COMMENTARY NOTES

1 Multum difficilis A rare specimen of Polydore’s verse (there is a similar couplet at Dialogus de Vita Perfecta para. 14.

spacer1.2 Henricus Colaeus Henry Cole [d. 1579 - 80] was Warden of New College, Oxford, from 1542 to 1551. Note how careful Polydore is to stress his Humanistic credentials. At the time of this writing, he was a conforming Anglican. After the death of Henry VIII he reverted to Catholicism, held high ecclesiastical posiitions under Mary, and made himself conspicuous by preaching the sermon on the occasion of the burning of Archbishop Cranmer (soon after Elizabeth came to the throne, he was clapped in the Fleet, where he dragged out the final two decades of his life).

spacer1 Tum Pinnius For Polydore’s kinsman Teseo Pini, see the Introduction to Polydore’s Dialogus de Patientia et eius Fructu.

spacer2 quemadmodum Ioannes testatur John 18:32 et seqq.

spacer3 apud Matthaeum Matthew 7:6. This = adage B17 in Polydore’s Adagiorum Liber (1521 edition).

spacer4 illud Platonis Possibly he is thinking of Republic IX p.585E.

spacer4 apud Joannem, capite 14 John 14:6.

spacer4 ex disputatione Zerobabel 1 Esdras 4:35. Curiously, this statement is not included in the new Book II of the 1521 version of Polydore’s Adagium Liber.

spacer4 Cicero de oratore Cicero, Pro Caelio lxiii.18.

spacer4 libro Regum secundo The story is told at 2 Kings [K. J. V. 2 Samuel] 1:1 - 16. The following quotation is from the last verse in the passage.

spacer5 libro Geneseos, capite 9The allusion is to Genesis 9:6.

spacer6 Matthaeus, capite 14 Matthew 14:3 - 4.

spacer6 Aretas enim Arabiae rex I do not know where Polydore got this fund of misinformation. Herodias, previously married to Herod II (otherwise known as Herod Philip I), was the daughter of Aristobulus IV, a prince of the Herodian dynasty who spent most of his life at Rome as a member of Augustus’ household. The “Herod” in this story was Herod Antipas. Polydore’s second historical mistake was to confuse Herod (“Herod II”) with Philip the Tetrarch (otherwise known as Herod Philip II). His third was that the provinces governed by Philip were Batanea, Trachonitis, and Auranitis.

spacer6 a Iudaeis In introducing Polydore’s Adagiorum Liber I have already had cause to remark on the pronounced strain of antisemitism visible in that book.

spacer6 apud Ioannem, capite 8 John 8:40.

spacer7 ut Cicero demonstrat Cf. Cicero, De Finibus I.ix, where the speaker Lucius Torquatus seems to have in mind the Stoics.

spacer7 in suo Timaeo P. 86B.

spacer7 cum apud Lucam Luke 21:19.

spacer8 libro Regum 3 cap. 2 3 Kings {K. J. V. 1 Kings] 2:3 et seqq.

spacer9 M. Tullio autore Cicero, Pro Lucio Flacco xxxvi.10.

spacer9 ut ait Horatius Horace, Satires II.ii.8f.

spacer9 Atque illud evangelicum Polydore’s paraphrase of Matthew 10:26 (Mark 4:22, Luke 8:17).

spacer9 Lucas ita scribit Luke 23:39 - 43.

spacer10 Christus apud Matthaeum Mattew 10:24.

spacer10 Ioannes, capite 15 John 15:15. The following quote is John 13:16.

spacer10 Terentius noster Andria I.i.68.

spacer10 author Cicero De Amicitia lxxxi.1.

spacer11 amicitiae venenum Cf. Cicero, ib. lxxxix.5, Molesta veritas, siquidem ex ea nascitur odium, quod
est venenum
.

spacer12 quod Ἐγχειρίδιον nominavit Augustine, Enchiridion xviii (vol. XL, col. 024o Migne). Augustine anticipates Cole’s following analysis, since he immediately continues by qualifying this dictum by stressing the intent with which a lie is told rather than the mere fact of its telling:

Mendacium omne est peccatum, sed aliud alio gravius. Non mentiri qui nesciens falsum dicit, sed potius qui verum dicit quod putat falsum.Verum hic difficillima et latebrosissima gignitur quaestio, de qua iam grandem librum, cum respondendi necessitas nos urgeret, absolvimus: utrum ad officium hominis justi pertineat aliquando mentiri. Nonnulli enim eo usque progrediuntur, ut et peierare, et de rebus ad Dei cultum pertinentibus ac de ipsa Dei natura falsum aliquid dicere, nonnunquam bonum piumque opus esse contendant. Mihi autem videtur peccatum quidem esse omne mendacium, sed multum interesse quo animo et quibus de rebus quisque mentiatur. Non enim sic peccat ille qui consulendi, quomodo ille qui nocendi voluntate mentitur: aut vero  tantum nocet qui viatorem mentiendo in diversum iter mittit, quantum is qui viam vitae mendacio fallente depravat. Nemo sane mentiens iudicandus est, qui dicit falsum quod putat verum: quoniam quantum in ipso est, non fallit ipse, sed fallitur. Non itaque mendacii, sed aliquando temeritatis arguendus est, qui falsa incautius credita pro veris habet. Potiusque e contrario, quantum in ipso est, ille mentitur, qui dicit verum quod putat falsum.

[“To me, however, it seems certain that every lie is a sin, though it makes a great difference with what intention and on what subject one lies. For the sin of the man who tells a lie to help another is not so heinous as that of the man who tells a lie to injure another; and the man who by his lying puts a traveller on the wrong road, does not do so much harm as the man who by false or misleading representations distorts the whole course of a life. No one, of course, is to be condemned as a liar who says what is false, believing it to be true, because such an one does not consciously deceive, but rather is himself deceived. And, on the same principle, a man is not to be accused of lying, though he may sometimes be open to the charge of rashness, if through carelessness he takes up what is false and holds it as true; but, on the other hand, the man who says what is true, believing it to be false, is, so far as his own consciousness is concerned, a liar. For in saying what he does not believe, he says what to his own conscience is false, even though it should in fact be true; nor is the man in any sense free from lying who with his mouth speaks the truth without knowing it, but in his heart wills to tell a lie.”] ((I have borrowed the translation of this passage by A.bert C. Outler, available here).

When Polydorus speaks of Augustine writing about this same passage elsehere, he probably means his Quaestiones in Genesim xxvi (vol. XXXIV, col. 0554 Migne).

spacer12 Polydorus noster De Inventoribus Rerum I.iii.

spacer12 teste Ioanne I do not see what passage in John can reasonably be taken to support this contention.

spacer12 Deuteronomia 23 Deuteronomy 23:19 (I do not know if Cole is repeating the traditional Talmudic interpretation of this line).

spacer12 Iosephus, libro Antiquitatum I Josephus, Jewish Antiquities I.cli. (Joseph makes Sarah Abraham’s neice rather than his full sister, whereas Genesis says they were both fathered by Terah — obviously the implication of incest was a sensitive issue and the family tree was accordingly revised).

spacer13 praeceptor Augustinus Augustine gives this definition at Contra Mendacium ad Consentium xii (vol. XL, col. 0537 Migne). Cole then summarizes the Encheiridion analysis quoted above.

spacer13 velut Geneseos capite 27 Genesis 27:18 - 19.

spacer13 ad Romanos, capite 9 Romans 9:9 - 15.

spacer15 Miserere mei, Deus The beginning of Vulgate Psalm 50 = K. J. V. 51.

spacer15 Ioannes, capite 18 John 18:17, 18:25, and 18:27.

spacer15 apud Terentium Terence, Eunuchus IV.iv.54.

spacer16 apud Matthaeum, capite. 22 Matthew 22:16 - 17 (abbreviated).

spacer16 Lystram, quae eius regionis urbs est Acts 14:8 - 13.

spacer17 Ioannes, capite 7 John 7:2 - 10 (with v. 8 quoted).

spacer18 teste Ambrosio Even with the help of the Patrologia Latina Full Text Database I cannot find any such definition in the works of either St. Ambrose or “Ambrosiaster.”

spacer18 epistola sua, capite 2 James 2:10.

spacer20 Cicero in Amicitia Cicero, De Amicitia xxxvii.17.

spacer20 ut Augustinus inquit Enchiridion xxii (vol. XL, col. 0244 Migne).

spacer21 ut apud Terentium Terence, Andria 427. This = adage A166 in Polydore’s Adagiorum Liber (1521 edition).

spacer21 Haec ex Apostolorum Actis cap. 5 Acts 5:1 - 10.

spacer21 in Officiis Cicero Cicero, De Officiis III.lxiii.5ff. Polydore’s quotation is not entirely accurate, possibly because he was quoting from memory.

spacer21 libro Levitico, capite 19 Running together portions of Leviticus 19:11 and 19:13.

spacer21 Testis Livius Livy III.xxxi.8.

spacer21 propheta psalmo quinto Psalm 5:5.

spacer22 quos Lucas tradit Luke 24:13 - 35 (the quotation in the next paragraph is vv. 29 - 32).

spacer24 apud Ioannem, capite 22 The correct refernce is John 20:11 - 15 (abbreviated). Either there is a printer’s error here or Polydore was mistaken in giving this reference (John only contains twenty-one chapters).

spacer25 in eodem suo libello He means St. Augustine’s Enchiridion.

spacer25 apostolus Petrus Augustine is discussing the liberation of St. Peter from prison described at Acts 12:6 - 9, but his analysis of the event does not square with the scriptural account in all respects. (Tr. Outler.).

spacer26 nemo homo omnibus horis sapit A proverb quoted by Pliny, Natural History VII.cxxxi.2 (= Erasmus, Adagiorum Chiliades II.iv.29).