NOTE 1 It was printed at the end of Gwinne’s Vertumnus (1607), fols. H 3 r - v. This volume has been photographically reproduced as Vertumnus sive Annus Recurrens (Printed 1607), Tres Sibyllae (Printed 1607) Prepared with an Introduction by Alexander Cizek (Renaissance Latin Drama in England Series, vol. I.5, Hildesheim, 1983). The first modern reprinting of the Latin text was that at Nichols, op. cit. I.545 (without attribution to Gwinne). Text and translation may be found at Geoffrey Bullouch, Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare (London - New York, 1973) VII. 470 - 2, and a partial translation is provided by Henry N. Paul, The Royal Play of Macbeth (New York, 1971) 163f.

NOTE 2 Cf. the descriptions of the occasion at Nichols, op. cit. I.530 - 62 and Paul, ib. 15 - 24 (who presents speculative arguments that Shakespeare was present on the occasion). For the king’s entertainment four plays were produced: Ajax Flagellifer (a Latin translation of Sophocles’ Ajax), Gwinne’s own Vertumnus, Samuel Daniel’s Arcadia Reformed (destined to be printed under the title The Queen’s Arcadia) and the lost comedy Alba, partially written by Robert Burton. Although according to Paul, ib. p. 17, Alba "was preserved in MS until 1862, when it was privately printed for the Roxburghe Club," it is in fact a lost play. Cf. Richard L. Nochimson at Review of English Studies n. s. 21 (1970) 325 - 31.

NOTE 3 The result of their joint effort was printed under the title The Countesse of Pembroke’s Arcadia ; cf. William A. Ringler, Jr., The Poems of Sir Philip Sidney (Oxford, 1962) 531ff. For Gwinne’s work with Florio, cf. Frances A. Yates, John Florio (Cambridge U. K., 1934) 221f.

NOTE 4 Orationes Duae, Londinae Habitae in Aedibus Greshamiis, ann. Dom. 1598 (1605) Aurum non Aurum, sive Adversaria in Assertorem Chymiae, sed Verae Medicinae Sesertorum, Franciscum Anthonium (1611).

NOTE 5 The idea that Tres Sibyllae exerted an influence on Shakespeare was mooted as early as Nichols, op. cit. I.543 n. 3. Its most recent advocate was Paul, for whom the influence of Tres Sibyllae on Macbeth is of crucial importance for determining the political nature of the play. See also Geoffrey Bullough, Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare (London - New York, 1973) VII.429f.

NOTE 6 Garry Wills, Witches and Jesuits (Oxford, 1995).

NOTE 7 Park Honan, Shakespeare, A Life (Oxford, 1998) 225f.

NOTE 8 Paul, op. cit. 164 n., provides other and less convincing arguments for Shakespeare’s familiarity with the work. The question whether Shakespeare knew Latin is irrelevant since Tres Sibyllae also existed in a (now lost) English version: in introducing Tres Sibyllae Nichols provideds evidence that it was performed in Latin and also in English for the benefit of the Latin-less members of the royal family.