4 Alterno…cursu is explicable by Ad Christianum Lectorem 6, Infinitis sideribus spendide ornatum coelum, quod motu diurno ab ortu ad occasum, retrogrado ab occasu ad ortum,…[“The heaven, splendidly decorated with countless stars, which by its daily movement from rising to setting, and retrograde from setting to rising…”]
Richard Latewar Latewar, a Fellow of St. John’s College, Oxford. To judge by the gratulatory epigrams he contributed to other men’s books of this period, he was evidently a member of William Gager’s circle.
hunc annum mundi All over Europe it was known that 1588 had been prophecized to be a portentious “climacteric” year. This is described by William Camden in his Annales for that year. It is striking that although Case repeatedly mentions these prophecies, recent meteorological portents, and frequently expresses his concern that the world is old, effete and moribund, he never acknowledges his immediate source of anxiety: as he wrote this work he must have been no less aware than any other Englishman of the imminent sailing of the Armada and the great test to which his nation was about to be put.
ex minacibus Sybillae foliis The prophetic Sibyl of Cumae was supposed to have written down her forecasts on laurel leaves.
torvus coeli vultus For particulars, see the relevant note on Ad Christianum Lectorem 13.
ut loquuntur philosophi A sidenote refers to Aristotle’s de Caelo.
Aristides Cite frequently cites the fifth century Athenian statesman known as Aristeides the Just as the type of the wise and just statesman.
Scaevola He likewise likes to mention Quintus Mucius Scaevola (d. 82 B. C.) as the type of the wise and upright jurist.
Oratio insignis illa The speech Hatton made upon the occasion of his installation as Lord Chancellor in 1587.
volvendam et revolvendam These words contain a double meaning: “to turn and to turn again,” and “to ponder and to ponder again.”
dominus Thesaurius Lord Burleigh evidently envisioned some more general literary program. Just as he suggested to Case that he write this treatise setting forth the political philosophy of Elizabeth’s reign, so a suggestion of his provided the original impetus for William Camden’s Annales Rerum Gestarum Angliae et Hiberniae Regnante Elizabetha, as he stated in his Introduction to that work.
Untonus The diplomat Sir Henry Unton. I imagine Unton’s unpublished writings mentioned here are his letters, which finally came into print in Correspondence of Sir Henry Unton (ed. J. Stevenson. London, 1847).
Spartam In other Latin academic literature of the time written in England, the word Sparta can be documented with the meaning “area of specialization.” In texts currently in the Philological Museum this usage is found in works by Abraham Cowley and Digory Wheare.
Elizabetha republicae dea A sidenote refers to Psalm 82:6, You are gods. (Note: in this edition the Psalms will be cited according to the K. J. V. numeration)
retrogredietur sol A sidenote refers to II Kings 20.
stabit in medio coeli A sidenote refers to Joshua 10.
cum Chore, Dathan et Abiram A sidenote refers to Numbers 16.
cum Absolone A side note refers to II Kings 15 - 18.
cum Iuda A sidenote refers to Matthew 26, Mark 14, Luke 22, and John 18.
Deus illorum arcum conterat A sidenote refers to Psalms 46 and 2 (cf. particularly Ps. 46:9, He makes wars cease to the end of the earth; He breaks the bow and cuts the spear in two ).
Graeci olim A sidenote refers to Hieronymus Cardanus’ De Rerum Varietate (1558), where Case found these anecdotes.
Ad Christianum Lectorem
1 dixit stultus in corde suo A sidenote refers to Psalms 14.1 and 54.1.
terrae protinus filii Men with no pedigrees.
1 apertis quasi tabulis Cf. Justinian, Digest, XXVI.vii.58.2 and XLIV.ii.11.
1 cum blasphemo illo Holoferne A sidenote refers to Holofernes’ question at Judith 6:2, and who is God but Nabuchodonosor?
1 qui cum Meli incolis atheismum colunt A sidenote names Doletus, Argentinus, et Machiavellus. The first two of these are perhaps Étienne Dolet (burnt for heresy in 1546 and the late 15th century Cambridge Aristotelian John Argentine.
2 Luciane perniciose sophista? A sidenote refers to the biographical article in the Suda lexicon.
2 Iuliane atrox apostata? A sidenote refers to chapter vi of compilation of translated Church history documents known as the Historia Tipartita.
2 coelesti fulmine confossus iaces Sidenote: Theodoret’s Historia Ecclesiastica III.xxv.
2 haec habeet verba A sidenote attributes these quotes to Aristotle, Physics, Book VII.vi, and de Mundo x.
2 Deus inquit perpetuam rerum A sidenote attributes the following quotes to Aristotle, de Ortu II.x, Physics VIII.vi, de Coelo I.ix, ib. II.iii, Ethics VII.i, Metaphysics XI.vii, Magna Moralia II.viii, and Topica I.ix. Note: All references to “Aristotle’s Ethics” in Case’s sidenotes refer to the Nichomachean Ethics.
4 olim Empedocles dixit I cannot identify Case’s authority for this statement.
4 Aronis tamen virga A sidenote refers to Exodus 7:12 and 8:19.
4 RATIO 2 A sidenote acknowledges that this argument is taken from Book VII of Aristotle’s Physics.
4 Sed primum caelum By “the first heaven” Case means the outermost sphere of the fixed stars.
4 Ego Deus et non mutor A sidenote refers to Malachi 3:6.
4 Apud quem non est transmutatio A sidenote refers to James 1:17.
4 Non est Deus quasi homo A sidenote refers to Number 23:19.
5 RATIO 3 A sidenote acknowledges that this argument is taken from Book II of Aristotle’s Metaphysics.
6 invisibilia ipsius a creatura mundi A sidenote refers to Romans 1:20.
6 […] trepidationis a meridie Some noun in the ablative is missing from the text upon which trepidationis should depend. I suspect Case wrote something like effectu cuiusdam quasi trepidationis. Here trepidatio probably does not designate fear, but some kind of propelling force that makes the stars seem to wheel in a northerly direction rather than parallel to the Equator (compare the “agitator” in a washing machine).
6 gloriam ennarant coeli A sidenote refers to Psalm 19.1.
6 Deus est qui fecit A sidenote refers to Psalm 100.3.
6 verbo domini coeli firmati sunt A sidenote refers to Psalm 33.6.
7 vi ergo naturae non fit A sidenote refers to Aristotle, de Anima IV.iii.
8 RATIO 6 A sidenote refers to De coelo I.ix and Metaphysics, Book X.
8 scalam stantem super terram A sidenote refers to Genesis 28:12 - 13.
9 RATIO 7 A sidenote acknowledges that this argument is taken from Book I of the Ethics.
9 Optat Moses A sidenote refers to Exodus 33:18.
9 multorum vir desideriorum A sidenote refers to Daniel 9:23.
9 heu mihi, inquit David A sidenote refers to Psalm 120.5, Woe is me, that I dwell in Meshech, that I dwell among the tents of Kedar!
10 Ratio 8 A sidenote acknowledges that this argument is taken from Book VIII of Aristotles’ Ethics and Book IV of the Metaphysics.
11 Ratio 9 A sidenote acknowledges that this argument is taken from Book III of Aristotle’s Ethics.
12 Gentes (inquit divinus apostolus) A sidenote refers to Romans 2:14.
13 coelum et terra, omniaque in universo theatro mundi A sidenote refers to 2 Peter 3:4, but the paraphrase is loose. The actual text is “Where is the promise of His coming? For since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they were from the beginning of creation.”
13 unus dies sicut mille anni A sidenote refers to 2 Peter 3:8.
13 Stella non diu abhinc Sidenote: Anno 1572 & 1573. The comet was actually the 1572 nova in Casseiopia, which inspired Tycho Brahe’s De Nova Stella (mentioned also in Camden’s Annales). Camden also describes the earthquake in Hertfordshire, which in fact occured in 1571, and the aurora borealis, which occurred in 1574.
14 Adesdum, Caligula A sidenote refers to Suetonius, Caligula li.
14 fac tale coelum, terram, et mundum A sidenote attributes this demand to St. Ambrose.
14 Cur igitur crystam attollimus? A standard Roman idiom for “his head has become swollen.” The Oxford Latin Dictionary cites as an example Juvenal iv.69f., et tamen illi / surgebant cristae.
15 Ratio 13 A sidenote says this argument is taken “from Church history.”
15 qui neque post non esse A sidenote attributes these words to St. Augustine.
15 accedentem ad Deum oportet credere A sidenote refers to Hebrews 11:6.
16 Veruntamen quoniam Sidenote: Deus unus et trinus esse probatur (“God is proved to be one and three”).
16 Hoc dico non quod Sidenote: Ratio cur ratione mysteria probantur (“The reason why mysteries are proven by reason.”)
17 Magnus ille philosophus Aristoteles A sidenote refers to Book III of de Anima.
17 trinitatis ad personam refertur A sidenote acknowledges this formula is taken from St. Augustine’s de Fide.
17 ego qui generationem aliis A sidenote refers to Isaiah 66:7 (in error for for 66:9).
20 Ratio 4 A sidenote acknowledges these arguments come from St. Augustine, de Trinitate VI.x, Marcantonio Sabellicus’ Enneads (wrongly cited as his Aeneid) II.xi, and Fulgentius VII.vi.
20 Olympi pessime Ariane A sidenote makes it clear Case is addressing the heresiarch Arius (who died suddenly, but scarcely in the manner described here).
20 magistri tui Meletus, perhaps.
21 Ratio 5 Sidenote: Ab inductione exemplorum (“Derived from examples by induction”).
21 Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus A sidenote refers to Isaiah 6:3.
21 Benedicat nos Deus A sidenote refers to Psalm 67:6 (the following quote is verse 7).
21 et si forte cum Abrahamo aut Lotho A sidenote refers to Genesis 18:3 and 19:1.
22 Ex his nunc perspici potest Sidenote: Creatio mundi, exilium hominis, adventus Christi, aedificatio ecclesiae, regum institutio, vitae sanctitas, et religio ratione probantur. (“The creation of the universe, Man’s exile, the advent of Christ, the building of the Church, the institution of kings, the sanctitude of life, and religion are proved by reason.”)
23 In the Timaeus Plato taught that a creator-god (Demiurge) created the world by embodying the forms of the eternal Ideas in matter. But Plato’s Demiurge creates neither the Ideas nor matter.
23 cum tuo discipulo Aristotle.
23 posse et velle in Deo A sidenote attributes this quotation to Artistotle, Physics Book III.
24 semen mulieris A sidenote refers to Genesis 3:15.
25 erunt reges nutricii tui A sidenote refers to Isaiah 49:23.
25 nam vos estis dii terrae A sidenote refers to Psalm 82:6
26 sed Orosius venerabilis The allusion is to Orosius’ Historiarum adversus paganos libri septem. According to Case’s sidenote this work (which he evidently did not know first-hand) is mentioned by Thomas Cooper in his 1565 Thesaurus Linguae Romanae et Britannicae.
27 in Anglia successores Aeduini A sidenote refers to Bede, III.i.
27 illi tandem Gygis annulum Plato tells the story of Gyges and his invisibity-conferring ring in Book II of the Republic.
28 Audies ut Leovitius refert The sixteenth century astrologer Cyprianus Leovitius [1524-1574], author of De Magnis Coniunctionibus.
28 An omnia Sybillae folia See the relevant note on the Dedicatory Epistle. The sidenote says, misleadingly, In prooemio (“In the proem.”) The reference is actually to the spurious poem “Chaucer’s Prophecy.” Did Case know the similar poem “Merlin’s Prophecy”?
28 Defecisti in multitudine A sidenote refers to Isaiah 47:13.
28 Transibit mundus, transibunt gaudia mundi A sidenote refers to the chapter on eternal joys from Sebastian Brant’s Stultifera Navis.
28 ut Dagon coram archa For the story see I Samuel 5.
29 nominatum sunt Thomas St. Thomas Aquinas’ commentaries on the Politics (Sententia Libri Politicorum) were first printed together with the 1492 Rome edition of the text; Donato Acciaiuioli In Aristotelis libros octo politicorum commentarii (there is a 1556 Venice edition, available here), Johannes Versor wrote a commentary on the Politics (printed with Guilelmus de Moerbeka’s Latin translation, Cologne, 1492); Martin Borrhaus, a disciple of Melanchthon, whose Aristotelis Politicorum, siue De Republica libros octo was printed at Basel in 1545; Paulus Victorius (Pier Vettori), whose notes were reprinted together with Lambinus’ in the 1582 Basel edition of the Politics; Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda, who, besides translating the Politics into Latin, revived Aristotle’ s ideas about natural slavery and just war against barbarians in Democrates Alter; the German Ramist Johann Thomas Freigius (Freige), Quaestiones Politicae; Schmitt (p. 152 n. 45) points out the impossibility of identifying “Osyrus”; “Regius” is Loys le Roy, who translated the Politics into French in the mid-16th century.
Francis Willis President of St. John’s College, and currently Vice-Chancellor of the university.
Laurence Humphreys President of Magdalen College and Regius Provessor of Divinity.
Edward Craddock Student of Christ Church and Lady Margaret Reader of Divinity.
Edmund Lillie Master of Baliol College.
Martin Heton One of the Canons of Christ Church. A future Bishop of Ely.
Matthew Gwinne Like John Latewar, Gwinne was a Fellow of Case’s old college, St. John’s. A biographical sketch is provided here in connection with his tragedy Nero. Gwinne’s epigram (typically of his poetry) is in some parts difficult to the point of obscurity. I suppose the point of lines 7ff. is that Aristotle bests himself because he has engendered an equal (Case,) who is his superior insofar as he is illuminated by Christian morals (and — although I am far from sure that this interpretation is correct — line 9 seems to suggest that, in Gwinne’s opinion, if you subtract the religious element, Plato was Aristotle’s superior, although this is view violently opposed to Case’s own). The “twice four tablets” are the Roman Law of the Twelve Tables and the “twice five tables” are the Ten Commandments: Case has managed to combine the two.
12 Omne ferat punctum A deliberate echo of Horace, Ars Poetica 343, omne tulit punctum, qui miscuit utile dulci.
John Pryme Fellow of Winchester College (who took the D. D. in this same year).
Nicholas Morris This individual cannot be identified with certainty. I am not sure I have Englished the surname correctly, and the only Oxford individual of the period whose name could possibly be latinized as Moricius seems to be Nicholas Morryce, a sometime Fellow of Corpus Christi, who incepted for the M. A. in 1577.
volve, revolve globum For this phrase see the note on the dedicatory epistle.
John Lyly The playwright and Euphuist, who had received his B. A. at Oxford in 1575.
7 Ars Amatoria III.425.
William Gager William Gager of Christ Church was Oxford’s premier poet-playwright of the time. This hendecasyllabic poem = Gager’s poem XXXVa. The idea is that Case has now fathered three great books: Summa Veterum Interpretum in Universam Dialectical Aristotelis (1584), Speculum Moralium Quaestionum in Universam Ethicen Aristotelis (1585), and now the present one.
14 Cui mores hominum urbiumque noti An echo of Odyssey I.3.
18f. Cf. Horace, Odes IV.viii.28, dignum laude virum Musa vetat mori.
William Paddy Fellow of St. John’s College, subsequently President of the Royal College of Medicine and Royal Physician to James I.
trinos parturiendo libros See the note on William Gager’s poem above (which Paddy must have seen before writing this epigram).
John Underhill Rector of Lincoln College, former Vice-Chancellor of the university, and royal chaplain.
Prolegomena illud Aristotelis A sidenote refers to Politics, Book III.
Sapienter olim Antisthenes A sidenote refers to Antisthenes quoted by Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the Philosophers Book VI.
Ille sine fide, sine clementia A sidenote refers to Machiavelli, Il Principe chapters 16, 17, 18, and 15 respectively for these four things the republic can do without.
tanquam canem et anguem Cf. Horace, Epistulae I.xvii.30, cane peius et angui.
Fides, clementia A sidenote refers to Il Principe chapter 18.
Principi peierare A sidenote refers to Machiavelli’s commentary on Livy II.2.
Religio animos hominum deprimit A sidenote refers to Il Principe chapter 17 (also the source of the next quote).
a natura quae parit et alit civitatem The reader will no doubt discover a fundamental flaw in Case’s thinking. He expends a tremendous amount of energy trying to ascertain whether the commonwealth and various features within it are “natural,” “in accordance with nature,” “in accordance with nature’s law,” and so forth (and thus to approve or disapprove of the features in question). Yet at no point are we given an adequate definition of “nature,” or a rationale for the great importance placed on this concept. Given the his heavily Christianized reading of the Politics, Case’s “nature” may have something to do with God, but we are not told how, save for a single reference at II.vi.7 to ancilla Dei nempe natura (“namely nature, God’s handmaiden”). Therefore when (for example) Case goes to great lengths to show that slavery is acceptable in the commonwealth because it is in accordance with nature, and that usury is not, because it is unnatural, we are within our rights to ask why their relation to “nature” should supply the definitive test for the acceptability of these possible social institutions.
tuta est civitas quae dissidia et factiones A sidenote refers to Machiavelli’s commentary on Livy I.4.
ut ait Philosophus A sidenote refers to Politics III.iv.
ut definit Aristoteles A sidenote refers to ib. III.v.
Tunc tua res agitur Horace, Epistulae I.xviii.84 (with tunc for nam).
Male profecto egit An anonymous partial translation of Ovid’s Ars Amatoria was issued by Wynken De Wilde in 1515. An anonymous and undated translation De Secretis Mulierum et Virorum falsely ascribed to Albertus Magnus was printed at London by W. Copeland in the mid-16th century.
ista nova et periculosa paradoxa A sidenote indicates these three quotes come from Il Principe, chapters 180, 20, and 18 respectively.
is enim non ad malum sed ad bonum A sidenote refers to the Preface to Books I and II of Machiavelli’s commentary on Livy.
In bello silent leges A sidenote refers to Cicero, Pro Caecina (perhaps the reference is to section xliii).
necesse est cum Regulo A sidenote refers to Cicero, De Officiis Book I (i. e. to chapter xxxix).
prohibemur malum facere ut inde eveniat bonum A sidenote refers to Romans 3:8.
Aristoteles docet A sidenote refers to Politics III.iii.
I.i.1 Plato Aristotelis praeceptor A sidenote refers to Politics II.i and III.iii.
I.i.1 Rationem reddit Albertus Albertus Magnus in his commentary on the Politics.
I.i.2 Causae civitatis sunt Deus, homo et natura A sidenote refers to Aristotle, Politics II.i and III.iii.
I.i.2 quia latissime omnium in hac scientia diffunditur It will be observed that this remark excludes international law and international relations from the purview of political science, as does the following one, “because all things handled in this science are brought down to it exclusively.” This, some readers may think, is a defect inherited from Aristotle.
I.i.2 Quandoquidem videmus omnem civitatem A sidenote refers to Aristotle, Politics III.8 and Ethics I.2.
I.i.3 Insinuat in textu Socratem et Platonem A sidenote refers to Plato’s Politicus.
I.i.3 si quis paucis eisdemque servis praesit despoticus seu herus The reader may be surprised to find a sixteenth century Englishman assuming slave ownership is a fundamental social institution within the commonwealth (at this time, I believe, the Spaniards in Central and South America were the only Europeans who owned slaves). But that “slave” rather than “servant” is the proper translation of servus in this work is shown by the explicit discussion of slaves as a form of property at I.iii.2. This is an indication of how closely Case followed his model Aristotle.
I.i.5 Sunt ergo natura dominus et servus A sidenote refers to chapter 4 (surely a mistake for the discussion of slavery in chapter iii of the present Book).
I.i.5 Cum ergo natura in re qualibet tam aeternitati quam suae similitudini studeat A sidenote refers to Aristotle, De Anima II.4, Galen, De Usu Partum XIV, Cicero, De Officiis I, De Finibus V, and De Legibus I.
I.ii.5 ab Epimenide dicuntur The philosopher Epimenides of Crete, as quoted by Aristotle in the text.
I.i.6 Versori See the note on Ad Christianum Lectorem 29.
I.i.6 Ratio est, quia saepe familiae A sidenote refers to Aristotle, Politics III.xi.
I.i.6 Communitatem, ut non enim uni A sidenote refers to Aristotle, Ethics I.i.
I.i.7 Maior probatur, quia prima veritas A sidenote refers to Book XI of Aristotle’s Metaphysics.
I.i.9 Durus es, Demea Demeas is here used as the name of an average Roman man-on-the-street.
I.i.9 imitare Socratem Socrates philosophically put up with his shrewish wife Xanthippe.
I.i.9 Ratione propositi ac finis A sidenote refers to Aristotle’s Economics.
I.ii.2 Cui neque curia, nec lex est Somebody’s translation of Odyssey ix.112. Note that Case fails to enunciate his third proposed argument, the one from effect.
I.ii.3 Ubi sunt nunc dierum Thaletes A sidenote cites Diogenes Laertius’ Lives of the Philosophers.
I.ii.3 O utinam tamen apem in regno A sidenote refers to Vergil’s description of the life of bees in Book IV of the Georgics.
I.ii.4 animal est omnium animalium optimum A sidenote refers to Book II of Plato’s Laws, the final chapter of Book VI of Aristotle’s Ethics, and Cicero, De Natura Deorum III.
I.ii.5 civitatis quotidie (ut experentia docet) mutantur A sidenote refers to Aristotle, Ethis II.1 and Politics III.11.
I.ii.5 Nam status civitatis est forma civitatis A sidenote refers to Politics III.ii.
I.ii.5 RESPONSIO A sidenote acknowledges this argument is taken from Patricius, De Regibus VIII.ii.
I.ii.6 Heraclitus non ridet Heraclitus had the reputation of being “the weeping philosopher”
I.ii.6 Elias, Iohannes Baptista, Macedonius A sidenote gives the further examples of Marulus and Cassianus.
I.ii.7 ut in septimo libro docet philosophus A sidenote refers to Politics VII.iii.
I.ii.7 Invita Minerva For this usage, cf. the Oxford Latin Dictionary, Minerva def. 3b with the examples cited.
I.iii.2 servum et rem possessionem et instrumentum esse A sidenote refers to Plato’s Meno, in which a slave is an interlocutor.
I.iii.3 Altera ratio sic se habet A sidenote refers to Aristotle’s Ethics I.i.
I.iii.3 ab Apelle olim sic graphice delineatum fuisse Apelles was a famous Greek painter.
I.iii.4 Levis et inconsiderate homo A sidenote refers to Galen, Therapeutica Book XIII, Plutarch, De Placitis Philosophorum iv, and Cicero, De Natura Deorum Book III.
I.iii.5 Inter illas enim sunt Sabae A sidenote refers to III Kings 10 and Matthew 10.
I.iii.5 Cornelia A sidenote refers to Quintilian (i. e., to Institutes I.i.6).
I.iii.5 Artemesiae A sidenote refers to Aulus Gellus, Attic Nights X.
I.iii.5 Susannae A sidenote refers to Daniel 13.
I.iii.5 Tomeris A sidenote refers to Justin’s epitome of Pompeius Trogus, Book I.
I.iii.5 Hester A sidenote refers to Esther 6.
I.iii.5 Judith A sidenote refers to Judith 13.
I.iii.5 Insanis ergo furentius A hit against John Knox and his treatise The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women (1558), in which he claimed Mary Queen of Scots was unfit to rule because of her sex.
I.iii.9 servus ad usum non ad crucem datur Not a quote from Seneca.
I.iii.10 Antecedens probatur ex philosopho A sidenote refers to Politics I.viii.
Animus in corpus A side notes Cicero, De Finibus v and Plato’s Timaeus.
I.iii.11 Civitas accipitur vel A sidenote refers to Plato, Politics IV.viii - ix.
I.iv In reading this chapter, it may be useful for the reader to bear in mind that, although prisoners of war were not enslaved by Case’s contemporary English, they were often held for ransom, and therefore could be regarded being reduced to the status of saleable chattel. On the other hand, Spain and other countries did employ prisoners as slaves.
I.iv.1 carere non debeat triumpho A sidenote refers to Plato, Laws Books IV and V (after Pindar).
I.iv.3 Divina utraque stirpe A sidenote refers to Theodectes’ Helen. In the text Aristotle quotes two lines from this lost tragedy.
I.iv.3 Quare, quemadmodum dicimus A sidenote refer to Aristotle, Rhetoric Book II.
I.iv.4 fatendum est Hecubam concepisse flammam A rhetorical way of saying she gave birth to Paris.
I.iv.4 Optimus ille quidem Hesiod, Works and Days 293, 295.
I.iv.5 For Sepúlveda see the note on Ad Christianum Lectorem 29.
I.iv.5 quia opifices mercede conducti This objection seems less far-fetched in Latin than in English, for the same word servus is used to designate a slave and a servant.
I.iv.9 Sapienter Zeno…Degeneras, Pari Zeno the philosopher, Paris son of the Trojan king Priam.
I.v.i sine Cerere et Baccho Terence, Eunuchus 732.
I.v.4 Cuncta timent hominem Source unidentified.
I.v.4 Sic vos non vobis A sidenote incorrectly credits these lines to Vergil.
I.v.4 ad cuius voce A sidenote refers to Joshua 10.
I.v.4 qui ignem de coelo evocavit A sidenote refers to II Kings 1.
I.v.8 Agnocso Xerxis exercitum A sidenote refers to Justin’s epitome of Pompeius Trogus (Book I).
I.v.8 Scio Miloni plantam, Alexandro lethale non pepercisse venenum Milo of Croton is known as one of the greatest ancient Olympic champions of his time. Testing his strength in the woods, he came upon a tree trunk with wedges inserted into them. He inserted his hands and feet into these wedges and pulled as hard as he could. The tree collapsed on his hands and he was trapped, becoming the food of wild prey. Alexander the Great was rumored to have been poisoned.
I.v.9 Saepe etiam cursu Vergil, Georgics III.49f. A sidenote refers to the further discussion at VI.1.
I.v.10 Etsi libenter non audio nimiam Hispanorum et Portugalensium in Indos severitatem A sidenote refers to Osorius’ account of Portuguese navigations in the East Indies
I.vi.3 Animus hominis dives non arca appellari solet. The quotation is from Cicero, Paradoxa Stoicorum vi.44.
I.vi.3 O cives, cives Horace, Epistles I.i.53f.
I.vi.3 In mundo summus rex Source unidentified.
I.vi.3 Crescit amor nummi Juvenal xiv.139.
I.vi.3 Quo plus sunt potae Ovid, Fasti I.216.
I.vi.5 Natura beatis Source unidentified.
I.vi.6 etsi instar monstri parturientem pecuniam quaerat To understand this seemingly remarkable statement, it is helpful to know that the Greek word for “interest” is tokos, which also means “offspring.” It is well known (think of Shylock!) that usury was regarded as sinful and unnatural. But why? One reason is that lent money went on gathering interest during the Sabbath. Another is that it seemed profoundly unnatural that money could, so to speak, give birth to itself.
I.vi.9 Maior est Aristotelis. A sidenote refers to Aristotle’s De Sensu.
I.vii.2 aliae quarum dominium usu non transferatur At this point, Case seems to be thinking of renting rather than sale.
I.vii.2 si quid ultra sortem pro usu sumas It is not wholly clear what the phrases extra sortem and ultra sortem, used repeatedly in this chapter, really mean. Did Case think a “just price” theory applied to interest on loans as well as to the price of goods and services, so that sortem indicates a fair return of interest on a loan? Or did he believe that loans should earn no interest at all, so that extra/ultra sortem indicates any sum whatsoever repaid the lender by the borrower in excess of the principal amount of the loan (the sortem )? The example of the £100 annuity cited in paragraph 7 below would seem to indicate he meant the latter. But here, when he goes on to say “it is usury: ownership and possession of the thing being reserved, it is permitted to demand something in exchange for its use” he may be acknowledging that lent money is, so to speak, rented money, and it reasonable for the lender to charge a fair rent for its use (but then again, at Speculum Quaestionum Moralium IV.i.8 he specificially denies that money is something that is rented).
I.vii.2 quod tamen expresse vetat usuram A sidenote refers to Deuteronomy 23:19.
I.vii.3 tam facilis descensus Averni An echo of Aeneid VI.126.
I.vii.4 quam vulgo metallicam appellant So called from Lat. metallum (= “mine”) because it is a mixture of the arts of mining and moneymaking.
I.vii.4 Tempora mutantur, This famous line is from Matthew Bourbon’s epigram on Lothar I.
I.vii.6 velo ipsius templi scisso A sidenote refers to Matthew 27:51.
I.vii.7 mala mens malus animus Terence, Andria164.
I.viii.1 quod in illo sit vicissistudo imperandi Smith may be a magistrate now, and Jones a private citizen; come the next election, the situation may be reversed.
I.viii.1ne quidem Xantippe See the note on I.i.9.
I.viii.3 Male profecto ille Ille is probably John Knox (see the note on I.iii.5).
I.vii.4 Nunquam Stygias Ps. - Seneca, Hercules Oetaeus 1983f.
I.viii.8 in Cimmeriis tenebris The Cimmerians lived in the extreme north, and the darkness of their winters became proverbial for obscurity in general.
II.i.2 qui ut omnino unam facias civitatem A sidenote refers to Book V of Plato’s Laws.
II.i.2 tuum de uxorum communitate dogma A sidenote refers to Plato’s Republic, Book V.
II.i.2 nulla respublica si nulla vicissitudo imperii A side note refers to Cicero, De Legibus Book III and Polybius I.ii.
II.i.2 teste philosopho A sidenote refers to Aristotle’s Economics.
II.i.4 Omnia fert aetas Vergil, Eclogue ix.51.
II.i.4 quam Sicilia a Verre Verres was the corrupt governor of Sicily prosecuted by Cicero.
II.i.4 qui diffidentes tempori They “mistrust time” because they are conscious they have a limited amout of time to do their dirty work.
II.i.5 Unio est duplex A sidenote refers to Plato, Republic I, II, Plato, Laws VI, and Aristotle, Ethics V.3 - 5.
II.i.6 OPPOSITIO A sidenote refers to Plato, Laws III and VI.
II.i.6 amicus est alter ego A sidenote refers to Plato, Symposium.
II.i.6 Communitas enim non charitatem A sidenote refers to Aristotle, Politics II.ii - iii.
II.i.6 beatam esse civitatem A sidenote refers to ib. i.
II.i.6 Bonum unius hominis et civitatis est idem A sidenote refers to ib. ii ad fin.
II.i.6 OPPOSITIO A sidenote refers to ib. V.iv and Plato, Republic VI.
II.I.7 succedant, serventque vices Vergil, Aeneid IX.222 (succedunt servantque vices ).
II.i.8 Ah proh dolor A sidentore refers to Cicero, Epistolae ad Atticum VII.xiv and Machiavelli, Il Principe 20.
II.ii.1 trahit sua quemque voluptas Vergil, Eclogue ii.65.
II.ii.2 Dicebat enim Plato A sidenote refers to Plato, Republic Book V and the introduction to the Timaeus.
II.ii.2 quippe quod publicum est A sidenote refers to the further discussion of this subject in chapter iii.
II.ii.3 Libro 5 De Republica A sidenote also refers to the Timaeus.
II.ii.3 ut in pelicano constat Queen Elizabeth adopted the pelican as an image for this reason, to sybolize her self-sacrifice on behalf of the English people (hence Sir Francis Drake’s famous circumnavigation ship was originally called the Pelican).
II.ii.4 At et apud Garamantas A sidenote refers to Pomponius Mela, who mentions the Garamantes at De Chorographia I.xxiii and I.xlv.
II.ii.4 hos vultus meus Seneca, Troades 464ff.
II.ii.4 taceo Thibios A sidenote refers to Pliny, Natural History VII.xvii.3.
II.ii.4 Redit ad authores genus Seneca, Phaedra 907 and Troades 536.
II.ii.4 Persina Aethiops albam peperit Charicliam A sidenote indicates Case is referring to characters in Heliodorus’ romance, the Aethiopica.
II.ii.4 Turpissima diceres A sidenote quotes Ovid, Metamorphoses X.333, pietas geminato screscit amore (“piety grows with redoubled love.”)
II.ii.4 Sapienter Seneca The allusion would appear to be to De Clementia I.i.1, in hanc inmensam multitudinem discordem, seditiosam, inpotentem, in perniciem alienam suamque pariter exultaturam, si hoc iugum fregerit.
II.ii.5 Is enim sancita hac lege A sidenote refers to Plato’s Symposium and Laws, Book V.
II.ii.5 Statuit enim Plato A sidenote refers to the end of Plato, Republic, Book III.
II.ii.8 Raro meretrices cuilibet prostitutae A sidenote refers to Aristotle, Problems.
II.ii.9 ut narrat Sabellicus Marcantonio Coccio Sabellicus in the Enneades.
II.ii.8 OPPOSITIO A sidenote refers to Plato, Laws, Book III.
II.ii.11 nuptialis tedae Torches were employed in Roman marriage ceremonies.
II.ii.11 ut ait Seneca This is not a quotation, but probably a generalized description of the situation of the children in the Medea.
II.iii.1 Voluerunt Socrates et Plato A sidenote refers to Plato, Republic III and VII, Laws V, and Timaeus.
II.iii.1 ut Socrates et Plato voluerunt A sidenote refers to Plato, Laws IX.
II.iii.1 Prima est a necessario A sidenote refers to what has been said on this score in the preceding chapter.
II.iii.1 iuxta illud Isocrates Perhaps a paraphrase of the statement at Oratio XVIII.lx.4.
II.iii.2 Altera ratio a iucundo petitur A sidenote repors to Plato, Laws V and Aristotle, Ethics IX.viii.
II.iii.2 Quinta ab exemplo Laecedaemonum In a sidenote Case gives the further example of Cimon’s land reform at Athens.
II.iii.3 Sic olim Elotae A sidenote refers to Plutarch’s Life of Demetrius.
II.iii.3 ineptam similitudinem Platonis A sidenote refers to Plato, Republic, Book V.
II.iii.3 Quae haec est comparatio (inquit) A sidenote refers to Politics II.vii, Economics 2, and Xenophon, Oeconomica 12.
II.iii.3 fabulosa comparatio illa A sidenote refers to Plato, Republic, Book III.
II.iii.4 Antecedens probatur authoritate Senecae Seneca, Epistulae Morales at Lucullum xl.38.1 (I cannot identify the passage in Isidore of Seville).
II.iii.4 OPPOSITIO A sidenote refers to Plato, Laws, Book IX.
II.iii.5 ut habetur 1. Politicorum A sidenote refers to the end of Politics I.v.
II.iii.6 non timor sed furor A sidenote refers to Seneca, Phaedra 96f.:
pergit furoris socius, haud illum timor
II.iii.6 Eliotae Lacedaemonas A sidenote refers to Politics II.vii.
II.iii.6 niger ille Vulcanus Jack Cade?
II.iii.6 Asperius misero nihil est See the relevant note on II.vii.2.
II.iii.6 At quae fides A sidenote refers to Plautus’ Captivi, but I do not understand why.
II.iii.6 istos si armes teipsum perdis A sidenote, mysteriously, refers to Juvenal (but this is not a quote from that poet).
II.iii.6 Melius est Scythas ac barbaros A sidenote refers to Politics I.ii and Cicero, De Natura Deorum, Book III.
II.iii.7 Plato et Socrates A sidenote refers to Plato, Laws, Book VII and Critias.
II.iv.1 Plato praeter opus A sidenote refers to Plato, Republic, Book II and Laws, Book V.
II.iv.2 In prima sua republica A sidenote refers to Plato, Republic, Book V.
II.iv.2 Vix enim Babylon A sidenote refers to Politics III.ii, Diodorus Siculus III.iv, and Pliny, Natural History VI.xxvi.
II.iv.3 Sed quid Platoni in mentem venit A sidenote refers to Plato, Laws, Book III.
II.iv.4 Postremum quod tractatur A sidenote refers to Politics II.vii, and Plato, Laws, Books III and IV.
II.iv.4 Ab exemplo nimirum Lacedaemoniorum A sidenote refers to Plutarch’s Life of Lycrugus and Xenophon’s Constitution of Sparta x.
II.iv.4 ex oligarchia in senatoribus A sidenote refers to Politics IV.ix.
II.iv.4 alumnos Musarum Undergraduates.
II.iv.8 De Amazonum A sidenote refers to Justin, book II.
II.v.1 Fortis et ignavus Iliad IX.319 (quoted by Aristotle in the text).
II.v.3 Plato, ut ait Aristoteles A sidenote refers to Plato, Laws, Book V and cites a similar Roman agrarian law described by Livy, Books II and VI.
II.v.3 Uterque patrimonia resque avitas Throughout this chapter, it should be borne in mind that to Greeks a “patrimony” or inheritance was an ancestral landholding. Therefore what is being discussed is the legality of converting landed property into liquid cash. It can be seen from para. 4 that in Case’s mind this was associated with such further “evils” as a shift of population from country to city.
II.v.3 aut Iros Irus is the beggar in the Odyssey.
II.v.3 complexio in aequalitate primarum qualitatum I. e., the temperament of the four humors.
II.v.4 Non licet certe A sidenote refers to Politics II.vii.
II.v.4 quia minor inde dilectio civitatis nascitur Evidently the idea is that military levies are mostly conducted in the countryside, so if you reduce the rural population you reduce the size of your army.
II.v.4 ex consensu domini I am not sure of the identity of the dominus here: evidently Case is assuming (anachronistically?) that for a landholder to sell off such property he requires the consent of his feudal lord.
II.v.4 nostrorum temporum sortilegi In Classical Latin a sortilegus was a soothsayer who foretold the future by reading lots. Since “soothsayer” does not seem the mot just here, I assume case means a man who gambles his money in lotteries.
II.v.4 Tusculana, Pompeiana Two Roman towns (Tusculum, Pompeii) obliterated by time together with their families, just as English towns are being depopulated by the transfer of wealth and population from countryside to city (cf. the complaint at the beginning of this paragraph).
II.v.4 Concludo igitur A sidenote cites more modern legislation against sale of patrimonies (Poland 1375, Hungary 1221, England 1298, Spain 1560, France 1566).
II.v.4 manus a tabulis Manus a tabula was the Roman equivalent of faite votres jeux.
II.v.5 nullum actum furentis Herculis A reference, of course, to the Senecan tragedy.
II.v.5 illud tamen Syri A sidenote refers to Justin’s epitome of Pompeius Trogus, Book I
II.v.8 Primam tabulam, quae in Deum fiunt I. e., the first five of the Ten Commandments.
II.v.9 qui Apellem pictorem Apelles, Polycleitus and Zeuxis (mentioned further down in this paragraph) were the three premiere artists of the age of Aristotle and Alexander.
II.v.9 Diophantus The author of this piece of Athenian legislation is mentioned by Aristotle in the text.
II.v.9 Imo Deus Beseleclem et Aoliam A sidenote refers to Exodus 35.
II.vi.2 nam in compromisso seu arbitrio A sidenote refers to Cicero, Pro Roscio Comoedo.
II.vi.2 ita periculosum est I. e., there is a risk that the introduction of some invention (say, a new technology) might lead to undesireable social or political change.
II.vi.3 ubi Constantinus A sidenote refers to Eusebius’ Ecclesiatical History.
II.vi.3 ut ait Pythagoras I cannot identify Case’s authority for attributing this statement to Pythagoras.
II.vi.3 ubi praecipit ac praescribit Deus A sidenote refers to Numbers 35.
II.vi.5 Sic enim dominus A sidenote refers to Exodus 18:21 - 22 (where the speaker is Jethro, not God).
II.vi.5 Huc etiam illud spectat A sidenote refers to Acts 25.
II.vi.6 Hanc legem Hippodami A sidenote refers to Plutarch’s Life of Solon and points out that the tyrant Peisitratus had a similar law.
II.vi.7 A simili hoc ipsum probatur A sidenote refers to Isocrates’ Euagoras.
II.vi.7 Stultum enim esset A sidenote refers to Thucydides, Book I and Plato, Laws, Book III.
II.vi.12 RESPONSIO A sidenote refers to Isocrates’ Euagoras and Panegyricus.
II.vii.2 Minor constat ab exemplis Elotarum In a sidenote, Case adds a third example, the Cretan perioikoi.
II.vii.2 quam rude (ut aiunt) donari Roman gladiators practised with wooden swords.
II.vii.2 Ab exemplo nempe Scytharum A sidenote refers to Justin’s epitome of Pompeius Trogus, Book II.
II.vii.2 Asperius misero A sidenote, mysteriously, refers to Juvenal (but this is not a quote from that poet).
II.vii.3 Secunda conclusio istius capitis A sidenote cites Plutarch, Life of Agis, Life of Cleomenes, and Plato, Republic, Book V.
II.vii.3 Nam, ut refert Trogus Pompeius A sidenote refers to Justin’s epitome of Pompeius Trogus, Book III, and to the allusion to this expedition at Euripides, Andromache 733ff.
II.vii.3 Propositionem experientia docet A sidenote refers to Homer, Ovid, and Lucretius (in his proem). Case mentions Aristotle’s reference in this chapter to Celtic homosexuality and also cites Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae, Book XIII.
II.vii.3 at Laides in altis turribus Corinthi locatae Lais was a famous Corinthian courtesan. She was supposed to have been Demosthenes’ mistress.
II.vii.3 Nam etsi legislator In a sidenote Case notes that the legislator in question was Epitades, not Lycurgus, citing Plutarch’s Life of Agis.
II.vii.4 cur Fabritio The consul Gaius Luscinus Fabricius (third century B. C.) is a Roman worthy to be compared to Aristeides the Just. He died in poverty because he refused to accept bribes.
II.vii.5 ratio muneris I. e., that at the end of his term of office a magistrate should submit a financial accounting of his use of public monies.
II.vii.6 quod Clodii ad tribunal Clodius was an upper-class rakehell of Cicero’s time who managed to become a Tribune of the People; Catiline failed to gain the consulship and then tried to incite Rome’s rabble to revolution. His name therefore became a byword for the violent anarchist. Sardanapalus was an Assyrian king proverbial for his luxurious living.
II.vii.6 Ad pistrinum diceres Roman slaves were degraded and punished by being sent to the mill.
II.vii.6 Qui color albus erat A sidenote refers to Ovid, Metamorphoses II.541.
II.vii.6 ut ait Machiavellus A sidenote refers to Il Principe 18.
II.vii.6 Regnum, quia reges Lacedaemoniorum A sidenote refers to Politics III.xi.
II.vii.6 Praefecturam navium arguit A sidenote refers to Plato, Laws, Book I, Politics VII.2, 3 and 24, and Polybius VI.
II.vii.6 Inopiam denique aerarii A sidenote refers to Archidamus’ remarks about Athenian naval power in his speech in Thucydides, Book I.
II.vii.11 Imo Lacedaemonios, Cretenses, Carthaginenses A sidenote refers to the Spartan Phiditia, the Cretan Andria, and the Carthaginian Sodalitia.
II.viii.1 Cadmaeum certamen Like the fight of Cadmus against the earth-born men sprung from the dragon’s teeth, i. e., a huge fight.
II.viii.1 tot mendaces Cretenses According to an ancient proverb, “all Cretans are liars.”
II.viii.1 in hac olim Minos A sidenote cites Pliny, Natural History IV.xii, Thucydides, Book I, Vergil, Georgics, Book II, Plato, Minos, Plutarch, Life of Lycurgus, and Strabo, Geography, Book X.
II.viii.3 “Lesbian rule” is a proverbial expression for acting in one’s own advantage (Erasmus, Adagia I.5.93).
II.viii.5 Lycurgus rex ille sapiens A sidenote refers to Plato’s Life of Lycurgus and Justin’s epitome of Pompeius Trogus, Book III.
II.viii.6 Clodiusne an Caesar regnat? See the note on II.vii.6.
II.ix.1 nunc vero ipsam Carthaginem A sidenote refers the reader to the information about Carthage given by the historian Polybius.
II.ix.2 Principiis obsta Ovid, Remedia Amoris 91f.
II.ix.2 Milo et Clodius For Clodius see the note on II.vii.6. Milo was his great opponent, and during the late Roman Republic their street gangs clashed. Caesar and Pompey of course opposed each other in the Civil War.
II.ix.3 Res est solliciti Case’s twist on Ovid, Heroides i.12, res est solliciti plena timoris amor.
II.ix.3 Haec scripsi non quod non existimem Case was politic enough to add this disclaimer because many of the great lords of his time held multiple offices. One wonders, however, whether he was conscious that his arguments against the holding of multiple offices could readily be converted into an attack on so-called compounding within the Church of England, whereby members of the clergy could reap the profits of multiple benefices.
II.ix.3 ut Aquilis et potentioribus viris Aquila was a Roman cognomen, probably only used here for the sake of the following word-play.
II.ix.6 Verres rapacissime See the note on II.i.4.
II.ix.6 O cives, cives Horace, Epistolae I.i.53f.
II.ix.6 Si nihil attuleris Ovid, Ars Amatoria II.280 (with stabis for ibis ).
II.ix.5 Quod Horatius Cocles Horatius stood at the bridge; Scipio Africanus defeated Carthage; Marcus Curtius sacrificed himself to save Rome (Livy VII.v).
II.ix.6 omnia vaenalia Romae A sidenote refers to Baptista Mantuanus (Giovanni Battista Spagnoli). Case was thinking of Eclogue v.123 (p.44 Piepho), heu Romae nun sola pecunia regnat.
II.ix.7 Quicquid vim iuris haereditarii habet Case would appear to be thinking of a situation such as this. The king rewards a subject by presenting him with a manor. The office of Justice of the Peace goes with the manor. Subsequently, a descendant of the original recipient of the manor sells it, and the office of Justice of Peace therefore devolves on the purchaser.
II.x.1 Hic Solonem A sidenote refers to Plutarch’s Life of Solon.
II.x.1 sed id effecisse Ephialtem at Periclem A sidenote refers to Plutarch’s Life of Pericles and Life of Cimon.
II.x.1 His positis turbam legislatorum introducit A sidenote refers to Caelius Rhodoginus, Lectiones Antiquae X.x, and (for Zaleucus) to Cicero, Epistulae ad Atticum VI.i.
II.x.1 Paulo post Zaleuci filius A sidenote refers to Valerius Maximus VI.v.
II.x.1 Charondas For Charondas, a sidenote refers to Plato, Republic, Book I, and, for Charondas and Onomacritus, Cicero, De Legibus, Book II and Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca, Book XII. Reference is also made to the preambles to the law codes of Zaleucus and Charondas preserved by Stobaeus, ser. xlii. For Demades we are referred to Plutarch’s Life of Solon, and for Pittacus to Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the Philosophers.
II.x.2 Charondas (de quo modo diximus) A sidenote refers to discussions of this law by Aristotle at Ethics, Book III and Rhetoric, Book II.
II.x.4 Seneca, Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium lxxxiii.18.7.
II.x.4 Longius facesse hinc Mark Antony’s excessive drinking was graphically described by Cicero in the Philippics.
II.x.4 vosque Flacce et Piso
II.x.10 Nam Cincinnatus For Fabricius see the note on II.vii.4. The general Curius Dentatus refused to take a bribe from the Samnites, who discovered him happily living on turnips.