COMMENTARY NOTES

Dedicatory epistle Sparrowe was mistaken: the painter was Timanthes (Pliny, Natural History XXXV.lxxiii).
I.1 The present scene transpires before Asphalia runs away from home, so that the setting is the house of her father Lucentius.
3 An echo of the couplet of one of the mottos written by Matthew Borbonius as one of his mottoes for various emperors, this one being for Lothaire I:

Omnia mutantur, nos et mutamur in illis:
Illa vices quasdam res habet, illa vices.

7 Cf. mane paulisper at Plautus, Ampitruo 696, Asinaria 880, and Mercator 915.
15 For tenere linguam cf. Plautus, Stichus 337. But the joke based on this idiom is Sparrowe’s own.
32 For fides claudicat cf. Seneca, Thyestes 335.
40 For in quantum cf. Ovid. Metamorphoses XV.662 and Juvenal xiv.318.
I.2 Since Pisanius does not have a visible house in the play, the present interview must be transacted on an anonymous “street.”
45 Palinurus was Aeneas’ pilot, washed overboard and lost at sea. The Sailor is saying that, although Antonius did not receive the regular burial rites of a landsman, he received those of a sailor such as himself and his mates.
58 In contrary to fact constructions, a pluperfect indicative may substitute for a pluperfect subjunctive in the apodosis (Allen and Greenough, para. 517b.), but not in the protasis. I am nevertheless unwilling to alter compresserat, given the sketchy understanding of the rules of Latin grammar available in Sparrowe’s time.
55 Cf., possibly, Terence, Andria 648, nisi me lactasses amantem et falsa spe produceres?
57 For the idiom revoco animum cf. Ovid, Tristia II.i.557.
60 Cf. Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares V.xvi.2, neve tam graviter eos casus feramus quos nullo consilio vitare possimus.
63 Cf. Catullus lxviii (B).56, cessarent tristique imbre madere genae.
70f. The key words here may be proximis hisce oris: when Antonius fell in the water the sailors imagined he died, but, since the ship was close to the land, he managed to swim ashore. The alternative is to think that the entire episode was a hoax and that Antonius has suborned the sailors to tell Pisanius a false tale. It is a mark of Sparrowe’s weakness as a storyteller that we are left to guess what the true facts may be.
77 Cf. comitem sociumque doloris at Statius, Silvae II.i.28.
I.3 Gelaxius is visiting Dollabella at Lucentius’ house.
81 I do not recognize the allusion; nor do I understand why it elicits Dollabella’s following mention of Cicero.
83 The ms. reading asinego must be a corruption, unless it is a work of Sparrowe’s own invention (asinus + ego = “self-important donkey”). But nowhere else in the play does Sparrowe coin comic neologisms.
96 Cf. Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto IV.x.5, Gutta cavat lapidem. Cf. also the note on 63.
103 This adage has its origin in Publilius Syrius, Sententiae I 6, Inopi beneficium bis dat, qui dat celeriter.
108 Cf. Aeneid V.709, nate dea, quo fata trahunt retrahuntque sequamur.
I.4 The setting is a
wilderness.
112 An allusion to the familiar myth of Philomela, transformed into a nightingale after murdering her evil husband Tereus.
113f. Although one can imagine a fouled pinecone dripping off the pitch and stinking when burnt on a slow fire, the simile is still rather odd to describe Antonius’ mental state, and one cannot help wondering if foeda pinea is what Sparrowe actually wrote, especially as he is not normally addicted to baroque imagery.
124 It seems as if Sparrowe misunderstood that to the Romans Diana, Luna, and Hecate were three aspects of a single goddess: how could Diana both be queen of the Underworld and banish herself?
128 For cura superis cf. Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto II.ii.108 and Fasti II.64.
131 A deliberate echo of Vergil, Eclogue x.69, omnia vincit Amor.
133 Cf. Seneca, Phaedra 239 (Phaedra asking the Nurse about her prospect of seducing Hippolytus), Precibus haud vinci potest?
141 This may be the most substantial reason we are given why Antonius has retired to the wilderness. The normally feeble pretense of the play’s nominally Roman setting is momentarily taken seriously, and we are to believe that Antonius is still subject to the potestas of Pisanius, the paterfamilias of his family. Presumably, therefore, he is not free to marry Lucinda. But why not? Has Pisanius forbidden the marriage, or enjoined some arranged marriage against his will? Again, because Renaissance writers were unclear about the rules of Latin grammar, there is no point in wondering why (or whether) Sparrowe wrote sim rather than sum.
142 Surely the reference to the alleged romance of Sappho and Phaon comes from Ovid, Heroides xv, but , if he meant it literally, Sparrowe’s idea that Sappho was a queen is odd. Or did he mean this figuratively, as “queen of poetesses” or the like?
148 Cf. a mortis limine at Catullus lxviii (A).4. Cf. also Terence, Phormio 72f., O Geta, provinciam / cepisti duram.
150 A variant of the idea expressed at 60; see the commentary note on that line.
I.5 From 837 we learn that Gryphus is Lucentius’ neighbor, and his house is the second stage biuilding visible to the audience. Although we are not explicitly told so, we may assume that his nephew Morosus is a member of his household.
170 Morosus, a fop and always forgetful, has no idea why he is dressed in his finery.
198 Cf. Plautus, Asinaria 403, quassanti capite incedit.
200 For the cock atop his dunghill cf. Fabulae Aesopiae III.xii.1 and Seneca, Apocolocyntosis viii.3.4.
203f. The joke is no doubt suggested by Plautus, Pseudolus 88f., where the despondent Calidorus tries to borrow the money to purchase a rope and hang himself.
208 Although we are never told where Confessor is set, the city where the action is set is obviously on the coast (cf. the note on 70f.).
211 For the idiom cerebrum excutio cf. Plautus, Aulularia 151 and Captivi 601.
213 In Sparrowe’s vocabulary a ventilabrum is not an agricultural implement, but a regular fan carried by the foppish Morosus. The next line may be his humorous admission that the word is being used in a non-Classical sense.
215 For the idiom certo certius cf. Plautus, Captivi 644.
223 The allusion is of course to the Delphic maxim KNOW THYSELF.
I.6 The setting is again Antonius’ wilderness.
237 A standard wish for the dead, found both in literature and on actual funerary inscriptions. Cf., for example, Martial V.xxxiv.9, Mollia non rigidus caespes tegat ossa.
239 Saltem condimenta ma
y be a deliberate bilingual pun.
241 Cf. Martial’s humorous joke based on his idiom (I.lxxix.4)‚ Attale, ne quod agas desit, agas animam.
251 Cf. Vergil, Eclogue iii.36, insanire libet quoniam tibi.
252 The allusion is to Publilius Syrus, Sententiae A 22, Amare et sapere
vix deo conceditur.
258 Antonius seems to be thinking (very extravagantly) of Aristotle’s Primum Mobile. For this erotic use of lentis ignibus cf. Horace, Odes I.xiii.8 and Ovid, Ars Amatoria III.573.
II.1 The setting is again Lucentius’ house (Asphalia is now preparing to run away). Antonius’ tomb (or more precisely his cenotaph) is erected nearby. It is interesting that a tomb is a visible stage feature in other academic plays, such as Abraham Fraunce’s 1583 Cambridge comedy Victoria and Thomas Snelling’s Oxford tragedy Thibaldus sive Vindictae Ingenium (printed 1640).
265 An echo of an adage found in Sallust’s Ad Caesar de Re Publica I.i.2, attributed to a certain poet named Appius, Appius ait, fabrum esse suae quemque fortunae
281 Perhaps there is a pun here on the name of another ancient physician, Celsus.
286 Luke 4:23.
302 Emungo is a comic term for “get the better of, cheat” (Plautus, Mostellaria 1109, Phormio 682, etc.).
II.2 As was the custom in academic drama of the time, the five Acts are subdivided into numbered scenes. Each of these, prefaced by a list of speaking parts in it, is precipitated either by the entrance of new characters or when the stage is momentarily cleared. As such, these scene-divisions often serve as a rather imperfect means of indicating entrances and exits, and no discontinuity of time or place is necessarily implied. Such is the case here: the two women go into hiding as the other characters .
353 Solem meum perdidi seems to hint at an understood English pun of “sun” and “son.”
354 “The Greek Kalends” was an expression used by the emperor Augustus to mean “never” (Suetonius, Augustus lxxxvii.i.4).
359 In Classical Latin there is no such verb as noverco (“behave like a stepmother”), and, if we were to assume that Sparrowe imagined such a verb existed, it is hard to imagine that any of the unpleasant and dangerous qualities traditionally ascribed to literary stepmothers could be attributed to the joys of this world. It would therefore be tempting to regard this word as a corruption, were it not for the fact that novercantia also stands in the quotation of this speech at 803.
365 Ohime is an exclamation derived from the Italian ahime.
366 Bathetically addressed to the ostrich plume he wears in his hat, his no doubt ostentatious walking-stick, and the toys with which he foolishly fritters away his time.
II.3 The two women reemerge from hiding.
386 For fiet mature cf. Terence, Eunuchus 208.
II.4 We later learn that Antonius has secretly spied on his own funeral (805ff.), so it would seem that after the two women depart Antonius comes out of hiding and Calliodorus joins him.
405 For o dea certe! cf. Aeneid I.328.
425 For the idiom voti compos cf. Horace, Ars Poetica 76, Tibullus I.x.23, Ovid, Ars Amatoria I.486, and Seneca, Phaedra 710.
434f. The reference is to Plautus, Captivi 22, enim vero di nos quasi pilas homines habent.
II.5 The setting is Gryphus’ house.
470 The ms. has Similitudo ultra Lycosthenem, a very unlikely reading. Lycosthene was a city in Lydia mentioned by Aelius and various ancient grammarians and ethonographic writers, and according to Nicolaus of Damascus (frag. 23) the adjectival form of this place-name was Lycostheneus. So, just conceivably, the received text means “a similitude that surpasses the baroque extravagance of orientalism.” But this would be a remarkable (and uncharacteristic) excursion into obscurantism, and who in the audience could reasonably be expected to comprehend the reference? More reasonably, therefore, we may suppose Sparrowe wrote Similitudo ultra Demonsthenem, “A figure of speech that outdoes Demosthenes.”
472 Suggested by Horace, Ars Poetica 139, parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus.
480 For the idiom necto moras cf. Ps. - Seneca, Hercules Oetaeus 10, Statius, Thebais III.495, IV.677, and Martial, Spectacula xxix.2.
489 Morosus again alludes to the ostrich-feather in his hat.
494 Cf. nisi me lactasses amantem at Terence, Andria 648.
500 For Mentis oculis cf. Ovid, Fasti I.305.
503 Morosus’ angry outburst against Bubulo seems entirely unjustified. A line must therefore have dropped out of the text in which Bubulo uttered one of his subversive observations. Morosus may be alluding to some contemporary self-help work on household management, or to the original such book, Xenophon’s Oeconomicus.
515 Cf. Plautus, Aulularia 173, verba ne facias, soror.
516 Cf. Plautus, Persa 843, meo in loco curabo sedulo (cf. also Terence, Adelphoe 962).
II.6 The setting is Lucentius’ house.
517 For series malorum cf. Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto I.iv.19, II.vii.45, Metamorphoses IV.564, Lucan I.671, and Statius, Thebais II.267.
518 Sparrowe’s second variant of the idea expressed at 60; see the commentary note on that line.
545 Cf. Plautus, Menaechmi 374, quae hominem ignotum compellet me tam familiariter.
556 A joke based on Erasmus, Adagia I.
iv.50, Aethiopem lavas: Aethiopem dealbas.
II.7 Morosus and Bubulus come out of Gryphus’ house and cross over to Lucentius’ house.
565 Cf. Plautus, Rudens 1293, suo mihi hic sermone arrexit aures, and Terence, Andria 933, arrige auris, Pamphile!
568 Cf. Plautus, Poenulus 1035, linguam compescas face. For the comic idiom subolet mihi cf. Plautus, Casina 266, 277, 554, Pseudolus 421, 892, Trinummus 615, 598, Terence, Heauton Timorumenos 899, and Phormio 474.
569 For similar greetings cf. Plautus, Persa 101, opportune advenisti mihi, and Heauton Trimoroumenos 179, pater, opportune advenis.
597 Bubulo applies a principle of English Common Law to the present situation, and Morosus commends himself for his cleverness.
634 In keeping with contemporary medical theory, the hermit exclaims that Morosus must have an odd mixture of humors to be able to feel hot and cold at once.
649 See the note on 858.
651 For circum praecordia cf. Vergil, Georgics II.484, Ovid, Tristia I.viii.41, and Persius i.117.
653 Cf. Aeneid IV.177 = X.767, ingrediturque solo et caput inter nubila condit.
III.1 The setting is the street before Lucentius’ house, into which Calliodorus is about to insinuate himself disguised as Calliparea.
670 The weaving woman who was turned into a spider in mythology.
III.2 Evidently Antonius has set up some bogus hermitage in his familiar wilderness, to which Clarinda will come.
692 “Go to the crows” is an Aristophanic phrase for “go to perdition” (but it is never used by Plautus or Terence).
694 Cf. in amplexus ruit at Seneca, Phaedra 705.
702 This striking comic simile seems to be Sparrowe’s own, and is nearly as inventive as P. G. Wodehouse’s description of Bertie Wooster trembling like a blancmange in a high wind.
705 Cf. Plautus, Mostellaria 572, Quin tu istas mittis tricas?
707 Cf. paulisper mane at Plautus, Amphitruo 696, Asinaria 880, and Mercator 915.
711 For Anteros cf. Cicero, de Natura Deorum III.lx.3. Cf. G. de Tervarent, “Eros and Anteros or Reciprocal Love in Ancient and Renaissance Art,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Insitutes 28 (1965) 205 - 8.
716 Evidently the hermit was to sit in some chair as he heard confessions.
720 Perhaps suggested by Plautus, Miles Gloriosus 614, Quodne vobis placeat, displiceat mihi?
723 For numen praesens cf. Ovid, Heroides xxi.150, Ibis 283, and Statius, Thebais IX.549.
724 Cf. Terence, Heauton Timorumenos 1049, obsecro mi ignoscas.
729 For medullas…intimas cf. Seneca, Thyestes 97.
730 For the idiom foveo sinu cf. Tibullus I.viii.30, Ovid, Heroides xix.62, Ps. - Ovid, Epicedion Drusi 96, Seneca, Troades 1072, and Juvenal vi.606.
731 For narra ordine cf. Terence, Adelphoe 513 and Heau
ton Timoroumenos 706.
732 Cf. Aeneid II.3, Infandum, regina, iubes renovare dolorem.
734 For the idiom lenio dolorem cf. Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto I.i.34 and Metamorphoses XIII.317.
735 See the note on 57.
740 Cf. pernovi probe at Plautus, Truculentus 152.
751 For this kind of description cf. Ovid, Ars Amatoria I.532, Indigno teneras imbre rigante genas.
758 For finem impono cf. Aeneid II.619, IV.639, and V. 463.
780 Cf. Propertius II.xxii(a).9, sive vagi crines puris in frontibus errant.
782 An me ludit amabilis insania = Horace, Odes III.4, 5f.
786 See the note on 694. Cf. also Terence, Andria 342, toto me oppido exanimatum quaerere.
801 See the note on 354.
803 See the note on 359.
III.4 Evidently Gryphus and Fidelio get into a fight outside Gryphus’ house. Then Lucentius comes out of his house to see what the trouble is.
817 Oedipus solved riddles. Cf. Terence, Andria 194, Davo’ sum, non Oedipus (and also Plautus, Poenulus 443).
827 Here tarditatem, no doubt, means slowness to anger.
832 Cf. Ovid, Ars Amatoria II.379, In ferrum flammasque ruit.
835 Cf. Terence, Heauton Timorumenos 578, sed nostrum est intellegere utquomque atque ubiquomque opu’ sit obsequi.
837 See the note on 480.
838 Juno in her aspect of patroness of marriage. Hymen (or Hymenaeus) was the Roman god of the marriage ceremony.
841 For the expression ad assem cf. (e. g.) Horace, Epistulae II.ii.27 and Sermones I.i.43.
847 For si vera praedicas cf. Plautus, Casina 191 (cf. also Amphitruo 901, Curculio 397, Mercator 293, Mostellaria 95, Rudens 341, Terence, Andria 465, Eunuchus 828, and Hecyra 111).
III.6 Outside the window of Clarinda’s bedchamber in Lucentius’ house. The present scene takes place at ten o’clock at night (cf. 442f.).
856 Cf. Plautus, Pseudolus 481, fac sis promissi memor.
858 The reader may justly be confused by the textual descriptions of the instrumental musicians in this scene. They are referred to as tibicines (which suggests recorders, and possibly other wind instruments such as shawms), which seems supported by the word inflatores at 944, and also by the earlier horn joke at 447f. But the stage direction after 860 speaks of a cytheristarum choro, which would seem to indicate a band of plucked instruments such as cittharns, lutes and theorboes, while mention of fidicines at 939 indicates viols (918 movete chordas is ambiguous — it could refer to plucked or bowed string instruments). The most likely explanation would seem to be Sparrowe had no very definite opinion of what kind of instrumental music the play would contain. In point of fact, the music at the perfomance was probably supplied by the band of professional town musicians called the Cambridge Waits, for which cf. Nelson II.738 - 745), who would have come equipped with a variety of wind and stringed instruments.
863 Proprio Marte is a Latin idiom meaning “by one’s own prowess.”
870 For putidum fungum cf. Plautus, Bacchides 821.
874 The correct reading may be Salomon (referring to Solomon as the putative author of the Song of Songs), but et ego looks suspicious and the corruption may go deeper. The general idea may be “I’ll transform you you from an ordinary domestic into a distinguished artist.” But on the whole it seems preferable not to attempt to translate the sentence.
897 Pythagoras is accused of having lied when he taught about the music of the spheres.
898 For this traditional legend about swans cf., e. g., Statius, Silvae II.iv.10, cygnus funeris ipse sui.
899 For dux chori cf. Propertius I.iii.4 and Statius, Thebais XII.226.
900 See the note on 565. From the context it appears that os obduro is another comic phrase meaning “outwit, get the better of,” but it is not found in Plautus or Terence.
Mr. Alexey Fuchs has drawn my attention to Plautus, Stichus 114f.,

Ut, per urbem quom ambulent,
Omnibus os opturent, nequis merito male dicat sibi.

It is very possible that obduro here is a copying error for obturo, but can the possibility be excluded that Sparrowe read Plautus in an edition that printed obduro?
925 Cf. Terence, Haeuton Timoroumenos 222, mihi nunc surdo narret fabulam.
939 Sparrowe treats the verb vapulo as if it were transitive.
IV.1 The setting is Lucentius’ house. Sparrowe’s internal time-scheme is very hard to comprehend. There are two possibilities: 1.) that the present scene marks the beginning of a new day, and that IV.4 and IV.6, in which Morosus and Bubulus are again hanging around outside Clarinda’s window, takes place on the following night; 2.) that this entire scene takes place on the same night as III.6 (but why should Morosus return to serenade Clarinda a second time on the same night?)
947 So Plutarch tells us in his Life of Alexander.
953 Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses II.733f.:

chlamydemque, ut pendeat apte,
collocat, ut limbus totumque adpareat aurum.

Tyre was the best source of purple dye in antiquity.
961 The first line of the Iliad.
975 For the idea, cf. Juvenal x.105ff. (of Sejanus):

et nimias poscebat opes, numerosa parabat
excelsae turris tabulata, unde altior esset
casus et inpulsae praeceps inmane ruinae.

978 Cf. Terence, Phormio 449, ea velim facias.
981 Cf. doli latuere at Aeneid I.130 and Statius, Thebais II.516.
989 In view of Bückmann-de Villegas’ misrepresentation in her synopsis of the play, it deserves to be pointed out that in Confessor the word larva and its cognates always mean “ghost,” never “mask”: the characters appear disguised as ghosts to convince Morosus that he is dead and in the Underworld.
994 Suggested by the very common comic question quid verbis opust? (Plautus, Amphitruo 445, etc.). Cf. also curate diligenter at Terence, Eunuchus 505.
995 For quo feror? cf. Aeneid X.670, Ovid, Ars Amatoria III.667, Fasti IV.573, V.147, Metamorphoses IX.509, X.320, Lucan I.678 and 683. For errore viarum cf. Lucan IV.91.
996f. The wandering river in Asia minor and the Labyrinth.
IV.2 The setting is again Antonius’ wilderness.
IV.3 The setting of the remainder of Act IV is Lucentius’ house.
1004 Cf. Catullus civ.2, ambobus mihi quae carior est oculis?
1010 Casus hornotinus must be another imprecation (and therefore must be in the nominative), but the point of the insult is obscure.
1040 For Te si prehendero cf. Plautus, M
iles Gloriosus 1426 and Persa 294.
1052 For perge obsecro cf. Plautus, Bacchides 870, Truculentus 949, and Terence, Heauton Timorumenos 302.
1083 Cf. festus dies at Plautus, Casina 135, 137, Poenulus 1133, and Terence, Eunuchus 560.
1114 He is of course thinking of Father Time.
1118 Cf. Plautus, Captivi 800, Faciam ut huius diei locique meique semper meminerit.
1125 For Cuia vox cf. Plautus, Curculio 112a and Rudens 332.
1147 For basilice cf. Plautus, Epidicus 56, Persa 29, 462, 806, and Poenulus 577.
1157 Cf. Vergil, Georgics IV.190, fessosque sopor suus occupat artus.
V.1 The setting of this entire act is in front of Lucentius’ house (with the insane Gryphus appearing passing by).
1171 Frankincense.
1172 Here thermae obviously does not mean “baths,” but vessels for the burning of incense. Saffron and cinnamon are likewise linked at Statius, Silvae V.iii.32. For quid stas? cf. Plautus, Curculio 251, Epidicus 583, Miles Gloriosus 1387, Persa 600, Pseudolus 330, Andria 979, Heauton Timorumenos 250, 831, and Eunuchus 459.
1175 Cf. Aeneid II.3, Infandum, regina, iubes renovare dolorem.
1181 Cf. Terence, Andria 309, facile omnes quom valemu’ recta consilia aegrotis damus.
1187 He will carve their names on the bark of a tree.
1192 The story of Nyctimene is told most succinctly by Hyginus, Fabula cciv, Nyctimene Epopei regis Lesbiorum filia uirgo formosissima dicitur fuisse. hanc Epopeus pater amore incensus compressit, quae pudore tacta
silvis occultabatur. quam Minerua miserata in noctuam transformauit, quae pudoris causa in lucem non prodit sed noctu paret. Cf. also Ovid, Metamorphoses II.590ff.
1193 For lacrymas inanes cf. Aeneid X.465.
1198 Mercury put Argos to sleep with his flute when had come to steal Io.
1200 For rerum facies cf. Lucretius V.1263.
1201 See the note on 251.
1206 Cf. Plautus, Amphitruo 738, postquam experrecta es.
1208 It is not quite clear what Morosus sees that provokes his question Quae ornamenta? Perhaps he is referring to their ghost costumes.
1214 Cf. Aeneid I.328, nec vox hominem sonat; o, dea certe.
1218 For me missum face cf. Terence, Andria 680.
1224 Here genius = something like “protective spirit, guardian angel.”
1225ff. The three Furies.
1243 William Lily used the phrase tenebris…Cimmeriis in his standard Latin grammar. The Cimmerians were a people of the far north who lived in near-perpetual darkness.
1249 Sparta was a word normally used in academic lingo to designate a field of study. Here spartam is substituted for the more normal provinciam.
1250f. Demogorgon is the hellish fiend named by Milton, Paradise Lost II.966. Sternogogulus would appear to be a comic name of Sparrowe’s own invention.
1256 Oberon makes his first appearance in English literature in Lord Berner’s translation of Heuon of Bordeaux (c. 1534) and figures in Robert Greene’s James VI (acted 1589), Spenser’s Faerie Queene II.x.75, Thomas Campion’s Elegy IX.24, as well, of course, as A Midsummer Night’s Dream.
1257 From the context, it is clear that Cimeriorum has nothing to do with the Cimmerians mentioned in 1243, but is a Latinization of the word Cymry.
1259 Is the allusion to Robin Goodfellow, i. e. Puck?
1285 For responsum date cf. Horace, Epode vii.14.
1291 For spes restat cf. Aeneid I.556 and Ovid, Fasti III.625.
1294 For locus precibus cf. Aeneid IV.319. Cf. also the note on 1193.
1295 For vota…irrita cf. Ps. - Ovid, Epicedion Drusi 194. Another variant on the idea expressed at 60; see the commentary note on that line.
1297 What Caesar said when he crossed the Rubicon (Suetonius, Julius Caesar xxxiii.1).
1303 For per amorem obsecro cf. Terence, Andria 326.
1323 In Classical Latin there is no such verb as dimidio -are. Assuming the text is sound, this verb means “divide, share.”
1325 For vitae exitum cf. Propertius III.v.47.
1332 The pun on testes = “witnesses” and “testicles” (untranslatable into English) sails magnificently over Lucentius’ head.
1335 The phrase dura noverca does not appear in the works of the major Roman poets, but can be found in line 6 of Charles Fitzgeoffrey’s Affaniae (1601) I.30.
1339 See the note on 556.
1344 The word machinatrix is found at Seneca, Medea 266.
1351 Cf. Aeneid X.855, nunc vivo neque adhuc homines lucemque relinquo.
1360 Sparrowe’s third variant of the idea expressed at 60; see the commentary note on that line.