The Dedicatory Epistle
GEORGIUS BUCHANANUS In the book, this epistle and the following gratulatory epigrams stand at the back of the volume; I have moved them to the traditional first place.
ab levioris operis libellis He means his Georgii Buchanani Scoti Poetarum Nostri Saeculi Facile Principis Elegiarum Liber I, Sylvarum Liber I, Endecasyllabon Liberi, Eiusdem Buchanani Tragoedia quae inscribitur Baptistes sive Calumnia, printed at Paris in 1579.
ut ait vates regius I cannot identify the allusion (evidently not to the Psalms).
I.3 The Welsh antiquarian Humphrey Lluydd, whose researches were published poshumously by Abraham Ortelius as Commentarioli descriptionis Britannicae fragmentum (1572). According to McFarlane 419ff., Buchanan was largely inspired to add these prefatory Books on Scots topography, ethnography and prehistory (which could indeed stand as an independent work) in reaction to the appearance of this work. The following reference is to Sir Thomas Elyot’s Bibliothecae (1548).
I.4 cogor et in tabula Propertius IV.iii.37.
I.5 in Stephano The Lexicon of Stephanus of Byzantium.
I.5 ut ait Plinius Naturalis Historia IV.cii.1.
I.8 In Buchanan’s day the use of the old Scots language was largely restricted to the Highland districts.
I.8 Plinius enumrans Naturalis Historia V.i.4.
I.9 qualis sunt Oxonia Oxford and Rochester.
I.10 non videtur ignorasse Claudianus De Bello Gothico 417.
I.11 Quam veteres Martial XI.xxi.9 (the translator glosses bracchae, written bracae by modern editors, as “slop-breeches or galagaskins.”
I.11 Silvius ille bonus Ausonias, Epigrams cixff. The translator’s note: “This epigram was made by the poet against one Silvius, sirnamed Bonus, of Little-Brittain in France, against whom he had a pique (and, it seems, against the whole nation of the Britains for his sake). he takes an occasion to jeer him from the ambiguity of his sirname Bonus, which signlfies also good in Latin, and (by the figure Antiphrasis) evil, as here sometimes it is taken. this author makes it a dodecastich, whreas later interpreters have divided it into six distinchs (but all one one subject) according to the poets mind, expressed in the first of them. They are not here quoted for the sarcasms conteined theren, and therefore are not over-curiously translated, but only to shew that in this poet’s time (who lived under Gratian the Emperor about anno Christi 390) Britto and Britanus were terms synonymous.” In a second note, on the last word of the poem, he adds ”The printed books read Britto et bono, which is scarce sense, and therefore Vinetius hath amended it Britto bono, and so I have Englished this last distich.”
I.12 Hanc nationem Plinius Naturalis Historia IV.cii.5. Translator’s notes described the Morini as “A people of Gallia-Belgica, lying betwixt the River Lye and Somme in West-Flanders (as some write), not far from bollogne, Ypre, and St. Omers. Their chief city was called Teroven, now but a small village,” the Attrebates as “Inhabitants of Artois,” and the Gessoriaci as “Inhabitants of Bollogne, or betwixt Bologne and Calais.”
I.12 et ab Icio dictum Icenum The translator desecribes the Iceni as “Inhabitants of Essex, as Lud [Lluhyd], or rather of Suffolk, Norfolk, Cambridge, and Huntington, as Camden and Leland,” and Icium as “Calais, as some; but Witsand (by the Flandrians called Isten and Essen), a port between Calais and Bllogn, in which some footsteps of the word Iceni do appear, as others.”
I.12 Morinus Translator’s note (he writes the word as Marinus): “Near the sea.” He glosses the following Moremarusa ”the dead sea.”
I.12 suos Aduaticos Translator’s note: “People of Dowrar, as sone, of Brant and Bosleduc, as others; and of Namur, as divers say.”
I.12 nec Aremorici aut Armorici Translator’s note: “People of Litle-Britain in France, to the west of Normandy.”
I.12 semper reddit apoceanitas This word in fact never appears in Strabo’s Geography.
I.12 Caesar de Armoricus De Bello Gallico V.liii.3 and VII.lxxv.4 (the supposed quote from Book VIII is inauthentic).
I.12 unum Plinium Naturalis Historia I.4a.26 etc. Translator’s note: “Gascoigne or Gusenne, of which Bourdeaux is the chief city.”
I.13 Ligures Translator’s note: “Liguria was anciently a country lying betwixt the Po in Italy and the Rhosne in France.” A following note describes the Albici as “A people living in the skirts of the Alps.”
I.13 Et Festus quidem Pompeius I cannot find this statement in Festus’s De Verborum Significatione (the following reference is to Strabo, IV.vi).
I.14 Albingaunum The translator’s note is “Albinga, under the Genoeses.” He identfies Albium Intemlium as “Ventimiglia, belonging also to the Republick of Genova.”
I.14 Iapodes His note: “A people made up of Gauls and Illyrians, whose possessions reached down to the Adriatick Sea near Istra.” He identifies the following three rivers as the Tilner, Elbe, and Cohan.
I.14 Plinii libri tertio Naturalis Historia III.cxxv.2. The translator identifies the Burgomates as “a people of Bergamo in Italy, now under the Venetians.”
I.16 Hector autem Boethius Hector Boethius or Boece [1465 - 1536?]. His 1527 history of Scotland is a source frequently (but not uncritically) consulted by Buchanan.
I.16 triplex regionibus distincta Translator’s note: ”Now only into to, viz. North and South Wales; for Pembroke-Shire with part of its adjacent counties, heretofore called West-Wales, is now counted part of South-Wales.
1.18 Rerigonius Ptolemy, Geography II.iii.1 (so for Vidogara).
I.19 quibus utrisque Carthus est nomen In a note the translator observes that these are distinguished as White Carth and Black Carth.
I.20 Guidi Bede, Ecclesiastical History I.xii.
I.20 Camelodunum In a note, the translator points out that Maldon (the site of a famous Anglo-Saxon battle) is in Essex, not Scotland.
I.20 Bedae Angli historiae Ecclesiastical History I.v.
I.20 Antonini Itinerario For this Roman geographical source, as it applies to Britain, see this page.
I.20 Cornelius Tacitus Annales XIV.xxxi.17.
I.22 Qua Grampius mons humilior est The translator’s note is “Granze-ben, or the Grampian Hills, run from Aberdeen in the North to Dumbarton in the West.”
I.23 memorabile propter bonarum artium studia An allusion to the University of St. Andrews (founded 1413).
I.24 Ammianus Marcellinus XXVII.viii.5.
I.24 Perthum The translator adds in the text that this town is also called St. Johnston’s, stating in a note that this is because St. John’s is its patron. For some reason, thoughout the work he displays a proclivity to employ this second name.
I.24 Gorea The translator’s note is “Gowry-land is the farthest east point of Perthshire; the plain thereof is called the Carss of Gowry, and the hilly part the Brae of Gowry.”
I.24 Cuprum Translator’s note: “Wherein there was an Abby near the water Ila.” Deodonum means ”God’s Gift.”
I.24 Abrenethea Again, the translator works into the text the fact that this town had a second name, Atherbothock, explaining in a note that “It stands near the sea on a little brook in Angus called Brothock.”
I.24 Rubrum promontorium Translated “Red-Head” with a note that it is also called ”Reed-Head.”
I.24 Mernia Translator’s note: “Called the Sherrifdom of Mearns, lying betwixt Dye and North-Esk.”
I.24 Dona The translator’s note is “It ariseth in Strathdon, the hilly part of Marr, and falls into the German Sea at old Aberdene.”
I.24 veteris et nova cognominibus distinctum The translator observes “Aberdone, standing on the Don, and Aberdee, standing on the Dee, or Dye, now both New Aberdene.”
I.25 Marria The translator observes “Marr hath the German ocean on the east, Dee on the south, Badenach on the west, and Bansshire on the north.”
I.25 Badenacham usque Translator’s note: “The three counties of Loch-Abyr, Badenach, and Marr comprehend the bredth of Scotland betwixt both seas.”
I.25 Abria Translator’s note: “Called Loch-Aber from a little loch lying in the midst of a shaking bog over against Enver-Lochie, or, as some call it, Inner-lochie.”
I.26 Moravia The translator glosses “Murray-Land, some call it Moriess land from more, the sea, and riess, bent.”
I.26 lacu Nesso Translator’s note: “It is a narrow and deep louch arising near the West Sea in Glendulphin; the water thereof never freezeth, cold air.”
1.27 Rossia His note: Ross is a shire that extends it self cross ways from the East to the West Sea, which no county in Scotland doth besides.
I.28 Orcas sive Tauredum The translator adds “Farrow-Head is the farthest north-west point of Scotland, lying in the small Edar-da-cheules.” The reference is to Ptolemy, Geography II.iii.1.
I.28 Hoia “i. e., Strathy-Head” is added by the translator, with a note “Because Strathy-Head is, by some, reckoned to be in Strath-Navern, not Caithness, therefore they make Hoia to be the hill of Hoy in Caithness, which hath a fountain a top and ats bottom bubbles forth a river that runs to the town of Weick in Ciathness, the usual port of ships to and from the Orcades.”
I.28 Ptolemaus collocat Cornavios Ptolemy, loc. cit.
I.28 Gernico In a note, the translator points out that Cernico is “now Castle Sinclare.”
I.28 Valli enim Severi Bede, Ecclesiastical History I.xii.
I.28 Abrecornum The translator notes that this place is also called Abercorn.
I.29 Donald Monroum Donald Monro’s Description of the Western Isles called Hebrides was not printed until 1774 (at Edinburgh).
I.31 Mana It deserves to be pointed out that Mona (or, as Buchanan prefers, Mona) is the Latin name of Anglesey, not the Isle of Man.
I.43 Claudianus Panegyric on the Fourth Consulship of Honorius 31ff. The following reference is to Bede, Ecclesiastical History I.i.
I.44 e Lapithorum convivio With a touch of mythological hyperbole, Buchanan is thinking of the drunken banquet at which the Lapiths, wild Thessalian tribesmen, became involved in a brawl with the Centaurs; i. e., the cup is huge and barbaric.
II.1 ut Strabo scribit Geography III.i.6. The translator’s note describes the Turdetani as ”a people dwelling in part of Portugal and in Algarbia and Medina Sidonia.”
II.2 Gildas St. Gildas [VI A. D.], author of De Excidio Britanniae. The translator’s note observes that he lived four hundred years after Tacitus.
II.2 seneciones Translator’s note: ”Sanachies: a sort of chanters, inferior to Bards, called by the Dynnymossals (or gentlemen of hte Highlands) Sanachies, contracted from Seneciones.” In a second note he adds that the bards are are aldcribed by Strabo and Ammanianus Mercellinus.
II.2 a Lucano Bellum Civile I.447ff.
II.4 Saepius et nomen Aeneid VIII.329.
II.5 divo Paulo in epistolis Romans 15:24 and 28.
II.5 priscis et Scotis The translator glosses this “Or Highlanders”
II.7 Ioanni Annio The Dominican Johannes Annius Vierbensus [Giovanni Nanni, 1430 - 1502], who forged a number of ”ancient” works to support fabulous tales in his Antiquitates (1498).
II.9 cum Fauni The translator’s notes these oracles are a.) “Faunus, the third king of the Aborigines, to whom Saturn (by whom he was entertained) caused a grove and cave to be dedicated where oracles were given forth (according to the old story.” b.) “Cumea, so called from Cuma in the Gulph of Naples.” c.)“”Little pieces of oak-wood-lotteries, marked by letters or words, almost like dice, which when they were thrown, the priest gave his response according to the letter which was uppermost, at Praeneste, now Palestrina.”
II.9 Nam cum Horatius Epistulae II.i.86ff. The translator’s note: “Salii were twelve priests instituded by Numa Pompilius in honour of Heracles or, as some say, of Mars. And the Carmen Saliare which they sang was composed by the same Numa in an obsolete and almost unintelligible language or style.”
II.9 BRUTI CONSULIT Presumably these verses and those quoted in the following paragraph were manufactured by Nanni.
II.11 Buthrotii The translator’s note is “Buthrotii, inhabitants of Buthrotum (now Butrinto), a ssmall village in Epirus on the sea coast not far from the isle Corfu, once a large Roman colony.”
II.11 Averni Translator’s note: “Averni, inhabitants of Auvergne in the Dukedom of Burgundy, their chief city is Clermont.” He goes on to equate the Hedui with the Burgundians and identify the Sequani as “People of the Franch country.”
II.11 Franci Translator’s note: “Franci, originally a people of Franconia in Germay, who in the declining of the Roman Empire conquered Gallia and called it Frankinland, now France; they were composed of so many warlike tribes that the Turks do call all the Western Christians France to this very day.”
II.12 Argi an Cecrops Argus was the eponymous founder of the Argives and Cecrops a fabled early king of Athens.
II.12 ad Iberi amnis ostium Translator’s note “Now Ebro, a famous river in Spain rising in the mountains of Astoria and disimboguing it self into the Mediterranean in Catalonia.” A little below he glosses Gallaecia as “the country about Compostella in Spain,” and Durii fluminis as “Durius or Douro, Duero in Spanish, arising in old Castil, and after a course of 140 Spanish leagues falls into the Atlantick Ocean below Port a Port.”
II.14 Palladium Translator’s note: “Palladium, properly the image of Pallas in Troy, which as long as they kept in her temple, troy could nto be taken (as the Trojans thought), but when Ulysses stole it away then the were soon destroyed by the Greeks.”
I“.14 Strabone Teste Geography IV.i.11. The translator explained that the Celts were ”The ancient Gauls in Caesars time, divided from the Belgians by the River Sein, and by the Aquitanians by the Garron, from whom the old Grecians callned the north-west part of Europe Celto-Scythia.”
II.14 ut puerorum amoribus indulgerent The translator explains “From which no issue could insue.”
II.14 Ephorus teste Strabone Strabo, Geography IV.iv.6.
II.14 profugique a gente Lucan, Bellum Civile IV.9f.
II.15 Ligures In a series of notes the translator explains that the Ligurians were a people of Piemont, the Libii a people about Brexia (i. e., Breschia) and Verona, the Salasii likewise of Piemont, the Insubures of Gallia Transpadena about Milan, the Cenomani of Main, or rather Normandy, the Boii of Aquitaine, and the Senones a warlike people of Gaul inhabiting the country now called Le Sennois.
II.15 Gallograecorum The translator explains that their territory was Galatia.
II.15 Ille enim in commentariis Caesar, De Bello Gallico VI.xxiv.2.
II.15 Tectosages Translator’s note “A colony from Languedock in France to the Neecar [sic] in Germany and the country about that river.”
II.15 ut alter affirmat Tacitus, Germania xxviii.2. The translator identifies the Boii as ”Aquitanians in Gaul.”
II.15 Gothini The translator locates them on the River Oder.
II.15 Decumates Translator’s note: ”Decumates, people of Wirtenburg.”
II.15 Stephanus The great contemporary French scholar Henri Estienne. The translator explains that ”The Getes were a people of Dacia about Moldavia.”
II.15 Tacitus ait Germania xliii.1 (the following reference is to ib. xlv.2 and the translator identifies the Cimbri as the Prussians or Livonians).
II.16 C. Iulius Caesar De Bello Gallico V.xii.1 (quoted in Book III).
II.16 a Belgis Translator’s note “In Caesar’s time Belgium was accounted part of France.”
II.18 Claudianus The two quotations are Deprecatio ad Hadrianum 251f. and Panegyric on the Fourth Consulship of Honorius 33 (modern schoars read Hiverne for Ierne).
II.19 versus Claudiani Panegyric on the Third Consulship of Honorius 55ff., De Bello Gothico 416ff.
II.19 Herodianus Ab Excessu divi Marci III.xiv.7.
II.19 Penthlandici montes In sidenotes the translator adds that the Pentland Hills are in Lothian, and that Pentland Firth is “between Caithness and Orkny.”
II.20 Arii Translator’s notes “Arii, a people of Poland, but formerly accounted part of Germany,” “Agathyrsi, people of Europaea, Sarmatia and Scythia, now under the Moscovite.”
II.20 ut Vergilio placet He mentions them at Aeneid VIII.725, Georgics II.115 and III.461.
II.20 Geloni Translator’s note: “Geloni, inhabitans of Scythia Europaea upon the Rover Boristhenes.” He also identifies the Getae as a people of Dacia.
II.20 Gothunni Translator’s note “People of Sarmatia Europaea, so called because compounded of Goth and Huns, whence Claudian calls them mixti Gothunni.”
II.20 mare Suevicum The translator explains this is “The Baltick, or rather the Bothnick Sea or Gulph.” He goes on to explain that the Danube is a river that “arising in the Alps and running through Germany, Hungary &c., at last dischargeth it self by six mouths into the Euxine Sea.”
II.20 Claudianus Against Rufinus I.313, De Bello Gothico 481f.
II.20 iuxta Arrianum Fragment F2b 156 fr. 113 Jacoby.
II.21 At Strabo Geography IV.i.1. The translator identifies the Aquitans as “The Gutenois in France.”
II.22 Cimbr“The translator now identifies the Cimbri as the Danes and the Ambrones as a ”people of Swisserland.” The Teutones are a people “of Germany, near the Baltick sea”; below, once again the Agatyrsi are identified as “of Vologna in Moscovy, which was then called Scythia or Sarmatia Europaea.”
II.22 quos Dion unus Dio Cassius, Historiae Romanae LXXVI.xii.1. The translator identifies the Maiatae as “A nation of the Picts that lived north of Adrian’s Wall in Northumberlad and the M[…].” He also describes the Attacottae as “One of the tribes of the Picts, living near the Scots on the East Sea betixt Tweed and Tine in Northumberland,” and the Caledonians as “a mixt people of Picts and Scots that inhabited the Caledonian Forest.”
II.22 ex Marcellino Ammanianus Marcellinus XXVI.iv.5.
II.23 C. Plinius Naturalis Historia III.xiii.6.
II.23 ait Tacitus The historian describes the Druids at Annales XIV.xxx and Historiae IV.liv. The translator notes that Carthago nova is “Cartagena on the Mediterranean in Marsia in Spain.”
II.23 scriptum est a Livio Buchanan seems to be thinking of Livy XXVI.xliv.6 (although Livy does not use the word Teutates).
II.23 bardos Translator’s note: “Bards were the heralds, lpets, and musicians of the ancient Gauls and Britains.”
II.23 rhapsodi Translator’s note: “Rhapsodists rehearsers or interpreters of old verses by piece-meal.”
II.24 Primum igitur Tacitus Agricola xi.4.
II.24 Ut silvae foliis Horace, Ars Poetica 60ff., 70ff.
II.24 ut Strabo censet Geography IV.i.
II.24 Celtae The translator’s note is “The Celts were a numerous people inhabiting principally about Lyons, from whom one part of France was called Gallia Celitica.” Likewise he describes the Belgae as “Inhabitants of Belgium (now the Low countries or the Netherlands) in Caesar’s time, counted a third part of France by the name of Gallia Belgica.”
II.24 Ventae Belgarum Winchester.
II.24.6 Atrebatum et Icenorum The translator describes the Atrebates and Iceni respectively as “Inhabitants of Berkshire, so called from the Atrebates of Gallia Belgica, who transported themselves thither,” and “Living in Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridge, and Huntingtonshire, transplanted from the Iceni in Belgium.”
II.26 Galliae Narbonensis Translator’s note: “Containing the provinces of Savoy, Provence and languedock.” Likewise, he defines the Vascones as ”Formerly inhabiting the kingdom of Navar, but now the country called Gascoign.”
II.27 Brixia His note: “A well fortified town in Alsatia, built on a hill and a strong pass on the Rhine,” and also that the Caenomani were a “people of Ne-Main in France.”
II.27 Brissacum Translator’s note: “Now Bressia.”
II.27 Aureliacum The translator identifies this as Orilhach, “A town of Auvergn in France,” and notes that Ebora is in Portugal.
II.27 a Ptolemaeo Geography II.iii.8 (the translator identifies them as the men of Caithness).
II.28 At Polydorus Vergilius Polydore Vergil [1470? - 1555?], author of the Anglicae Historica (first printed 1534).
II.28 Cumbros Translator’s note: “Or Cambri, from their King Camber, as some.”
II.28 Silures Translators note: “The inhabitants of South-Wales.”
II.28 Lelandus autem The antiquarian John Leland [1506? - 1552], best remembered for his The laboryous journey of John Leland for Englands Antiquities, geven of hym as newe yeares gyfte to Kynge Henry the viii, he also left a mass of manuscript printed long after his death by Thomas Hearne.
II.32 Strabo lib. 7 Geography VII.vi.1.
II.32 Pultobria Translator’s note: “Or Brutobrica, a city of Thrace on the coast of the Agaean Sea, now called by the Greeks Aenos or Enos, and by the Turks Enos.” He identifes Brutobria as ”an ancient town in Spain,” Mesembria as ”A city of Bulgaria, situate on the Euxien Sea,” Selimbria as ”Selivre, a city of Thrace situate upon the Propontus 15 miles west of Constantinople.”
II.32 Abrobrica The translator identifies the towns in this list as follows: Albrobrica = Braga in Portugal, Arabrica = modern Avrabrida, Arabrica = Castamheira in Portugal, Arcobrica a = Arcos, Acrobrica 2 = Azvaga in Portugal, Acrobrica 3 = “Alcasor near Saragossa in Spain; which being at first called Salduba from the salt-pits there, was afterwards rebuilt by Caesar Augustus and called Caesarea Augusta, some footsteps [traces] of which name do yet remain in the word Saragossa,” Artobrica 4 = Altburgh, the Vindilici = “People of Bavaria and Suabia Germany, so called from the Rivers Vindis (Werd) and Lacus (Leck) near which they lived,” Augustobrica 1 = Villar del Pedroso, Augustobrica 2 = Puente del Arcobispo, the Vectones = “People of Extremadura in Spain,” Augustobrica 3 = Ardea ol Mino, the Pelendones = “Part of old Castile in Spain,” Bodobrica = “Boppart, in the Bishoprick of Treves or Triers,” Brige = “Broughton in Hampshire, as Camden. Quaere [Query] Whether not Stockbridge, which, though a mean place now, yet was formerly a noted town, as appears by its sending Burgesses Parliament at this day. It is yet a considerable pass between Winchester and Salisbury,” The Cottian Alps = “Which divide France from Italy, or rather Piemont from Dauphine,” the Turduli = “Inhabitants of Extremadura or Andalusia in the kingdom of Corduba in Spain,” the River Boetis = “Guadalquiver, a famous river in Spain,” Caeliobrica = “Barcelos, a town now of Portugal, formerely of Spain, near the River Celand, inhabited heretofore by the Celerini,” the Turduli = “People of Hispania Boetica,” the Vectones = “in Extra-medura, in Spain,” Deobrica = Miranda de Ebro, the Autrigones = “Biscainers,” the Morbogi = “People of Burgos in Spain,” Lacobrica = Lagos in Portugal, Flavobrica = “Bermeo, as some; Bibao in Spain, as others say,” Serabrica = Alanguera in Portugal, conventu Scalabitano = “Province of Santaren in that kingdom,” Juliobrica = “Fuente d’Ivero, as some, or else Braganza, as others say,” Lacobrica = Lagos, the Vaccaei = “Inhabitants of the Kingdom of Leon in Spain,” the Sacred Promontory = Cape St. Vincent, Lanobrica = Langroiva, the Lusitanic Cents = “Dwelling by the River Anas in Portugal,” Latobrigi = Lausanne, Medubrica - Monobriga, Merobrica = Santiago de Lacem, Mirobrica = Malabriga, the Oretani = “Inhabiting the country of La Mancha in New-Castile,” Mirobrica = Villa de Capilla, Beturia = Estremedura, the Turdetain Boetici = “Inhabiting part of Algabia and Medina Sidona,” Nemetobrica = Val de Nebro, Nertobrica = Almunha, the Celtiberians = “Spaniards lying byond the river Iberus in Arragon and Castile,” Segobrica = “Segove, as Clusius thinks,” Talabrica = “Talega, or Talega in Portugal,” Turobroca = “Alganza, as some; or rather Bargna de Regoa, the Bracares,” Galaeci = “The Gallicians living near Braga in Portugal and about Spire in High Germany.”
II.33 Brigiani The translator describes them as “Dwelling in and about Brianzon.” Likwise he identifies Brigantium as Bregenes, the Vindelici = Bavrians, Briga = Monti de Brianze, the lacus Brigantius = Bodensee or Lake Constance, the Brigantes are “Inhabitants of Galway, Waterford and Tipperary,” Orosius’ Brigantium = Brianzon, the Celtic Promontory as “Cap de Finis terrae, or Nerium in Galicia,” and the Great Port as Almeria.
II.33 et Plutarchus Ps.-Plutarchius, De Fluviis vi.4.
II.33 Gallia Celtica Translator’s note: “Or Lugdunensis, the country about Lyinds in France.” Once again, he equates the “old Scots” with the Highlanders.
II.34 IN GALLIA The translator makes the following identifications: Augustodunum = Autun in Burgundy, Castellodunum = Chasteaudun, Melodunum = Melun, Lugdunum 1 = Lyons, Lugdunum 2 = St. Bertrand de Comminges, Novidunum + Noron, the Tribocci = the Alsatians, Uxellodunum = Cardonac, Juliodunum = Lodun or Loudon, Regiodunum = Dun le Roy, Caesarodunum = Tours, Segodunum = Rodes, the Ruteni = the Ruthenians or Rovergucois, Velannodunum = “Some take it for Chasteau Loudon.”
II.34 IN HISPANIA Caladunum = Sela, Sebendunum = Campredon in Catalonia.
II.34 IN BRITANNIA Camulodunum = “Almondbury in Yorkshire, as Cambden; but West Chester,” the Brigantes = “The old inhabitants of Yorkshire, Lancashire, Durham, Westmerland, and Cumberland,” Camulodunum 2 = “Maldon in Essex,” Dunum = “Dorchester, called also Durnium and Durnovacaria from the River Vare gliding by it, which ariseth at a town some few miles distant called Evarsholt, i. e. the head of Vare, and passing by Dorchester, druns ito an arm of the sea at Varham, i. e. a town on the Vare, now Warham,” the Demetae = “Old inhabitants of Pembroke, Cardigan,a nd Carmarthen.”
II.35 IN ALPIBUS Ebrodunum = Yverdon, Sedunum = Sedan.
II.35 IN VINDELICIS Cambodunum = Baergon, Corrodunum = Korburgh, Gesodunum = “Linez [Linz], or, as some, Gastental,” Idunum = “Judenburgh, as some; Idenaw, as others; but Windisch Matray, as Sanson,” Noviodunum = Neumarck.
II.35 IN SARMATIA Corrodunum = Partenkirck, Singindunum = Korburgh, Noviodunum 2 = Neuburgh.
II.35 IN GALLIA Divodurum = Metz, Mediomatrices = “Inhabitants of Pais Messin,” Batavodurum = Wyck te Duersteden, Breviodurum = Briare, Gannodurum = Constance, Gannodorum 2 = Lausenburgh, Octodurum = Marsenach, the Veragri = “People of Gallia Narbonensis near the Rhosne.”
II.35 IN RHAETIA Bragodurum = “Psullendorff as some, but Beyerne Castke, as Cluverius,” Carrodorum = Korburgh, Ebodurum = Olmutz, Gannodorum = Costeniz, Bodoarum = Instat.
II.35 IN HISPANIA Ocellodurum = Fermostello, r. Durius = Duero, Duria = Guadelaviar, near Valentia, r. Dur = “Ledung in the west of Ireland.”
II.36 IN BRITANNIA Durocobivae = “Inhabitants of Redborn in Hertfordshire,” Duroprovae = “Of Rocoester in Kent,” Durolenum = Leneham in Kent, Durovernum = Canterbury, Durolipont = Godmanchester by Huntington, Durotriges = “Dorsetshire men,” Durocornovium = Cirencester in Glocestershire, Durolitum = Laiton in Essex, Duronovaria = Dorchester, Lactodurum = “Lutterworth, or, as some, Longborough in Leistershire.” the Sallasians’ country = Val d’Osta, Issidorus = Issoir, Altissidorus = Auxerere , praesidium Magis = “Badajox, a city in Spain where once the Romans had a colony.”
II.36 scribit Suetonius Augustus lxxxii.2.7.
II.36 apud Caesarum This name does not appear in modern texts of Caesar.
II.36 De Notitia Imperii Populi Romani Buchanan frequently cites this fourth century description of the Roman Empire.
II.37 Noviomagus Cf. Ptolemy, Geography II.vii.7. Translator’s note: “Noviomagus is a proper name for so many places that it is hard to distinguish them severally in English, for it significes Odinbrim, Newenburgh, Nimmigen, Spire, Solac, Bourg &c.” His further identifications: the Santoni = Xaintigners in France, Lexovi = “Inhabitants at Lisieux, a town in Normandy, and the country there about called Le-Lieuvin,” Vardicassii = Nivernois, Nemetes = “About Spire.” Noviomagus 5 = “Living at St. Paul de trois Chaste4aux, a city in Dauphin,” the Bituriges = “Living in and about Bercy,” Juliomagus = Angiers, Andegavi = the Anjouans, Rotomagus = Roven, the Venoclassi = the Beauvois, the Bellovaci = the Beauvoisins, the Nervii = the Tournois, Borbetomagus j= Wormes, the Volci Arecomici = “living in Armagnac,” Argentomagus = Argenton, Drusomagus = Memmingen, Caesaromagus = Chelmesford, Sitomagus = Thetford, Noviomagus = Wood-Cote near Croyden, the Regni = “Inhabitants of Surry, as Leland; of Sussex, as Camden,” Vacomagi = “People about Sterling, or, as some, of Murray in Scotland,” Magiovinium = “Ashwel in Hertford-shire, as some, or Dunstable in Bedford-shire, as others.”
II.37 Iernus Hiberniae fluvius Translator’s note: “Camden thinks it to be the River Maire in Munster, int he county of Desmond, but why not Loch-Earn in the county of Fermanagh?” Immediately below he identifies the Scotch river as “Earn arising out of Loch-Earn,” and the river in Murray as Strath-Earn.
II.37 Mediolanum Further translator’s identifications: Mediolanum = Milan, Insubrum = Xantoign, the Aulerici Eburaici = the D’Eureus, Alciburgum = Ducsburgh or Asburgh, Alciburgum 2 = Metelew.
II.37 aliud in Britannia Translator’s note: “Lancaster, as Lud; Lanvellin in Montgomery-shire, as Camden; others, Midland.” After this, he adds further identifications: Macolica = Malck on the River shannon, the Welsh Malcolica = Wye, Avo - Rio d’Aves, the river in Argyle = Aire, the Promontorium Sacrum = Cabo de S. Vincent, the river in Ireland = Ban in county Wexford, Ocellum = Spurnhead in Yorkshire, Ocellum = Fermosel, the Ocelli mountais = the Ocel-Hils, Ocellum in Gaul - Esilles or Exilles, Uxillum = Lestithiel in Cornwal, Uxellodonum - Cadenac in France, the Tamar = the Tambre, Tamara = “Tamerton, by the river Tamer in Cornwall,” the Sars = the Ars, Sarcus = Carck or Sars in Annandale, Ebora = Evora, Ebura = St. Lucar de Barameda, the Aulerici = those of d’Eureux, the Deva = the Dee or the Die.
II.38 ab Hengisto The two brother Hengist and Horsa are supposed to have been invited in 449 by King vortigern to help the Britons defend themselves against the Scots and Picts. They are said to have turned against their hosts and founded a Jutish kingdom in Kent. Gildas’ account can be read here.
II.38 usque ad Henricum Septimum I am not sure what social or political reform of Henry VII Buchanan had in mind; possibly he was most impressed by the fact that, being of Welsh descent, Henry was the first King of England since William the Conqueror who was not Norman.
II.40 Brutum, Albanactum et Cambrum Cf. Geofrey Keating’s The History of Ireland II.48, Moreover, it is plain from the annals of Ireland that Alba was the name of that country up to the time of Niall Naoighiallach; and when the Dal Riada were permitted to call it Scotia, themselves and their descendants kept on that name. Before that time Alba or Albania was the country’s name, from Albanactus, third son of Brutus, since it was Alba that fell to him as his share from his father. Now Brutus had three sons according to Monomotensis, namely Laegrus, Camber, and Albanactus; and Brutus divided the island of Great Britain between them; and to Laegrus he gave Laegria, which derives its name from him, and it is this country which is now called Anglia; to Camber he gave Cambria, which is now called Wales; and the third portion to Albanactus, from whom Alba is called Albania.
II.40 quia tu gallinae filiae albae Juvenal xiii.141f.
II.41 Mamertinus A Roman panegyrist of the fourth century.
II.41 Aut vaga cum Tethys Lucan, Bellum Civile VI.67f.
II.42 a libro primo Ecclesiastical History I.i.
II.43 Martialis in illo versu Epigrammata X.xliv.1.
II.44 Brutii Translator’s note: “Brutians, a people of Magna Graeciae, heretofore possissing the two Calabrias.”
II.45 Ille Britannos Seneca, Apocolocyntosis xii.3.
II.45 apud Caesarem De Bello Gallico V.xiv.2.
II.45 qualia Livius Livy XXXIV.lxvi.10.
II.45 iuxta Dionem Dio Cassius, Historiae Romanae LXII.ii.1.
II.47 Aestiones Translator’s note: “Aestonies, inhabiting Prussia and Livonia.”
II.47 ex Milesis The translator explains that Milesian fables are nonsensical, “for the inhabitants of Miletum [sic] in Iona were informas for telling tales, so far from being true that they had not the least shadow of truth in them.”
II.47 Plutarchus Marius xi.5 (so the lexicons cited immediately hereafter).
II.47 Livius Livy, Periochae LXXVII.15. The translator explains: “When Marius by sylla’s facton was driven out of Rome, he hid himself stark naked int he mud and weeds of the Rover liru (now Garighano) in the kingdom of Naples; where being found out, he was carried to prison at Minturnae, a town hard by, whither, a Gaul or Cimber being sent to kill him, he saw such a majesty in his countenance that he return’d without perpetrating the homicide.”
II.47 Lucanus Bellum Civile II.85.
II.48 Sicambros The translator identifies them with the Westphalians.
II.49 quartum Strabonis librum Geography IV.i.13.
II.49 Pausanias certe Graeciae Descriptio X.viii.3. (also chapters 19 - 23).
II.50 Loripedem rectus Juvenal ii.23.
III.2 de Britannia hoc habet Bellum Gallicum V.xii.1.
III.3 ET INFRA Ib. V.xxi.2.
III.4 DE IULII AGRICOLAE Agricola x.1.
III.4 bipenni The translator comments: “It doth not appear how this resemblance holds, and therefore some think those authors to be better historians than resemblancers; and indeed, if the whole island were not conquered by the Romans (as confessedly it was not), I do not see how they could give us the perfect form and shape thereof.”
III.6 Scilicet extrema et plana His observation: “That authors can hardly reconcile this reason with the principles of the Mathematicks. And besides, the matter of fact is very questionable.”
III.10 Voadica I. e., Boadicea.
III.11 CICERO AD TREBATIUM Epistulae ad Familiares VII.vii.
III.11 PAULUS OROSIUS A historian and Christian apologist of the fourth century. His Historiarum Adversus Paganos (from which these extracts are taken) was the first attempt at a Christian universal history.
III.12 E SOLINI C. Julius Solinus’ De Mirabilibus Mundi xxii (in Pancoucke’s 1847 edition).
III.13 E LIBRO 3. HERODIANI Herodianus, Ab Excessu Divi Marci III.xiv.5 (the Latin translation is that of Politian).
III.14 EX AMMIANI MARCELLINI Ammianus Marcellinus XX.1. The two following quotations are XXVI.iiv.5 and XXVII.viii.5.
III.14 Moesicorum Translator’s note: “Moesici, inhabiting part of Pomerania and part of Mechlenberg.”
III.15 Heruli The translator identifies them with the Lombards.
III.16 EX DIONIS Dio Cassius, Historiae Romanae XXXIX.l.1.
III.17 tractu Armorico The translator’s note: “Base-Bretagne in France.”
III.17 14 ab Augusto In a note the translator corrects to the fifteenth.
III.18 Alcluith The translator identifies Alcluith as Dumbriten (Dumbarton?) and Cluyth as Cluth or Clyte.
III.20 EX EPISTOLA GILDAE See the appropriate note on II.2.
III.20 ET INFRA Bede quotes these same passages of the letter at Ecclesiastical History I.xiv.
IV.4 ad Dunum usque amnem The translator identifies this as the Don, “or Down, in Kyle.”
IV.5 At Coilus Translator’s note: “Coilus, King of the Britons, overthrown in Coil, now called Kyle, by the Picts and Scots.”
IV.5 Rupes Feregusii Knock-Fergus in Ireland, described by the translator in a note as “a noted town, with a large bay adjoining, in the province of Ulster in Ireland.”
IV.11 pratem (partem lib.) Translator’s note: ’’Tis partem (a part) in the copy, wich some think is mistaken for pratum.) I have adopted that reading in the text.
IV.18 Evonium The translator observes “Some think it to be Dunslafnage, a castle standing on an high rock in Lorn, in the West-Sea.”
IV.21 Bredium Although Buchanan identifies him as an Islander, the translator records an alternate tradition that he was a Redshank (i. e., a Pict).
IV.23 METELLANUS The translator notes that this is a Latinized form of “Maitland.”
IV.27 Silures The translator identifies them as the inhabitants of South Wales, and the Ordovices below as those of North Wales.
IV.37 Aelium Pertinacem In a note the translator notes that he reigned after Commodus.
IV.38 ut scribit Dion Dio Cassius, Historiae Romanae LXXVI.xii - xiii.
IV.38 Beda Guidi vocat Ecclesiastical History I.xii.
IV.38 Aelii Spartiani verba Severus xviii.2 (in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae).
V.3 Liber Pasletensis Translator’s note: “A parchment chronicle of Scotish affairs weritten by the monks of the Abbey of Pasley, a town and abbey situate not far from Glascow in the Barony of Renfrew, called from its cover the Black Book.“
V.3 iuxta Mariani Scoti supputationem The chronicle of Marianus Scotus, preserved in codex Palatino-Vaticanus 830, has been edited by Bartholomew MacCarthy (Dublin, 1892). I cannot identify “Functius,” presumably another chronicler.
V.7 ubi vallum per triginta millia passum In a note the translator identifies this structure as Graham’s Dike.
V.14 apud Bedam In his account of the coming of the Anglo-Saxons (Ecclesiastical History I.xiv-xv), Bede presents this as divine punishment for the wickedness of the people. So too St. Gildas, De Excidio Britanniae xxiv.
V.14 Verba haec sunt This letter is quoted by Bede I.xiii.
V.16 Kentigernus Translator’s note “Or St. Mungo.”
V.18 Ioanni Fordono The chronicler John of Fordun.
V.18 in quibus etiam est Beda Ecclesiastical History I.xvi.
V.21 de Iove et Alcmena Buchanan was thinking of Plautus’ Amphitryo.
V.25 Galfridus Geoffrey of Monmouth [c. 1100 - 1154] wrote of King Arthur in the Historia Regum Britannae.
V.35 Boethius For Hector Boethius see the note on I.16.
V.37 a Beda sunt scripta Ecclesiastical History III.vi.
V.43 Abrenethi Tanslator’s note: “A town in the wast part of Strathern, near Fife.”
V.44 Beda Ecclesiastical History V.xxiii.
V.44 Candidae casae conoebium Translator’s note: “An Abby not far from Wigton in Galway.”
VI.2 Horestiam The translator explains this is “The country lying between the Tay and the Dee.”
VI.2 Mernia His note: “The Mearns lie alongst the East-Sea, between Die [i. e., Dee] and North-Esk.”
VI.2 Culrossia Translator’s note: “It stands on the north-side of Frearch in Perthshire.” Of Knross he writes “A town lying on the beginning or head of a point of land that runs unto the west-side of Loch Levin.”
VI.2 Marciam Merch, which, according to the translator, is otherwise called the Sherifdom of Berwick.
VI.2 Sconam ad Taum Translator’s note: “An Abby on the north side of Tay, a mile above Perth.”
VI.3 libro Pasletensi See the note on V.3.
VI.8 Caralia oppido Translator’s note: “On the east-point of Fife.”
VI.11 lacum Mabansum In a note the translator explains that Loch-Maban is in Annandale.
VI.13 Ioannes Fordonus See the note on V.18.
VI.15 Graftonus Richard Grafton compiled an Abridgement of the Chronicles of England (1562) and A Chronicle at Large (1569).
VI.16 Marianum Scotum See the relevant note on V.3.
VI.16 Gulielmum Malmesburiensem William of Malmesbury [c. 1090 - c. 1143], author of the Gesta Regum. For Geoffrey of Monmouth see the note on V.25. The Scots Humanist John Major published The History of Greater Britain in 1521. For Hector Boethius see the note on I.16.
VI.16 Vintonus Andrew Winton, Prior of Sancte Serf’s Inch in Loch Levin, completed his The Orygynal Cronykil of Scotland ca. 1424.
VI.20 Foressae Translator’s note: “A town in Murry-land, not far from Elgin.” (He repeats this information in a note on the next paragraph, adding that it is seven or eight miles north of Elgin).
VI.21 praesente caedis auctore The translator describes this as a “Traditional opinion still obtaining, especially if the murtherer touch the murdered body.”
VI.25 Methuanaum Translator’s note: “Or Meflen, lying on the river Armond two miles above its confluence with Tay, three miles above Perth.” In another note he goes on to explain “Thane was a name of dignity amongst the old Scots and Picts before them, equal with a Baron now. Mr. Selden judges it to come from a Saxon root. His office was like that of a Sheriff amongst us, to gatheru p the King’s revenu, or, as an Under-Steward, to pay it in to the Lord High Steward, who was called Abthane.”
VI.27 Lanericum Glottiae oppidum His note: “On the banks of Clyd, 5 miles above Hamilton.”
VI.29 Rubrum promontorium Also known as Red-Head according to the translator.
VI.30 Loncartem The translator says this is “Standing a mile west from the confluence of Almond and Tay in Perthshire.”
VI.36 Fethercarniam In a note the translator states this castie was “Situate at the foot of Clermont in Mern.”
VI.38 Almonis amnis Translator’s note: “Or Almond-water, dividing Mid-Lothian from West-Lothian or Linlithgoshire.”
VI.41 Burgus He glosses this “A burgh or burough.”
VI.42 Murthilacum His note: “A village on the west of the River Fiddick near Balvany.”
VI.43 Balbridum In a note the translater places this town midway between Dundee and Aberbrothock.
VI.43 Brechino oppido He places this “On the River South-Esk, in Angus.”
VI.45 apud Glammim Translator’s note: “About four miles south of Forfar.”
VII.5 Colrossiam Translator’s note: “A town standing on the Forth in Perthshire.”
VII.6 Drumilaum His note: “Drumilaw-Sands on the north-side of the mouth of Tay.” Immediately below he appears to describe Kinghorn (the corner of the page is ripped) as “A burgh-royal on the north side of the Firth of Forth.”
VII.6 Aemona He notes that this is another name for Inch-Colm.
VII.9 Dunsinano Translator’s note: “Lying south-west 3 miles from Cowper in Angus.”
VII.11 Milesiis fabulis See the relevant note on II.47.
VII.12 ex Frossard Jean Frossart [c.1337 - c. 1404], Chroniques de France, d’Angleterre, d’Ecosse, de Bretagne, de Gascogne, de Flandre et lieux circonvoisins.
VII.13 valle Bogiana His note: “Called Strath or Straty-Bogy, lying on the River Bogy forty miles north of Aberdeen.”
VII.13 Matthaeus Paris Matthew Paris [c. 1200 - 1259], Chronica Maiora.
VII.16 Monimuscum Translator’s note: “Lying on the south-side of the River Daw in Marr.”
VII.17 Morthlaci Translator: “Or Mortloch.”
VII.21 Coldingamiae His note: “Lying within two miles of Aymouth in Merss, ear the Scotish Sea.”
VII.22 Ennergoream He identifies Envergoury “Lying on the east-side of Carss or Plain of Goury, within two miles of Dundee,” and Ballegary as “Lying in the braes or risings of the Carss of Gowry, about five miles above Dundee.”
VII.22 Aemonam For the second time he identifies this island, this time in more detail, as “Inch-Colm or St. Columb’s Isle, in the firth of Forth, in Fife near Aberdeen.”
VII.23 Iohannes Maior See the appropriate note on IV.16. Major was an Aristotelian theologian who taught at St. Andrews; Buchanan was his pupil there, and then followed himto Paris.
VII.24 arcem Rosburgi In a note the translator locates this castle in Teviotdale.
VII.25 Allertonem Translator’s note: “North Allerton, lying near the River Swale in the North-Riding of Yorkshire.”
VII.25 Tesam amnem His note: “Which hath its source near Black-Laws in Teesdale.”
VII.25 Gulielmus Neobrigiensis William of Newbury [1136 - c. 1198], author of the Historia Rerum Anglicarum.
VII.28 nono Cal. Jun. May 24. The translator’s note states that Garioch is “Lying on the north-west of Aberdeneshire.”
VII.33 quinto Id. Dec. December 9.
VII.35 cal. Feb. February 1. The 18 Calends of September is August 15.
VII.36 quartum Cal. Feb. January 28.
VII.36 Matthaeus Paris See the note on VII.13.
VII.36 in Syriam Translator’s note: “To the Holy War for recovery of Jerusalem from the Turks.”
VII.37 Boethius For Hector Boethius see the note on I.16.
VII.41 Neurgum Translator’s note: “Other say at Swansted Abby near Boston in Lincolnshire.”
VII.41 Regiam Crucem His note: “A stone cross erected at Stanmore in Cumberland as a boundary between the two kingdoms of England and Scotland.”
VII.44 8 Cal. Dec. November 24.
VII.46 Cal. Aug. August 1.
VII.46 Largas Translator’s note: “A town in Cuningham standing on the Clyde.”
VII.48 Kingorno Here he describes Kinghorn as “A borough over against Leith in Lothian.”
VII.48 14 Ca. April. March 15.
VIII.3 Cal. Oct. October 1.
VIII.7 Sempronio Sempronius and Titius were names traditionally used in positing hypothetical cases in Roman law.
VIII.11 Richardi Graftonii See the note on VI.15. For Hector Boethius see the note on I.16.
VIII.14 Larnaci Translator’s note: “The chief town of Clydsdale.”
VIII.14 Loganum Translator: “Or Logan”
VIII.15 Thomas Volsingamus The Benedictine Thomas Walsingham (died c. 1422), author of the Chronica Maiora and Chronicon Angliae.
VIII.15 Id. Sept. September 15. For John Major see the appropriate note on IV.16.
VIII.16 Cal. Nov. November 1; likewise, the Calends of December is December 1.
VIII.18 undecimo Cal. Aug. July 22.
VIII.20 sexto Cal. Mart. February 24.
VIII.24 quartum Id. Feb. February 20.
VIII.26 Methuanum Translator’s note: “Lying upon the River Almon near Perth.”
VIII.26 13 Cal. Aug. July 18.
VIII.28 Glenescam Trranslator’s note: “In the braes of Angus on the head of the North-water Esk.”
VIII.31 Enneruriam His note: “A town in Garioch.”
VIII.31 pridie Ca. Iul. June 30.
VIII.33 Murices enim ferreos (calthrops) Translator’s note: “Small engins, ordinarily round, with sharp iron spikes standing out on each of them, so that, throw them which way soever you will upon the ground, one spike or other turns upward and wounds or pierces the horses foot that treads upon it, and thus make him lame and unfit for service.”
VIII.33 nonum Cal. Iul. June 23.
VIII.34 Caxtonus William Caxton [c. 1422 - c. 1491] compiled a Chronicles of England (1480).
VIII.40 Driburgum In a note the translator states that this town (and abbey) is in Teviotdale. He likewise notes that Biland, mentioned below, is “Not far from Malton in York-shire.”
VIII.44 Froissardus See the note on VII.12.
VIII.48 octavum Cal. Iul. June 24.
VIII.51 septimo Id. Iul. July 9.
IX.1 octavum Cal. Dec. November 24.
IX.1 Victonem In a note the translator states this town is “situate near the Irish Sea.”
IX.1 Halidonem And that this town is in Teviotdale.
IX.2 decimo tertio Cal. Aug. July 20.
IX.3 quartum Non. Aug. August 2 (the day before the Calends of August is July 31).
IX.4 Cal. Aug. August 1.
IX.4 Tillibardinum The translator notes this place is in Stathern.
IX.6 octavum Cal. Sept. August 25.
IX.6 Duplinum Translator’s note: “A castle standing on the north bank of the River Ear in Strathern.” Below he describes Kildrum as “Built on the side of the River Don.”
IX.6 Pasletensis liber See the appropriate note on V.3.
IX.7 Lidaliae His note “A country in the south of Scotland, not far from Northumberland.” He describes Mauset as “A town in the head of Annandale near the source of the River Annan.”
IX.7 8 Cal. Ian. December 25.
IX.9 Id. Apr. April 13. The third day before the Calends of August is July 30.
IX.12 Dundargum Translator’s note: “now demolished.”
IX.17 Kilblaniam silvam Translator’ note: “On the side of the River Don in Marr.”
IX.18 Dungardo He describes it as “A strong castle in Buchan.”
IX.22 lacum Mabunum Translator’s note: “It is 3 miles in compass.”
IX.22 liber Pasletensis See the appropriate note on V.3.
IX.23 4 Non. Iul. July 2.
IX.27 Froissardus See the note on VII.12.
IX.29 tertium Id. Aug. August 11.
IX.29 Dunsum Translator’s note: “A town in Merss, five miles north-west from Berwick.”
IX.31 Pennerum His note: “In Cumberland.”
IX.38 Durisderanum The translator identifies Disdeir as “A town on the north side of the nith, a mile about Drumlanerick in Nithisdale.” Likewise, he identifes Dundalk as “A sea town in the county of Louth and provincel of Ulster in Ireland.”
IX.39 Non. Aug. August 5.
IX.45 ut ait Ennius Ennius, Annales VI.184.
IX.45 12 Cal. Aug. July 21.
IX.47 Dunum Donaldi Translator’s note: “Lying on the River Irwin.” The thirteenth day before the Calends of May is April 19.
IX.47 Borussiam Translator’s note: “Or Prussia, a noted mart town of great trade on the Wesser, acknowledge [sic] the King of Poland for Protector.”
X.1 Id. Aug. August 13.
X.4 Halim arcem Translator’s note: “Standing upon Tine, 3 miles below Hadington.”
X.5 Id. Aug. August 13.
X.6 Bamburgo Translator’s note: “A castle over against Holy-Isle in Northumberland.”
X.6 Non. Mai. May 7.
X.7 Falcolandiam The translator says this is “Scituate at the north bottom of Loch-Lomond near the centre of Fife.”
X.8 Edwardus Hall Edward Hall [c. 1499 - 1547], whose The Union of the Noble and Illustre Famelies of Lancastre and York was published in 1548.
X.12 Fascastellum Translator’s note: “Standing on a rock above the Firth of Forth Near St. Ebbs Head in the Merss.”
X.12 Harlaum Translator: “In Murray.”
X.13 12 Cal. Apr. March 21.
X.15 liber Pluscartensis The annals of Pluscardine Priory, Dunfermline.
X.16 tertium Non. Sept. September 3.
X.16 Meldensium Translator’s note: ”A chief town in the county of Brie in france, situated near the Matrona.” He likewise identifies Vernevil is “A town in, or near, Normandy” and Beaux as “A large country about Orleans on the Loire.”
X.18 sextum Cal. Iun. May 27.
X.19 undecimum Cal. Mai. April 20.
X.32 arcis Dumbari Translator’s note “A castle standing upon the Tine, 2 miles below Hadington.”
X.33 Vernolium The translator observes this is a town in Normandy.
X.36 Eduardus Hallus et eius suppilator Graftonus For Hall see the note on X.8, and for Grafton see the note on VI.15.
X.37 Monstreletus The French chronicler Enguerrand de Monstrelet [d. 1453]; for the Pluscardine annals see the note on X.15.
X.37 Cataluani The translator notes that Chalons is in the Champaigne.
XI.1 sextum Cal. Apr. March 17.
XI.3 Album Fanum Translator’s note: “Situate below Lanton (?) Bridge on the Tine, in East-Lothian.”
XI.6 3 Cal. Oct. September 29. The seventh day before the Ides of July is July 9.
XI.6 Laudero Translator’s note: “Or Lother, a great and ancient family in Lothian.”
XI.7 quartum Non. Aug. August 2. The day before the Calends of September is August 31.
XI.16 Christorfinum The translator describes this as “A town on the River Berck (?) in West-Lothian,” and Strabrock as “A castle standing on a rock, lying near the Firth of Forth above Abercorn.”
XI.17 9 Cal. Feb. January 24.
XI.17 Id. Iul. July 15.
XI.18 Cardrosia Translator’s note: “An Abby in Lennox.”
XI.21 Baluaniae His note: “A barony lying on the river Spey.”
XI.22 Sarcam flumen The translator records that this river is also known as the Sars.
XI.31 6 Cal. Apr. March 27.
XI.35 Rosselinum Translator’s note: “Standing upon North-Esk in Mid-Lothian, 4 miles above Dalkeith.”
XI.35 Non. Iul. June 5.
XI.36 Baluaniaeque Translator’s note: “Lying on the River Spey.”
XI.36 Caldareum His note: “In Mid-Lothian.”
XII.3 Renatus Translator: “Or Renny (i. e., René).”
XII.4 Monstreletus For Monstrelet, see the note on X.37.
XII.4 Lindisfarnem Translator’s note: “Holy-Isle, seven miles south-east of Berwick on the coast of Northumberland.”
XII.11 Ethelburgae scelus This would appear to be a rare historical mistake by Buchanan. At the prompting of the Pope, Queen Ethelberga [d. 665], wife of king Edwin of Kent, was instrumental in the conversion of her husband to Christianity, and, after his death, assisted her chaplain, Bishop Paulinus, in the conversion of Northumbria. She was canonized for these efforts.
XII.12 ut egregium poetam dixisse ferunt I cannot identify the allusion.
XII.10 Nam si mortem lex divina The allusion is to Deuteronomy 22:5 (the same scriptural injunction that inspired the Puritans to decry the use of male actors to portray female characters in plays).
XII.15 Ioanna Neapolitana In the fifteenth century Joan, Queen of Naples and Sicily, was accused of assassinating her husband. Although acquitted, as her conduct after the event and the indifference she had shown about pursuing the authors of the crime admitted of no valid excuse, the Pope declared that there were plain traces of magic, and that the wrongdoing attributed to Joan was the result of some baneful charm cast upon her, which she could by no possible means resist. Her tempestuous life served as the subject of a novel by Alexandre Dumas. The legendary Assyrian queen Semiramis (the chief source for which is Diodorus Siculus’ Library of History) was supposed to have been a flamboyant virago whose story is summarized here. I presume “Laodice of Cappadocia” was the consort of Mithridates V of Pontus, who murdered her husband and ruled in her own right. In the third century, after the death of her husband, Zenobia reigned as Regent, revolted from the Romans, and unsuccessfully attempted to assert her nation’s independence. She was defeated and captured by Aurelian.
XII.31 Kilmernoci Translator’s note: “A town on the River Irwyn in Cuningham.”
XII.35 Monimalium His note: “Situate upon the head of Monks-Moor, five miles north of Falkland.”
XII.35 Fermilinodunum “A town four miles above Queens-Ferry in Fife.”
XII.41 Lauderam The translator points out that this town is (unsurprisingly) in Lauderdale.
XII.49 Lethintonum His note: “Near Hadington in East-Lothian.”
XII.50 16 Cal. Mart. February 13.
XII.52 Lindorum “On the north-side of Fife, upon the River Tay.”
XIII.1 ad […] Iunii The Latin text contains a gap; probably it specified he died June 11.
XIII.1 Cammiskenethum coenobium Translator’s note: “On the north-side of Forth, 2 miles below Sterlin.”
XIII.4 ad Maium insulam His note: “Off the point of Fife.”
XIII.6 Glammus “A castle lying 4 miles south of Forfar in Angus.”
XIII.8 Petrus Varbecus The translator acknowledge he was also called Perkin Warbeck.
XIII.8 Tornaci The translator identifies Tornay as “A town in Flanders, standing on the bank of the Scheld,” and the Nervii as “A Gallo-Belgick people possessing Hainaut.”
XIII.12 Atonam Described by the translator as being “In the Mers on the River Aye, a mile above Aymouth.”
XIII.13 Iedburgi Translator’s note: “The chief town in Teviotdale, standing on hte west of the River Jed.”
XIII.15 Milrossium His note: “Mulross in Teviot-dale, on a bare promontory on Tweed side, three miles below its confluence with Gala.”
XIII.18 in Cantabros (in Biscay) Translator’s note: “On the north-west of Spain in the Cantabrian Ocean.”
XIII.19 Britanniam minorem Britanny.
XIII.22 Furdio The translator states that Foord is in Northumberland.
XIII.23 Montanus He explains that Montantus is “A place near Cowper, in Fife.”
XIII.25 Tillus amnis And that this river is in Northumbria.
XIII.27 Fluidonem Translator’s note: “Or Floddon-hill, lying between the town of Ouler and the River of Tweed.” He likewise locates Tuisil “In Northumberland, on the right side of the River Blico, three miles above Stannington-Bridg.”
XIII.29 teste Polydoro For Polydore Virgil, see the note on II.28. For Richard Grafton, see the note on VI.15. For Thomas Walsingham, see the note on VIII.15. I cannot identify “Neobrigenis” or The Description of Normandy.
XIII.32 coenobio Coldingamia Translator’s note: “Lying within two miles of Aymouth in the Merss, near the Scotish Sea.”
XIII.34 Largous His note: “A little town in Cuningham, standing on the Firth of Clyd.”
XIV.1 tertio Cal. Iun. May 20.
XIV.8 octavum Cal. Oct. September 24.
XIV.10 Garviae Translator’s note: “Or Inse-Garvy, a fortify’d rock lying in the middle of the Forth or Scotish Sea.” Immediately below he identifies Langon as “A town in the Merss, a mile west of Duns,” and Wederburn as “In the Merss.”
XIV.10 12 Cal. Oct. September 20.
XIV.11 tertium Cal. Mai. April 29.
XIV.12 pridie Cal. Mai. April 30.
XIV.12 13 Cal Aug. July 20.
XIV.13 tertiam Cal. Nov. October 30.
XIV.13 Reliquit et ingenii Douglas is chiefly remembered for his translation of the Aeneid, quoted with enthusiasm by Ezra Pound in The ABC’s of Reading.
XIV.15 octavo Cal. Nov. October 25.
XIV.16 octavo Cal. Oct. September 24.
XIV.19 undecimum Cal. Nov. October 22.
XIV.20 Ecclesiam Translator’s note: “In the Merss near Hume-Castle.”
XIV.20 12 Cal. Iun. May 14.
XIV.20 quartum Cal. Aug. July 29.
XIV.24 octavum Cal. Aug. July 23.
XIV.25 Manuelam His note: “A mile above the bridg near Linlithgo.”
XIV.27 Abi quo dignus es Although this is not a precise quote from any play by Plautus or Terence, this imprecation is highly redolent of the comic stage.
XIV.29 Postridie Cal. Sept. September 3.
XIV.29 tertio Non. Sept. September 3.
XIV.29 tertio Non Sept. August 26.
XIV.30 undecimum Cal. Dec. November 21.
XIV.32 Henderlandium Translator’s note: “In Teviotdale.”
XIV.32 17 Cal. Mai. April 15.
XIV.32 Euum flumen Likewise in Teviotdale.
XIV.35 16 Cal. Feb. January 16.
XIV.35 quinti Id. Mart. March 11. The eighth day before the Calends of May is April 24.
XIV.36 Canabie Translator’s note: “Upon the River Esk.”
XIV.38 Rothomagi I. e., Rouen, “The chief city of Normandy.”
XIV.42 septim Cal. Aug. July 26.
XIV.43 sexto Cal. Dec. November 26.
XIV.43 quintum Cal. Iun. May 28; the Nones of July are July 7.
XIV.45 Balcomium Translator’s note, “In the east-corner of Fife.” The day after the Ides of June is June 14.
XIV.48 Calsonem His note: “Standing upon the Tweed, 14 miles above Berwick.”
XIV.50 postridie Id. Ian. January 14 (the translator wrongly has January 19).
XV.9 Listonem Translator’s note: “Kirk-Liston, lying on the north-side of the River Annand that divides Middle and West-Lothian.”
XV.9 duodecimum Cal. Sept. August 21.
XV.15 Mount Grantzbain Mt. Grampius.
XV.20 Ancramum Translator’s note: “In Teviotdale.”
XV.23 v Non. Iul. July 3.
XV.23 Hadinam Translator’s note: “Hadington, a town in East-Lothian twelve miles south of Edinburgh.”
XV.25 Ruven Translator: “Or Ruthven.” The adds that “Kinsans is two miles east of Perth, on the north of Tay.”
XV.26 Non. Ian. January 13.
XV.28 lapidum Lydium The touchstone.
XV.32 Mai. Non. May 7.
XV.34 ad Nonas usque Novembris November 5.
XV.35 Megatam amnem Translator’s note: “A small river in Ewsdale.”
XV.35 Langopum arcem His note: “Or Lang-hope, lying near the confluence of the rivers Esk and Ewesdale.” Immediately below he describes the promontory of St. Ebb as “St. Ebbs Head, on the mouth of the Forth of Merss.”
XV.37 Praestonum Translator’s note: “Two miles east of Musselborough in East-Lothian.”
XV.40 Brochteam arcem His note: “Brockty, standing on a rock on the Angus side of Tay, two miles below Dundee.”
XV.45 Fanum Miniani Translator’s note: “Standing on the Firth of Forth in Fife.”
XVI.1 Kilvinini Translator’s note: “A monastery 4 miles north of Irwin, near the Irish Sea in Cuningham.”
XVI.2 Langosidum He notes that this is in Renfrewshire. Immediately below he notes that Hamilton was also entitled Duke of Chastleherault.
XVI.8 Calderanum “In Mid-Lothian.”
XVI.10 Neobotellum coenobium Translator’s note: “On the north side of South-Esk, near Dalkeith in East-Lothian.”
XVI.10 ad ostium Aii amnis His note: “The town of Eye-Mouth in the Merss.”
XVI.11 ad Maxuallii rupem He records that this is “In Teviot-dale, on the south side of Tweed below Kelso.”
XVI.12 Comerlandiae He tells this is in Lennoxshire. and, a little below, that Montross was a royal borough of Angus.
XVI.13 in Ligures The translator explains that Liguria is “Piemont and Millain.”
XVI.16 13 Cal. Aug. July 20.
XIV.18 quadrantariam et interim triobolarem fidem So called after Roman and Greek coins.
XVI.22 manducantes The pun is literally “the Chewing Friars” (“not the Begging Friars, but the Pigging Friars”).
XVI.33 equitem Conchiliati The translator explains that this knightly order is otherwise known as that of St. Michel.
XVI.38 Ormistonium And that Ormiston is in East Lothian.
XVI.41 Kincragium Translator’s note: “In Fife.”
XVI.45 pridie Cal. Mai. April 30.
XVI.46 4 Non. Mai. May 4. The Nones of May fall on the 7th of the month.
XVII.2 vicedominus (Vidam) The translator explains that “A Vidam, in France, is a Baron holding of a Bishop.”
XVII.3 Non. Dec. December 5.
XVII.5 12 Cal. Iun. May 21.
XVII.12 hanc movere Camarinam A Latin idiom meaning “to provoke this controversy.” For its explanation, see Erasmus, Adagia I.i.64.
XVII.23 Havicum The translator states that Hawick is in Teviotdale.
XVII.24 Id. Aug. August 13.
XVII.30 5 Ca. Dec. November 26.
XVII.30 7 Cal. Feb. January 26.
XVII.31 Id. Feb. February 13.
XVII.37 Hamiltonium Translator’s note: “A town standing on the west-side of Clyde, 2 miles above Bothwel-bridg.”
XVII.39 Peblium “Or Pebils”: translator.
XVII.40 Malvillium Translator’s note: “A castle on North-Esk, two miles above Dalkeith in Lothian, with the demenses thereof.”
XVII.46 Id. Apr. April 13.
XVIII.1 Alloa Translator’s note: “In Clackmannan-shire, on the north of the Forth below Sterlin.”
XVIII.18 Id. Apr. April 13 (in a sidenote the translator wrongly says the 15th).
XVIII.22 Almonis pontem Translator’s note: “The water of Almond divides Mid-Lothian from West-Loathian in Linlithgowshire.”
XVIII.40 Grangianum The translator notes this town is in Fife.
XVIII.46 octavum Cal. Aug. July 25.
XIX.9 Langsidum Translator’s note: “Two miles south of Glasgow.”
XIX.12 Defanum The translator states this castle was in Clydesdale.
XIX.30 Id. Ian. January 13.
XIX.27 Laodice Cappadocum regina See the note on XII.12.
XIX.52 10 Cal. Feb. January 23.
XX.6 Camnethamio Translator’s note: “A Barony onthe east-side of Clyde.”
XX.6 decimum quintum Cal. Mart. February 15.
XX.9 quintum Id. April. April 9. The third day of the Ides of April is April 11.
XX.12 Lansaci His note: “St. Lewis de Galois, Lord of Lansack in France.”
XX.13 tertium Cal. Mai. April 29.
XX.17 quartum Id. Iul. July 12.
XX.21 octavum Cal. Feb. January 25.
XX.24 auctore Beda Ecclesiastical History I.xii.
XX.26 Dumbucum The translator informs us this is in Lennox.
XX.26 ex eo genere esse flammarum His note: “Ignis fatuus; country pepole call it Jack with a lanthorn or Will with a wisp.”
XX.33 decimam Cal. Mart. February 20.
XX.39 Quis senatum Lentulus and Cethegus were accomplices of Catiline. A senator of consular rank who participated in the plot to assassinate Caligula. Buchanan found this anecdote at Seneca, De Constantia xviii.2.
XX.41 pridie Cal Mart. February 28.
XX.44 pridie Cal. Apr. March 31.
XX.62 Glembervii The translator identifies this as “A Barony upon the water of Bervy in Angus.”
XX.62 eos iuvisse The abruptness with which Buchanan’s history ends amidst these minor skirmishings, together with a few obvious blemishes in writing I have observed in my textual notes, show that he broke it off rather than finished according to his intentions, no doubt because ill health prevented him putting his final touches on Book XX and from continuing.