2 The murder of Mary’s consort Lord Darnley.
3 Mary’s imprisonment at Lochleven.
4 Horace, Epistulae I.i.40.
6 As if Buchanan were a modern Ulysses: cf. Horace’s translations of the beginning of the Odyssey at Epistulae I.ii.20,
qui domitor Troiae multorum providus urbes
et mores hominum inspexit latumque per aequor
and Ars Poetica 142, qui mores hominum multorum vidit et urbes.
6 He means in Homer’s description of the island of the Cyclopes in Book IX of the Odyssey (although the identification of that island as Sicily is a post-Homeric invention). The quotation translated Odyssey IX.112ff. (I do not know if it is Buchanan’s own). The following reference to Italy perhaps is meant to refer to the conditions encountered by Aeneas in the Aeneid.
7 Horace, Sermones I.iii.98.
7 Juvenal xv.157.
7 Cicero’s translation of Homer, Iliad VI.201f. (Tusculal Disputations III.lxiii.12 = Cicero’s Carmina, frag. 24). Buchanan evidently quoted this from memory, and got the first line wrong (qui miser in campis maerens errabat Aleis).
8 Not a Classical quotation; I cannot identify the source.
8 Juvenal xiv.321 (with dicat for dicit ).
8 Matthew 22:37 - 39 etc.: Jesus said unto him, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. This is the first and great commandment. And the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
8 Cicero, De Republica VI.xiii, Nihil est enim illi principi deo, qui omnem mundum regit, quod quidem in terris fiat, acceptius quam concilia coetusque hominum iure sociati, quae civitates appellantur.
9 Horace, Epistulae I.i.82.
9 "Shepherd of the people" is an epithet frequently applied to Agamemnon in the Iliad.
10 Plato’s definition of justice in the Republic.
13 Terence, Heautom Timorumenos 483, nam deteriores omnes sumu’ licentia.
14 Cicero, De Legibus III.ii.3, Ut enim magistratibus leges, sic populo praesunt magistratus vereque dici potest, magistratum legem esse loquentem, legem autem mutum magistratum.
15 Livy II.ix.3, nisi quanta vi ciuitates eam expetant tanta regna reges defendant, aequari summa infimis; nihil excelsum, nihil quod supra cetera emineat, in civitatibus fore; adesse finem regnis, rei inter deos hominesque pulcherrimae.
16 Juvenal vi.3f.
17 Cicero, De Officiis II.xli.2.
17 The allusion is to Xenophon’s Agesilaus.
17 Thyestes 344ff., a passage that begins:
Regem non faciunt opes,
non vestis Tyriae color,
non frontis nota regia,
non auro nitidae trabes:
rex est qui posuit metus
et diri mala pectoris;
quem non ambitio impotens
et numquam stabilis favor
vulgi praecipitis movet.
The entire Senecan passage is printed as an appendix to Buchanan’s dialogue (pp. 104f.).
20 For Jethro’s advice to Moses not to sit in judgement, but rather to appoint judges for the people, see Exodus 18:13 - 26.
21 Romans 2:14.
23 Aeneid I.54 (with premat for premit ).
23 Horace, Epistulae I.i.76.
24 For mithridaticam cf. Marco Oddo, Meditationes doctissimae in theriacam & mithridaticam antidotum (Venice, 1576), which may be downloaded here.
25 A proverb quoted at Cicero, De Officiis I.xxxiii.4.
25 Cicero, De Legibus III.viii.8.
26 "Lesbian rule" is a proverbial expression for acting in one’s own advantage (Erasmus, Adagia I.5.93).
26 In the Protestant bill of particulars against the Papcy, this instance of usurpation with Church support loomed large. Cf. the great speech of the Earl of Northampton at the trial of Father Henry Garnet, In historia enim reperta in monasterio Fuldensi inter Germanos, et ex fide antiqui rerum Franciarum scriptoris, constat Pipinum in Childerici locum Francorum regem ab universa gente subrogatum fuisse, relatione tantummodo missa ad sedem apostolicam ["For in a storie found in the librarie of the Abbey of Fulda among the Germaines it is plaine, and by the report of a French writer very ancient, that King Pepine of France was surrogated into the place of Childericke by the whole nation of the Franckes relatione tantummodo missa ad sedem apostolicam, report being onely made to the Sea Apostolike."] Even (according to William Camden in his Annales for the year 1572) Queen Elizabeth alluded to this episode, Ego quidem invita haec recolo quae ex animo improbo. Nescio tamen an Galli olim improbarint cum Pipinus Childericum [" Yet whether the French have heretofore misliked them I know not, when Pepin deprived Childeric…"]
26 In 1512,with the support of the Church, Ferdinand II annexed most of Navarre, basing his claim on his marriage (1506) to Germaine de Foix.
26 The allusion is to Pope Gregory VII’s humiliation of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV.
31 Cf. Terence, Eunuchus 353, Quis is est tam potens cum tanto munere hoc?
32 Panegyricus de Quarto Consulatu Honorii Augusti 293ff.
32 Ib. 271ff.
33 Numbers 21:6 - 9.
34 See the note on § 17.
35 I cannot identify the source of these postclassical iambic lines.
35 Horace, Sermones II.i.33, votiva pateat veluti descripta tabella.
35 This tale, originally invented by the Greek poet Stesichorus, is most familiar from Eurpides’ Helen.
36 Two famous Greek painters.
36 Persius iii.35ff. (Buchanan substitutes Summe for Magne in the first line of the quotation).
37 Cicero railed against the misdeeds of Marc Antony and Dolabella in the Philippics.
37 See Aristotle, Politics 1285a31 and 1295a14.
38 The allusion is probably to the contrast of kings and tyrants at Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics. 1160b1 et seq.
38 Sallust, Bellum Iugurthinum iii.ii.1.
41 Suetonius, Caligula xxx.2.
42 Horace, Epistulae I.xvi.39f. Buchanan (either deliberately, to suit the context, or misquoting from memory) has substituted mendacem for medicandum in the second line.
42 Juvenal x.96f.
42 Juvenal iv.71f., which is actually
Nihil est quod credere de se
Non possit cum laudatur dis aequa potestas.
48 I have corrected "Philalethes’" mistranslation. He has law is that which the people knew, because he mistakenly took scivit as the preterite of scio rather than scisco.
49 Maitland is probably alluding to I Samuel 10:25, in the Vulgate locutus est autem Samuhel ad populum legem regni et scripsit in libro et reposuit coram Domino, translated in the King James Version as Then Samuel told the people the manner of the kingdom, and wrote it in a book, and laid it up before the LORD.
50 Deuteronomy 16:18, Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates, which the LORD thy God giveth thee, throughout thy tribes: and they shall judge the people with just judgment.
51 I Timothy 2:2.
51 Romans 13:3 - 5, For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil. Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power? do that which is good, and thou shalt have praise of the same:
For he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain: for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil.
Wherefore ye must needs be subject, not only for wrath, but also for conscience sake.
51 John Chrysostom, In Genesim (vol. 54, pag. 596, in. 17).
53 Jeremiah 40:9.
56 Luke 18:2.
65 Juvenal xiii.26f. At least in modern editions, the first line is Rari quippe boni, numera, vix sunt totidem quot.
61 I cannot identify the Aristotelian quotation.
65 Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto II.iii.10.
67 In English one would say "Tom, Dick or Harry."
70 Lucan, Bellum Civile V.289f.
74 I Corinthians 5:11.