COMMENTARY NOTES

spacerAD ILLUSTRISSIMAM POTISSIMAMQUE 3 Zenobia was a queen of Palmyra in the third century B. C.

spacerIN CHRISTOPHORI OCLANDI Thomas Newton [1555 - 1607], a Macclesfield schoolmaster and clergyman, published a number of translations, including several of philosophical dialogues by Cicero. He collected and edited the poetry of his former schoolmaster John Brownswerd, and also the previously unpublished epigrams of John Leland. But he is chiefly remembered for compiling the set of translations of Senecan tragedies published in 1581 under the title Seneca his Tenne Tragedies so admired by T. S. Eliot (he himself contributed the translation of the fragmentary Phoenissae).

spacer17 It would seem that “the veil of Timas” was some device that permitted an observer to look directly at the sun. Compare the words of a couplet by Justus Lipsius,

spacerVelum est Timantis, imago. videri
Sol quoque sub picea non nisi nube potes

spacer22 Tyrtaeus was an early Spartan poet who glorified war and wrote poems encouraging the Spartans to be good soldiers.

spacer24 Cf. Vergil, Eclogue vii.26, invidia rumpantur ut ilia Codro. I. e., other poets have cause to be jealous of Ocland.

spacerI.8 It is impossible to fathom what if any specific proditio mala Ocland has in mind. Perhaps he simply disapproves of the fact that British tribes surrendered to Julius Caesar’s invasion rather than fighting to the last man. But a sidenote reveals Ocland’s real intention: Civilis dissentio praesentem parit patriae ruinam [“Civil dissent created this national catastrophe”], a warning to his young readers expressing the fear and hatred of dissention or sedition standard in orthodox Tudor political thinking.

spacerI.44 Ocland alludes to a Latin proverb used to describe a series of changes, clavus clavum pellere (Erasmus, Adagia I.i.4).

spacerI.70 Edward was in fact fourteen at the time of his coronation (perhaps by vixdum Ocland meant simply “not yet”).

spacerΙ.75ff. The sun is in the House of Cancer June 21 - July 22 (Ocland frequently such astrological references to express dates). In the first part of his section on Edward III, he describes the memorable events of the Second War of Scottish Independence (1333), the siege of Berwick and the Battle of Halidon Hill.

spacerI.81 Sidenote: Significant rhythmum, ut appellant, opprobrii plenum [“This means an insulting bit of doggerel, as they call it.”]

spacerI.82 The reference is to a clash between the English and Scots at Stanhope Park near the river Wear early in the war.

spacerI.84 I do not know the specific anecdote to which Ocland refers, but this is somehow a reference to Edward’s abrogration of the Treaty of Northampton (1328), arranged in his name by Queen Isabella and Mortimer during his minority, renouncing all English claims to sovereignty over Scotland.

spacerI.91 Edward Baliol, who had sworn an oath of fealty to Edward.

spacerI.323 July 23 - August 22 (the battle was actually fought on July 19).

spacerI.352ff. I do not know the source of this impressive-sounding roster or how genuine it may be in whole or in part (it was probably included more because such lists of names constitute an epic convention than to furnish details for the historical record). One picks out names of some who were indeed present at the battle (most notably, perhaps, Alexander de Brus, Earl of Carrick), but it is striking that Ocland fails to include the names of the actual Scottish leaders on this occasion: they were drawn up in their traditional schiltron formation, with the right commanded by Robert Stewart (the future king), the center by John Randolph, Earl of Moray, and the left by Sir Archibald Douglas, Guardian of the Realm for the underage King David of Scots and overall commander of the army.

spacerI.374 Ocland appears to be describing a classical compound bow rather than an English longbow.

spacerI.419 For this idiom involving herba, cf. Oxford Latin Dictionary s. v. herba, def. 1 (d).

spacerI.579 Alata Castra is glossed Edinburgum in a sidenote. For the name see Camden’s Britannia (1607 ed.), Lauden sive Lothien § 4.

spacerI.595 Philip VI, King of France (for some reason, Ocland always declines to name him and simply calls him “Valois”).

spacerI.610ff. The following passage describes the Battle of Sluys (1340), in which French naval supremacy was shattered by the near-complete destruction of its fleet.

spacerI.622 Although the phraseology of one contemporary chronicle can possibly be interpreted to mean that Edward had used cannon in the siege of Berwick, here surely the phrase Vulcania arma means “armor wrought by Vulcan” (i. e., on a forge), since Ocland describes artillery as a military innovation in a much later passage (II.422ff.).

spacerI.653 See the note on I.75.

spacerI.666 By pergula Ocland means the two castles on a ship, fore and aft, in which the defenders could take refuge if the vessel were boarded.

spacerI.677ff. The Order of the Garder was not actually founded until 1348, but Edward had announced his intention at a great session of feasting and jousting held at Windsor in 1344.

spacerI.734ff. Edward’s Normandy campaign occurred in 1346.

spacerI.787 The Compte de Tancarville, captured by Sir Thomas Holland while defending the bridge.

spacerI.831ff. The Battle of Crécy, now to be described, was fought on August 26, 1346.

spacerI.898 The enemy casualties included John I, King of Bohemia, Duke Rudolph of Lorraine, and the Count mentioned here.

spacerI.931 Gesoriacum was the ancient name for Boulogne, but throughout his poem Ocland uses the word to designate Calais.

spacerI.940ff. Although a sidenote dates this incursion to 1345, the Battle of St. Neville’s Cross, in which David II King of Scots was taken prisoner, occurred in 1346.

spacerI.971 Calais fell to the English in August 1367.

spacerI.984 Recorders were traditionally made of boxwood.

spacerI.986ff. The Black Death ravaged Europe in 1348.

spacerI.1006 John II succeeded Philip VI in August 1350.

spacerI.1020ff. The Battle of Poitiers was fought on September 19, 1356.

spacerI.1051 This was a favorite saying of the Emperor Tiberius (Suetonius, Tiberius xxxii).

spacerI.1055 The allusion is to the death of his eldest son Edward (the so-called Black Prince), in 1376.

spacerI.1061 Richard came to the throne in July 1377. The Smithfield joust described immediately below took place in 1390.

spacerI.1149ff. Whether deliberately for artistic effect or by mistake, Ocland’s chronology is out of joint: John of Gaunt’s Spanish adventure, in which he sought to make good his claim to the throne of Castile by right of his marriage to Constanze, the daughter of King Pedro the Cruel of Castile, took him out of the country from 1586 to 1589.

spacerI.1202 Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, whose joust against Bolingbroke is featured in Richard II.

spacerI.1213 Edward de Courtenay, Earl of Devon.

spacerI.1220 Sir Nicholas Hauberk, Constable of Flint Castle.

spacer.I.1224ff. Richard conducted two Irish campaigns, in 1394 and just before his deposition five years later. Ocland is probably thinking of the latter, since it was his absence from England that allowed Bolingbroke to make his play for power.

spacerI.1230 Henry IV was crowned in 1399.

spacerI.1233 This account of Henry waging a foreign war in the company of his son seems to be Ocland’s invention: peace (sometimes uneasy) obtained between England and France from 1389 to 1415. It is true that the king planned to go over to France in 1411 and fight in support of Duke John of Burgundy, but the expedition failed to eventuate.

spacerI.1253ff. Henry V came to the throne in 1413.

spacerI.1280 The king in question was Charles V.

spacerI.1329 The king sailed for France in August 1415. The his first operation, the successful siege of Harfleur, was completed towards the end of the following month.

spacerI.1432ff. Henry’s intention was to march to Calais. His progress was impeded by a large French army, which led to the Battle of Aginourt on October 25.

spacerI.1445 Ocland repeatedly uses the word augustale to designate a commander’s headquarters in the field. This usage is a neologism, perhaps of his own invention.

spacerI.1509 Edward of Norwich, Duke of York.

spacerI.1585ff. My understanding of astrology is too slight to permit an accurate translation of these lines (John Sharrock, the contemporary translator, had the same difficulty).

spacerI.1589 Edouard, Duc de Bar.

spacerI.1592 Jean, Duc d’Alençon.

spacerI.1596 Antoine of Burgundy, Duke of Brabant and Limburg.

spacerI.1599 Philip of Burgundy, Coun7t of Nevers and Rethel (Navarrae appears to be Ocland’s mistake).

spacerI.1628ff. Sigismund’s visit to England occurred in 1416. His goal was to reconcile England and France, so that a more harmonious Council of Constance could seek to end the Great Schism and reunify Christianity.

spacerI.1632 Properly speaking, a haliaetus is a sea-eagle, but from the context it is clear that Ocland is using the word to designate a hawk or falcoln.

spacerI.1654 Ocland now describes Henry’s second campaign in France, which began in 1417, which led to the capture of Caen in that year and that of Rouen in 1419.

spacerI.1714 I do not know what citizenry Ocland means by Aulerici, since that place-name is not registered in J. G. Th. Graesse’s 1909 Orbis Latinus. In his 1582 Rerum Scoticarum Historia (II.37), George Buchanan noticed the existence of an Aulericus Eburaicus in Galicia Celtica), but that does not seem germane.

spacerI.1729ff. Ocland now describes the Treaty of Troyes (1419), one term of which was Henry’s marriage to the French king’s daughter Catherine of Valois.

spacerI.1771ff. John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy (who was about to be assassinated by the Dauphin’s followers). The Dauphin in question, Charles Count of Ponthieu, was destined to come to the French throne as Charles VII in 1422 (although Ocland continues calling him “the Dauphin”). After the Treaty of Troyes, he persisted in his struggle against Burgundy, Henry’s ally. This involved him in this third French campaign, in 1421.

spacerI.1785 A proverbial Latin expression (Erasmus, Adagia II.ix.63).

spacerI.1799 Henry’s two brothers, Humphrey Duke of Gloucester, and John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford.

spacerI.1833 The infant Henry VI was crowned at Paris after his father’s death in August 1522.

spacerI.1859ff. The painful subject is of course the War of the Roses, which Ocland hurries through as quickly as he can.

spacerI.1897ff. Henry VII came to the throne in 1485 after his defeat of Richard III at Bosworth Field.

spacerII.1ff. Henry VIII became king in 1509.

spacerII.6ff, In 1512 England joined the Holy League against Louis XII of France. This involved him in a continental campaign in the following year, in which the English forces captured the towns of Thérouanne and Tournai, but otherwise achieved little.

spacerII.14ff. George Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury [1468 - 1538], Sir Edward Poynings [1459 - 1521], Sir Rhys ap Thomas [1449 - 1525]; Charles Somerset, Earl of Worcester [d. 1526].

spacerII.26 Here the Morinorum urbs is Thérouanne rather than Boulogne (as is more usual in Neo-Latin literature). The Morini were the ancient Gallic tribe that inhabited the part of France more recently called Artois.

spacerII.28 The Emperor Maximilian was fighting under Henry’s command.

spacerII.49ff. James IV’s invasion of England, which led to his defeat and death at Flodden Field (September 9, 1513), is now recounted.

spacerII.57 Thomas Howard [1443 - 1524], Duke of Norfolk and Earl of Surrey, the English commander.

spacerII.60ff. John Scrope, Baron Scrope of Bolton (d. 1549); Edward Stanley, Baron Monteagle [d. 1523]; Richard Neville, Baron Latimer [1492 - 1523]; Thomas Dacre [1467 - 1525]; Henry Clifford, Earl of Cumberland [d. 1542]; Sir William Bulmer [1465 - 1531]; Thomas Howard, subsequently Duke of Norfolk [1473 - 1555], who commanded the English vanguard on this occasion; his younger brother Edmund.

spacerII.99 Thomas Wharton [1452 - 1520], Governor of Carlisle castle and Lord Warden of the West Marches.

spacerII.192 A line obviously written in imitation of Aeneid I.462, Sunt lacrimae rerum et mentem mortalia tangunt.

spacerII.201 Here “the queen” is not the infant Mary Queen of Scots, but rather her mother, Mary of Guise.

spacerII.213ff. Ocland jumps ahead to describe the English 1544 invasion of Scotland known as “the rough wooing of Henry VIII.”

spacerII.221 Edward Seymour [d. 1552], currently Earl of Hertford and latterly Duke of Somerset and Lord Protector of the Realm during the minority of Edward VI. He was appointed Lieutenant-General in the North. John Dudley [1504 - 1553], Duke of Northumberland.

spacerII.270ff. Ocland now describes the war with France that led to Henry’s invasion in 1544, which featured the siege and capture of Boulogne. King François I had entered into an informal truce and colluded against Henry’s ally, the Emperor Charles V. In 1543 there was a joint French - Turkish assault on Nice.

spacerII.282ff. The individuals listed in this passage are Henry’s brother-in-law Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk [d. 1551]; Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk [1473 - 1554]; Sir John Arundell of Lanherne [d. 1557]; William Paulet, Marquess of Winchester [d. 1572]; Francis Russell, Earl of Bedford [1527 - 1585]; Sir Anthony Browne [d. 1548].

spacerII.331 The Ordoluci, more commonly known as the Ordovici, an ancient Celtic tribe that occupied much of the territory of modern Wales. I have no idea who the Salingae are supposed to be.

spacerII.385 The Danorvoia or Danoruoia is presumably the river that waters the trees, but since this name is not registered in Graesse’s Orbis Latinus one can only guess that the Scarpe is meant.

spacerII.433 Roger Bacon, the supposed inventor of gunpowder.

spacerII.535ff. Ocland now describes Admiral d’Annebault’s attempted descent on the Isle of Wight, where they were fended off by the local militia, and attack on Portsmouth in July 1454. The most memorable incident of this episode was capsizing of the Mary Rose, alluded to II.589f.

spacerII.597ff. Dudley (now with the title Viscount l’Isle) commanded a raid on the French coastal town of Tréport, later in 1545.

spacerII.613 Sir William Winter [d. 1589]. He is better remembered as a naval administrator than as a fighting sailor.

spacerII.665 Henry VIII died in January 1547.

spacerII.671 Thomas Seymour, Baron Seymour of Sudeley [d. 1549].

spacerII.684ff. The following section of the poem describes Somerset’s invasion of Scotland in 1547, culminating in the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh (September 10).

spacerII.689 August 23 - September 22.

spacerII.701 William Grey, Baron Grey de Wilton [1509 - 1562].

spacerII.722 James Hamilton, Duke of Châtellerault and Earl of Arran [d. 1575], Regent of Scotland during Mary’s minority.

spacerII.775 George Gordon, Earl of Huntly [1514 - 1562].

spacerII.924ff. In 1548 the five year old Mary Queen of Scots was married to the Dauphin (the fiture François II) at Paris. A Freench fleet conveyed her across the Channel in August.

spacerII.983ff. Sir William Winter recaptures Alderney, the northernmost of the Channel Islands, from the French.

spacerII.1064 Horace, Odes II.xvi.27f.

spacerII.1085ff. The Western or Prayer Book Rebellion started when Cornishmen who knew no English took exception to the 1549 Act of Uniformity that required that church services be performed in English. The rebels were destroyed at Exeter.

spacerII.1093ff. We turn to a second popular uprising that occurred in 1549, when Norfolk peasants under the leadership of Robert Kett protested high rents and land enclosures.

spacerII.1156 I find the simile baffling (as did John Sharrock, who likewise declined to translate it): under what circumstance is a fisherman stricken, so as to feel pain or grief?

spacerII.1160 These peasant uprisings are compared to the mythological war in which the uncouth Giants sought to assault and dethrone the gods of Olympus.

spacerII.1200 Mary Tudor became Queen of England in October 1553, and married Philip II of Spain the following July.

spacerII.1221ff. In 1557 (and not soon after her accession, as Ocland implies), in desregard of considerable domestic opposition, Mary consented to support Philip in his war against Henri II of France, involving the capture of St. Quentin in August but England’s permanent loss of Calais in December.

spacerII.1224 In the preceding year the Emperor Charles V had abdicated the Spanish throne, bequeathing it to his son Philip, whom Henri regarded as young and therefore inconsequential.

spacerII.1243 I do not know what region Ocland means by Aspurgus; it is not in Graesse’s Orbis Latinus.

spacerII.1265ff. William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke [1506 - 1570]; William Somerset, Earl of Worcester [d. 1589]; Francis Russell, Earl of Bedford [1527 - 1585]; Henry Manners, Earl of Rutland [1526 - 1563]. Anthony Brown was the son of the individual mentioned in the note on II.282ff.

spacerII.1272ff. This begins a lengthy passage in praise of the three sons of Robert Dudley, Duke of Northumberland: Ambrose [d. 1590], the future Earl of Warwick, Henry (killed in the siege of St. Quentin), and Robert [1533 - 1588], the future Earl of Leicester. A fourth brother who died in childhood, Charles [1537 - 1542], is also mentioned. Like the way their father suddenly disappears with the concludion of the reign of Edward VI (II.1178ff.), Ocland gives an extremely sanitized account of the fortunes of the Dudley family: there is no mention of the fact that the Duke was attainted and executed for high treason in 1554 for seeking to place Lady Jane Grey on the throne, that Lady Jane had been married to yet another son, Guildford (who was likewise beheaded), and that after the Duke’s downfall the Dudley brothers had been imprisoned in the Tower.

spacerII.1275 Deliberate or not, this comparison involves a serious lapse of taste, insofar as truncus can also mean a beheaded corpse.

spacerII.1337 Castilionaeus appears to be Ocland’s Latin rendition of Constable of France. The reference is to Anne de Montmorency, Duc de Montmorency [1493 - 1567], who was both Marshal and Constable of France.

spacerII.1450 Edward Fiennes de Clinton [1512 - 1585], Earl of Lincoln and Lord High Admiral under Mary.

spacerII.1488 Elizabeth came to the throne in November 1588.