (Venice, 1721) has so far failed to locate the passage cited by Stradling.
95.5-6 “Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also his coat: now this coat was without a seam, woven from the top throughout. (23) They said therefore among themselves, let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be; ‘They parted my raiment among them, and for my vesture, they did cast lots. These things therefore the soldiers did. (24)” (John 19.23-24). The episode was frequently applied to activities which disrupted the unity of the church or which showed a lack of respect for Christianity. Thus Thomas Jordan in ‘A Cure for the Tongue-Evill’ (1662) writes (ll.173-6) of those who swear that

They spit their venome in Jehovahs face,
The Lords great Majesty they doe disgrace.
They mock Gods roaring, thundring voyce and note,
They rent a-sunder Christ his seamlesse coat

And adds a side note to the last of these lines, reading “Christs Church, Person, Name, Bloud, Body”.
104.5 jump Exactly.
106 See I Corinthians 3.9-13.
108.4 pheers Companions or equals (fere is a more usual spelling).
112.1 “Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God” (Matthew 5.9).
123.1-2 “Thy righteousness is like the great mountains; thy judgments are a great deep: O Lord, thou preservest man and beast” (Psalm 36.6).
127.4 bunt The funnel of an eel-trap (see OED).
130.1-4 Haman was a high official of the Persian King Ahasuerus (Xerxes); in the Book of Esther (chapters 3-7) is an account of how, because Mordecai would not bow down to him, he set out to destroy all Jews in the kingdom. Mordecai was, however, loyal to Ahasuerus himself. Through the intervention of Esther (Mordecai’s cousin) the King learned of Haman’s actions and ordered that he be hung on the very gallows he had prepared for Mordecai: “And Harbonah, one of the chamberlains, said before the king, Behold also the gallows fifty cubits high, which Haman had made for Mordecai, who had spoken good for the king, standeth in the house of Haman. Then the king said, Hang him thereon. (9) So they hanged Haman on the gallows that he had prepared for Mordecai. Then was the king’s wrath pacified. (10)” (Esther 7.9-10).
131.5 curtoll Jade Literally, a poor or worn-out horse with its tale docked; here it refers to the gallows.
132 Chapter
six of the Book of Daniel tells how “the princes sought to find occasion against Daniel” (verse 3) and how, when in violation of a decree by King Darius he continued to pray to God, he was thrown into the lion’s den; he was protected by an angel which God sent.
134.5 “…she shall be saved in child-bearing, if they continue in faith and charity and holiness with sobriety” (I Timothy 2.15).
137.2 In Chapter 2 of Acts, the coming of the Spirit, at the first Pentecost after the resurrection of Christ, those present were “filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance” (verse 4). Those who hear the speakers include some who “mocking said, These men are full of new wine” (verse 13).
138.2 See Genesis 13.1-12.
140. Based on Genesis 11.1-9.
141.2 that Steeple The Tower of Babel.
145.1 Hebers line See, inter alia, Genesis 46.17, Numbers 26.45, Judges 4.11, I Chronicles 5.13, I Chronicles 7.32.
146.1-2 See Acts 10.28.
146.3-6 See Acts 10.44-46.
151.1 Mithridates VI (died 63 B. C.) succeeded to the throne around 120 B. C., as a boy. His ventures into Bythinia provoked conflict with the Romans (88 B. C.), as a result of which Mithridates occupied Roman possessions in Asia Minor and invaded Greece. Eventually defeated, he had to make peace with Sulla (85 B. C.). Further wars (83 - 81 B. C. and 74 B. C.) eventually led to defeat and a rebellion by his own son, in the face of which he committed suicide. He was famous not only for his linguistic abilities but for the collection of paintings and sculptures which he assembled.
152.4 Arias Montanus, born at Frejenal de la Sierra in Estremadura, Spain in 1527 was an orientalist who edited the Biblia sacra hebraice, chaldaice, græce et latini, published in 8 volumes at Antwerp in 1572, with a huge and learned editorial apparatus. A teacher of oriental languages and a writer of religious verse, Arias Montanus died at Seville in 1598.
153.1 “To another the working of miracles; to another prophecy; to another discerning of spirits; to another divers kinds of tongues; to another the interpretation of tongues” (I Corinthians 12.10). Stradling’s sidenote is in error.
153.4 “I thank my god, I speak with tongues more than ye all” (I Corinthians 14.18).
157.4 Presumably the repentant thief of the gospel according to St. Luke (23.40-43), traditionally called Dismas. In the apocryphal gospel of Nicodemus he is referred to as Dimas.
163.5 By-broods Subsidiary or incidental offspring (probably with overtones of illegitimacy).
166.2 gribble A crab-tree or black-thorn, sometimes the stock of a crab-tree used for grafting.
166.3 proyne To prune.
169.1-4 “Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: (17) For he maketh sore, and bindeth up: he woundeth, and his hands make whole. (18)” (Job 5.17-18).
174.6 Cymmerian The Cimmerians were a people of Central Asia, supposed to live so far in the north that throughout the winter they existed in unrelieved darkness.
175.1 Topheth “For Tophet is ordained of old; yea, for the king it is prepared; he hath made it deep and large: the pile thereof is fire and much wood; the breath of the Lord, like a stream of brimstone, doth kindle it” (Isaiah 30.33).
176.4 bearded at our doores To ‘beard’ someone is to oppose or defy them in a particularly daring or impudent fashion.
181.4 mor’d OED record verbs, to more, meaning (i) to implant or establish and (ii) to increase or augment (though this may have been obsoleteby the 1620s).
185.3 Huniades “So, Hector’s sight great feare in Greekes did worke / When hee was showed on horsebacke, beeing dead: / Huniades, the terrour of the Turke, / Thoughe layed in grave, yet at his name they fled” (Whitney Choice of Emblemes (1586), Emblem 194). Huniades (1400-1456) was called by the Turks “The Devil.” He was surnamed “Corvinus”. On Huniades’ career as leader of the Hungarian armies against the Turks, including the heroic defence of Belgrade in 1456, just a month before his death, see Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Chapter LXVII. He is the subject of Hannah Brand’s tragedy Huniades: or the Siege of Belgrade(1791).
Scanderbeg Originally George Castriota or Kastriotes
[c.1404 - 1468], this Albanian hero was named Iskender Bey by the Turks, a name later corrupted into Scanderbeg. He was brought up as a Muslim while held as a hostage by the Turks. He rose to a position of power in the Ottoman armies, but in 1443, with the Turks planning to attack his homeland, Scanderbeg escaped, deserted Islam, and formed a defensive league with other Albanian chieftains, proclaiming himself Prince of Albania. The Albanian resistance received aid from Venice, Naples, Hungary, and the Pope. His guerrilla tactics enjoyed a good deal of success against the Turks. Repeated onslaughts were repulsed and the Turks were obliged to agree to a ten year truce in 1461. Scanderbeg broke this truce after only two years, in response to Pope Pius II's call for a new crusade (abandoned at Pius' death in 1464). Now largely deprived of allies, Scanderbeg retreated to his fortress at Kroia. After his death Albanian resistance soon withered away and the Ottomans invaded the country.
186 Sigismond Born in 1368 (died 1437), Sigismund was Holy Roman Emperor from 1433); He was the son of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Through his marriage to Mary, who became queen of Hungary in 1382, Sigismund acceded to the Hungarian throne. Dynastic complications and conflicts delayed his coronation until 1387. The Ottoman advance in Eastern Europe prompted their invasion of Hungary in 1395. Sigismund acted as leader of a European crusade against them but was heavily defeated at the battle of Nikapol in 1396.
187 Agria Stradling's account fuses two battles. In September 1596, an Ottoman army commanded by Mohammed III defeated the Hungarians at Erlau (also known as Eger and Agria) now in the Czech Republic, in Bohemia, near the German border. In the following month a further battle was fought at Keresztes. Much of the Ottoman army deserted in the early stages of the battle, but the Christian armies broke ranks to sieze plunder from the Turkish camp. The Turkish cavalry rallied, and their charges led to the death of some 30,000 Hungarian and German soldiers.
188.1 Lepanto This naval battle, a crucial event in the history of Europe, was fought (October 7th, 1571) at the mouth of the Gulf of Patras, near Lepanto in Greece. The fleet of the Holy League was under the command of John of Austria, that of the Ottomans under Uluç Ali Pasha. The Christian fleet was made up chiefly of Spanish, Venetian, and papal ships and of vessels sent by a number of Italian states. It carried approximately 30,000 fighting men and was more or less evenly matched with the Turkish fleet. The battle ended with the virtual destruction of the Ottoman navy. Some 15,000 Turks were killed or captured, and many Christian slaves serving in the Turkish ships were released. The Christians themselves lost more than 7,000 men (Cervantes was among the wounded). The victory prevented Turkish dominance of the Mediterranean.
188.2 John of Austrich The illegitimate son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, John of Austria
[1545 - 78] was acknowledged in his father's will and recognised by his half brother, Philip II of Spain. As admiral of the Holy League he won the naval battle of Lepanto. Later he took Tunis and served as governor-general in Italy. In 1576 he was sent by Philip to act as governor-general to the Netherlands.
200.4 “And when Pharaoh drew nigh, the children of Israel lifted up their eyes lifted up their eyes, and, behold, the Egyptians marched after them; and they were sore afraid: and the children of Israel cried out unto the Lord. (10) And they said unto Moses, Because there were no graves in Egypt, hast thou taken us away to die in the wilderness? Wherefore hast thou dealt thus with us, to carry us forth out of Egypt? (11)” (Exodus 14.10-11).
201.1-2 “And Moses said unto the people, Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of the Lord, which he will show to you to day: for the Egyptians whom ye have seen to day, ye shall see them again no more for ever. (13) The Lord shall fight for you, and ye shall hold your peace. (14)” (Exodus 14.13-14).
208.2 “Their poison is like the poison of a serpent: they are like the deaf adder that stoppeth her ear; (4) Which will not hearken to the voice of charmers, charming never so wisely (5)” (Psalm 58.4-5).
216.4 rules the roast The person who has control, is most important; the expression derives from the head of the household’s privilege of carving the joint at dinner.
218.1 Peter the Hermit was born at Amiens, c. 1050. Early chroniclers mentioned him as one of the many preachers who stirred up enthusiasm for what became the First Crusade. Later chroniclers, such as Albert of Aix-la-Chapelle and William of Tyre presented him (wrongly) as pretty well the sole instigator of the crusade. He is said (by Albert) to have made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and to have suffered ill-treatment by the Turks. A vision urged him to return to Europe, to proclaim the misdeeds of the Turks, and to petition the pope (Urban II) to organise a crusade. Peter died at the monastery of Neufmoutier (Liège) in 1115.
218.4 Godfrey of Bouillon Godfrey
[c.1060 - 1100] was the eldest son of Count Eustace II of Boulogne and Ida of Bouillon. In 1076 he became Count of Verdun and Lord of Bouillon (in the Ardennes). In 1096 he disposed of his estates so as to join the First Crusade. In 1099 he was elected ruler of Jerusalem, adopting the title of Defender of the holy Sepulchre. However he died only twelve months later. He is the hero of Tasso’s Gerusalemme Liberata.
219.1 Isabell Isabella I, the Queen of Castile, was born in 1451 and died in 1504. She was the daughter of John II, King of Castile and Isabella of Portugal.
220.1 Margaret Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby
[1441 - 1509], mother of Henry VII. Famously devout, she was generous in her works of charity and benevolence. I have been unable to trace the particular story alluded to by Stradling.
223.1 Donatus (known also as Donnchadh, Donagh and Donat, Dunwydd in Welsh) was bishop of Fiesole. “Donnchadh became bishop of this Italian city [on a hill above Florence] in a manner at once characteristic and outlandish. Having left Ireland, where he had studied on Scattery Island, following a Viking raid, he made a pilgrimage to Rome together with several companions including his brother Andrew … On their return they reached Fiesole to find that the election of a new bishop was in progress and deadlock had been reached. The solution was, need it be said, to elect Donnchadh. In common with other Italian bishops Donnchadh was as much a temporal as a spiritual ruler and led his subjects in several wars, large and small, in support of the king against the Saracens. He acquired the right to hold courts and to impose taxes and of immunity from the crown for services rendered in these wars. In addition he was a considerable scholar and did much for learning in Italy, establishing schools in several cities and a university in Florence. He died in Fiesole in 870 or thereabouts. His relics are preserved in the Cathedral of Fiesole” (Eoin Neeson, The Book of Irish Saints, Cork, the Mercier Press, 1967, p.188). His feast day is October 22nd.
237.3 Cockle was the name popularly given to Lychnis (or Agrostemma) Githago, a plant with purple-reddish flowers which grows in corn-fields. Among the proverbs recorded by M. P. Tilley (A Dictionary of Proverbs in England in the Sixteenth Seventeenth Centuries, Ann Arbor, 1950) are “Cockle and Corn grow in the same field” (C.497) and “In much corn is some cockle” (C.659).
238.5 Justment A variant of agistment and gistment, “the taking in of cattle or live stock to feed at a rate of so much per head; the rate levied or profit made upon the pasturing of another’s cattle” (OED)
240.5 All is not gold, that like to gold doth show The proverbial “All is not gold that glisters” is recorded in M. P. Tilley, A Dictionary of Proverbs in England in the Sixteenth Seventeenth Centuries, Ann Arbor, 1950, A.146). See Spenser, Faerie Queen
e II.viii.14: “Yet gold all is not, that doth golden seeme” and The Merchant of Venice II.vii.65.
243.5 Joab “And Joab said to Amasa, Art thou in health, my brother? And Joab took Amasa by the beard with the right hand to kiss him. (9) But Amasa took no heed to the sword that was in Joab's hand: so he smote him therewith in the fifth rib, and shed out his bowels to the ground, and struck him not again; and he died. So Joab and Abishai his brother pursued after Sheba the son of Bichri. (10)” (
II Samuel 20.9-10).
244.1 Antiochus i.e. Antiochus IV of Syria (17 5- 164 B. C.).
245.1 See, specifically, Matthew 2.1-8.
246.1 “Now he that betrayed him gave them a sign, saying, Whomsoever I shall kiss, that same is he: hold him fast. (48) And forthwith he came to Jesus, and said, Hail, master: and kissed him. (49)” (Matthew 26.48-49).
247.1 Machiavell Amongst many passages in The Prince, one might compare the final paragraph of the Eighteenth Chapter: “One prince of the present time, whom it is not well to name, never preaches anything else but peace and good faith, and to both he is most hostile, and either, if he had kept it, would have deprived him of reputation and kingdom many a time” (translated by W. K. Marriott, London, 1908, p.145).
248.1-2 “And therewithall she said unto the child: farewel, my own sweete sonne, God send you good keping, let me kis you ones yet ere you goe, for God knoweth when we shal kis togither agayne. And therewith she kissed him, and blessed him, turned her back and wept and went her way, leaving the childe weping as fast. When the lord cardinal and these other lordes with him, had received this yong duke, thei brought him into the sterrechamber where the protectour toke him in his armes and kissed him with these wordes — Now welcome, my lord, even with al my very heart.” (Sir Thomas More, History of King Richard III, ed. R. Lumley, Cambridge, C. U. P., 1924, 40-41).
249.1 See Luke 12.21.
250.1 Libertines Amongst the OED’s quotations is the following from Robert Cawdrey (1604): “Libertine, loose in religion, one that thinks he may doe what he listeth”.
252.5 See John 14.27: “Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you: not as the world giveth, give I unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid”.
254.1-2 “Ye adulterers and adulteresses, know ye not that the friendship of the world is enmity with God? Whosoever therefore will be a friend of the world is the enemy of God” (James 4.4).
256.1 fan A shovel or basket specially designed to winnow grain.
259.6 His Feed-man The man acting on his behalf, and in receipt of a fee for doing so.
261.1 Stradling’s contempt for what he saw as the predatory and mercenary habits of lawyers fuels much of his Storie of the Lower Burrowes of Merthy Mawr, his account of a long legal dispute between Sir Edward Stradling and one Griffith Williams.
261.4 Calfe “A dolt; occ. a meek harmless person” (OED 1.b).
261.5 dead lift Literally, the pull of a horse (or the like) as it exerts its full strength in the attempt to move a dead weight which it is beyond its power to move; in the figurative sense a situation in which no more can be done.
262.4 Size nor Session The assizes or sessions of the court.
262.5 chinkes Literally, the sound produced by pieces of metal rubbing together; figuratively ready cash, the sound made by collection of coins.
263.2 Subornation “1. The act of inducing or procuring a person to commit an evil action, , by bribery, corruption, or the like; an instance of this… 2. The act of procuring a person to give false evidence” (OED)
271.4 groat This coin was recognised and used in various countries of Europe from the thirteenth century onwards. Its value varied greatly in different times and places; the English groat, coined in 1351-2 was equal to four pence. With inflation it became a by-word for a coin worth very little.
272.4 Cutter Stradling seems to be using the word both in its general sense &endash; a person or thing which cuts — and in one of the specific senses noted by OED: “3. One over-ready to resort to weapons; a bully; also, a cutthroat”.
273 Stradling’s stanza is, in essence, a paraphrase of a paragraph in Erasmus’ discussion of the adagium ‘Dulce bellum inexpertis’: “”First of all, if one considers the outward appearance of the human body, does it not become clear at once that nature, or rather God, created this being not for war, but for friendship, not for destruction, but for preservation, not for aggressiveness but for kindness? For she endowed every one of the other living creatures with its own weapons. She armed the charging bull with horns, the raging lion with claws. She fixed murderous fangs to the boar, and protected the elephants not only with their hide and their size, but with a trunk as well. She armoured the crocodile on all sides with scales, the dolphins with fins for weapons, the porcupines she defended with quills, the ray with a sting. To the cocks she fixed a spur. Some she fortified with a shell, others with a hide or scaly covering. There are some whose safety she provided for by giving them swiftness, like doves. Again there are some to whom she gave poison as a weapon. To these things she added a fearsome brutish appearance, savage eyes, and a harsh voice. She implanted some inborn enmities. Only man was produced naked, weak, tender, unarmed, with very soft flesh and a smooth skin. Among his members nothing would seem to have been intended for fighting and violence; rather even I might say that the other creatures, almost as soon as they are born, are self-reliant and able to protect themselves, but only man makes his appearance in such a condition that he must depend for a long time on the help of others. He cannot speak, nor walk, nor find his food, he only wails for help; so that from this one may conjecture that this animal alone was born for friendship, which is initiated and cemented by mutual aid. Accordingly nature wished man to owe the gift of life not so much to himself as to lovingkindness, so that he might understand that he was dedicated to goodness and brotherly love. And so the appearance she gave him was not fearsome and terrifying, as with the others, but mild and gentle, bearing the signs of love and goodness. She gave him friendly eyes, revealing the soul. She gave him embracing arms. She gave him the significance of the kiss, a union by which soul meets with soul. On him alone she bestowed laughter, the sign of merriment; on him alone, tears, the mark of mercy and pity. A voice she gave him too, not fierce and threatening as with the beasts, but friendly and caressing”. (Margaret Mann Phillips, The ‘Adages’ of Erasmus: A Study with Translations, Cambridge, C.U.P., pp.310-11)
280.1 neck-verse The first verse of Psalm 51 (“Have mercy upon me, O god, according to thy lovingkindness: according unto the multitude of thy tender mercies blot out my transgressions”). Those who claimed Benefit of Clergy were required to demonstrate their ability to read this verse if they were to escape the death penalty.
281.1 “And David said unto Nathan, I have sinned against the Lord. And Nathan said unto David, The Lord also hath put away thy sin; thou shalt not die” (II Samuel 12.13)
283.2 meed Recompense, deserved portion.
284 Chapter 2 of
I Kings relates how Joab killed Abner the son of Zer and Amasa the son of Jether, and the consequences of his actions.
285.2 “And the Lord said unto Cain, Where is Abel thy brother? And he said, I know not: Am I my brother’s keeper? (9) And he said, What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother’s blood crieth unto me from the ground. (10)” (Genesis 4.9-10).
285.3 The sentiments are those of Exodus 21.24.
286.1 See Exodus 21.28.
288.3 bruit A variant of “brute”; a neat is any animal of the ox-kind. The whole phrase is, thus, an equivalent to phrases such as “brute beasts”, i.e. animals lacking the advantage of reason.
289.1 The poorest slave that grindeth at the Mill It is hard not to hear in this a pre-echo of Milton’s Samson and his lamentation of his condition “Eyeless in Gaza at the mill with slaves” (Samson Agonistes 41). The similarity suggests that Stradling and Milton were drawing on a common original, but I have not been able to identify one.
290.5 non cul That is, non culpa, not guilty.
294.2 See Deuteronomy 19.4.
294.5 See I Kings 2.28-31.
298 Stradling’s sidenote should refer to II Samuel 1.
299.4 A bead-roll was a list of names or people to be prayed for.
305.4 cole A charcoal pencil or a piece of charcoal used for the same pencil.
307.1 See Daniel 6.8.
308.5 pike A weapon made up of a long wooden shaft, tipped with a pointed head of iron or steel.
313.1-2 “Dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath: for it is written, Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord” (Romans 12.19).
316.1 A man should looke before he rashly leape Tilley (A Dictionary of Proverbs in England in the Sixteenth Seventeenth Centuries, Ann Arbor, 1950) records the proverb “Look ere (before) you leap” (L.429).
316.3 For as he sowes, he must account to reape Tilley records this in the form “As they sow so let them reap” (S.687).
318.6 stanke Watertight.
323.5 “And the soldiers likewise demanded of him, saying, And what shall we do? And he said unto them, Do violence to no man, neither accuse any falsely; and be content with your wages” (Luke 3.14).
324.1 Towne-clerke After the fall of Savonarola in 1498, Machiavelli served as Head of the Second Chancery and Secretary to the Council of Ten in Florence. Presumably it is such service which Stradling thus dismisses in his contemptuous phrasing.
326.3 Magnanimitie One of the most important virtues, as defined by Aristotle, indicating “greatness of soul” (see Ethics, IV.3); according to Marcus Aurelius (Meditations, X.8) “Magnanimity is the elevation of the intelligent part above the pleasurable or painful sensations of the flesh, and above that poor thing called fame, and death, and all such things”.
330.2 Robert of Normandy Robert II
[Robert Curthose, c. 1054 - 1134], Duke of Normandy from 1087 to 1106); was the eldest son of King William I of England. Aided by King Philip I of France, he rebelled (1077) against his father. He was, initially, reconciled with his father, but was later exiled. At William's death he inherited Normandy, while England fell to his younger brother William II; there was intermittent war between the two for six years from 1090. In 1096 Robert joined the First Crusade, effectively mortgaging Normandy to William II in order to do so. During his absence, William II died and Henry I, youngest son of William I, was crowned. In 1101 Robert mounted an invasion of England, but was unsuccessful and was forced to recognise Henry. In turn, Henry invaded Normandy in 1106, defeated Robert at the battle of Tinchebrai, seizing Normandy, and imprisoning Robert.
331.3-6 Amongst the ‘Machiavellians’ to be seen on the English stage, Stradling might have had in mind Barabas from Marlowe’s The Jew of Malta,
Shakespeare’s Richard III, or any number of the villains in Jacobean tragedy. For English theatrical ‘Machiavellianism’ see Edward Stockton Meyer, Machiavelli and the Elizabethan Drama, Weimar, 1897; Mario Praz, ‘Machiavelli and the Elizabethans’, Proceedings of the British Academy XIII, 1928, pp.49 - 94; Irving Ribner, ‘Marlowe and Machiavelli’, Comparative Literature, 6, 1954, pp.349 - 56; Ulrich Broich, ‘Machiavelli und das Drama der Shakespeare-Zeit’,Anglia, 89, 1971, pp. 326 - 48; Catherine Minshull, ‘Marlowe’s Sound Machiavelli’, Renaissance Drama, n.s.8, 1982, pp.35 - 53; Hugh Grady, Shakespeare, Machiavelli, and Montaigne: Power and Subjectivity from ‘Richard II’ to ‘Hamlet’, Oxford, 2003.
332.4 Prince Machiavelli’s Il Principe was first published in 1513. Stradling may intend to refer to the book itself or to the ‘ideal’ prince adumbrated therein.
335.1-2 “Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity! (1) It is like the precious ointment upon the head, that ran down upon the beard, even Aaron’s beard: that went down to the skirts of his garments; (2) as the dew of Hermon, and as the dew that descended upon the mountains of Zion: for there the Lord commanded the blessing, even life for evermore. (3)” (Psalm 133).
343.2 Eagles wings “Early civilizations were almost unanimous in regarding the eagle as a symbol of the divine … The eagle in Job xxxix.27 and Matthew xxiv.28 signified the souls of the elect and the promise of resurrection. St. John the Baptist was the eagle because he spoke of the divinity of Christ, and, like the eagle, fastened his eyes on the sun … The emblem writers connected the bird’s high flight with lofty thoughts…From antiquity, the eagle was associated with inspiration. To Pindar, the Greek poet, the eagle was a symbol of the poetic mind contemplating higher truths. Like St. John with his vision of the Apocalypse, and like eagle-sighted Beatrice, who was Dante’s guide to the Empyrean, the eagle was close to the central power of creation” (Beryl Rowlands, Birds with Human Souls, Knoxville, University of Tennessee Press, 1978, pp.51-55).
350.2-3 Aaaron … and his famous Rod See Numbers 17.8.
350.3 Urim, Thummim Sacred lots used for divination by the Hebrews. See, for example, Exodus 28.30, Deuteronomy 33.8, Ezra 2.63.
352.5 “And Samuel came no more to see Saul until the day of his death: nevertheless Samuel mourned for Saul: and the Lord repented that he had made Saul king over Israel” (I Samuel 15.35).
353.3 It was through he Witch of Endor, and her “familiar spirit”, that Saul sought to communicate with the dead Samuel. After making Saul promise that he would not punish her for being a witch, she brought up Samuel from the dead.
354.3 The 12. lesser Prophets Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi. Their writings are less extensive than those of the four ‘Greater Prophets’.
355.1 The 4. greater Prophets
I. e. Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Daniel.
356.4 The stories of Daniel’s destruction of a dragon, and of his exposure of the fraudulent claims made by the priests of Bel (equivalent to Hebrew Baal) appear in the apocryphal Greek additions to the Book of Daniel.
357.5 Susanna The story of Susanna and the Elders is known from one of the Greek additions to the Book of Daniel included amongst the Jewish Apocrypha.
358.4 “And it came to pass, as they still went on, and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, and parted them both asunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven” (II Kings 2.11).
363.3 “And there shall no night there; and they need no candle, neither light of the sun; for the Lord god giveth them light: and they shall reign for ever and ever” (Revelation 22.5).
365.3 See Revelation 7.9.
365.4 coste Coast.
366.4 “They shall hunger no more, neither thirst any more: neither shall the sun light on them, nor any heat. (16) For the Lamb which is in the midst of the throne shall feed them, and shall lead them unto living fountains of waters: and God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes. (17)” (Revelation 7.16-17).
368.6 “And it came to pass, as he spake these things, a certain woman of the company lifted up her voice, and said unto him, Blessed is the womb that bare thee, and the paps which thou hast sucked. (27) But he said, yea rather, blessed are they that hear the word of God, and keep it. (28) “ (Luke 11.27-28).
369.6 “And the same John had his raiment of camel’s hair, and a leathern girdle about his loins; and his meat was locusts and wild honey” (Matthew 3.4).
370.3 “And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elias, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord” (Luke 1.17).
370.4 “Verily I say unto you, Among them that are born of women, there hath not risen a greater than John the Baptist: notwithstanding he that is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he” (Matthew 11.11).
370.6 “The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world” (John 1.29).
371.5 “Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene. (25) When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and the disciple standing by, whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, Woman, behold thy son! (26) Then saith he to the disciple, Behold thy mother! And from that hour the disciple took her unto his own home (27)” (John 19.25-27).
374 The story of Stephen, the first Christian martyr, is told in chapters 6 and 7 of the Acts of the Apostles. One of those present &endash; as an approving observer &endash; at Stephen’s execution (in Jerusalem c. 35 A. D.) was Saul of Tarsus, soon to become the apostle Paul.
376 “And when he had opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of them that were slain for the word of God, and for the testimony which they held; (9) And they cried with a loud voice, saying, How long, O Lord, holy and true, dost thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth? (10)” (Revelation 6.9-10).
378.1 St. Donat or Donatus; see note on stanza 223.
379.1 Dismas, the repentant thief. Stradling seems to have found he two thieves crucified alongside Christ, and especially the penitent thief, of particular interest. See his Divine Poems, 1625, ‘the sixt Classis’, stanzas 195, 202-206.
381.5 See Matthew 20.1-16.
382.6 For the parable of the wise and foolish virgins see Matthew 25.1-13
389.1 See I Corinthians 15.40-41.
389.6 pottle-pot A pottle was a measure of capacity for liquids, equal to two quarts or half a gallon and a pottle-pot was a vessel of this capacity. Psalm 23.5: “Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies: thou anointest my head with oil; my cup runneth over.”
393.2-3 “O Timothy, keep that which is committed to thy trust, avoiding profane and vain babblings, and oppositions of science falsely so called” (1 Timothy 6.20); “But foolish and unlearned questions avoid, knowing that they do gender strifes” (2 Timothy 2.23).
399.5-6 See Luke 16, especially verse 26.
403.5 Sergius Anti-Muslim writings of the Middle Ages (and later) often ‘explained’ that his prophecies had been prompted by (or concocted with the aid of) a heretical Christian monk called Sergius, expelled from Christendom because of his criminality and heretical beliefs. Willaim of Auvergne, for example, writes thus: “After Eutyches and Nestorius his master were condemned by the Constantinopolitan synod, actually for denying the double nature of Christ, that is, the divine and the human, this Sergius crossed into Arabia, where, simulating the eremitical life, he appeared to be of such piety and holiness that Muhammad wished to make him his teacher; and sometimes he called him ‘Gabriel the Archangel’ &endash; hiding what he dared not reveal, that the lunacies which he delivered to those whom he deceived he had learned from a man” (quoted thus in Norman Daniel, Islam and the West: The Making of an Image (revised ed., Oxford, Oneworld, 1993, p.105).
403.6 Arius A Libyan theologian
[c. 250 - 336], founder of the heresy of Arianism. Arius argued that the Son was neither co-equal nor co-eternal with God the Father but was merely the highest of all created beings, created out of nothing through an act of God’s will.
408.6 these broyles in Germany and France In Germany what was to become known as the Thirty Years War began in 1618; in France, a fresh Huguenot rebellion against Louis XIII, began in 1621.

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