COMMENTARY NOTES

TO THE WORSHPFULL HIS APPROVED GOOD FRIEND Cherilus Cf. the proem of Sir Thomas Elyot, The Boke Named the Governour (1531), Semblably kynge Alexander retayned with hym the poete Cherilus honorably for writing his historie, all though that the poete was but of a small estimation. Whiche that prynce dyd not for lacke of jugement, he beynge of excellent lernynge as disciple to Aristotell, but to thentent that his liberalite emploied on Cherilus shulde animate or gyue courage to others moche better terned to contende with hym in a semblable enterpryse.

AD PRAENOBILEM IN PRIMIS ERUDITAM FOEMINAM Mildred Cooke [1524 - 1589], daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke and Anne FitzWilliam, married Lord Burghley. She was noted for her Classical learning and produced several translations from the Greek, which were not published in her lifetime. Even making allowance for the requisite obsequiousness of a dedication, the present poem is interesting testimony for at least one contemporary schoolmaster’s attitude towards the education of women. Her father was tutor to Edward VI and gave all four of his daughters instruction in Latin and Greek; one of her sisters ne of her sisters married Sir Nicholas Bacon, the Lord Keeper, and another married the translator Thomas Hoby.
16 Maro Vergil.
23 Dente Theonino Cf. Horace, Epistles I.xviii.82, dente Theonino circumrodi (Theon was a carping Roman grammarian). Likewise Zoilus was a carping Greek critic who made his reputation by denouncing Homer
.
25 foedere lecti Cf. Ovid, Ibis 15.
42 immedicabile vulnus Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses X.189.
45f. Et sacer…vates Again, the allusion is to the prophecy of the eventual destruction of this beast at Revelations 19:20 (which in Ocland’s mind doubtless had a particular application to the Papacy): And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone.
48 signato tempore Cf. Ovid, Fasti II.7.
49 maculis nigris Cf. Ovid, Amores III.v.43.
58 baccata monilia collo Cf. the Vergilian Ciris 170.
59 Dependent aulaea Cf. Aeneid I.726, dependent lychni laquearibus aureis.
60 Palladis arte Cf. Aeneid II.15, Ovid, Ars Amatoria I.692 and Epistulae ex Ponto III.viii.10.
63 Cf. inflati conplevit murmure buxi at Ovid, Metamorphoses XIV.537.
68 For uteri…tumore cf. Ovid, Fasti
II.171.
69 concepti seminis Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses X.328.
102 Petri delubra The Abbey.
78 For Nestoris…annos cf. Ovid, Fasti III.533, Martial V.lviii.5 and XI.lvi.13.
79 Cf. Aeneid XII.164, bigis it Turnus in albis.
81 For Purpureo…amictu cf. Aeneid III.405, XII.602, the Vergilian Culex 172, Horace, Epistulae I.xvii.27, and Statius, Silvae V.iii.119.
82 fumantibus aris Cf. Catullus
lxiv.393.
84 Ocland was perhaps thinking of Vergil, Georgics I.111, ne gravidis procumbat culmus aristis.
87 Laeta seges Cf. Georgics I.1. For seges fluctuat cf. Seneca, Agamemnon 108.
90 Cf. defixus in uno at Aeneid I.495.
98 For mulcet…aures cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses V.561.
102 Postera lux oritur Cf. Horace, Sermones I.v.39. For delubra with forms of peto cf. the Vergilian Ciris 424, Seneca, Oedipus 199, and Ps.-Seneca, Octavia 756.
104 bini et longo ordine bini It would appear that Ocland has imposed on the Latin the English idiom “two by two.”
110 Cf. splendidus ostro at Ovid, Metamorphoses VIII.8.
114 numen adorat cf. ib. XI.540 (also at line-end).
117 Cf. thalamosque recentos at ib. VII.709 (also at line-end).
118 Cf. sacris de more peractis at Ovid, Fasti VI.629.
124 Fungitur officiis Cf. Horace, Sermones II.vi.109.
131 perstrepit aula Cf. Statius, Achilleis I.750 (also at line-end).
132 Cf. nitidos…vultus at Ovid, Tristia IV.iii.9.
138ff. Literulas Hermes The interested reader may wish to consult this casting of Queen Elizabeth’s astrological chart (for the accuracy of which I am incompetent to vouch).
148 proelia Martis Cf. Statius, Thebais VIII.732 and Martial, Spectactula xxii.3.
155 Septembris Elizabeth was born on September 7, 1533.
156 volventibus annis Cf. Aeneid I.234 (also at line-end).
158 Cf. Ubi dolor increvit at Ovid, Metamorphoses IX.704. For sedula nutrix at the end of the line cf. ib. X.438 and Horace, Ars Poetica 116.
160 pondus in auras Cf. Metamorposes IX.704.
162 salutis signa Cf. Germanicus, Aratea 399.
164 Cf. cera liquescit at Vergil, Eclogue viii.80 (at line-end).
165 populo mirante Cf. Juvenal ii.67.
166 Cf. Aeneid I.93, tendens ad sidera palmas (cf. also ib. V.256, Statius, Silvae III.iv.99 and I.497).
172 For celeri…passu cf. Ovid, Fasti II.205 and Metamorphoses X.653.
173 Cf. ib. V.287, verbis solabar amicis and Statius, Achilleis I.649 verbis solatus amicis (both at line-end).
174 Cf. doloribus aegris at Lucretius III.905 (at line-end).
175 mandata dabantur Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses IX.681 (at line-end).
194 Cantia metropolin Thomas Cranmer
198 adoleverit aetas Cf. Aeneid XII.438 and Horace, Sermones I.ix.34 (both at line-end).
211 Dudleius heros John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland [1502 - 1553].
214 Houardus Thomas Howard, third Duke of Norfolk [1484 - 1554].
217 Fitzwatere I cannot identify any individual of this name. Therefore, even though this is the reading of both printed versions of the Latin text, one cannot help wondering if this is an error for Fitzwaltere (i. e., Henry Radcliffe, Lord Fitzwalter and second Earl of Sussex). If so, the error was perpetuated by John Sharrock in his translation.
222 Cf. Horace, Sermones II.v.104, gaudia prodentem voltum.
224 For cella…vinaria cf. Plautus, Miles Gloriosus 857.
244 ad unguem Cf. Horace, Ars Poetica 294, Sermones I.v.32, and the Vergilian De Institutione Viri Boni 3 (all at line-end).
250 Cf. studio fallente laborem at Horace, Sermones II.ii.12 and Ovid, Metamorphoses VI.60 (both at line-end).
256 signum coeleste Cf. Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto III.ii.51 and Fasti VI.421.
258 Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses VI.692, terras grandine pulso.
259 Frigus iners Cf. ib. VIII.790. For gremium…telluris cf. Lucretius II.375, Aeneid III.509, and Statius, Thebais IV.793.
260 Tunc ridet ager Cf. Martial’s description of springtime at X.li.3, Ridet ager, vestitur humus, vestitur et arbor.
261 For modulisque canoris cf. Seneca, Hercules Furens 263.
262 Nocte intempesta Cf. Lucretius V.986.
263 grata quies Cf. Horace, Epistulae I.xvii.6, Ovid, Ars Amatoria III.695, Metamorphoses XIV.42, and Martial XI.xxvi.1. For mortalibus aegris cf. Lucretius VI.1, Vergil, Aeneid II.269, X.274, XII.850, and Georgics I.237.
264 For membra with forms of foveo cf. Tibullus Il.viii.30, Ovid, Heroides XVI.224, XXI.190, Lucan, Bellum Civile IV.153 and IX.846.
265 regia coniux Cf. Aeneid II.783, VII.56, XI.372, Ovid, Heroides xii.103, Metamorphoses VI.332, X.46, and XIII.483.
270 Cf. membra gravabat at Heroides xi.38.
271f. Cf. Metamorphoses XI.649, deposuitque caput stratoque recondidit alto.
274 For alto…sopore cf. ib. VIII.817.
280 Promissa barba Cf. Vergil, Eclogue viii.34.
288 Ocland was evidently thinking of Statius, Silvae III.iii.138, qui nutu superas nunc temperat arces.
296 Omnia quae terris Author’s sidenote: Omnia sub sole vana. Salo(mon).
305 Dente Theonino See the note on line 23 of the dedicatory poem.
307 occet According to the Oxford Latin Dictionary the verb occo means “To harrow (ground), to break up the clods round or over (plants, seeds, etc.)” In all likelihood Ocland saw it at Horace, Epistulae II.ii.161, and misunderstood its meaning.
312 For ficta…pietate cf. Statius, Silvae V.iii.244.
315 Cf. posset ditescere at Lucretius IV.1253.
323 crudelia fata Cf. Martial IV.xviii.5 (at line-end).
327 For simulacra deorum at line-end cf. Ovid, Heroides x.95 and Metamorphoses X.694.
334 male sanus Cf. Metamorphoses III.474.
341 Evidently suggested by ib. VI.641, lateri qua pectus adhaeret.
348 Cf. Acheronte sub imo at Aeneid XI.23 and Statius, Thebais I.597 (both at line-end).
349 Cf. Horace, Sermones II.ii.79, atque adfigit humo divinae particulam aurae.
355 For materna…lingua cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses IV.670. Cf. also volumina versat at Aeneid V.408 and XI.675 (both at line-end).
363 For solamen…patriae cf. Statius, Thebais V.609.
366 For longa…pace cf. Aeneid VII.46, Lucan, Bellum Civile I.311, V.353, Statius, Thebais III.255 and III.599.
370 Cf. Horace, Epistulae II.ii.11, laudat venalis qui volt extrudere merces.
372 See the note on line 42.
376 Dentibus infrendens Cf. Aeneid III.664, VIII.230, and X.718.
379 For seros…annos cf. Ovid, Fasti V.63 and Tristia IV.x.73.
380 For pace . . . placida cf. Lucretius I.40, VI.73, Aeneid I.249, VIII.325, and Statius, Silvae I.i.16.
385 Cf. the idiom mitto ad/sub Tartara at Aeneid IV.243, VI.543, XII.13, and Ovid, Metamorphoses XI.670.
390 melioribus utere fatis Cf. Aeneid VI.546.
394 For dicere lingua at line-end cf. Lucretius I.831.
396 For fulvis…metallis cf. Seneca, Agamemnon 857f.
400 mortis solamen Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses XII.80.
402 Cf. nomen in astra ferant at Aeneid VII.99 and VII.272.
403 Cf. the disappearing Mercury at Aeneid IV.277f.:

mortalis visus medio sermone reliquit
et procul in tenuem ex oculis evanuit auram.

404 For membra timore at line-end cf. Lucretius V.1223 and Ovid, Metamorphoses VII.630.
405 pugnat secum Cf. Metamorphoses XIV.27 and Horace, Epistulae I.i.97. For soporem excutit cf. Met. XI.678.
420 For orta dies at the beginning of the line cf. Aeneid VII.149 and XII.114.
427 Iamque dies aderat Cf. Horace, Sermones I.v.20 and Statius, Silvae III.i.55. For
curas…edaces cf. Horace, Odes II.xi.18.
432 Cf. indulgere dolori at Aeneid II.776 and Ps.-Ovid, Epicedion Drusi 417.
437 blando ore Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses XIII.555 and Lucan, Bellum Civile VI.488. Cf. ore salutant at Met. VI.508 (at line-end).
439 Moeroris causam Cf. Martial II.xi.10. Lacrymis obortis is common in Latin poetry (Aeneid III.492, IV.30, VI.857, XI.11 and a number of later authors).
450 fidem perspexerat Cf. Terence, Phormio 60.
451 o fidissima Cf. Aeneid II.281.
454 data copia fandi Cf. ib. I.520 and XI.248 (both at line-end).
460 vitales carperet auras Cf. Aeneid I.387f.
461 For longo…sermone cf. Horace, Epistulae II.i.4, Aeneid I.217, a
nd Ovid, Metamorphoses III.364.
463 For lacrumas…profundens cf. Aeneid XII.154 and Seneca, Medea 543.
464 Cf. Seneca, Phaedra 624f. summus hoc omen deus / avertat.
474 For ordine with a form of pando at line-end cf. Aeneid III.179 and Statius, Thebais V.244.
475 oracula divum Cf. Aeneid VIII.131 (at line-end).
476 Cf. clara propago at Lucretius I.42 and Seneca, Phoenissae 334.
484f. For axe…aetherio cf. Ovid, Fasti III.368.
489 Cf. comes invidia est at Ps. - Seneca, Hercules Oetaeus 613.
494 manibus plenis Cf. Aeneid VI.883.
498 Ducit Iohannem In May 1536. Cf. semine cretus at Ovid, Metamorphoses XV.760 (at line-end).
499 mascula proles Cf. Horace, Odes III.vi.37f.
500 ingenuique pudoris Cf. Juvenal xi.154 (also at line-end).
504 cura parentis Cf. Aeneid I.646, III.341, Ovid, Tristia I.i.115, and Ps.-Ovid Epicedion Drusi 423 (all at line-end).
505 The English has That he a man of knowledge deepe them to instruct assigned, which suggests Ocland was thinking of Roger Ascham or some other specific individual. But the Latin plural magistros shows he simply meant to indicate that Henry furnished his children with tutors. Cf. arte magistra at Aeneid VIII.442, XII.423, and Ovid, Ars Amatoria II.480 (all at line-end).
512 For principe with forms of dignus at line-end cf. Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto II.v.55 and Tristia II.i.242.
520 Ocland was perhaps thinking of Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto IV.ii.35f.:

excitat auditor studium laudataque virtus
crescit et inmensum gloria calcar habet.

523 Pingit acu Pingo acu is also the phrase used to describe the doing of needlework at Ovid, Metamorphoses VI.23.
538 Arte Palaemonia The phrase comes from Juvenal vi.6, who is referring to the celebrated Roman grammerian Quintus Remmius Palaemon. I. e., the royal children study grammar.
543 Interea genitor In 1547.
547 For variis… ludis cf. Aeneid V.605.
548 clavum clavo petente This adage is explained by Cicero, Tusculan Disputations IV.lxxv.2, etiam novo quidam amore veterem amorem tamquam clavo clavum eiciendum putant. Cf. also Erasmus, Adagiorum Chiliades I.ii.4.
550 See the note on 512.
551 For excelsasque domos cf. Martial I.lxx.12. Cf. also Horace, Sermones I.i.41, argenti pondus et auri.
553 gubernatrice sua Her governess Lady Margaret Bryan, daughter of Humphrey Bourchier, and sister of John Bourchier, Lord Berners.
556 pro re nata This idiomatic phrase appears in Cicero’s Epistulae ad Atticum IV.xiii.i1.5 (restored), VII.xiii.ii.3, VII.xiv.iii.5, and XIV.vi.i.5.
557 quid utile, quid non Cf. Horace, Epistulae I.ii.3.
559 matura viro Cf. Aeneid VII.53.
560ff. avunculus alter Thomas Seymour, Lord High Admiral and brother to Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, the Protector of the Realm under Edward VI. Ocland discreetly neglects to mention that his overagressive courting of Elizabeth led to his conviction on his beheading on a charge of high treason, in 1549.
567 interprete lingua Cf. Horace, Ars Poetica 111 (at line-end).
568 For regia proles cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses VIII.90.
569 Cf. desistere coepto at Lucan, Bellum Civile III.144 (at line-end).
571 sociare iugale Cf. Aeneid IV.16 (at line-end).
571f. For parentis magnanimi cf. Seneca, Phoenissae 182 and Statius, Thebais VI.268.
573 Cf. inde sata est at Ovid, Fasti VI.107. For filia regis at line-ending cf. Metamorphoses II.844 and XIII.470.
575 Genus alto a sanguine Cf. Aeneid IV.230, V.45, and VI.500.
576 Generosaque pectora Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses XII.234.
581 Cf. Met. XIII.272, reddat honorem (at line-end).
592 tempora vitae Cf. Tibullus, III.vii.112a, the Vergilian Catalepton iv.1, Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto III.ii.29, Metamorphoses III.496, Lucan, Bellum Civile IX.233 Juvenal xiv.157, and Statius, Silvae V.i.205 (all at line-end).
593 iusta soluta Cf. Ovid, Fasti V.452.
594 coelestia signa Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses XV.668.
596 Cf. Aeneid VII.281, spirantes naribus ignem.
598 The idiom flocci pendo comes from Terence, Eunuchus 411.
600 civilibus undis Cf. Horace, Epistulae I.i.16 (at line-end).
604 For regalia tecta at line-end cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses III.204 (in other positions at ib.
VI.614 and Fasti II.737).
606 Septimus Eduardum A sidenote on the Latin reminds us that Edward VI died in 1553.
610 leges sancire Cf. Lucan, Bellum Civile VII.351.
615 For rapidis…flammis cf. Tibullus I.ix.49, Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto IV.viii.29, Ibis 475, Metamorphoses II.123 and XII.274.
620 alieno pectore Cf. Lucan, Bellum Civile IX.888.
621 Brutigenos Brutus, a legendary refugee from the fall of Troy, was supposedly the eponymous founder of the British people.
623 Cf. ah dedecus ingens at Ovid, Metamorphoses XII.498 (at line-end).
624 Seditio exoritur A characteristic feature of Elizabethan orthodoxy was fear and abhorrnce of sedition; this is shown clearly in John Case’s Sphaera Civitatis (1588), ostensibly a commentary on Aristotle’s Politics, but in actuality a magisterial exposition of Elizabethan political theory.
628 Edward Courtney, the Protestant Earl of Devonshire. Camden describes an abortive attempt to marry Elizabeth to him involving Thomas Wyatt and others. He was imprisoned in the Tower for this incident.
632 Omnia tuta timens Cf. Aeneid IV.298 (also at line-beginning).
638 exaestuat ira Cf. Aeneid IX.798, Ovid, Metamorphoses VI.623, XIII.559, and Statius, Thebais XI.297 (all at line-end).
646f. Before returning to England and defeating Richard III, Henry VII (then the Earl of Richmond) had lived as an exile in France.
653 tollens ad sydera For this formula in the same position in the dactylic line cf. Ovid, Fasti II.75, Metamorphoses I.731, VI.368, IX.175, Tristia I.xi.21, Statius, Thebais IX.453 ad X.336.
654 For the idiom sincerum vas cf. Horace, Epistulae I.ii.54 and Sermones I.iii.56. Cf. also Erasmus, Adagiorum Chiliades I.iii.71.
655f. Cf. suffusa rubore at Ovid, Amores III.iii.5.
657 Cf. Horace, Sermones II.i.77, fragili quaerens inlidere dentem.
661 tempora differt For these words at line-end cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses III.578 and IX.766.
665 madefacta cruore Cf. ib. IV.481 and VIII.402.
678 Charibdi Charybdis was the great whirlpool supposedly located in the Sicilian Straits.
691ff. Non aliter quam Ocland is alluding to the conclusion of the pseudo-Homeric Battle of the Frogs and Mice.
681 Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses II.849, qui nutu concutit orbem (at line-end).
687 lugubri voce Cf. Lucretius IV.546.
694 Suggested by the Vergilian tag vox faucibus haesit (Aeneid II.774, III.48, IV.280, XII.868).
695f. For pectore…pavido cf. Lucretius VI.645, Ovid, Heroides xix.192, Tristia III.iii.48, and Juvenal vi.96.
702 Haec est illa dies November 17, 1558. The Romans marked auspicious days on their calendars with a white stone (a practise commemorated, for example, at Persius ii.1, Hunc, Macrine, diem numera meliore lapillo).
711ff. Cf. Aeneid VI.625ff.:

non, mihi si linguae centum sint oraque centum,
ferrea uox, omnis scelerum comprendere formas,
omnia poenarum percurrere nomina possim.

710 Septima quae decimae A footnote advises us the year is 1558.
714 ignibus arsit Cf. Ovid, Metamorposes VIII.514 and Lucan, Bellum Civile VI.502 (both at line-end).
715 plurima signa Cf. Ovid, Fasti II.20.
722 domito hoste Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses XV.569 and Ps.-Ovid, Epicedion Drusi 338.
723 Cui rosa rubra A standard point of Tudor propaganda: Henry VII (a Lancastrian) married Elizabeth of York, thus concluding the War of the Roses.
724 For sollenis…pompae cf. Vergil, Aeneid V.53 and Georgics III.22.
730 regia virgo For this phrase at line-end, cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses II.570, II.868, VII.21, and XIII.523.
731 For fundo preces cf. Horace, Epodes xiv.53, Aeneid VI.55, and Statius, Thebais X.516.
734 Cf. felix faustusque at Lucan, Bellum Civile IV.663.
737 Cf. Ovid, Fasti VI.629, sacris de more peractis.
754 Sidenote: Assertores huius propositionis Ed. Grind. Episc. Cant., D. Sands Episco. Ebor, R. Horne. Ep. Wint. , Jh. Scory Episc. Heref., R. Coxe Elien., Jh.Jewel Episc. Sar., Jh. Elm, Episc. Lond., D. Whithed Episc. Wignorn., rendered by the translator Affirmers of this proposition were Edward Grindal, Archbishop of Canterbury, Dominus Sandes, Archbishop of Yorke, R. Horne of Winchester, John Story, Bishop of Herford, R. Coxe of Ely, J. Jewell of Sarum, John Elme of London, Dominis Whitehead, Worcester.
757 For arenea with forms of tela at line-end cf. Catullus lxviii(b).49, Ovid, Metamorphoses VI.145, Martial IX.xxxiii.15, and Juvenal xiv.61.
768 For sine numine at this position in the line ccf. Lucretius II.168, Aeneid I.133, II.777, V.56, VI.368. X.31, Statius, Silvae I.iv.23, I.iv.66, Thebais II.152, and IX.770.
769f. For acri iudicio (thus divided between two lines) cf. Lucretius II.1041. For usu…longo cf. Ovid, Amores I.viii.105, Ars Amatoria III.791, Epistulae ex Ponto III.vi.53, Tristia III.v.9, III.vi.19, and Lucan, Bellum Civile I.130.
771 Ocland was evidently thinking of Lucretius III.307f., quamvis doctrina politos / constituat pariter quosdam.
774 Bacon eques aureus Sir Nicholas Bacon [1509 - 1579], Elizabeth’s first Lord Chancellor and Lord Keeper of the Seal.
778 For post funera at this place in the hexameter line cf. Catullus lxviii(b).47, Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto I.ii.111, Lucan, Bellum Civile VIII.433, IX.218, Statius, Silvae V.iii.78, and Thebais X.349.
780 Bromlaeius heros Bacon was succeeded as Lord Chancellor by Sir Thomas Bromley [1530 - 1587]
783 Perhaps suggesed by the Vergiian De Institutione Viri Boni 10, et iusto trutinae se examine pendit.
786 Wintonia marchio William Paulet, Marquis of Winchester [1475 - 1572], Elizabeth’s first Lord High Treasurer, and Speaker of the House of Lords.
788 gravitate verendus Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses IX.270 (at line-end).
789 grandior aevo Cf. Ovid, Amores I.xiii.37, Metamorphoses
VI.321, Tristia IV.x.43, and Statius, Thebais III.176.
791 Cf. instare periclo at Statius, Thebais XI.259 (at line-end).
793 Cicilius heros William Cecil, Lord Burghley [1520 - 1598] had served as as a Privy Councillor in the reign of Edward VI. He succeeded Paulet as Lord High Treasurer.
794 sacrum . . . senatum Among the Roman poets only Juvenal calls the Senate such (xi.29). In Anglo-Latin literature senatus usually designates Parliament, but here (as the translator appreciated) it is used for the Privy Council.
798 Cf. curva senecta at Tibullus III.v.16 and Ovid, Ars Amatoria II.670.
800 Cf. somi parcissimus at Lucan, Bellum Civile IX.590.
809 memorabile nomen Cf. Aeneid II.583, Ovid Metamorphoses X.608 (these two at line end), Met. VI.12, Lucan, Bellum Civile IX.964, and Statius, Silvae I.i.67.
814 sedare tumultus Cf. Lucretius II.956 (at line-end).
815 Echoing Statius, Thebais V.371 gurgite in imo (at line-end).
816 Cf. pontus / in puppim ferit at Aeneid Il.114f. (similarly at Lucan, Bellum Civile V.570). Cf. also flamina venti at Tibullus III.vii.124 and the Vergilian Ciris 404 (both at line-end).
820 foros velo obducente Lowering the sail to the deck the Roman manner, not reefing it up as would be done on a contemporary English one. Cf. Aeneid V.51, malo pendebat ab alto.
822 obstare furori Cf. Aeneid IV.91 (at line-end).
826 Cayphae Caiphas was the High Priest of the Jews in the time of Jesus.
830 commoda regni Cf. Ovid, Fasti III.622.
831 Cf. orantem…legatum at Statius, Thebais III.20.
833 Nestor consiliis Nestor is always offering the Achaeans sage advice in the Iliad. Cecil was created first Baron Burghley in 1571, taking his title from Burghley House, the great manor in Stamford, Lincs., that he inherited from his mother, which Ocland describes in the following line.
836 For causas with forms of cognosco cf. Vergil, Georgics II.490, Ovid, Tristia V.iv.7, Persius iii.66, Statius, Silvae V.v.65 and Thebais X.568. For digna relatu cf. Ovid, Fasti III.541 and Metamorphoses
IV.793, and also indigna relatu at Aeneid IX.595 (all at line-end).
837 Cf. magnaeque secantur iudice lites at Horace, Epistulae I.xvi.42.
839 Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses XV.378, posterior partes superat mensura priores.
843 comes Arundellius Pihlip Howard, first Earl of Arundel [1557 - 1595]. Although his father, the Duke of Norfolk, was executed for treason in 1572, he was a favorite of the Queen (although he later fell from grace and spent the final years of his life in the Tower because of his Catholicism).
845 Penbrocique comes Henry Herbert [1561 - 1601], second Earl of Pembroke.
846 (English) the salvage Erne The river Erne, standing for Ireland as a whole
847 O Clyntone Edward Clinton Fiennes, Earl of Lincoln and Lord High Admiral [1512 - 1585], a position he had held since 1551.
853 Houardus William Howard , first Baron Effingham [1510 - 1572], a younger son of the second Duke of Norfolk. Lord Chamberlain of the Queen’s Household.
856 curva senecta See the note on 798.
857 Sussexius heros Thomas Radcliffe, third Earl of Sussex [1526 - 1583] succeeded Howard in that office. He had previously served as Lord Deputy of Ireland, where he defeated Shane O’Neill and his allies the MacDonnells.
860 Cf. Aeneid IX.648, fidisque ad limina custos.
862 Cf. porrexerat Inachus herbas at Ovid, Metamorphoses I.645.
863 victoria parta Cf. victoria parta est at ib. XIII.348 and Ps.-Ovid, Epicedion Drusi 237 (both at line-end).
866 Petasatus Agellus A playful translation of the name of the manor where she was living, Hatfield.
868 Dudleius heros Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester [1533 - 1588]. The idea that he came a-galloping thither bearing the news of Mary’s death in person is wildly unhistorical.
869ff. In view of the next line, the reader (of both the Latin and English versions) needs to be reassured that it is horse, not the Earl, that is here described. For color hybernae similis nivis cf. Catullus lxxx.2, and for ardua cervix at the end of the hexameter line cf. Horace, Sermones I.ii.89 and Vergil, Georgics III.79.
870 Cf. pectus percussa decorum at Aeneid IV.589.
871 Cf. celebrata per orbem at Ovid, Ars Amatoria II.499 (at line-end).
872 An echo of Horace, Sermones II.i.26f., Castor gaudet equis, ovo prognatus eodem / pugnis.
874 Cf. Aeneid V.377, bracchia protendens et uerberat ictibus auras.
877 data copia fandi Cf. Aeneid I.520 and XI.248 (both at line-end).
878 Suggested by redduntur honores etc. at Aeneid V.347, Ovid, Fasti II.555, and Statius, Thebais VI.619.s.
884 Achates Fidus Achaes is Aeneis’ loyal companion in the Aeneid.
887 For celsis…turribus cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses III.61.
897 Cf. Aeneid VI.883, manibus date lila plenis.
898 structa domus Leicester Hospital was incorporated at Warwick in 1571 for the reception of twelve poor men possessing not more than £5 a year, and a master. The first master, appointed by the earl himself, was the famous Puritan, Thomas Cartwright.
900f. Coventria testis Leicester was always a vigorous supporter of Puritans.
902 comes Hungtonia Henry Hastings, third Earl of Huntington [1535 - 1595], President of the Council of the North. In his boyhood he had joined Edward VI at Court as a classmate and playmate.
906 For egregiam…laudem cf. Aeneid IV.93.
911 For antiqua…stirpe cf. Vergil, Georgics II.209. Cf. also de stirpe…propago at Ovid, Metamorphoses XI.312.
914 comes a Varuico Ambrose Dudley, third Earl of Warwick [1529 - 1589], Leicester’s brother. He had fought on the Spanish side against France in the war that broke out in 1557.
918 Bedfordi comes Francis Russell, second Earl of Bedford [1527 - 1585], a Peer with strong Puritan leanings.
922 praenobilis Hunsden Henry Carey, Baron Hunsden [1529 - 1596]. His mother was Mary Boleyn, Anne’s sister, and so Elizabeth was his aunt.
925 Quid cunctos memorem? For this device cf. Horace, Sermones I.viii.40, Singula quid memorem (?), and also such passages as Aeneid VI.122f., VI.601, and VIII.483f.?
928 Henricus Sydnaeus Sir Henry Sidney [1529 - 1586]. He served once as Vice-Treasurer of Ireland and twice as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and subsequently as President of the Council of Wales and of the Marches. The phrase eques gemino ordine suggests membership two knightly orders, but I have only found evidence for his induction as a Knight of the Garter (in 1564).
936f. Verum etiam Albionis pars These verses are quoted at Holinshed’s Chronicles IV.879.
942 legatum Gallia vidit Sir Henry had been sent to France in 1562 in a fruitless attempt to mediate the quarrel between the factions of Guise and Conde.
943 praestanti corpore Cf. Vergil, Aeneid I.71, VII.783, VIII.207, Georgics IV.538 and IV.550 (all at this position in the hexameter line).
944 Pari Sir Thomas Parry [d. 1560]. A supporter of Elizabeth during Mary’s reign, he was rewarded by an appointment to the Privy Council upon her accession, but his career was cut short by premature death.
949 Norfolcius et dux Thomas Howard, fourth Duke of Norfolk [1536 - 1572]. It is surprising to find him included in this roster, since he had been executed for treason, for plotting to mary Mary Queen of Scots, in 1572. The book has Norfolcius & dux, but one still wonders whether Norfolcius est dux should be read.
951 Smithus Sir Thomas Smith [1513 - 1577]
, scholar and diplomatist, Chancellor of the Order of the Garter and a Secretary of State. Ocland seems to have been thinking of Horace, Epistulae II.ii.7, litterulis Graecis imbutus.
953f. Iniqua fata is a common adjective-noun combination in classical Roman poetry (for example in the Aeneid it appears at VIII.292 and X.390). Parva requiscat in urna is a stock statement from a funerary epigram.
955 Franciscus Knollus Sir Francis Knollys [1514 - 1596], Treasurer of the Royal Household.
957ff. During the reign of Mary Knollys went into voluntary exile, lived in Frankfurt and Strassburg, corresponded with Calvin, and registered as a student at the University of Basle.
960 Cf. patriamque relinquo at Ovid, Heroides vii.115 (at line-end).
961 For externis…oris cf. Aeneid VII.270, Ovid, Metamorphoses IX.19, Tristia III.xiv.11, and Lucan, Bellum Civile I.515.
962 For ingratam…vitam cf. Lucretius III.958, Horace, Epodes xvii.63, and Seneca, Medea 504.
968f. His wife Catherine, a first cousin to the Queen, was Chief Lady of the Bedchamber.
970ff. Huius maiores Although has been said that his branch of the Knollys family was descended from the great Sir Robert Knollys of Sculthorpe , (the soldier from the famous “Free Companies” of the Hundred Years War), Sir Francis’s pedigree cannot be properly traced beyond Sir Thomas Knollys, Lord Mayor of London, five generations removed.
973 For bella with forms of moveo at the end of the hexameter line cf. Aeneid VI.820, Ovid, Amores II.vi.25, II.xii.21, and Lucan, Bellum Civile VII.549.
979 mens sibi conscia recti This is taken from Aeneid I.604.
980 Ambrosius Cavus Sir Ambrose Cave [d. 1568], Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. Hatton Sir Christopher Hatton [1540 - 1591], a leading courtier. In the Parliament of 1576 he chaired a committee for improving the Queen’s safety, and in subsequent Parliaments he moved bills for the same purpose.
982 Sadlerus The diplomatist Sir Ralph Sadler [1507 - 1587]. Mildmaeius Sir Walter Mildmay [1523 - 1589], Chancellor of the Exchequer.
986 prudentia rerum Cf. Vergil, Georgics I.416 and Persius iv.4.
988 Croftus James Croft [d. 1590] sometime governor of Berwick Castle and Lord Deputy of Ireland, under Elizabeth he served as Comptroller of the Queen’s Household.
992 Walsingamus Sir Francis Walsingham [1530 - 1590], Secretary of State. He negotiated the Treaty of Blois with France, in 1572, and witnessed the St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre.
998 Wilsonus Sir Thomas Wilson [1524 - 1581] replaced Sir Thomas Smith as Elizabeth’s second Secretary in 1577.
1001 For dubia…mente cf. Aeneid IV.55, XI.314, Ovid, Metamorphoses IX.473, IX.517, Tristia I.xi.24, Lucan, Bellum Civile I.262, II.461, IV.818, and V.256.
1007 Cf. traducere…aevum at Horace, Epistulae I.xviii.97.
1008 copia cornu Cf. ib. I.xii.29 (at line-end).
1017 natale solum Cf. Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto I.iii.35, Metamorphoses VII.52, Seneca, Medea 334, Statius, Silvae III.v.82, and Thebais VIII.320.
1020 maius meliusve Cf. Horace, Odes IV.ii.37.
1033 Since weapons are sharp, telum acutum is not infrequent in the Roman poets (Horace, Epodes xvii.10, Propertius II.ix(a).38 etc.).
1034 sub Marte Suggested by Aeneid XII.410, bellantum iuvenum et duro sub Marte cadentum.
1038 sine numine Cf. Lucretius II.168, Aeneid I.133, II.777, V.56, VI.368, Ovid, Metamorphoses XI.263, Statius, Silvae I.iv.23, I.iv.66, Thebais II.152, and IX.770 (all at this position in the hexameter line).
1043 machina coeli For machina with a form of caelum at line-end cf. Aeneid IV.89, Statius, Silvae III.i.181, Thebais VII.812, and VIII.310.
1045 Cf. strictae…habenae at Thebais XI.513.
1050f. For calido…pectore cf. Persius v.144.
1051 For the idiom bile tumo cf. Horace, Odes I.xiii.4, Persius ii.14, and Statius, Silvae II.i.58.
1055 Cf. Martial, Spectacula x.3, sed dignas tanto persolvit crimine poenas.
1056 Cf. medio in triumpho at Horace, Odes II.iv.7.
1061 temperat aequor Cf. Aeneid I.146 and Ovid, Metamorphoses XII.94 (both at line-end).
1062ff. Quod nurus In 1599 François II of France had used his marriage to Mary Queen of Scots as a pretext for staking a claim on the succession to the crowns of both Scotland and England (Camden tells the story, as does Buchanan); he died shortly thereafter, which Ocland sees as an act of divine punishment and God’s intervention on behalf of Elizabeth (the subsequent reference to an uncle is to the Duc de Guise, the real moving power of French policy at this time). During the time Mary was Queen of France, Mary of Guise ruled Scotland as Regent, and during the so-called Wars of the Congregation against the Protestant Lairds she had the support of troops sent from France. At one point during these Wars a transport fleet commanded Mary of Guise’s brother, the Marquise d’Elboeuf, bringing over reinforcements, was shattered by a storm (as decribed by Buchanan), and Ocland regards this as another instance of divine retribution.
1064 Hyberno sydere Cf. Aeneid IV.309.
1066 For fluctibus in mediis at line-beginning cf. Horace, Epistulae II.ii.85, the Vergilian Ciris 401, Ovid, Tristia V.vi.7, and Lucan, Bellum Civile V.670.
1068 Lythae Leith is the port town serving Edinburgh. mutare coacta Cf. immutare coactat at Lucretius VI.1122 (at line-end).
1070 per dedecus Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses IX.26.
1072 sanguine fuso For these words at line-end cf. Lucan, Bellum Civile II.158, II.439, IV.278, VI.250, VI.310, and Statius, Thebais II.87.
1073ff. Ecce domi The Rising in the North (1569), a rebellion of such northern Catholic grandees as the Earls of Northumberland and Westmorland, is described by Camden. It was suppressed by the Earls of Sussex and Warwick.
1077 Houardus Charles Howard (subsequently created Earl of Nothingham) commanded Warwick’s cavalry during this campaign.
1079 Serius accepto sapit For this proverb cf. Erasmus, Adagia I.i.29.
1080ff. Quid nulla dubiave fide In 1580 Arthur Baron Grey de Wilton, Deputy of Ireland, suppressed the rising of the O’Connors (as related by Camden). During his campaign, Admiral William Winter was charged with the responsibility of preventing the Spanish from landing forces in support of the Irish rebels. For dubia fide cf. Ovid, Heroides xix.200 and Lucan, Bellum Civile II.461.
1081 Pestiferae…seditionis See the note on 624.
1082 mediave palude Cf. Ps.-Seneca, Hercules Oetaeus 919 and Martial XIII.cxv.2.
1089 quot Debora rexerit annos The prophetess Deborah’s activities as a Judge of Israel are decribed at Judges 4 and 5, but no information is supplied about the length of her reign.
1090 regnique coronam Cf. Aeneid VIII.505 (at line-end).