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XI.

INCE Rufus had died childless and Duke Robert of Normandy had not yet returned from the Crusade, their younger brother Henry took advantage of this chance to gain the kingdom and acquired all his brother's ill-gotten fortune, which he could not (or, being a miser, did not know how to) spend and enjoy. Next he strove might and main to gain men's affection partly by giving great gifts, and partly by promising them. But since people regarded the laws passed by his father William to be unjust, he particularly promised to abolish them. And so it came about that the majority of the nobles were won over to his side, and on August 6, 1000 AD, the thirty-fifth year after the coming of the Normans, following his brother's funeral, he was acclaimed king by all men, and according to ancestral custom Maurice Bishop of London consecrated him in the church at Westminster, and set the crown on his head. Therefore he was called Henry I, and, having gained the throne in this manner, decided from the very outset that it was his responsibility to restore the dignity of the priestly order, which his brother had greatly corrupted, and at the same time to preserve, protect and defend the commonwealth. Therefore he recalled Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury from exile, and bestowed the see of Winchester, miserably ruined, on William Giffard, a grave man, and arranged for approved men to be set over the long-vacant monasteries. He abolished the novel, heavy taxes that had been imposed on the people, and imprisoned Ralph Bishop of Durham, a man ready to commit any manner of crime, the prime author and instigator of this taxation and other forms of plunder He restored to their former use the laws which had been ordained by Edward the Confessor, which nevertheless gradually grew obsolete since the Normans continually resorted to the laws established by William I, which were advantageous to their rulers, but troublesome to the English. The people, so relieved of these burdens and at the same time granted so many benefits, was overjoyed, so much so that that it could with justice sing that verse of Isaiah, as if it were a proverb, How hath the oppressor ceased! the golden city ceased! And by these services and benefits conferred on the people the realm was now at peace and the king convened a parliament of his nobility. After he had prudently dealt with things which pertained to the commonwealth in this parliament, at last he treated with his privy council, which he had chosen out of the gravest men he could, about his taking of a wife. Edgar King of Scots had a sister named Matilda, a girl of very elegant beauty and raised with upright manners, who had been placed in a nunnery after her parents' death. Some say she had pledged her virginity to God. According to the advice of his council Henry sued for her hand. And, abhorring marriage, this girl easily refused him. And at this repulse, the young man began to burn more and more with a mad love, so much so that he again wrote to Edgar begging him not to scorn him as a kinsman, since this would be advantageous to the both of them. In the end Edgar, no less afraid of the king's anger than desirous of his friendship, bestowed his sister on Henry, albeit she was unwilling. It is said that this girl, when she saw that her vow of virginity was destined to be broken, cursed with all her heart any offspring that might be born to her, and an appropriate place below will show that this omen was not in vain. Some writers say that he was betrothed to Henry by her parents rather than her brother, although in writing of the life of Rufus these same writers record their death. Liars, as they say, need to have good memories.
2. In the meantime Jerusalem was recaptured by our captains, and Duke Robert returned to Normandy, very longed for by all men. In almost all English annalists we read that for the choosing of a King of Jerusalem, in order to divine God's will, these Christian captains agreed that each man should stand in front of the principal altar of the church holding a wax candle, praying God for a goodly mind, so that they would bestow this office on a worthy man, and at happened that Robert was marked by a divine sign, for his candle blew out and quickly re-lighted. But he ignored the oracle and did not tell this to the other captains. Indeed, as some affirm, he rashly refused this honor when it was offered to him by them all, since he had already set his mind on gaining the kingdom of England, which was more prosperous and quiet. And so they say that from that very day fortune (I mean a successful out come to his affairs) never attended on Robert. But other writers, and ones not to be disdained, who have carefully written about this Crusade, tells that Godfrey, the finest man in human memory, was created king by unanimous consent, with no mention made of Robert or of that means of choosing a king. When word of Robert's arrival reached England, some people, to whom Henry's reign now seemed harsh and who had a great zeal for innovation, wrote many letters to him inviting him to come and regain his kingdom at the earliest possible moment, promising him their wealth and all help, and affirming they would most gratefully ally themselves with him. Although the king was prone to making war, he was unmoved, for he held it against the English nobility in general for that they had allowed him to be cheated of his paternal realm while he was far away fighting on behalf of Christendom. But thinking it best to conceal his feelings, a little later he put more reliance on news from Bishop Ralph of Durham, who a few days ago had escaped prison under cover of night, so much so that, relying both on his own resources and those of his helpers, he assembled an army with great care and diligence. When news of this reached Henry, he was no slower in collecting both naval and land forces, and to keep his enemies from his borders he hastily positioned his fleet in opportune places, and ordered his captains to keep watch from afar, and where they saw ships going their way, to bar them from the coast. And he himself pitched his camp not far from the village of Hastings so, if the Normans landed, he could confront them immediately. With equal celerity Robert boarded his army on ships and began to sail towards England, sending ahead some ships as scouts to choose a place suitably safe for his landing. These chanced to run into the royal fleet, but declined to join battle and returned to their commander to signify the enemy was at hand. But Robert, having no fear but rather trusting in his likeable nature, by which he easily won men over, drew nearer to the royal fleet and began to address its soldiers pleasantly, promising and giving gifts, and he won a goodly part over to his side. Therefore, with them leading the way, he arrived at the port on the south coast called Portsmouth. And there, having refreshed his soldiers for several day, he hastened towards Winchester, with allies coming in to him from all sides. The king, informed both of his enemies' arrival and the defection of his men, immediately led out his forces and camped near to them, waiting to see what they would do or attempt. The brothers readied themselves to join battle, when some important lords who liked both sides equally and therefore greatly hated this sinful quarrel, began to treat of peace, and by their intervention a truce was secured. Therefore it was settled that Henry, who was born of a king (for his father William sired him after gaining the throne), should obtain the kingdom of England and pay 3,000 to Robert annually, and whichever of them should die first should appoint the other his heir in his testament. And furthermore, no Englishmen or Normans should be held accountable for having taken the side of either Henry or Robert. This business completed, the duke, who was a brave man but not a constant one, well enough contented with this agreement, soon returned to Normandy.
3. Freed from this external war, and wanting to settle domestic seditions, the king banished Robert Earl of Salisbury, the son of Hugh (of whose death I wrote in the preceding Book), a treacherous man, and captured the castle of Arundel, where he had conferred with men of his own ilk about disturbing the peace of the realm. When this had been done, a very quiet condition ensued for the kingdom, and yet this was not a good thing for Henry. For he, puffed up by his success, took it upon himself to create bishops by his own authority and grant possession of bishoprics to his creations. Indeed, about this time sovereigns everywhere began to claim this right of creating bishops, to which they cling tenaciously, as I have shown in my De Inventoribus Rerum IV.x. Anselm Archbishop of Canterbury refused to consecrate these men, calling them the abortive sons of religion. Indeed, regarding anything having to do with their election as null and void, he greatly admonished the king not to pervert or pollute sacred rites or the rights and ceremonies of religion. But the king was so far from being moved by these warnings that he was even more stubborn in his view. For a little before this Thomas Archbishop of York had departed this life, and in his place was set Girard, a sage man but excessively eager for honor and glory. And so Henry asked this man not to repudiate the bishops he had created, and he complied, although this was illegal, and consecrated all the bishops of this kind except for William Gifford, Bishop-Elect of Winchester, who refused to accept this consecration for him, and for this he was stripped of his powers and sent into exile. Anselm, the keen defender of this cause, was beset with many insults. For when he saw this evil growing day by day in many places (for other private men placed priests in livings as they saw fit, after the royal example). and that soon all the clergy's power would be overturned unless a remedy were applied, he decided the risk his life rather than fail the commonwealth, in accordance with that Gospel saying, the good shepherd giveth his life for the sheep. Therefore, now by praying, now by urging, now by threatening that God would not tolerate such impiety, he so stung the king that he said he would refer the entire controversy to Pope Paschal and abide by his decision. And to speed this, he sent ambassadors bearing his letter, who, as is the custom, would promise he would always obey the papal decision, and then plead his case. Likewise, that each one of whose who had obtained livings and dignities of that kind might industriously protect his position, he promised his permission to all of them who wished to travel to Rome to excuse themselves, and so he promptly did. Going as royal ambassadors were Herbert Bishop of Norwich and Robert Bishop of Lichfield, members of the Privy Council. They were followed by Anselm, Girard Archbishop of York, and William Bishop-Elect of Winchester. Pope Paschal greeted them warmly and gladly gave them a hearing. But he held Anselm in particular esteem, for he was already familiar with his probity, modesty, and gravity. The ambassadors, first performing the duty of their embassy, set forth the reason for the controversy that had arisen between the king and Anselm, and energetically defended it. On the other side, Anselm and his companions use arguments of equity to condemn it as illegal. And so the Pope, since it was a point of papal law that the possession of a living was not lawful if it had not been conferred by a bishop, commanded that for the future neither the king nor anyone else should claim for himself this right. But he confirmed the bishops already created, lest he provide grounds for dispute if he refused. Thus, the business completed, he dismissed the royal ambassadors and bestowed great gifts on Anselm and the pallium on Girard Archbishop of York. And a little later they returned to England and announced the Pope's decision to the king. He, who had been suborned by bad priests and wanted to weaken the clergy, did not hear this gladly, nor did he stay his hand until he had been overcome by Anselm's many entreaties and arguments, and in the end very grudgingly accepted this apostolic injunction. Anselm, thus having recalled the king's mind from error, convened a plenary synod of bishops and the entire clergy at London, in which he abolished many things which appeared to hinder religion, and ordained many that were wholesome. And so the state of the clergy greatly flourished. But this he did particularly, both justly and piously, that he decreed that some men who had deserved ill of religion or had obtained their livings contrary to right and law should partly be defrocked, and partly be deprived of their livings. But since a goodly part of these afterwards repented, he was moved by mercy and dealt with the Pope with equal zeal that they be duly restored to their former dignity. The king too arranged for many things to be appointed in that synod which were conducive to living well and happily. Some write this synod was held before Anselm's mission to Rome, that on his return journey he spent some days at Lyon, and that while he was there he learned he had been banished by Henry and a little while later despoiled of his archbishopric, because it was by his doing that that the Pope had decided the controversy contrary to the king's wishes. They report many other things foreign to the truth, but if I were to pursue these, they would take me too far from my subject.
4. At this time Duke Robert of Normandy came to England. Henry, by now an eager student of self-advantage, addressed this easygoing and liberal man with such friendly words that of his own volition he remitted forever those annual 3,000 marks Henry had contracted to pay, and thus returned to the Continent after a few days with empty pockets. Afterwards Robert repented the liberality he had used towards a brother who was scarcely poverty-stricken, and at a time when this was not necessary. So he could not be restrained from indignantly proclaiming he had been cheated. When Henry heard this, he exploded in equal anger and immediately sent a goodly number of armed men to the Continent, to harry Norman territories. On this expedition his soldiers wasted everything far and wide, but, so far from being opposed by anyone, they actually received support. For both the nobility and the common run of his subjects were offended by Duke Robert's light-mindedness. For he had previously waged war against Henry as the usurper of his own kingdom, and when nothing was nearer than that he would regain what was his, he hastily and inconsiderately entered into a peace with him, and afterwards, as I have just said, foolishly excused him of the need to pay tribute. Therefore the royal army ranged far and wide, wasting everything with impunity, although Duke Robert offered what resistance he could. Meanwhile the king, discovering this situating and conceiving hopes of gaining Normandy, crossed over with a great army. On his first arrival, when some of the bravest Normans deserted to him, he reduced Caen and Evreux to his control and garrisoned them. And with the summer drawing to an end, he was content with this victory for the time and went back to England. And meanwhile Robert, reflecting how unequal he was to his brother, what with his Normans defecting to him, and in what danger his affairs stood, and how difficult it would be to find a timely remedy (especially since the Bretons and inhabitants of Anjou, whom Caesar had called the Andes, sided with the king), decided not to fight and to place all hope for gaining a peace in fraternal affection. And since he thought he could not place any great hopes on an embassy, he himself with a few attendants came to his brother in England, who at the time was staying at Northampton. Here the duke humbly asked his brother for peace, and prayed by all the saints and in the name of their kinship that if he would not be mindful of brotherly love, at least he should remember his kindness. If he would not remember grace and mercy, let him at least think how brothers could not war against each other without great disgrace, nor could there be any praise and honor in victory. Therefore he should not refuse to reject the desired peace, friendship and benevolence being offered him, when he himself was prepared freely to surrender all that was his. The king was unmoved by these statements but remained indignant, and, having spoken with a hard expression, turned himself away, being a man who had learned by prior experiments that his brother had a fickle nature, or because he had formed the intention of using savagery against him to achieve his destruction. Robert, offended by his brother's arrogance, detesting and cursing it, went promptly home bent on running the risk of death or servitude for the sake of avenging his wounded self-esteem, seeing he could place no more faith in fraternal affection. Therefore he bent all his strength to preparing for war, assembling auxiliary forces from all sides, although Henry had given him little time to for his preparations, following him on his departure to Normandy with a new draft of soldiers. Here they pitched camp no great distance from each other, busily readying themselves for a fight. The king, who was superior in numbers, was the first to lead out his arm. The duke was nothing slower in doing the same.
5. Thus each side provoked the other, the signal was given forthwith, and they came to blows. Trusting in their numbers, the royal troops came out in poor order, surging forth wherever they wished, and greatly pressed their enemy. But the Normans were skillfully drawn by their duke, who was well versed in martial tactics, and each man tenaciously stood his ground, with Robert now fighting, now exhorting, and at that time with Count William of Moriton fought manfully in the forefront, to the extent that the royal fighting-line which, as I have said, had broken ranks of its own volition, now came close to distrusting its power and gradually began to flee. On the other side stood the duke, keeping his men in their proper order, and continually following on the enemy's heels and and striking at him. Now victory was in his grasp, the enemy falling around him, when the king, perceiving his men were openly fleeing, stopped them in their flight with a great shout, and ordered all his horsemen suddenly to charge the flanks of the Norman battle-line. This they did with such an onrush that they shattered it. When this had been accomplished, all the royal footmen joined together with the horsemen who had extricated themselves, and together they hurled themselves on the Norman with might and main. For a while the enemy sustained this attempt, until they were for the most part surrounded and began to seek escape. Then the victorious king so pursued the fugitives that he worked a great slaughter, but not an bloodless one. For the Normans, now despairing of gaining safety, turned fiercely on their pursuers. Robert, together with the Count of Moriton, was captured although fighting more vigorously than anyone else, or was betrayed by certain of his subjects, who had been corrupted by a bribe, as some tell it. No writer records with precision the number slain on either side, but they do say that up to that day no other battle had ever been fought in Normandy with greater loss of life, and for this reason the common report goes that for some days a comet had been seen in that place, and a little afterwards two full moons were seen, one in the east, the other glowing in the west. Henry, having accomplished so great a war, traveled throughout Normandy and strengthened it with his garrisons, for at length he had gained it to his empire, just as his father had once predicted would come to pass. Then he returned to England with his captive brother, and was greeted by his subjects like a Roman celebrating his triumph. This was the seventh year of Henry's reign, and the year of human salvation 1107, memorable for the downfall of Duke Robert, who was stripped of all his honors and fortune and imprisoned in the town in Wales called Cardiff, where twenty-six years later he died, partly of old age, and partly worn down by sorrow, a man assuredly most excellent and worthy of comparison with any general you care to name, had he only been a little more cautious or more steadfast in his decisions. Some write (perhaps following popular opinion) that some years later the king freed him, and commanded that within the space of forty days and twelve hours (for that was the amount of time required for the ocean to come in at high tide) he should foreswear England and his native Normandy, and board ship to go into perpetual exile, but then he was caught in some plot or other against the king, blinded, and placed back in captivity. This form of pronouncing exile was originated by Edward the Confessor, whose law on this matter is extant, and is still observed today, as often as some man convicted of a crime takes refuge in a church, except nowadays he must carry a cross in his hand until he comes to the seashore, as a sign his life has been saved by means of religion. And so Robert had this wretched end to his life, which men say he deserved because out of impiety he had persecuted his father. He married a wife in Sicily while returning from the Crusade, the daughter of Roger Duke of Apulia and Count of that island, by whom he fathered only one son, named William, since his wife died a few days after childbirth. As far as I know, the woman's name is not recorded. I shall tell more about his William, a boy of noble nature, elsewhere. And thus Normandy was annexed to the kingdom of England.
6. In those days the ocean caused unnaturally great floods and many men who lived on the seaboard of Flanders were driven from their ancestral homes and came to England, begging for land wherein to live. They settled the east part of the island, but four years later colonies were led to Wales. In that year, too, which was the eighth of Henry's reign, Edgar King of Scots died, a man of singular integrity, constancy, and modesty, who was succeeded by his brother Alexander, with Henry's support. At this same time departed this life Phiippe King of France, who was followed by Louis the Fat, a young man of sage wit and not unfamiliar with the military art. This development made Henry anxious lest rebellion be raised by his subjects in Normandy at French instigation, and so he went there as soon as possible and, although everything was at peace, he nonetheless reinforced all places with stronger garrisons to counter any outbreak of revolt. Having done this, he returned to England. And immediately he was greeted by ambassadors of Henry V, the Emperor-Elect, sent by him to ask that Henry's king Maud be granted to him in holy wedlock, although she was not yet nubile. The king gave this a very favorable hearing. Not disdaining this proffered alliance, he betrothed his daughter to Henry. Having performed many games in celebration of this betrothal, he sent the ambassadors home, liberally laden down with gifts. Now the tenth year of Henry's reign was at hand, memorable for the death of Anselm Archbishop of Canterbury. This Italian from Aost in the Piedmont was born to distinguished parents, and chanced to come to Normandy when still a little boy. Gaining a good education, he escaped his father's savagery, which he could mollify by no manner of dutifulness nor kindness. Thus being well disposed in his nature, he began to study under Lanfranc, that man of great reputation and learning, and with him for a professor he quickly grew to be most erudite and most modest, so much so that he far surpassed his fellow students. And afterwards, when he was twenty-five years of age, Lanfranc induced him to adopt the monastic life. Subsequently made Abbot of Bec, he governed his monks no less piously than carefully. After being created Archbishop of Canterbury nothing was more important to him than to deserve wonderfully well of religion and his commonwealth, although he suffered many insults at Rufus' hands, as I have said elsewhere. His famous sanctity would have greatly restrained Rufus when he was undermining the clergy, had his ears ever been open to Anselm's wholesome admonitions. Besides the other acts of piety which he industriously performed, since he was distinguished for his great learning, he dedicated every fruit of his work to the service of religion. For he wrote books entitled De Meditationibus, Cur Deus Homo, De Libero Arbitrio, De Similitudinibus, De Cruce, and De Ioanne Baptista. And at the end of his life, they say, he founded a Benedictine monastery at Chester. He died in his sixteenth year in office, having lived sixty-six. This was the year of salvation 1110. He was buried in Christ Church, Canterbury, and canonized soon thereafter. In the same year, upon the death of Gerard Archbishop of York, the king's domestic chaplain Thomas succeeded him, the twenty-seventh archbishop. A the same time, the bishopric of Ely was founded, since an abbot named Richard governed a very richly-endowed monastery in the Isle of Ely, and Lincoln had been the diocese of this, together with the Isle and Cambridgeshire. So Robert was desirous for this dignity, and it entered his mind to establish an episcopal see there, to celebrate both the place and himself. So he dealt first with the king, and then with the Bishop of Lincoln, that the county of Cambridgeshire, together with the Isle of Ely and the monastery with their governor, called the prefect, who would preside over them in lieu of an abbot, no mean possessions, would be assigned to that future diocese. These arrangements being settled Pope Paschal approved them by his authority. But during these transactions Abbot Richard died and was unable to enjoy the honor he had sought, so Henry Bishop of Bangor was created the first Bishop of Ely. And so it came about that one man sowed and another reaped, as the proverb says. But this was a good thing both for the monastery, which was greatly ennobled by this new see, and also for the Bishop of Lincoln, who was very much relieved of this concern, since he had such a widespread diocese. At this same time many prodigies were reported. It is recorded that for the space of an entire day the river Trent did not flow for a mile, but, as if it had diverted its course elsewhere, it abandoned that stretch of its bed so that men could walk back and forth across dry sand. But afterwards it began to flow in its usual way. Likewise a sow whelped a piglet with a human face, and a four-footed chicken was born.
7. Meanwhile, overseas, Count Fulco of Anjou, who openly begrudged English affairs and lamented the misfortune of Duke Robert, was up in arms and occupied Autun, having won over the townsmen by money. When this was told to the king, he immediately went over to Normandy and recovered this lost city, no few citizens being dragged off to their execution, and he created much trouble for the Count. When he had settled this business to his satisfaction he went back to England. Another war remained to be fought, namely, his zeal for the acquisition of money, which troubled, tortured and vexed many men, seeing their king gradually coming to threaten the fortunes of others. For this was now the fifth year that the archbishopric of Canterbury had lain vacant, and meanwhile the king had been receiving its income. When he was admonished he should arrange for some grave man to be called to that dignity, he was wont to say that he was searching for a man who would not be far inferior to Lanfranc and Anselm in learning, probity, and prudence, and since none such had presented himself, he was allowing it to stay vacant until God provided someone suitable, as if he were more concerned for this than for his personal advantage. But at length, perceiving this was being held against him, so as to free himself of that infamy, he named Ralph Bishop of Rochester, an upright man, the thirty-fifth archbishop. At about the same time time died Thomas Archbishop of York, who was followed by Thrustin, a man of great mind and singular learning. He immediately fell into a quarrel with the Archbishop of Canterbury concerning authority, and albeit he was asked by the king to abide by the same terms the other archbishops had observed as a condition of their office, he refused to acquiesce, especially as Ralph was ailing and had to devote the majority of his attention to his health. Thrustin consecrated some Scottish bishops, and above all others Gilla Aldan Bishop-Elect of Whithorn, who soon affirmed in his presence he was prepared to obey him at all times and swore the customary oath of fealty. In those days almost all Worcester was destroyed by file, and since that city bordered on Wales, this was taken as an omen presaging the Welsh uprising which ensued. And the Welsh, who had gained great confidence from the unfortunate outcome of Rufus' wars against them, and who disdained peace and leisure alike, began to lay waste English fields, and at the same time arouse neighboring peoples to arms. For this reason Henry conceived a great desire to subdue them, so that his subjects' tumults would not be shamefully before his eyes every day. Therefore, gathering together a very mighty army in the blink of an eye, he marched against Wales. And since the Welsh trusted more in their rough terrain than in their arms, and ranged their forests and trackless places awaiting their enemy, he therefore surrounded all their forests with his soldiers, and soon sent men into them to hunt down the Welsh like so many wandering beasts of prey. When this was done, the king had no need to encourage his men, since each man encouraged himself, remembering the brand of ignominy he had previously suffered. Therefore they ran hither and thither, hunting their enemy with drawn swords. There art of generalship, used to deploy one's ranks and handle one's support troops, played no part here, the soldiers' anger did all the work. Therefore the Welsh, attacked with the steel, were cruelly cut down. And so you could not have found an easy match for the bloodshed and slaughter, if they had not stayed their arms. For when Henry saw the Welsh falling everywhere and, having thrown away their arms, being massacred as they fled, he commanded his soldiers to spare them. And those who escaped this whirlwind of death afterwards voluntarily surrendered, pleading for mercy. And so by this means the king finally subdued the fierce peoples of Wales and, after strengthening every place with garrisons, he made his joyful, triumphant return to London in the fourteenth year of his reign. And at that time, when the royal girl Maud, now of marriageable age, was sought by the Emperor Henry, to whom she had been betrothed, by way of a dowry the king imposed on the people a hide tax, i. e., a tax on each acre of land. And when he had extracted much money by this means, he arranged for the girl to be escorted speedily to her husband, with a great dowry. Later kings imitated this precedent for assembling a dowry when they married off their daughter, so tenacious has posterity always been in pursuing its advantage.
8. Afterwards Henry went over to Normandy and made his son William Duke of that region, compelling the whole people to swear allegiance to him. Hence arose the custom arose of kings bestowing the dukedom of Normandy on their heirs-apparent. And after the king rendered the condition of Normandy very peaceful, he quickly came back to England. They say that on October 10 of that same year around the shore of the island the sea receded to such an extent that it left dry land in estuaries. This lasted an entire day and was taken for a miracle. Furthermore, some rivers which twice daily rise and fall with the ocean's tide shrank in many places to the point they could be crossed on foot. While Henry was free from wars at home and abroad, he turned to improving the kingdom's condition, and so summoned the clergy and nobility to Salisbury. In a parliament held here, they took consideration for the welfare of the commonwealth. Likewise, all public and private suits and controversies between nobles were resolved, with the exception of the old controversy between the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, since Thrustin refused to abide by the decision. Hence an angry king ordered him either to obey it or resign. And, as some writers have it, he did neither but, defended by Pope Calixtus II, he stubbornly maintained his position against the Archbishop of Canterbury. Others write that he preferred to demit his dignity than submit to the jurisdiction of Canterbury. But it is clear enough that, after suffering many hardships because of his persistence, and having retained the archbishopric until old age (for then he voluntarily abdicated his pontificate and was made a monk), and that he always feuded with the Archbishop of Canterbury over this right of jurisdiction. From this we can gather that bishops were already beginning to grow delirious, blinded by greed and ambition, when the failed to see that their duty was to scorn all things admired by the common run of mankind, and only to care for the salvation of men's souls. Lastly, at this same parliament all the peers of the realm swore an oath of fealty to the king, and likewise to his son William. And here it is appropriate for me to say that before these times kings were not accustomed to summoning parliaments, except rarely, so much so that this practice can said to have originated with Henry, which is now so deeply-rooted that from his time on the custom has always endured of referring to a parliament whatever question arises about the good government and preservation is referred to a parliament, and whatever has been decreed by the king or by the people is deemed to be null and void unless ratified by parliamentary authority. And, lest a parliament be impeded by the opinion of the ignorant multitude, whose chief characteristic is to know nothing, from the beginning it has been stipulated by law what men from the clergy, and what and how many from the rest of the people, should be summoned to a parliament. This public assembly is called parliament in the French manner, and each king is in the habit of having one at the start of his reign, so that whatever ancient laws should be abolished or restored may be done in accordance with parliamentary will. And afterwards, the king may summon them at his pleasure, as often as matters require. And so, since in this assembly the interest of both Peers and Commons are considered, so that each man may enjoy freedom of speech, they consult separately. For the king, prelates, nobles and abbots sit in one place, and representatives of burghers and the common people sit in another nearby, to conduct their debates. And the latter choose one grave man whom they call their Speaker. He sets the agenda, asks the opinions of individual Members, and refers their decisions to the Lords. And nothing is deemed to be ratified that has not gained a majority vote in both houses and been approved by the king, for that reason is asked his opinion last of all by the Lord Chancellor, who is the Speaker of the Lords. And bishops follow this formula in their synods, since they, abbots, and priors (i. e., the heads of monasteries) sit apart, the so-called deans, deacons and archdeacons, and other clerical representatives gather together, and they have a Speaker who reports their decisions to the Fathers. And among these latter the archbishop defines decisions in accordance with the votes of both houses, and pronounces these to be laws. And so from decisions of this kind, made by kings and the people and ratified by parliamentary authority, arises the law peculiar to this nation, so-called municipal law, which is the wellspring of all their laws, since they do not accept that other kind of law which men call civil.
9. Such was the condition of England when a war broke out between Kinh Louis the Fat of France, and Henry, very notable for its peril, the strength of the soldiers involved, and the virtue of its captains, that had its origin in a trifling quarrel between the two kings. They say that it begun with Count Theobald of Champagne, a member of the Blois family, and hence Henry's kinsman because his sister Adele was the wife of Earl Stephen of Blois. This man's trust in his family connections, or in his wealth, drove him to such a height of boldness that, asking Henry for help, he took up arms against Louis and vexed him in sundry ways. And he, who for other reasons already nursed a grudge against the King of England, unutterably aggrieved by this thing, consulted with Count Baldwin of Flanders and Count Fulco of Anjou about taking Normandy away from Henry by either force or treason, and of restoring it to William the son of Duke Robert, so that in this way, entering into a military alliance, he might gain revenge for the insult done to him by Henry. When King Henry perceived this (and he perceived it from the start), he first of all imposed a heavy tax on his people for the sake of waging this new war, a thing that became traditional among later kings. Then, going over to Normandy and joining Theobald to himself, he prepared for war. At the time of Henry's arrival, Louis, who had placed all his hope for success in quick action, decided to invade Normandy by night, and then at daybreak suddenly to ravage its fields and compel some places to defect to him. But, learning of the coming of his enemy and mistrusting his own strength, he chose to defer the fight to a later time and went home, his enterprise unfinished. But not much later, eager to try the fortune of war, he fought frequent disorderly skirmishes with the English king, with no memorable results other than the death of Earl Baldwin, as some writers choose to say. But I do not agree, since it is established that he died at a later date, as will be made clear at the appropriate place.
10. In the following year a great battle was fought between the kings themselves. But before describing this, I think it worthwhile to show how little the historians of both these nations agree with each other, and, not to cite the oldest writers, it will suffice to relate what more modern ones have written about the French actions. For they say that King Henry, having captured his brother Robert and taken Normandy, swore an oath of fealty to Louis as his feudal lord. This was because Rollo, the first Duke of Normandy, received Neustria (which he renamed Normandy) as his wife's dowry, as I have mentioned in Book V of this work, and was enjoined to pay an annual tribute to the King of France as his overlord, lest this land be said to have been gained by war. And they came to an agreement that whichever of them should first acquire from Paganus, a stout fellow, the castle of the town of Gisors, which is located on the river Epte, which serves as the border between France and Normandy, should level the castle within four days. But they say that, because Henry had taken Gisors and, although again and again warned by messengers, refused to demolish it in accordance with the treaty, he was troubled by the French in a few light skirmishes, and that in the end these English allies had made a sally and driven off the King of France. So they say this was the beginning of this great war, and, having been thus started, it was concluded in the following year, not without great loss on both sides. For, as the same authors write, Henry was attacked on three sides at once by the French, by Count Baldwin from the direction of Le Mans, by Count Fulco from Ponthieu, and by Charles from the middle. And this latter, to cause his enemy worse troubles, proclaimed Robert's son William Duke of Normandy, and prodded Hugh, the royal chamberlain, and some others to murder Henry. But the crime was brought to light and the traitors immediately executed. Because of this, Henry began to conduct his affairs with considerably greater caution, and yet amidst his great danger and woes he received consolation. For when he did not lose heart and put up a stout resistance, Baldwin was wounded and left the fighting, and at the same time Fulco came over to his side. Then the two kings fought with varying success, as fortune inclined now to this side, now to that. But the castle of Gisors remained standing by Louis' permission, since he had granted it to Henry's son William, who was obedient to his word. King William I had first built this to be a sturdy bulwark against French incursions, which is why the French so greatly wanted a work of this kind to be leveled. But there is no doubt the English authors I am following write more accurately about the outcome of this war. It was not the eighteenth year of Henry's reign when Louis, his anger daily mounting, came to the borders of Normandy with a very mighty army, pitched camp, and too the town of St. Nicase by a ruse. Then he was not behindhand in marching against Henry. The forces of these two generals therefore collided, on the one side that of the Normans and English, and on the that of the French king and his allies. They joined battle, and both sides fought vigorously for more than nine hours. Never had the English come to blows with higher spirits, never did the stubbornness of their minds lead to a greater slaughter. For the first battle-line of both sides was dislodged, and they came so closely to blows that Henry was repeatedly stricken in the head with blows. Even if he was well protected by a helmet, yet he bled from the mouth. When he saw this he was not daunted, but like a lion aroused against its tormentors, he defeated the French after inflicting great slaughter, and St. Nicase was recovered.
11. Many thousands were killed or captured in that battle. Count Baldwin of Flanders died of his wound, and was succeeded by Charles, son of King Canute of the Dacians by the sister of Robert, the father of Count Baldwin, because he himself left no children. With his victorious army Henry went to Rouen and entered the city in triumph, preceded by a long row of priests thanking God for his victory. After he suffered this defeat, the English historians make no mention of Louis. But the French ones write that, so he might in some manner vent his rage against Henry, attacked the citizens of Chartres, who were subject to Theobald, minded to destroy the city. But he was met by a throng of priests carrying saints' relics, and he was moved by piety to collect himself and settle his mind. For when Louis had been preparing a great army against the Emperor Henry, who was at the time angry against the French for favoring Pope Calixtus II, had tried to destroy Rheims, and Theobald had come to Louis' aid, even if the emperor was soon frightened off by such large preparations for war. I have no need to write here about this controversy between the Calistus and the Emperor Henry, since Il Platina, who wrote biographies of the Popes, makes everything so clear it need not be repeated. In the same year died Henry's wife Matilda, a woman famed for her very chaste morals and sanctity. After his defeat of the French, Henry entered into an alliance of kinships with Count Fulco of Anjou, giving his daughter to Fulco's son William. Meanwhile, while these things were being done, and the King of France was detained at Rheims concerned with waging a new war with the German emperor, they say that Henry suddenly came to France and began to waste its fields far and wide, and that with equal speed he attacked Count Almeric of Montefort, who was charged with the defense of that district, and suffered a repulse, not without loss. But it is sufficiently established that when he had become Henry's kinsman Fulco, an excellent man, when he estimated that the two kings had tried the fortune of war, albeit not with equal success, would not now scorn peace as a great boon for them both, so acted that they came to an agreement on reasonable terms, an especial point of which was the stipulation that men would not be held accountable for siding with the French or the English. An many other things were enacted so the peace would remain inviolate.
12. French matters thus settled to his satisfaction, King Henry caught a fair wind and sailed from Normandy to England, and was triumphantly received by his subjects with great joy. But this common rejoicing was quickly transformed to great sorrow, when news was received about the death of the king's son. For Duke William, born of Mathilde, together with Richard, whom some think to have been born of a concubine, boarded ship and, with a gentle southerly blowing, as they made their course for England, behold, thanks to the sailors' carelessness the ship was shattered by a reef and perished with all hands, to the number of 150. Only one man was saved, who stubbornly clung to a mast and on the following day was borne to land, which was not far away. William would also have escaped, had he not preferred piety to safety. For when the ship was broken, he immediately got in a boat and made for land, when his sister, already struggling against her doom, called out for his help with a womanish cry. And he, moved by affection, promptly turned back and ordered the boat to be moved in close to the ship so that it might take aboard his sister. When it approached, such a multitude tried to climb aboard that it sank in a tricet. Mathilde his mother undoubtedly predicted William's end when she was unwillingly compelled to marry, for, as if driven by a fury, she cursed the offspring of her race and the seed of her body. And Maud, married to the the emperor, had a share of her mother's omen, for (as will be told at the appropriate place) she was greatly afflicted by adversity. The common people say that he suffered this tragedy because of the king's cruelty against his brother Robert, since he let him drag on a most unhappy life in prison. Henry was incredibly grieved by his son's sad death, since he was deprived of an heir. For this reason he soon married another wife, named Adelicia, from the ancient line of the Dukes of Lorraine, a girl endowed with manners and beauty, but by her he had no son. While he was caught up in these cares, he learned by letters that the Welsh, who so dearly loved to plunder, were burning villages and manors, and stealing cattle. This so aroused him that he quickly collected an army and marched against Wales with a mind to attack these bandits most cruelly. But when rumor of his arrival spread through Wales, the Welsh were so averse to coming to blows with him that they even sent ambassadors to meet him, begging pardon for their crimes and humbly seeking peace. The king, moved by their entreaties, took hostages and granted them peace with no reluctance, since in this kind of war against robbers he had no hope of profit and much fear of loss. So bordering peoples would no longer be troubled by Welsh inroads, he charged Warin Earl of Shropshire with the task of holding them to their word. In addition to other memorable acts, this excellent lord, famed for his consummate piety, founded two Benedictine monasteries, one in the suburbs of Shrewsbury, and the other near the village of Weneloch, the one dedicated to St. Milburga, and the other to the Apostles Peter and Paul. Shrewsbury is an ancient town on the Welsh border, set on no mean mountain, whose foot is watered by the river Severn to the north. In the following year, which was the twenty-second of Henry's reign, nothing memorable happened except he made a careful tour of that part of his realm bordering on Scotland, providing by laws for individual places, and for their inhabitants' condition,morals, customs and laws. In the same year, as some say, Thrustin returned into the king's good graces, and Ralph Archbishop of Canterbury departed this life in the eighth year of his tenure. He was succeeded by William, the twenty-sixth archbishop. And the king's nephew Henry, a son of Count Stephen of Blois, the Abbot of Glastonbury, was created Bishop of Winchester. Being endowed with singular goodness and modesty, he always most acceptable to the English.
13. Meanwhile, when the Normans learned of the death of the king's son Duke William, new upheavals started at the instigation of Robert Count of Mellent. When this was announced to Henry, he immediately went over to Normandy, besieged and took a certain castle that belonged to Robert himself. But Robert did not himself stay quiet, mindful of this insult. Rather, gathering allies from over other, together with Almeric Count of Montefort he invaded Normandy, wasting everything with steel and fire. When William Helvin, a Norman who had been set in charge of the royal forces, learned this, he straightway went against enemy and set his snares. And in these he caught Robert, who did all things out of anger and greed, together with Almeric, who unguardedly fell into these, and after a long fight he took him and brought him captive to the king. Henry tarried a long part of the year in Normandy. And at that time the Emperor Henry left this world of human affairs, and Henry's daughter Maud, by whom the emperor had had no children, came to him. In the following year Henry returned to England when his Normans affairs were settled, taking Maud with him. But after sharing the bed of a Caesar (for women are more avid for honor) she was henceforth called the Augusta. Some write that she fled to her father while her husband was still alive and married Geoffrey, as will be told below, thus entering the family of the Counts of Anjou. At the same time Count Charles of Flanders, who had succeeded Baldwin, while hearing mass in the church of St. Donatus at Brughes, was treacherously murdered by his own subjects. Since he had no children, King Louis, who was ill-disposed towards Henry, substituted William, the son of Duke Robert of Normandy, who on his father's side could trace his lineage from Count Baldwin the Pious. For the count's daughter Mathilda was married to William I, as I have shown above, who by her sired Robert, the father of this William. Likewise Louis visited various punishments on all the murderers of Charles. But Henry took it amiss when he learned that his nephew had been made Count of Flanders, especially because this fierce young man openly threatened to avenge his father's sufferings. But, in comparison with the war which he foresaw between himself and the King of France, he easily overlooked his nephew's anger. And so, quickly summoning a parliament of his clergy and nobles at London, after much had been deliberated about this new war and a levy of soldiers, and about the state of the commonwealth, lastly, by vote of parliament, he appointed his daughter Maud Augusta and her sons, if she should in the future bear any, his heirs. This decision was ratified by all men upon their oath. David King of Scots was present at this parliament, who a little earlier was made king because of his excellent virtues after his brother Alexander died childless, and this was done with Henry's approval. Stephen Count of Boulogne, the son of Count Stephen of Blois and King Henry's nephew by his sister Adele, was also present. These two likewise swore an oath of fealty to Maud. After these things, since Henry had no hope of fathering children, in order to propagate his line he betrothed his daughter Mathilda to Geoffrey Plantagent, the son of Count Fulco of Anjou, Tours, and Le Mans.
14. Meanwhile Count William of Flanders, being a new prince and not at all wealthy, daily demanded great money of his subjects, demanded it from his tax-collecters though it was not yet owed to him, borrowed it from friends and industriously turned over every stone to obtain it, for he was determined to win back Normandy, or at least free his father from the captivity in which he was being held by his brother Henry. Very many citizens of Flanders were silently annoyed by these exactions, so much so that part of their nobility secretly began to flee to Count Theodoric of Alsace, Count Robert's nephew by his daughter, and others to Arnold, the sister's son of Charles, who had been murdered a little before. They told these lords in what a devastated condition Flanders stood, and each man on his own behalf began to urge and to promise much, if only it were permitted them to regain their province from the Norman, which he unjustly held. These pleas and other considerations so moved them that both very eagerly prepared the the things needful for a future rebellion. But Theodoric, being the nearer in kinship, was the first to begin the thing, and at his first onslaught he occupied Brughes, Ypres, and Ghent, the townsmen freely surrendering. This unexpected development shocked William's mind, but, thinking it needed to be checked with haste, he quickly armed himself and hastened there, where he strove to recall the townsmen to their allegiance with sweet words. And since this got him nowhere, he immediately wrote to Louis requesting aid, which he obtained. At this juncture Arnold appeared and, entering Flanders, which was, as it were, available for the plundering, he took St. Omer, a well-fortified town. But frightened by the sudden arrival of the French who came to help Count William, he entered into an agreement granting him immunity and went home. As soon as Henry (who was annoyed at his nephew) was informed of this by messengers, he crossed over to Normandy and invaded France, filling everything with slaughter and lamentation, nor did he turn back before Louis was compelled to withdraw his forces from Flanders, lest he abandon his own subjects while helping foreigners. But William, albeit destitute of help, was none the slower in coming to blows with Theodoric, and after a lengthy fight he routed him and pursued him as far as the town of Alost. Here the townsmen, admitting Theodoric within their walls, defended themselves with vigor. But see how a Man is nothing more than a bubble, as the proverb says it. While William was so busied about the siege of the place, behold, he was suddenly struck with an arrow shot from the wall and fell down dead. The common belief is that the real causes of his death was the happiness of King Henry, which could not be broken. Then Theodoric, who was already defeated, gained Flanders, his fortune suddenly altered in this way. With matters in France thus concluded, King Henry returned to England at the first possible moment.
15. At this time Pope Honorius II sent a certain Cardinal to England as his legate (the man's name is not given, none the worse for him) to investigate the condition of the clergy. He convened a plenary synod of bishops at London, in which, in addition to correcting other things strictly, they began to discuss in all seriousness the life and morals of priests. And the legate delivered a lengthy speech harshly railing against priests infamous for their lust. And since this touched no few, and they had already sniffed out that this Cardinal was an unclean, purblind fellow, who, in accordance with that Gospel verse, saw the mote in the other man's eye, but not the beam in his own, they thought nothing more intolerable than for him to demand an account of their lives, when he could not give one of his own. Therefore they began to keep a close eye on him, and soon caught him out sinning. And so, disgraced or recalled for some other reason, he departed for Rome. But the assembled bishops nevertheless continued their synod after the legate's departure. In which, after they had made many pious decisions, they required each and every priest to render an account of his life. Among whom there were some who had been warned before and yet continued to live unchastely, and it was voted that by all means they should be punished. Hearing of this, the king fancied he could garner a fat prize, and under the pretext of upholding justice, as he he were paying no attention to self-advantage, he began to deal with the bishops that they would give him the power of setting these punishments. The bishops readily granted this, imagining the king would deal with them mildly, and so it would come about that henceforth priests would live more chastely out of fear of royal chastisement. And so the king undertook this task and mulcted each convicted priest of a hefty sum, unconcerned whether they would send away their mistresses. And so the bishops, those shepherd of Christ's flock, were very ashamed and repentant, realizing they had entrusted their sheep to a wolf.
16. It was now the year of human salvation 1130 when Henry crossed over to Normandy, where he was troubled by frequent dreams. For now he seemed to see a multitude of peasants with their rustic implements, next of soldiers with their weapons, and then of bishops with their staffs rushing at him. He would quickly awaken, seize his arms, and bawl like a madman. When he consulted about this, he was told that while he still had the time he should atone for his sins by repentance, generosity, and abstinence. And so he began to live a new life. They say that at this time Maud, dismissed by her husband Geoffrey, came to her father Henry. As far as I am aware, no historian gives the cause of their quarrel, which, no doubt, was a trifling one, since a little later her husband took her back. And also at that time Innocent II was proclaimed Pope after the death of Honorius II, and as soon as he assumed the pontificate he declared war on Roger. This was the son of Count Roger of Sicily, whom Duke William of Apulia, the last of the Guiscard line, had made his heir, who now claimed Apulia. Roger pitched his camp near San Germano, but the Pope drove him from that place at his first onslaught, so strong was the Roman army. Then the town was surrendered and he besieged Gallucio. Duke William of Calabria came there and helped his father, and in one favorable battle not only rescued his endangered father but took the Pope and some Cardinals captive. This misfortune goes to show priests should not be warriors. But Duke William held the Pope and Cardinals in the highest esteem and released them. As a result, he afterwards obtained anything he wanted from the Pope, save for clear title to his kingdom, which he strove to obtain by payments and promises. But meanwhile, so that more trouble would be created for Innocent, Peter the son of Peter Leo was also proclaimed Pope, a Roman of high-born stock who called himself Anacletus. And this thing was presaged by an omen. For at this same time in France countless birds fought with each other in a clear sky and fluttered down to earth, dead. This fellow ransacked church treasuries, including a gold statue of Christ hanging from the cross, and crowns made of the same metal, from St. Peter's. By doing this he amassed a huge amount of money, and by his impious largesse he purchased popularity with the people. Because of these things the city's condition was transformed, when everything seemed to look to armed violence, Innocent lately returned to Rome (for this conflagration took place during his absence,) thinking that he was obliged by necessity to yield to this raging man, left first for Pisa, then for Genoa, and finally crossed over to France. Meanwhile, Anacletus was bent on currying favor with the nobility, so that, above and beyond his personal resources, he might also bring Robert over to his side, made him King of both Sicilies, something he had been refused by Innocent. Innocent, calling a Council at Claremont in which he condemned Anacletus and the other members of his faction. Then he went to Orleans, once called Genebum. Here he met Louis the Fat, if the chronology of the French historians is correct, and it was not Philippe, as Il Platina and other writers think, and, having received a kindly welcome from him, went on to Chartres. King Henry met him on the way and freely pledged all his help, wealth and zeal for driving out his enemies, regarding him as the true pontiff. The Pope thanked him for such singular kindness. But, since this most holy of shepherds was more concerned with the preservation of the Lord's flock than his domestic affairs, with great earnestness he urged Henry to make ready to fight the Saracens, who were cruelly harrying Christian territory. Not long there after Innocent set out for Italy with the help of Lotharius, King of the Grmans, who came to his support with a large army. He defeated his enemies and arrived safely at Rome.
17. Afterwards King Henry was almost sunk by a sudden storm as he was returning to England. Thinking this was caused by his sins, he made many a vow, and then went to the monastery of St. Edmunds, where he piously said his prayers. Returned from there, and much better minded towards all men, he reduced taxes and more was more careful in observing justice towards his humblest subjects. And he gave Maud back to her husband, and soon she became pregnant and gave birth to a son, Henry. For since he lacked children, he summoned a parliament of his nobles and again made this boy with his mother Maud his heir, and all men swore their loyalty to both. Then he arranged for an episcopal see to be established at Carlisle, in which Arnulph, previously the Abbot of St. Botolph's, sat as its first bishop. In that year, which was the thirty-fourth of Henry's reign and the year of human salvation 1134, various prodigies are said to have been seen which were popularly believed to presage the death of the king, which ensued a little later. For there was such a terrible earthquake that buildings collapsed all over. There were unusual solar and lunar eclipses. In a number of places fire erupted in clefts in the ground, that could not be extinguished by water or anything else. For the last time Henry went over to Normandy, as was his custom every third or fourth year, where for the sake of relaxation he traveled throughout the region, everywhere either bestowing gifts on his subjects or treating them with wonderful kindness and amiably embracing them, acting like a man who had achieved nearly all his hopes and thought he should do well by all men. But nothing gave his mind greater joy than that his daughter gave birth to two more sons, Geoffrey and William, so that now he was assured he would not be lacking for heirs, even if they belonged to another family on their father's side. While Henry thus conducted himself, disease gradually began to overcome him, nor was the cause of his failure sufficiently clear. And so for the sake of relaxation he went on a hunt, and was a little relieved of his lassitude. Going home, he wished to dine on lampreys and wolfed them down greedily, although his physician had forbidden them because this dish very much disagreed with him. Therefore his stomach was troubled by the noxiousness of this fish, he took a fever, by which he was quickly consumed and died on December 1 (or, as some would have it, December 2 of the same year), in the seventy-sixth year of his life, which was the thirty-fifth year, third month, and eleventh day of his reign.
18. His body was transported to England, to the town of Reading, and buried with great estate in the Benedictine monastery he himself had founded and endowed with very rich landholdings. By his former wife he fathered William, who died at sea, and Maud, whom together with her son he made his heir in his testament. By a mistress he had a daughter named Mary, and also Richard, who both perished in the same shipwreck. And from another mistress, Robert, whom he created Earl of Gloucester. He was possessed of a strong, stout body, of about average height, with black hair thin at the front, an honest face that struck viewers as pleasant and a merry expression, especially when he was joking. He flourished with three particular virtues of mind, prudence, fortitude, and grace in speaking. This last enhanced his popularity, the other two brought him glory and honor in his wars. But some write that Henry's virtues were matched by the like number of vices by which he was ensnared. For their brightness was to no small degree tarnished by his avarice, cruelty and lust. He was enslaved by his enthusiasm for money, and so heavily taxed his subjects. He was deemed to be cruel, especially because of his brother Robert, whom he compelled to live out his life in prison. Likewise he is said to have debauched many a woman. But Henry did not yield to these vices to the point that his virtues were not far superior, for he was a completely great-minded man, who remembered friendship more than hatred, affable, endowed with a wonderfully graceful nature, and an energetic and fortunate commander in war. At the beginning of his reign he introduced some laws which neither he nor his followers observed. A number of monasteries both in Normandy and in England, and particularly the one at Reading, were his work, as was the magnificent manor he built about seven miles outside of Oxford in the hamlet of Woodstock, where he built a walled game park, especially to hold deer, which used to be called an enclosure because it was enclosed on all sides by oaken poles. And these were the life and deeds of Henry, the last of the Norman kings, for in him the male line of William the Bastard came to an end, as if in accordance with that verse from the Book of Wisdom, nor take deep rooting from bastard slips. There were sixty-nine years and three months from the coming of the Normans to the beginning of the reign of Henry's successor Stephen. So short was the rule over England enjoyed by that nation, which then passed to Frenchmen. But I shall set forth the rest. Contemporary with Henry were men erudite in their studies of the goodly arts, Anselm, whom I have abundantly written of above, Anselm's successor Ralph, and Thrustin Archbishop of York, who also lived in Stephen's time. Likewise there were men famous for their skill at war: Earl Warin of Shropshire and Count Theobald of Champaigne, the distinguished general Helvin, and lastly Count Fulco of Anjou, a very upright and wise man.

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