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EARLY beloved Ortelius, that day wherein I was constrayned to depart from London, I receyved your description of Asia, and before I cam home to my house, I fell into a very perilous fever, which hath so torne this poore body of mine these x continually dayes, that I was brought into despayre of my life. But my hope, Jesus Christe, is layed up in my bosome. Howbeit, neither the dayly shakynge of the continuall fever, with a double tertian, neither the lookyng for present death, neither the vehement headache without intermission, could put the remembrance of my Ortelius out of my troubled brayne. Wherefore I send unto you my Wales, not beutifully set forth in all poyntes, yet truly depeinted, so be that certeyn notes be observed, which I gathered even when I was redy to die. You shall also receave the description of England, set forth as well with the auntient names, as those which are now used, and another England also drawne forth perfectly enough, besides certain fragments written with mine owne hande. Which, notwithstandynge that they be written foorth in a rude hande, and seeme to be imperfect, yet doubt not, they be well grounded by proofes and authorities of auntient writers. Which also (if God had spared me life) you should have receaved in better order, and in all respects perfect. Take, therfore, this last remembrance of thy Humfrey, and for ever adieu, my deare friend Ortelius. From Denbigh in Gwynedh or Northwales, the xxx of August, 1568.



OR so much as in my last letters which I wrote unto you (right learned sir), in the which I promised, within few dayes after, to send you the geographicall description of all Britayne, set foorth with the most auncient names, as well Latine as Brittysh, wherin I must muche disagree from the opinions of learned men, I thought it expedient, first in a fewe woordes to disclose the effect of my purpose to all, and by what arguments and authoryties of the learned I am mooved, partly to change, and partly to ascribe unto other (otherwise than those which wrote before me have done) the names of countreyes, townes, ryvers and other places. Which before I take in hande to do, I purpose to entreate a lytle of the knowledge of the British tongue, of the signification of the letters, and the manner of pronouncinge the same, wherby the trewe names, both of the whole iland, and of many places therin, may be manifest. The igorance of which tongue hath driven many notable men to suche shiftes that endeavorynge to winde them selves oute of one, they have fallen into many moe, and those more grosser errours.
spacer 2. The order and signification of the letters this, as followeth. A B DE H L M N O P R S T. They have the very same pronounciation in the Britysh tongue, which they have in the Latine well pronounced. C and G have the same force and signification beynge placed before all the vowelles that they have before A and O in the Latine tongue. C H expresseth the nature of χ, calleed chi among the Grecians, and hath no arfinitie with the pronunciation in Frenche or Englysh of the same aspiration, but is sounded in the throte like cheth in the Hebrew. Double DD, as it is commonly written amongst our country men, or amongst the learned, after this manner, DH (o , as I prefer for brevities sake, by a D with a dot below), is prounced lyke the Greeke Delta, or lyke the Hebrew Daleth without Dagas. We use F alwayes for V when it is a consonant, as Lhanfair is in reading called Lhanvair, for V is alwayes a vowell. In steade of the Latine F wee use PH or Ff. We make I continually a vowell as the Greekes do, and is pronounced as the Italian I, or rather as the barbarous and unlearned priestes in tymes past sounded E. We have also a peculiar letter to our selves, whiche the ruder sort fashion lyke LL, but the better learned wryte with LH (or, as being neater, as ). I am not ignorant that the Spayniardes have in use LL, and so have the Germanes LH, as in the proper names of Lhodovicus and Lhotharius the Emperour in Panvinius is evident. But neither of thease expresseth ours, howbeit, I take it rather that the Mexicani which inhabite the newfounde worlde to use that letter which the Spayniardes expresse by LL, but becuase I was never amongste them, I doubt whether it be so or not, for ours is sharpe in the hissinge. For this letter L is pronounced with a stronge aspiration, puttyng the tongue hard to the teeth, beyng halfe open, holdyng the lippes immovable, the right pronounciation wherof is not easely learned but by muche exercise. V hath alwayes the force of a vowell, and hath almost the sownde with the Frenche V hath, or the Hebrew Kibutz. For V we use the single F, the consonant. Besides the five vowelles, which the Latines use, we have other twayne, wherein we follow the Greekes. First duble VV, and soundeth not much unlike the Latine V, or to speake more playnly, as the simple heretofore were wont in Latine falsly and barbarously to pronounce O. The last of the letters and vowels is Y, which we must examine, hard to be pronounced, somewhat like ypsilon, as the learned of the universittie of Oxford do pronounce it. Q X and Z are nothing needfull to the writynge of our wordes. For K we use C, as we said before. We have also many dipthongs, in which both vowels, yea, if there be three (as it chaunceth often) keepe their full sound, or some parte thereof.
spacer 3. Havynge thus muche foretasted of the nombre and nature of the letters, let us drawe neare to the proprietie of the tongue, where we must note that, lyke as the Greekes and Latines in the endes of their wordes have variations and cases, so this tongue contrarywise hath the same changynge in the beginning of the wordes. Whereby it commeth to passe that even the best learned, through ignorance of the language, have byn verye much abused in the names of provinces, countreyes, and other thinges. Let us therfore briefely runne over this proprietye.
spacer 4. Every Britysh worde whose first is radicale is P T or C hath in wryting or discourse of talke to avoyde evell sownde three variations, so that radical P is somtime turned into B, into PH, and into MH; T into D, into TH, and into NH; C into G, CH, and into NGH, as appeareth in these examples. An head is called pen in our tongue, out of the head o ben, or his head i ben, with an head a phen, or her head i phen, my head fymhen. Heare you see a strange mutation of this letter, when it is called in one place pen, in another ben, in the thirde phen, and last of all mhen. Likewise, fier in British is called tan, ot of fier o dan, with fier a then, my fier fynhan. In like manner C is changed: for love is called in our tongue cariad, out of love o gariad, with love a chariad, my love finghariad. Also B with D and G radicals have their peculiar variations, as for example sake bara, which signifieth bread, out of bread o fara, where F hath the force of V consonant, my bread fymara. And like as B is changed into F and M, so is D into DH and N, as Duw, which is the name of God, which is so likewise pronounced by the Frenchmen (though it be not written with the same letters), out of God o Dhew, my God Fynun. G in the first place vanishing away, in the second place, it is turned into NG, as gwr, which signifiethy a man, out of a man o wr, my man fyngwr. Besides these, LM et KH have one onely variation, as lhyfwr, a booke, out of a book o lyfyr. Mon the isle of Angleysey, out of Angleysey o Fonn; Rhufayn Rome, out of Rome o Rhyfayn. The other be never radicales, as D, F, T, H, L, K, or els they be not changed, as PH, CH, N and S.
spacer 5. This foundation beynge layde, which hath troubled manie learned men, let us now come to the geographical description of the ilande. And first of all, let us briefly lay foorth what divers men have diversly written of the name therof. Aristotle, a grave author, in his booke De Mundo, Of the Worlde, blue which he wrote to Alexander, affirmeth that there be two verye great Ilandes in the oceane beyonde Hercules Pillers, living above the Celtae, whiche he calleth Britannicas, namely Albion and Iernae, which name of Albion, both ours and the Romans histories do acknowledge as very auncient, and derived from Albion, the sonne of Neptune, there regnynge aboute the yeare of the worldes creation 2220, wherof (God willing) wee wil speake more at large in another place. But, whereas some say that it is so named by reason of the white clifes, it is plain ridiculous. And I wonder that men otherwise circumspect enough could be blinded in such light, as to have darkened all the names of places, and men, with Latin etimologies or derivations, seyng it is well knowne that the Latines at that time possessed but the least part of Italie, and that the Apuli and the Calabri spake the Greeke tongue, and the Tusci the Ethruscan tongue, and almost the residue of Italy was possessed by the French men [i. e., Gauls], whereby neither the Latin name nor their tongue was knowne to the borderers. Into which errour Robertus Coenalis, blue a French man very well learned, with divers other, hath fallen, while he endevoreth to set foorthe the names of countries and cities of both Britaynes, the iland and the continent, in expositions and derivations from the Latin. Wheras the author, forgetting himself, saith in an other place that first of all the Romanes Julius Caesar beheld the parts of Fraunce and this our Britayne, and that the same places were so termed by the auncient inhabitants before ever they heard of the Romans name. Wherby I, as one not sworne to mantaine the opinion of any man, but following reason, the faithfull guide and leader of the wise, do constantly avouche that the derivations and deductions of the antique names of Brytaine and the parts therof are not to be sought out of the Greekes and Latines, but forth of the most auncient British tongue. For how shamfully the Latines have corrupted the names of the kynges and places of the land, while they studie for the finesse of their tongue, it is manifest to al those which, being furnished with any skill of the toungues, come to read the Romane histories. For so, very falsly, they have called Hermannus Arminius, Ernestus Ariovustus, Dietrichus Theodoricus, and the invincible kynge of Britayne Meurigus they have called Arivagus, and now of late yeres, Polydorus hath termed Rhesus the sonne of Thomas Rychard. blue
spacer 6. Sincere therfore it is evident that wee must not trust unto the Romane names, let us come to our owne naturall tongue, by means wherof wee shal bring the true name of Britayne to light, whiche to accomplish the better, wee must something say before.
spacer 7. Caesar, which first of all the Romanes hath celebrated the name of this iland in the Latine tongue, called it Britannia, Whom, almost, all other Latine writers imitating, have not changed the same name, notwithstandynge onely Syr Thomas Eliote, blue a knight (whose learning is not to be contemned) hath stande up of late amongst us, who contendeth, not without good reason and probability, that it was called in olden time Pritannia, whiche he proveth by a very auncient copie that he had in his handes. But where he saieth that it was termed so in Greke for the plentie and abundance therof, surely I (which doo quite reject such derivations) do not allow it, yet, yeldyng rather to the name of Prytannia then Britannia, the authoritie of which auncient fragment I will endevour to confirme with weightie reasons. But because in so doing I shall appeare to bryng forth certaine paradoxes and opinions not heard of before, the better to satisfie both my countrimen the Britaynes in Wales and others, I will lay foorth my purpose before all mens eyes, not cleavyng so precisely to mine owne opinions, but that if any man can bryng me more better and more certayne, I will quickly yelde unto them. In the meane while (alwayes reservinge the judgement of the learned), you shall have mine opinion.
spacer 8. When I chaunced of late yeres to come to the sight of Polydorus Virgilius the Italian, and Hector Boethius the Scot, their British histories, blue wherof the first manfully sought not onely to obscure the glory of the British name, but also to defame the Britaynes them selves with sclandrous lies, the other, while he goeth about to rayse his Scots out of darknesse and obscuritie, whatever he findeth that the Romanes or Britaynes have doone worthy <of> commendation in this ilande, all that he attributeth unto his Scottes, like a foolish writer.
spacer 9. Wherefore, beyng provoked by these injuries that I might the better guard my sweet country from suche inconveniences unto my smale power, I began to peruse all suche auncient hystories, both Greeke and Latine, as ever had wroten of Britayne or the Britaynes, causing not onely all such sentences, but eche woord also to be copied foorth, to the intent that thereout, as of a thicke and plentifull wood, I might gather sufficient timbre to frame a British hystorie. And not only continued in readyng straunge writers, but also the most antique framents of our poetes, which at this day (retaining therein, as in all things els, the olde name) are called bardi, together with hystories written in the British tongue, which of late, so farre as I suppose, were by me first translated into English, and not only conferred the deeds, but also the names of kynges and places, in both tongues, where I have noted that Britannia was first called Prydain amongst us, as appeareth in the most auncient bookes of pedegrees. Wherin the Welshmen are too too curious, having amongst them continually certaine regesters of pedegrees and discentes (which some call hierhauts [heralds]), which perpetually doo recorde in writynge and memory the names of parentes, with their children, contrivinge them into tribes, as thei were devided in olde time. They thinke as well of them selves as either the Frenchmen, the Turkes, or Latines, deriving their originall from the Trojans. In these bookes (as I saye) it is many times found that this iland was called Prydain as paun post Prydain, that is to say, the cheefist post or Piller of Britayne. A certeyne writer also, whiche wrote many hundreth yeares agoe amongste the olde valiant Britaynes sheweth the same, besides that the poetes and those whiche they call bardi at this day doo frequent commonly that woorde, as post Prydain olh, Pryd à nerth, that is to say, the piller of all Britayne, the beautie and strength. Moreover it is usually founde in all our bookes, ynys Prydain, that is to say, the iland of Britayne, and Pharanic à Phrydam, that is, Fraunce and Britayne. Whereby those that unerstande the tongue may easely gather that our Britaynes called this iland Prydain in their language, which the Latines for the hardnesse and evill sounde thereof have rejected, and have called the countrey Britannia, and the people Britanni, for the more gentle and pleasant soundes sake. Whiche I will proove by these stronge arguments followyng.
 spacer 10. Every British woorde (as wee have sayde before) whose radicale is P hath three variations in construction, namely into B, PH, and MH. The name of Britayne amongst us sometime beginneth with B, sometime with 7PH, and sometime with MH. Wherefore the first radicale therof must needes be P. And another infallible argument there is, that B is not the first radicale of that name. Ther is no British woord whose first radicale letter is B that abideth any change into P or PH. But the name of Britayne amonge the Britaynes (as the proprietie of the tongue requireth) sometimes beginneth with P, sometimes with PH, as I have shewed before, wherfore the name of Britayne hath not B for his first radicale letter. Neither is it necessarie that wee should seeke the derivation of this name from the Greekes, since wee may finde the reason of it in our owne tongue, wherin, almost, all names of men and places are of them selves significant. Pryd amongst us signifieth comlinesse or beutie, cain signifieth white, so that by the joyning of these two wordes together, and taking away C in composition, for the better soundes sake, is made Prydain, that is to say, a white or excellent bewtie or comlinesse. As who shoulde say, the first borderers therto called it a fayre and fertile lande. But, seynge this is but a bare conjecture, I am not against it but that every man holde his owne opinion. Neither am I ignorant that some very well learned men, and expert in the British tongue, doo write the ilandes name with B, which I thinke they doo, rather followynge therein the Latines then judginge the same to be the true name, knowyng the proofes which I have before alledged to be so undoubtedly certaine, that themselves cannot deny them.
spacer 11. Perhaps here will stande foorth som enemie to the British name, sayinge that by these arguments I do disprove both the commyng of Brutus into this ilande, and Polydorus himselfe with his his British hystorie. But God forbyd I should be so impious in which wyse to dispise the majestie of antiquitie. Nay rather, when opportunitie shalbe offered, I purpose to confirme (by bringinge foorth many weighty reasons and authorities, which I have readie in stoare for a British hystorie) both his cumming, and also to establish the credite of the British historie, nothinge regardinge the folly of those who, bycause they finde not tne name of it in the Romane hystories, boldely denie that there is any suche in the worlde at all, seynge unto those that shall reade Hallicarnasseus and Livius, so much disagreyng, and also considerynge the obscuritie of the Latine name of the time, when Brutus passed out of ITaly into Greece, it shall easely appeare that through the fault of writers and neglicence of such as wrote afterwardes (amonge whome Livius, even of the Romanes them selves, is touched with want of trust) manythings of greater importance than the departure of Brutus are yelded to oblivion. And although Caesar call<ed> the Britaynes αὐτόχθοναςl, that is to say, borne in the same countrey where they dwell, and diodorus Siculus saieth that they ere from the beginning, yet doo I beleeve that Brutus came into Britayne wit his traine of Trojans, and there tooke upon him the governement of the auncient inhabitantes and of his owne men, and thereof were called Britaynes. For our countremen unto this day doo call a Britayne Brituun (which woorde cometh not from the auncient name of the iland, Prydain, but from Brutus the kynge), and our hystories call the Britaynes in the plurall numbre Brytannaid and Brython, whiche woordes are derived from the name of Brutus. For in derivation of woordes our countrymen doo often turne V into Y, the ignorance wherof did very much trouble my freende M. Leland.
spacer 12. But bycause this whiche wee have sayd touchyng the name of the ilande and the first inhabitantes therof seemeth sufficient for our purpose, wee will now intreate of other matters. Britayne, which more rightly, howbeit more strangely, ought to be called Pridain, is devided into three partes, Lhoegria, Albania, and Cambria. Lhoegria is called of our countrymen (reservyng as yet the old name) that same parte of Britayne whcih, beyng possessed by the English Saxons and the Iuthi [Jutes], peoples of Germany, is now of all nations called England. For when Britayne, by Maximus the tyranne, was bereft of all the youth, a greate parte wherof was slayne with him at Aquilaea, the residew stoutly invaded and possessed a parte of Fraunce called Armorica, sleayng and drivyng thence the country dwellers. Wherby that country at this day is called by the name of the Lesse and the Continent Britayne. And here I must not let passe with silence that Bede the Englishman, Volterranus and Polydorus Italians, were shamfully overseene in saying that this ilande tooke his name of that other, beynge evident to all men that the same was termed Armorica (whiche in our tongue is as muche to say, upon the sea) and this ours Britannia. Neither was there ever any of the auncient Britaynes or Britons in Fraunce (so farre as I knowe) before Sidonius Apollinaris, whiche lived a litle after this migracion, that left anie remembrance of it. But in an epistle to Vincentius, of Arvandus secretary, which accused his lorde of highe treason, thus he writeth. This letter seemed to be sent to the kyng of Gothes, or Gutland, diswadynge him from peace with the Emperour of Greece, and shewynge that the Britaynes upon Ligeris ought to be set upon. So farre he. But if (as they dream), and also Coenalis, whiche hath erroniously followed them, the Britaynes had possessed some parte of Fraunce before that time, and suche a parte as shoulde have byn called Britayne (as they doo affirme impudently enough), it should not have escaped unspoken of all the Romane writers unto whom Fraunce was as wel knowne as Italy. Howbeit our countrymen say that the Cornishmen and those were one nation, whiche bothe the kynges names, beyng like in bothe countries, as Conane, Meriadoc (by which name a parcell of Denbyghshyre in Northwales is called to this day), Hoel, Alane, Theodore, Rywallone, with divers other, and also the proper woordes and names for all thinges almost one (although in theyr joynynge and construction of speach they seeme a litle to differ, as it chaunceth somtimes in one countrie), do prove manifestly. Our countrymen call it in theyr mother tongue Lhydaw, which woorde seemeth to me to be derived from the Latine woorde littus, signifying the shoare, as who should say it were a country liynge on the shoare of Fraunce. For like as the Latines doo change D in all our woordes into T, even so our countrymen do turne their T into D, and doo alwayes in woords whiche beginne with L write them with aspiration, as lhadron, borowyng the woorde latrones from the Latines, that is to say in English, theeves.
spacer 13. But to returne agayne from whence wee have digressed, when, as I have sayd before, the youth of Britayne was lead by Maximus into Fraunce, and those that were left at home were oppressed by the most cruell and savage nations the Readshankes [i. e., the Picts] and Scottes, lookyng for no succour from the Romanes, whiche were then otherwise busied, about the yeare of our Lorde 450, they called unto them the Saxons, whiche were then practising pyracie on the coastes of Fraunce and Britayne, and gave them wages to ayde them. And whereas some write that before that time the Britaynes never new the Saxons, it may appeare to be false out of sundrie authours. For Claudinius, where he inveigheth against Eutropius, speaketh of them in these woordes, about the yere of our Lorde 400:

What may I do, since thou my prince hast bin,
Thinges not farre hence can shew, for Tethis doth begin
To warre more milde, since Saxons thou hast quailde &c.

Likewise of the forteth consulship of Honorius:

The Orchades were wet with bloud of Saxons slayne.

And in another place, Britayn speaketh:

“And me (she sayeth) with countries neare about, hwo were destroyd
Almost, defenced well hath Stilico.
By whose helpe now it is that Scottish warres I doo not doubt.
Ne doo I dread the Picts, ne doo I feare the Saxon rout,
By standinge on the shoare, to see them come with doubtfull windes

spacer 14. Also Sidonius Apollinaris, whiche wrote aboute their commyng into England, hansomly describeth their pyracie, in an epistle to Lampridius:

Wee may behold the wannish [blue] Saxons here,
Usd to the sea before, to dread the shoare.
From of whose heads, where outward they appere
Their bittes content to hold not any more,
The shires
{shears] their toppes of heare do clip and shore,
So that their lockes hard unto the skinne
Do make their head decerace, but face to winne.

And in his panegiricus unto Socer:

But also the Amorick coast, the Saxons pyracie
Wel hoped for, to whom the British salts but playe it was,
All naked, and with clouted boate
[a boat made of skins] the graysh sea to pass.

spacer 15. Moreover, Sextus Rufus in his booke De Notitia Provinciarum, Of the Knowledge of Provinces, speaketh of the Earle of the Saxon shoare alonge both the Britaynes. These (I say) beynge sufficiently knowne to the Britaynes before, they sent them against the Scots and Readshankes under the conduct of one Hengischus. Whom when they had overcome, they entred a trayterous league with them, and, like false men, turned theyr face agaynst theyr maisters. And having slayne the whole nobilitie of Britayne by crafte at Ambrose Hill, and sendynge for ayde from amonge the Englishmen and Iuthi, beyng Germans, they usurped the same countrie which wee call Lhoegria. And after almost infinite battels they drave the auncient inhabitantes into the ends and edges of the islande, and parted the same between themselves, devidyng it into many kingdomes, namely Kent, the South Saxons, the Westsaxons, the Eastsaxons, East Englishmen, the kingdome of March (whom Lazius, a man very well learned, and well deserving of posteritie, in vayne seeketh for in Germany, supposing the hystorie of Bede to be written of the inhabitantes of Germany, and not of England), and Northumberland, which was also divided into twayne, Bernicia and Deira. Whose kynges, beynge paganes, destroyed with fier and sworde all churches, monasteries, and libraries. And after that they had receaved Christianitie by Augustine the monke, they fought many battels, both among them selves and against the Britaynes, untill that, about the yeare of our Lorde 620, Egbert kynge of the Westsaxons, beynge made monarch of all, began to rule alone, and first of all commaunded that the countrie should be called England, and the people Englishmen. Englishmen were a very famous people of Germany, whereof the captaynes and chief of Saxony (as Crantzius reporteth) were longe times called captaines of Anglaria. And there remayneth yet (as I have read) a castle where they sometime abode, termed now Engern, in the frontires of Westphalia betweeen Osnabrugh and Hervordia. Wherby it cometh that our countrymen, retayning the first name, doo call Englishmen Saison, and theyr tongue Sasonaeg, and know not what this word England or an Englishman meaneth. Shortly after, the Danes overcame the Englishmen and possessed this lande untill the yere of the incarnate Word 1066. William bastarde of Normandy with his Normans, vanquishynge bothe Englishmen and Danes, usurped the country. From which stocke almost the whole nobility of this realme unto this day fetche their descent.
spacer 16. But let us returned to Lhoegr, whiche in times past was environed with the British Oceane, the rivers of Severne, Dee, and Humber, but now, since the realme of England stretche<s> foorth beyonde Humber to Twede, wee wil also stretche foorth the name of Lhoegr so farre. And although the Englishmen too possesse beyonde Severn, Herefordshyre, the Forest of Deane, and many other places, yet wee holde that they dwell in Wales, not in Lheogr, and are taken almost every where of all other Englishmen for Welshmen. But the river Dee is accompted at this day one of the ancient bonds, saving that in certein places both the people and the Welsh tongue have incroched more into England. These thinges beynge thus presupposed, let us now discend to the particulare description of Lhoegr or England. In which the countrie calleld Cantium of the Romanes, of our countrimen Caint, of Englishmen Kent, commeth first unto our view. From whence there is but a narrow cut over into Fraunce, to the haven Gessoriacus, which is now termed Bollen, as S. Rhenanus gathereth out of the auncient chart of warly descriptions. And not only Marcellinus, amongst the old writers, speaketh of the sea towne of Bollen in the life of Julian the Emperour, but also in his panegiricus callex Constantinus, the sonne of Constantius, these are found: Constantnus the father, being made Emperour, at his first cumming, with an innuerable fleet of enemies, pend out the fierce oceane and environed the army which lay upon the shoare of the towne Bollen &c. Coenalis affirmeth the haven Gessoriacus in Castlete of Flanders, which towne, standyng upon the top of an high hill xiiii miles from the sea, sufficiently declareth the authors unskilfulnesse. And I take Iccius to be the same haven whiche now they term Caletum, for Caelitium, Calice {Calais]. But I cannot agree with those which make Selusas of Flaunders to be Iccus, beyng unlike that the Romanes woulde have used so longe a course by sea, when they might have passed over sooner and more commodiously from that place.
spacer 17. There were in Kent in olde time three famous portes, well knowne to the Romanes, Doris, Rhutupis, and Lemanis. Duris undoubtedly is the same whiche both Englishmen and Britaynes, reserving the auncient name, at this daye doo call Dover. For wee call water dour or duur. And I am not ignorant that the Dovarians stoutly defende that theyr towne heretofore was called Rutupium, and that Arviragus kyng of Britaynes builded there a noble castle. Yet I had rather give credite to Antoninus, who speaketh of bothe. And I suppose that to be Rutupium, which of the Englishmen is called Repcestre nigh Sandwiche, not farre from the yle of Thanat. For that Ilande wee call Ynis Rhouchym, as much to say Rutupina, wherof the shoare deserved to be called Rutupinum and the porte Rutupis. Lemanis, or as some call it, Linienus, is that river which is now called amongst the Englishmen Rotler, and floweth into the oceane sera nigh Apuldore. Moreover besides these famous portes are Rye and Wynchelsea, two townes, and farther within the mayne lande Durobrevis and Durovernum, the same Englishmen do call Cantorbury, that is to say the court of the Kentyshmen, and with us Caergant, and is chiefe metropolitant sea of all Englande and Wales. The tother is termed Rofcester. But Antoninus placeth Vagniacum between London and Durovernum, and between that and Durovernum Durolernum, but what names they have at this day I am altogether ignorant, howbeit it is manifest that these townes tooke their names of water, which is duur in British and Duriverne amongst us playnly signifieth water which floweth out of a a place where alders growe. Whereby I am perswaded that the same towne in times past thereof obtained his name.
spacer 18. But before I depart forth of Kent, I must breifly touche that great wod whereof both British and English writers have spoken. The Britaynes call it Coel Andred, but the Englishmen Andredeswald. And Huntington affyrmith that it conteineth in length one hundred and twentie miles, and in bredth thirtie miles, and that the worthy citie called Caer Andred and Andredecester stoode therein, which Dalla, kyng of the Southsaxons, utterly overthrew, so that there remayneth no token, nor rubbish therof. The Kentishmen and Southsaxons to this day doo call a place where wodde hath byn Walden, not knowyng for all that whence the woorde is derived, when others, but falsely, call it Welden, others Wylden. For the English Saxons cal a wodde Walden, as the Germans doo now terme a playne without trees wolden, as in these words, Cottiswolden and Porkewolden it appeareth.
spacer 19. Next unto the Kentishmen, on the south side of the Thames, are those whiche in times past were the seconde kyngdome of Southsaxons and were termed Southsaxon, but is now devided into twoo shyres, Southsex and Southrey. And I am of beleife that Neomaguin was their citie where Gylford now standeth. Chichester, the cheefest citie of Southsaxons, was called Caerceri in British. After these come the Atrabates, whiche now are called the people of Barkshyre, whose principall citie in olde time was called Caleva, but now Walyngford. Whrerin I cannot consent to those which cal Oxford Caleva, standing on the north shoare of the Thames, There is also a village named Cilcester, not far from Basinge, which before time was called Caersergent, and Segontium of the Romans. Antoninus also mentioneth Pontium, which appeareth now to be called Reading. The antique name of Spinae, which signifieth thornes, continueth to this day in the one side of Neubery, which is as much to say as New courte. From whence, a good way of upon the river Cunetio standeth a famous citie called Cunetio by the Romanes, but now Marlborow. Betweene these and the sea lye the Simeni, whose metropolitane or cheif citie is Venta, which in fore times was a citie of greate renowne, and of the Britaynes called Caere Wynt, of the Englishmen Wynchester. And at the sea there is a great port caalled now Portesmouth, at whose mouth there standeth a citie called of old Caerperis, but now Portchester. Also Tris Antonis, an haven, now Southampton, retaynyng the olde name.
spacer 20. Over against these lieth the ilse of Wyght, celebrated by the auncient Romane writers, and first subdued by Vespasian. The same is in length xx miles, and x in bredth, in forme like to an egge, in some places seven miles distant from the mayne shoare, and others but twayne. It hath very rough and craggie cliffes, it is very pentifull of corne. The cheifest and only market towne of all the Iland is Newport. Ther eis also a castle called Caerbro, that is to say the tract for nettes, expressynge the British antiquitie. The Westsaxons, when they had driven away the Britaynes, added the same to their dominion, untill Cadwalla, a Britayn, having slaine Arvald, recovered it to him self. Englishmen call it the Wyght, Britaynes terme it Gwydh, which in oiur tongue signifieth perspicuous or easy to be seene, as Gwydhgruc, that is to say a perspicuous heape, Gwydhfa, a perspicuous place, by which terme the most highest mountayne of all Britayne in Carnavanshyre is called. The inhabitants of the iland are wont to glory that their country is destitute of three greate discommodities that are founde in other countries, to wit, foxes, beggynge fryers, and lawiers. They are under the precincte and dioces of Southampton. By the same sea shoare alonge follow the Severiani, called now the inhabitantes of Wylshyre, whose cheef citie is Caerseverus, called also Caer Ceradoc, and now by Englishmen Sarysbury. Twixt these is is S. Ambrose hyll, celebrated by reason of the slaughter of the nobilitie of Britayne there committed. Also Shaftesbury, nowne of old to the Britaynes by the name of Caerbaldin and Caersepton. At the westside of thse lie the Durotriges, called of us Gurugueir, of the Englishmen Dorsetsyremen. From whence more westerly are the Damnonii, wee call them at this day Dryfnnaint, whiche signifieth deepe and narrow valleys, and not of the Danes, as some assume. These are called in English Devonshyremen, and they lye betweene two seas, the Severn and the British Ocean. Their principall citie is Isca, called also Augusta, before time Caerwisk of the watter passynge bie, but now of the Englishmen Excester. Howbeit I know well enough that some assume that before it was called by the olde Britaynes Penuchelgoed.
spacer 21. Last of all cometh Cornavia, of the inhabitantes and our countrymen called Cernico, of Englishmen Cornwall. Here it is to be noted that the Saxons did thrust the reliques of the auncient Britaynes into those streightes. Who, because they used the British tongue, whiche the Saxons understoode not, they termed them Cornwalas, that is to say Welsnmen of Cornavia or Cornwall, as they called alsio our countrymen Welsh Britaynes after the German guyse. This is the true etimologie or cause of the name, and farewel to them whiche, pleasinge them selves in the invention of the name, doo call it Cornu Galliae, to saye, an horne of Fraunce, wherein Polydorus, as in other thynges also, uttereth his ignorance. As for mine opinion, very auncient bookes doo confirme it, written in the Saxon tongue, and the name also wherby those which inhabite the countrie do usually cal it. They speake the British language, and al their wordes almost are founde like unto ours, but that they differ sumdeale in construction of speache. The promontorie of Cornavia, now Cornwall, is famous amongst our countrymen, commonly called Pehryn gwaed, that is to say, the promontory of bloud, which I suppose to be called of Ptolomaeus Antivestaeum.
spacer 22. Beyonde the Damnonii or Devonshiremen, nigh the course of Severn, lieth sometimes the region of Murotriges, wee call it Guladyr haf, Englishmen Somersetshyre, where are many notable auncient places seene, as the mounts of Caermalet, otherwise called Camalet. There standeth also Iscalis, now Ilcester, and the isle of Avolonia, whose citie is Venta, now Brystow, but in antique times the Briotaynes called it Caer oder yn Nant Badon, that is to say, the citie Odera in the vally of Badon. Another yowne of the Belgae, with Ptolemaeus Aquae Calidae, that is of hot water, with Antoninus Aque Solis, of water of the Sunne, the Britaines cal it Caerbadon, the Englishmen Bathe, and is very renowmed for holsom bathes of hot waters. Of which thynge I am a most certayne witness. For when as by the stroke of an horse whiche I had caught at Myllayne in Italy, I was grevously pained with the sciatica continually the space of one whole yeare, and, having assayde the helpe of many excellently learned physitions, was nothynge the better, I used these bathes but only five dayes, and was restored to my former health. Between these and the Thames head were the Dobuni, now Claudiani, whose cheefe towne in old time was called Corinium, of the Britaynes Caer Cory, the Englishmen Cycestre. And Claudia, commonly called Glocester, a famous citie standyng upon Severn, the head of all the shyre, I suppose not to have bin knowne to the Romanes, but was afterward (as Gyldas reporteth) builded by Glouy a Britayne, who, after the Romanes were driven thence, reygned there, and not so named by Claudius Caesar, as hereafter shall be shewen. In the same shyre also standeth Malmesbury, called beforetime Caerbladhon. These shyres doo make the thyrde kyngedome of Saxons in Britayne, which they call Westsaxons, whose kynge was Egbert, who, havinge subdued all the other first of the Germans, obtayned the monarchie of Lhoegr.
23. Thus havynge described the countries that lie on the southside of the Thames, let us now come to the other in order. And first over agaynst Kent, on the other side of the Thames, lie the Trinovantes, whose prince was Mandubratius or, as other write, Androgorius, our countrymen cal him Avarwy. The same sent for Caesar into Britayne, and, when he was come, assisted him with his power and followed him into Italy and Thessalie. Theyr chief citie was builded by Brutus and was called Troynewith, that is to say, New Troy, howbeit there be some whiche call it Trenovantum bycause tre signifieth in British a towne. But afterwarde it was called of Belus, whiche dwelt there, Dinas beli, that is to say, Belinus’ palace or courte. Last of all, of Lud, brother to Caswallane, whiche wonderfully adorned it with beutifull buildynges, it began to be called Caerludd and Lhundain, that is to say, Luds citie and also London. And I am not ignorant how Polydorus seeketh aboute Northampton, but the authoritie of sacred antiquitie is of more force with men then any bare conjecture of a straunge and unknowen person. Wee yelde these names to London, although Ptolemaeus lay them nerer to the Thames, and the negligence of the transcribers hath called London a citie of Kent. And Marius Niger afterward the other parte of the great bosome, for the other side the Trinovantes doo holde, into the middle of wherof the river Thames doth flow.
spacer 24. Polydorus Vergilus the Urbinate goeth aboute to prove out of Tacitus by arguments of little force that the Trinobantes are inlande people, whenas his reasons seeme to proove the contrary. For whereas he sayeth, if the Trinobantes had bin nigh London, Suetonius should have had no salfe {safe] passage thither. Nay rather, Polydorus, if it had bin in the midst of the ilande, it had byn harder for him to have come to London through the thickest of his enemies, for his way lay through them from the ile of Anglesey, from whence he cam. Wherefore it is more likely that the Trinobantes were inhabitants of Essex, as all, savynge a few obscure and unknowen writers, doo affirme, who suppose that with the Iceni their neighbours, whiche now be the people of Norfolke and Nordovolke, they had conspired the death of the Romans, and had spolyled with fier and sword al that ever was in their way unto Verolanum, slayinge threescore and ten thousande Romans, and were returned backe againe salfe and sound, before Suetonius commynge, as Tacitus avoucheth. And that theyr rage extended not unto London, the cause was, as the same author reporteth, for that London was a colony of the Romanes, and a greate mart citie of theirs, famous for plentie of travaylers, which resorted thither for trafaque of marchaundize, aboundynge with vitayle [victuals], and stoutly defended with muntion and garysons against all adventures, as all men do know. Hereby it appeareth how weak Polydorus aurguments be, especially who so well knoweth that part of England, and that London was in the citie Trinovantum, whiche was afterward called Augusta, as Marcellinus reporteth.
spacer 25. With these reasons beyng sufficiently instructed, I say that the Trinobantes inhabited that parte of Britayne which, after the cummynge of the Saxons, made up theyr fourth kingdome, which they called Eastsaxons, and another called Midlesaxons, whose principall citie is London at this day, which somtime was under the kynges of the Mercii or March. Ptolemaeus mentioneth another besides this citie Trinovantum called Camudolanum, which I take to be all one with Camalodunum, as I judge by readyng Roman histories, although Ptolomaeus speaketh of Camalodunum, for it stoode not ferre from the Thames, and was by Claudius appoynted the first colony of the Romanes, and not neare the Brigantes, as Polydorus, much lesse in Scotland, as Boethius dreameth. And for the more playnesse hereof, I thinke it good to brynge forth the words of Dion, who had bin sometime Consul. Claudius, after that he had received the message, forthwith committed the matters appertaynyng to the citie and the souldieurs to Vitellus his college (whose consulship, as also his owne, he had proroged for sixe monthes longer), him self departed from Roome to Ostia, where he took shippe and aryved at Massilia [Marseilles], and, taking the residew of his journey partly by lande and partly by water, came to the oceane, and passed over into Britayne, and came to his armie which lay by the Thames, looking for him. Whom when he had receaved in charge, he wente over the water with certeine barbarians which drew to him at his commynge, he spred his banners, fought, and obtayned the victorie, and wanne Camalodunum, the regnall seate of Cynobellinus, and tooke many prisoners, partly by force, and partly by yelding. Hereby it appeareth evidently that Camalodunum standeth not far from the Thames, in which place Ptolomaeus placeth Camulodanum. And I suppose this was the colony of Claudius Caesar, famous for the churche, which they cal now Colchestre, the olde name beyng made, as I thinke, by joynyng the water and the churche together, a common custome amonge the Brutaynes, as Henlhan, that is an olde churche, Lhanelwy, a churche standing by the river Elguen or the church Elguen, which the Englishmen and bishops now a dayes call (but not well) the see of S. Asaphe. Besides an infinite numbre more, wherby I am perswaded that those places which in Latin beginne or end with these terminations Lan or Lam were of old so termed of churches in the British tongue.
spacer 26. Moreover, out of this place of Dion it is gathered how much a man without shame that Polydorus Virgilius is, who doubteth not to affirme that Claudius Caesar vanquished the Britayns without any battaile, and most impudently called them dastards, whom Caesar himself, Tacitus, Dion, and Herodian terme by these names, most warlike, cruell, bloudthirstie, impatient bothe of bondage and injuries. But an infamous beggage groome, ful fraught in envie and hatred, what dareth he not do or say? I omit his scholemayster Boethius, who, besides these lies, speaketh of a mightie warre which Claudius made upon the people of the Orchades [Orkneys], affirmyng the same to be true, too too impudently. For thou mayst easely judge (good reader) how muche lande and sea the Roman Emperour with a greate armie could marche over in xvi dayes only, duryng whiche time he abode in Britain, when Tacitus also, a most faithfull writer, affirmeth that in the first yeres of Agricola the iland of Britayne was knowne, and the isles called Orchades were then unknowne, but first founde out and subdued by him. This Dion testefieth to be true in the life of Titus the Emperour, neither speaketh Suetonius against it,where he sayeth that Claudius taried in Britayne but a very few dayes. Howbeit Eutropius, and after him Orosius, seeme to thynke otherwyse, not knowinge exactly how farre distant the Orchades be from Kent. But since reason and truth certaynly perswade us to tht eontrarie, let us sticke unto them, as unto twoo moste faythfull guides, neglectynge the judgement of Polydorus with his Hector.
spacer 27. Next to the Trinovantes were the Iceni, whom I suppose to have inhabited that region which maketh the fift kyngedome of Germans, which is the East Englishmen, and their citie Venta, whiche now of the Englishmen is called Northwey [Norwich]. And I am privy also that there are thought to be other Iceni in the west, but I thinke it more probable that these Iceni are put for Tigeni, of whom I will speake hereafter. And the kyngdome of East Englishmen comprehended not only the Iceni, but also Cambridgshyre, whose cheife citie in old time the Britaynes called Caergrawnt, the Englishmen Grantchester of the water that passeth bie, but now corruptive is commonly called Cambridge, and is a noble university wherein florisheth all good learning. Not farre of is the Isle of Wyllowes, not of Eeles, as some have wroten. For helig in the British tongue signifieth wyllow trees, wherwith those fennes doo abounde. All these, in fore times were called girvi. Joynynge to these are the Parisi, whose cheif citie Pettuaria is now begunne to be called Peterborow.
spacer 28. Beyond the Mydland Saxons westward were the Catychlauni, hnow Hertfordshyremen and Buckynghamshyremen, on the hill whose cities are Salinae and Verolanum, wherof this last tooke name of a river Wer, for before times it was called in British Guerlhan, that is to say, a churche standing upon the river Ver, afterward Caer Municp, bycause it was a municipium or incorporate towne belongynge to the Romanes, Englishmen terme it Werlamcester and Watlyngchester. This citie was destroyed through the rage of the Saxons, how be it there remayne the tokens and foundations of the walles to this day, nere to S. Albans churche on the other side of the water. Bt where as some doo thinke that the Thames sometime ran that way, it is to be laughed at. Howbeit, it is certayne that there was a great standing water hard by the citie walles, where now are pleasant flourishyng medows in whiche, as I am informed, there was an anker of a ship founde of late, whereby, and also by the corrupt copie of Gyldas, that conjecture is risen. After these come the Oxfordeshyremen, on the north side of the Thames, whose citie is called by Englishmen Oxenford, our countrymen terme it Rhyd ychen, that is to say, the ford of Oxen, but what name it had in olde time it is altogether unknowen. Yet some affirme that it is Caer Virtigeru, that is, Vortigers citie, and by him builded, whereto I cannot agree. For Gyldas writeth that the same citie was builded in the west parte of the ilande, and I thinke it be in the kyngdome of Wales, beynge called now after his name Gurthronion. Our freende M. Leland the antiquarie ernestly defendeth that it should be called Ouseford, that is to say, the Ford of Isis, against whom, as one havyng very well deserved of the Britaynes and much exercised in auncient histories, I dare not contend. For it is certaine that it standethyupon Isis, and that trade of time corrupteth the names of many places it is also evident. But whatsoever name it had at the beginnyng, it hath a very bewtiful and helthsome situation, and a country which ministreth al thynges necessarie abundantly, and a most famous schole of al good learnyng, as all doo confesse whiche have seene the other universities of Europe.
spacer 29. Not farre from this citie stoode Caerdor, so called of the Romanes, a citie not unknowne to the Englishmen, a bishops see, now called Dorchester, whereas the Thames discharges him selfe into Isis, from whence the name of Tamesis, the Thames, proceedeth. Towardes the north be the Buckynghamshiremen, and beneath them the Bedfordshyremen, and more northerly the Huntyngtonshiremen, whose auncient names are not knowen. After these are the Lincolnshiremen, of olde Coritani, so far as the river Trent. the Britaynes in old time called it Caerludcoy, the Romanes Lindum, the Englishmen Lindecolyn, and at this day Lincolne. Notwithstanding, afterwarde the Normans called it corruptly Nychol, as I have manie times noted in auncient charters and recordes of the cities therof, written in the Frenche tongue, and all that province was called Lindesey. Next unto these at Trent be the Leycestershyre men, so called of Leicestre, which in olde times were called Caerbeir. At the south appeare the Northamptonshyremen, so called of the river Avon which cometh alonge by the towne, for avon in British signifieth a river, and the Saxons, hearyng the Britaynes so terme rivers, supposed that it had bin the proper names thereof, wherby it came to passe that many notable rivers in England were called by that name.
spacer 30. After these, at the west, follow the Warwickshiremen, whose principall cittie Caer Wythelin was founded by Guythelnius, a kynge of Britayne, afterwarde of the Roman legions which went no farther Caerlheon, lastly of a noble Britayne, whiche beutified it with many fayre buidynges, Caerwayr, and of the Englishmen is called Warwike. Next after these are the Staffordshiremen, amongst whom is Lychfeild, a bishops see, that is to say, the field of dead folke. For the northern Englishmen call death lych, and the unluckie night ravens lychfoules. Some affirme that here, not in Legancestre, Etheldrede kynge of Northumberlande most cruelly slew twoo thousande monkes of the famous monasterie of Banchor, men excellently learned, and suche as (contrary to the custome of others) gat their livygs with travayle of their owne handes. Whiche blouddie war he would never have begunne, had it not bin at the motion of the bloud thirstie monke whom they call Augustine. The cause was for that in some pointes they seamed to disagree from the Churche of Rome, and refused to be under the jurisdiciton of the Archbishop of Cantorbury, havyng alreadie of their owne the Archbishop of Legion. This was the chearitie and religion of that man, to make away such good and godly men as coulde not abide his intollerable pride. But touchyng these matters, godwillynge we will speake in another place.
spacer 31. On the other side of Warwykeshyre are the Worcestershyremen, next to the Dobani, their citie Vigornia was of olde time called of the Romans Brangonia, of the Britaynes to this daye Caer Vrangon, and of the Englishmen is commonly called Worcestre, and is builded at the east side of Severn. Where is to be noted all the greater cities that lie upon the east shoare of the rivers Severn and Dee were builded to resist the irruptions of the Britaynes into Lhoegr, that is Englande, like as the Romans erected many notable cities on the west shoare of the Rhyne to restraine the forcible invasions of the Germans into Fraunce. Adjoyning unto these are the Shrophsyremen, whose ancient citie is Uricovium, called afterwarde of the Englishmen Wrekecestre, and shorte Wroxcestre, all raysed downe to the grounde in the Saxon war, from whose reliques foure miles of lieth Salopia, the head citie of all the shyre, notable for two bridges and almost compased with the Severn. The same in olde times was called Pengwern, that is to say, the head of a place were alders growe, and was the seate of the kinges of Powyse, from whence the English name Schrusbury is derived, although I remembre that in auncient records I read it termed Salopsbury and Slopesbury. Or countrymen call it Ymwythig at this day.
spacer 32. Next after these are the Devani or Cheshyremen upon the river Dee, where as be certen wells out of whose liquor very good and pure white salte is sodden. Besides the citie it selfe, famous for the Roman monuments therin, which by reason that the Roman legions wintered there is called by the Britaynes at this day Caer Lheon ar ddourdwy, that is to say, the citie of Legions upon the river Dee, for difference sake betwixt that and another of that name upon the ryver Osca. It appeareth out of Antoninus that the same in times paste was called in Latin Deva, of the river whiche wee terme Dourdowy, to say the water of Dee. The Englishmen call it Legancestre, and afterward clippyng the name shorter called it Chester, and the citizens doo glory that they have the body of Henry the Fourth Emperour, whom they affirme to have yelded up the empire and have betaken him selfe to an hermites life. And so are they likewise perswaded of Herald, who was the last kynge of the Danish bloud. More east from these are the Dorventani, now Derbishyremen, so termed of their chief citie Dwrguent, whiche is as much to say as white water.
spacer 33. All these shires and conventes, with a great parte of Wales, as far as the renowmed ditche of King Offa (of whiche wee will speake hereafter) made up the sixt kingedome of English Saxons in Britayne, which of the ryver Merse was called the kyngedom e f Mercii or March. Here now I cannot sufficientlye merveile how Woilfgangus Lazius, a man excellently learned, and very well deserved of all that be studious of antiquitie, in his greate worke of the migration of nations, should be so muche deceaved as to say that the Mertii or people of March were Marcomanni, and that their kynges Penda, Offa, with all the rest, reigned in the lower Germany, beying most evident in all hystories that there was never any such kyngdome there, and that these kynges and peoples, whom he affirmeth to have dwelled in Germany, inhabited that country of Britayne which wee now describe. Likewise, while he endevoreth to lynke together the discentes and pedegrees of the Norman bloud of the kynges of England, he handleth them so confusedly and so far besides truth that it seemeth he never read either the names, or order, or deedes of the kinges, but it is rather likely that he learned them by hearesay of some babling unlearned foole that had no regarde of his good fame or honestie. As another hath doone of late dayes, a man famously learned in the mathematikes, in his geographical chart of this ilande. And besides these, Hieromus Ruscellus in his Ptolomaeus lately printed at Venice, while he goeth aboute to set foorth new names correspondent to the old, confoundeth places an hundreth miles distant one from another, namely Colchester and Wynchester. Neither in other places ar his gheasses anythynge more certaine, wherefore I exhorte men not to trust him in this behalfe.
spacer 34. There remayneth the seventh and last kyngedome of Saxons in Englande, which they termed Nordan Humbrorum, because it standeth at the northecoast of Humber. The same was afterwarde devided into two kyngedomes, of the Deeres and Bernices. The kyngdome of Deer contayned all the country from Humbre and Trent to the river Tyssa. Bernicia reached from Tyssa to the Scottish Sea, whiche they call now Fyrthew [the Firth of Forth]. The Britaynes terme this same Brennich and the other Deifyr. The inhabitantes of this region, especially southward, are called Snotyngomenses, but now most commonly Notinghamshiremen. Next unto these are Yorkeshiremen, who of the Romans were called Brigantes, of whom Tacitus writeth thus. Petilius Cerealis fought many bataile, whereof some were not unblouddy, agaynst the citie of the Brigantes, which is reported to the place of resorte to the whole populous province, and obtayned a greate parte of the Brigantes, either by victory, or els by fight. All these the living champion of the Scottysh name, Hector Boethius, sticketh not to put into his Gallovidia, and to prove the same by argumentes gathered out of Ptolomaeus and Tacitus. But how much Ptolomaeus was deceaved, trustyng to the report of others, in describing the length and bredth of places in Britayne (for he writeth that Scotland lieth forth to the east, and that the farthest promontorie therof is viii degrees more easterly then any place of England, whiche in this paralelle do make about5e 240 miles, whiche is altogether untrue, seying Englande standeth more to the east then Scotland dothe) is as cleare as day light to all those that have tasted of cosmography. But Ptolemaeus is to be pardoned, beying an Egyptian borne, and excellently well learned in mathematicals, who hath done the best he coulde, but not foolish and impudent Boethius, borne and brought up no farther of then Scotland. He speaketh thus of Tacitus, that he beying a grave author, affyrmeth that the Brigantes were a Spanish broode, dwellyng in a farre corner of Britayne, farther then any durst avouche that at his time the Britaynes had passed. O impudent face, where aboute did Tacitus speake thus of the Brigantes? He seemeth to derive the Siluri by a colour from the Spanish broode, because they lye over agaynst Spayne. Gallovidia is farther from Spanyne then any region of Englande or Walse. And that in Tacitus time the Brigantes were first knowne to the Romans.. I confesse it, but he findeth it not in Tacitus and, not mindefull of himselfe (as it behoveth a lier to be), he calleth not to rmembrance that he wrote in another place that Claudius the Emperour adjoyned also unto his empyre the Orchades, whiche lie beyonde Scotland.
spacer 35. But let us bid faythlesse Hector adieu, and let us now also ser what the auncient writers have writen of the Brigantes. Ptolomaeus reciteth the cities of Brigantes: Eboracum, Epiacum, Calatum, Bimonium, Caturactonium, Rhigodunum, Isurium, Olicana, with others. All men know that Eboracum is that citie whiche the Britaynes call Caer Efroc, the Englishmen Everwyke, and now shorte Yorke. Of the rest wee doo but conjecture, as Bimonium to be Bincestre, Calatum, which Antonius and Bede cal Calcaria, to be Helicastre, now Tadcastre, Rhigodunum Rippon, and Olicana Haligfex, and that Isurium is called Alburg. There was never any man that dreamed that these cities were in Scotland. But Antoninus ascribeth them to the Brigantes and placeth them in that way which leadeth to London from the vally Praetorium, for that there was a vally from the river Solvlathianus to the mouth of Tine al do knowe. I conclude, therefore, that it is impossible that the Brigants were ever in Scotland, in so muche that the remembrance of this name remaineth untill this day amongst us. For when we see any man not duly obeing lawes and commandements, him wee cal Ch’waret Brigans, that is to say, one that plaieth the Brigant. And like as they were rebelles agaynst the people of Rome, so doth he contempne the lawes of magistrates and of elders. And surely I am of beleefe that all Deera before time was called Brigantia.
spacer 36. Ptolomaeus placeth the Vernicones and Taizalos betweene the rivers Tine and Tweede. This country alonely now retayneth the name of Northumberland, when al the region beforel time from that river to the Scotish Sea was called by that name. For there is no river in all Britayne that hath the name of Humbre, but only the water into whom many notable streames do flow. Whereby our freend M. Leland, not without good cause, supposed that the same should be called Aber, whiche amonge the Britaynes signifieth an arme of the sea, either swiftnesse or fall of any water, either into the sea, as Aberconwy, Abertivi, Abertawy, that is to say, the mouth of Conway, Tibius, and Tobius, or into some great river, as Aber hodni, Abergevenni, to say the fall of Hodnus and Gevenus into Osca. Moreover, wee call mouthes and entrances of rivers Aber, without addynge any thynge more thereto, as in Carnavanshure between Conovium and Banchorium, in the same manner, for that I thinke Aber to signifie as much as aestus doth, which is the rage, fall, or force of water, as is most agreeable with Ptolomaeus. Above these were the Damnii, whose cheivf citie Antoninus maketh Vandagora to be, not far from the valley Ofdam, wherby I conjecture that they be those whiche wee call now Westmerlandshyremen. The Selogivii and Otadeni in times past inhabited Cumberland. At the verie brimme of the vallie standeth a most auncient citie, Ptolomeus calleith Lucopibia, Antoninus Luguballia, the Beritanynes and Englishmen terme it Caerleol, and it standeth in the frontirs of the Novantes. Not far from this citie, as Malmsburiensis reporteth, there was a stone found with this inscription: IN TOKEN OF MARIUS VICTORIE, which token of triumph I suppose to have bin erected by Meurigus (whom some of the Romans have termed more aptly Arviragus, othersome Marius) in token that the Readshankes were there vanquished, Rodericus beying theyr kynge, which at that season, as the Saxons did, exercised pyracie in our seas, untill at length one parte of them setled in Albania, and other in Fraunce. It is wel knowne that these countries, together with Gallovidia so farre as the river Cluda, until the yere of our Lorde 870 were in the Britaynes possession, at what time beyng by the Scottes, Danes, and Englishmen disquieted with many batayles, and in the ende, their kynge Constantinus slayne at Lochmaba in Anandra, they were enforced to returne into Wales to their counterymen, and dryving away the English Saxons, forcibly chalenged to [claimed for] them selves the greater parte of the country which lieth twixt Conway and the water of Dee, whiche they possessed, and there appoynted a kyngdome, which the river Cluda, on whose shoare they dwelt, is of our contrymen called Strutcluyd, of Marianus Scotus corruptly Streadylead of the Wallanes. They had many conflictes agaynst the kynges of England, as the same author reporteth, untill at length their last kynge dying at Rome, they submitted themselves to the princes of Gwynedth. This Marianus, the chiefest hystoriographer of his time, one of late hath caused to set foorth in printe, being imperfect and lackynge the better parte of set purpose, as him selfe confesseth, because of the ambiguitie of the British historie. In like maner Sleydan, while he turneth his abbridgement of Frossard into Latine, beyong too too muche partiall to the Frenchemen, either overpasseth with silence the most noble and valiant deedes of the Englishmen, or, variynge from his author, reporteth them otherwise then Frossard hath written. Wherefore me seemeth that the sayinge of Martial doth well agree with them:

That which now thou doest turne,
spacerO Fidentine, the booke is mine.
But when thou turnest him ill,
spacerThen he begins for to be thine.

spacer 37. But this much is by the way. The laste of the Northumberlandshyremen, and almost of all Lhoegr, follow the inhabitantes of Lancashyre to be intreated of, whom the ryver called of the Englishmen Merssee devideith from the kyngedome of March, of whom the kyngdome of March in England was so called. It is soone prooved out of Ptolomaeus that these were called Ordovici in olde time. For the Oldevici (saieth he) lie more southwest then the Brigantes doo. Since therefore that Yorkeshyre is the kyngdome of Brigantes, in vayne with Boethius wee seeke them in Scotland, and muche more in Northfolke with Polydorus. Wherefore renouncing these fables, for my part I am perswaded that the Ordovici are not only the Lancashyremen, but also the Devanio or Cheshyremen and Shropshyremen, beyng recompted [accounted] of Tacitus for a great citie. In this place I call a citie as Caesar doeth, an whole convent or kyngdome. For looke how many cities there are: so many kingdomes in olde time were in Britayne, whiche severally wagyng batayle agaynst the Romans, were all the sooner overcummen. Amongst the cities of these kingdomes Ptolomaeus reciteth Mediolanum, called now Lancastre. Mancuniam, as appeareth out of Antoninus, is called Manchestre. Their kynge in times pats was Caratacus, whose fame was knowne above the skies, who the space of nine continual yeres very muche molested the Romans with warre, at length was taken by treason of a woman, and led to Rome in triumph. And Claudius the Emperour deserved no lesse prayse for vanquishing Caratacus then did Scipio for Syphax or Lucius Paulus for Perses, as Tacitus writeth, two moste puissant kynges brought home in shew to the people of Rome.
spacer 38. And here can I not marvel enough what came in minde to that Boethius, not the Trojane, but the Scotte, for

Alas! What one was he, how farre
spacerFrom that same Hector? Sore
He chaunged was, that in Achilles
spacerSpoyles came home before.

Impudently to affirme that he was a Scot, seeyng that there was no suche nation at that time in the worlde. But if there were, it was so enfolded in darkenesse that it was unknowne to the Romans and Britaynes, or, as Hamo Armenius writeth of a certain nation, it had so bleared the eyes of all peoples and countries that the Scots were invisbly conversant between the Romans and Britaynes. Polydorus also writeth that he was kynge of the Ordulacae, when neither Taciatus nor Prolomaeus mentioneth the same, but of the Ordovici. And Tacitus reporteth that he was not onley governour of the Ordovici, but also of the Siluri. Which Siluri dwelled not in Scotland, but in Southwales, as in another place it shalbe prooved more playnly.
spacer 39. And I remember very well that a few yeres agoe, when I was in the frontirs of Shropshyre with others about certain businesse of my lordes the right honorable Erle of Arundell, blue where some part of his inheritance lieth, I chaunced to fall into the view of a place, exceedingly well fortefied both by nature and art. The situation whereof was upon the toppe of an high hill, environed with a triple ditche of greate depth. There were iii gates, not directly but by a shorshe [arranged obliquely] the one agaynst the other, and on three sides steepe headlonge places, and compassed with twoo rivers, on the lifte hande with Colun or Clun, on the right with Themis, which our countrymen call Tevidia, and accessible but on the one side thereof. These thinges when I beheld, I understoode by rthe inhabitants that this place was called Caer Caradoc, that is to say the cittie Caradoc, and that there have bin many fierce battayles fought there against a certaine kyng called Caradoc, who at last was vanquished and taken of his enemies. For our countrymen cal not only walled cities and townes, but also al maner places which are entrenched and walled up by the name Caer, as I wil prove afterward by example of manie and diverse places of Wales. Wherfore when I perceaved that this place was within the confines of the Siluri and the Ordovici (for it is scarse two miles distant from Colum or Clun castle, which is the patrimony and enheritance of the most noble and auncient family of Fitz Alanes in England), and that it so agreed in al points with the description of Tacitus that nothing could be wanting, I dare boldly affirme that this is thev ery selfe same place in which Ostorius contended with Caractacus in bataile and vanquished him, from whence fliyng and puttyng himself in trust to the faith and credite of Cartimandua the queen of Brigantes, was betrayed.
spacer 40. Moreover the name of Caratacus is at this day so peculier to the Welshmen that many princes and noblemen ar called by the name, amongst whom, at that time, Traherunus the son of Caradoc ruled Northwales. Fleanchus (as the Scots say) sonne to Banguho, after that kynge Macabaeus had slayne his father, by flight escaped into Wales, on whose daughter by secret accesse (but infortunate, and miserable to the parentes) he begat Walter, who was the first of the Stuarts in Scotland that was of renowme, from whom unto this day the kynges of Scotland doo vaunt themselves to have descended. But I suppose it more likely that he whom they reporte to be the nephue of Trahernus the Scot, borne of his daughter, and his father a Scot in Northwales (a thynge much disagreeynge from the truth) rather to be one of Trahernus owne children, which by Gryffine, sonne unto Conane, together with Caradoc, Griffyne, and Meylere Rywallons sonnes, was vanquished and slayne. And that this Walter escaped by flight into Scotland, and there attayned to greate honour, And this can be no great fraude and disgracyng to the name of the Stuarts, tha tthey are descended from the blioud of the most noble and antique British kynges, from whiche also most honorable famely the same Owen Tuder, grandfather to king Henry the seventh of that name kynge of England lineally descended by the fathers side, as we wil declare in our description of Wales, and not from any meane or base degree, as false and impudent Meyerus, a Flemmyng, sticketh not to affirme.
spacer 41. Now that wee have wandred over all England, called Lhoegr, let us next in ordre proceede to the seconde region of Britayne, which of our countrimen is called Albania, of the inhabitantes Scotland. This same in olde time was of the Romans called the second Britayne. For Sextus Ruffus blue reciteth five provinces of Britayne, Maxima Caesariensis, which I doo take to be that part of Britayne whiche by Julius Caesar was made tributary to the Romanes, to wit Kent, the kyngedome of Southsaxons, and the region of Atrabates. The second is Flavia, which by like conjecture, beyng therto mooved, I suppose to be that which by Vespasian, who descended of the family Flavia, was by him set upon and subdued, that is to say, the ile of Wight, which afterward was made part of the Westsaxons kingdome. The thirde I judge to have bin termed by the name of the first Britayne, which lieth forth from the Thames to the Valley or Trench. The fourth, being the lesse and the second Britayne, compasseth Scotland. It remayneth then of necessity that Wales be contayned under the name of Valentia, which maketh up the fift province. Howbeit Ammianus blue writeth that that province which by Theodosius, captayne to Valentinian, was taken, when he had driven thence the Readshankes and Scots, was then of the Emperours name called Valentia. And that the Britaynes inhabited these provinces, both our owne and the Roman writers have left in memorie. Neither was there ever any writer of name that made mention either of Scots or Readshankes before Vespasians time, aboute the yere of our Lordes incarnation threescore and twelve, at which time Meurgus, or Maus, or Arviragus reygned in Britayne. For our cronicles doo report of a nation which lived by piracie and roving on the sea, cumming foorth of Suevia [Sweden] or Norway, havynge one Rythercus to their captayne, and landed in Albania, wastyng all the country with robbyng and spoylyng so farre as Caerleyl, where he was discomfited and slayne by Meurigus and great many of his men also, and those which escaped fled to their shippes and so conveyed them selves into the Orchades and the iles of Scotland, where they quietly abode a greate whyle. They call them Pichtiaid, that is to say Pichtiani in their mother tongue, and so are they likewise called in the Scottish and in their owne tongue. Wherfore it is not likely that they were so called of the Roames for paynting of their bodies, since they were called by the name beforel they were ever knowne to the Latines. Neither were thei these, but the Brotaynes, of whom Caesar and others do report that they were wont to paynt theyr bodies blew with woad, that they might appeare the more terrible to their enemies. And with us at this day (which seemeth to argue antiquitie) blew couler is called glas, by whiche name also that herbe not altogether unlike a plantayne, very well knowne now to marchants, is called. Besides all this, the Romans whiche first made mention of this people termed them not Picti, but Pictones.
spacer 42. As I have sayd before, after that they had taken hart of grasse and were growen to some power, out of these islands <they> in theyr litle leathern boates, such as our fyshermen do use now a dayes, along Scotland were want to robbe and slaye shephardes and husbandmen, untill that about the yere of our Lorde 290, when the Romans and Britaynes were bothe encombred with civile warres for the purple robe whiche Carausius woare, and after him Allectus, they entred generally into Cathanesia [Caithness] and Caledonia, and, driving thence the British sheapeards and heardsmen, and callynge unto them the Gatheli out of Ireland, which are now called the Scots, were so bolde as to provoke the Britaynes in oppen warre. For the Scots come of Irish broode, as they them selves and others do know very well, and are termed amongst our countrymen by the same namr, to wit Gwydhyl, which, as theyr owne hystories doo testifie, was the most auncient name of that nation. And that the same nation came forth of Cantabria, now Biscaya, and passed over the sea into Ireland, and there chose them a place of abode, both ours and their owne writers have left in memorie. But by what cause or occasion they were called Scots truly I doo not know. For I doo quite reject the Aegyptian fables of Scota. And the selfe same language and the very same maners and behavior with the Irishmen, and that they be called of the Britaynes by one name, declareth sufficiently that they came from thence. For the southernmen of them are not true Scots, but borne and begotten rather of Englishmen, whereof a greate numbre, flyinge at the cummynge of William Duke of Normandy, departed into Scotlande, and doo boaste to this day that they come of Englishmen, where as they and the Englishmen coumpte [account] the other Scots but rude and barbarous.
spacer 43. These nations, as I say, untill that Honorius came to the empyre, whiche was about the yere of the Lorde foure hundred and twentie, molested the north parte of Britayne with incursions and robberies, at whiche time, havyng called a power out of Ireland to helpe them (as Gyldas and Bede doo avouch) under conducte of Reuda, established them selves a kyngdome in the west part of Albania. But the Readshanks possessed the east region, whereas first they made warre agaynst the Romans and the Britaynes, and afterwaqrde with the Englishmen and Danes sometime they were confederate, sometime they warred diversly, untill aboute the yeare of our Lorde eight hundred and fortie all the Readshankes were destroyde by Kennethus Kinge of Scottes, in somuch that their name and kyngedome ceased to be any longer in Britayne. Whose country the Scottes added unto theyr owne, whiche to this day is renowmed in Britayne.
spacer 44. This much I had to say of the Scots and Readshankes, according to the verity of the history. Howbeit I know well how Boethius, a most vayne reporter of fables, impudently affirmeth that they reigned in Britayne threee hundred yeres before Christe was borne. And he feineth that there were so many kinges, so many warres, by them most valiently waged agaynst the Romans, so many holsome lawes and statutes in Britayne by them instituted, as neither Lucian in his fabulous narrations, neither the author of the booke of Amadis of Gaule, nor wittie Ariostus in his Orlando Furioso have ever commended unto us in fables. But to the intent that I may set foorth the most beastly man in his colours, and that the sleight and subtlety wherewith he endevoureth the bleare all mens eyes may be displayed, I will briefly toche certayne of his most vayne trifles, and such as all men of wit and understandynge may easely perceave to be starke lies.
spacer 45. And here I let pas Aegyptian fables, and of the stocke and race of Scottish kynges in Britayne before Caesars commyng, where he affyrmeth that Caesar was vanquished by the Scots and fled out of Britayne, who afterwarde sent ambassadours unto the Scots and Readshankes to request their freindship, and that at last he conducted his Roman armie in to the forest Caledonia. Also that Augustus sent his messengers unto Metellus Kynge of Scots to entreate him for peace. Moreover he maketh Caratacus, a Britaine and sonne to kynge Cynobellinus (as Dion, a most famous author, reporteth) kynge of Scotland. He sticketh not to avouche that the Brigantes, Siluri, and Ordovici were Scots. He sheweth how dangerous the expedition was of Claudius the Emperour, and describeth great warres between him and Canus the kynge of the Ochades. He writeth that Voadicia, the most renowmed queene of Iceni, whose valient deedes agaynst the Romans Tacitus and also Dion have made knowne to the world, Veusius earle of Brigantes, Cartimandua the queene were all Scots. And finally, there is no one thinge wherein the Romans or Britaynes behaved them selves couragiously or wysely in Britayne which this monstre doth not ascribe unto his fayned Scots, and whiche at that time were unknowen to the worlde. And he hath not only transcribed the minde, but also whole sentences and orations of Tacitus into his booke, always changynge the names of nations and cities, like a malicious falsefier, with out al shame or honestie. He sayth Caesar and Tacitus wrote these thinges of the Readshanks and those of the Scots, and that these nations made suche and so many warres, when as in deede the names of Scots or Readshanks are not at all to be founde in these most noble writers.
spacer 46. And truly it is not like that Caesar, beying a very wise gentleman, when he had throughly learned the state and maners of the Britaynes and Irishmen, would with silence have overpassed the names of the Scots and Readshankes, specially havynge sent embassadours unto their kynges. Neither is it probable that Tacitus, a famous man and very expert in the state of Britayne and other countries, when he describeth the expeditions of Agricola his father in lawe into Britayne, and as it were depeynteth foorth the sheyres, peoples, portes, and rivers of that region by their proper names, and maketh mention of a certaine erle of Ireland taken by Agricola, knew not also the name of Scots and Readshankes, with whom Boethius fayneth he waged that warre, when as in every place he seemeth to call the inhabitants of Albion Britaynes. And it had stoode much more with Agricolas honour, beying a worthy man, whom Tacitus also by his workes endevoreth to make more noble, to have subdued unknowen nations, and suche as fead on mans fleash (such as it shalbe prooved that the Scots were, long time after) rather than the Britaynes, which were sufficiently knowne to the Romans. Also Dion, a man which had byn consul and familiar with Severus the Emperour, and unto him dearly beloved, whilst he declared his expedition into Britayne at large, not once speaketh of the Scots or Readshankes beyng very well knowne to all men, and he conveyed all his force and power into Albania, or Scotland. For, quoth Dion, the Meati and Caledonii, two diverse kindes of Britaines, revolted from the Roman, and Severus, callyng together his souldiers, commaunded them to invade theyr countrie and kill all that ever they met, and thus he charged them in these wordes:

Let none escape your handes away,
spacernor cruell blouddy broyle.
No tender impe, though in her wombe
spacerthe dame therwith do toyle,
Let him not scape a woful death.

spacer 47. When Severus came into Caledonia, he fought never a battell, neither saw he any power of his enemies in a redinesse, and so passyng throughout all his enemies land, havyng not lost in fight, but by water and hunger fiftie thousand men, returned unto his fellowes. If the Scots had bin in Britayne at that time, the reporter herof, being a freend, neither after him Herodian, who in sufficient longe discourse hath set foorth that viage, woulde have defrauded an emperour so ambitious and thirsty of honour as Severus was, of his due praise. Wherefore it is as evident as noone dayes that at this time, whiche was about two hundred and two yeres after the incarnation of our Lorde, the Scots had no seat in Britayne. Over and besides al this, neither Eutropius, neither Spartianus, neither Capitolinus, neither Lampridius, neither Capitolinus, neit her Lampridius, neither Vopiscus, nor Aurelius Victor, who have all written the expeditions and warres of the Roman Emperours in Britayne, have in any place made mention of the Scottish or Readshank name.
spacer 48. Although, therefore, I suppose that these arguments are sufficient to improove and condemne the meere trifles of Boethius, notwithstandynge I will lightly touche twoo of his hystories, which by the author are set foorth at large enough, with woordes a foote and a halfe longe. But I pray you,

When ye be let to looke, your laughter
spacer(freends) you would refraine.

In the second booke of his fables, he writeth how that Ptolomeus Philadelphus, kynge of Aegypt, sent foorth his oratours unto Reutha, kynge of Scots, that by the view taken and report of his neare countrymen, namely such as had come lyneally from the Egyptians, he might understand the situation and some of the countrie, together with the conditions and maners of the people, to the intent that he might set downe the same in his woorke of cosmographie, whe had then in hand. Which oratours beying right courteously intertayned, were afterward led through all the regions and townes of Scots and Readshankes, at last beyng largely rewarded, returned into Aegypt. O noble and worthie deede of a gentleman, but more unthankfull Ptolomaeus and unmindeful of so great rewards. Who, after that he had sent his embassadours into countries so farre distant, hath left no shire, yea almost no towne in all Britayne in that woorthy woorke of his unspoken of (which was set foorth, not by the kinge, but longe time after by another Ptolomaeus Pheludensis, a philosopher very well learned), onely his welbeloved cosins the Scots and Readshanks he hath lefte raked [wrapped] up in their owne darkenesse, neither once vouchsaved in his booke, wherein he made a most perfect description of all Albania, to expresse so much as their names. Nay rather, Boethius, it is a sinne to beleeve that such a kyng, when he had sent thither his legates and recited all the cities and peoples of Albania, to have bin ignorant of the nations name, and in describynge the situation of the region, so to have varied from the trueth. For he, whiche sette foorthe that noble woorke about the yere of our redemption one hundred and fortie, appeareth in no place to speake of the Scottes and Readshankes, which at that time were unknowen to the worlde.
spacer 49. This beyng omitted, let us come to the second fable, wherein (gentle reader) whether I shal moove thee to laughter or lothsomnesse I am uncertayn. He writeth that one Gyllus usurped by force the kyngedome of Scotland before the commynge of Caesar into Britayne, who after that he had committed many cruell deedes, at length by Evenus the lawfull heyre, one Cadallus beyng captayne, was in Ireland vanquished in blouddie fight, and afterwarde slayne. Of this slaughter, by reason that the Irishmen were afflicted with the force and armes of the Albion Scots, the poete Claudianus and other writers have entreated. Wherby he maketh the noble poete Claudianus, which lived under Honorius 410 yeres after the incarnate word, author of the Scottish war against Gyllus, which unto him seemeth no inconvenience, who in other places most impudently fathereth his follies and fables upon Caesar the Dictator and Tacitus. In very deede, Claudianus hath writen of the Gyldonicum warre made in Africk by Masticelis, brother to Gyldo, cheiftaine therin, and of the expedition which Honorius tooke in hande against the brother that rebelled. But I besech you, my freend Hector, tell me whether you affirme this geare in jest or in good earnest, that thereby wee may judge of the residue, or whether that you thought you could deceave all men with your lies? This Gyldo was a Goth, no Scot, the war was in Africk, not in Ireland. This visible tyranne lived in the yere of our Lorde 398, but theyr feyned and invisible Gyllus is devised to have flourished 400 yeres before.
spacer 50. Besides these insulse [uncouth] and unfavored lies, he affirmith that all the knowledge and learnynge of the Druydes came first unto the Scots, when as it playnely appeareth unto suche as are exercised in the readyng of hystories that phylosophy and the liberal sciences were knowen to the Celtae and Britaynes longe before they were to the Greekes and Latines. but as touchyng the holsome lawes and institutes whiche he falsely attributeth unto the Scots, unto those whiche reade Solinus and Mela depayntyng foorth the maners and nature of the Irishmen, the truth will appeare. Likewise out of S. Hierome, whom wee may better credite then Boethius, it is evident that at his time, that is as much to say as in the yere of our Lorde 400, the Scots were accustomed to eate mans fleash. For (saieth he) what shall I say of other nations, when I my selfe, beyng but a yonge man, saw in Fraunce Scottes which fead on mans fleash? And when as they chance to finde in the wooddes any heards of hogges, also any droves of catyle or beastes, they use to cut of the buttockes of the hardsmen and keepers , nd the pappes of women, accomptyng those partes for a most delicious dish. These Scots, as though they followed Platoes common wealth, have no peculiar wives of their owne, but as their lechery moveth them (saith he), runne lasciviously about, after the maner of beastes. this much S. Hierome.
spacer 51. Since, therefore, it is certainly prooved out of this true author that they were so barbarous at his time, it is not like that so many hundred yeres before as Boethius doth fayne they were ruled with so many good lawes and holsome institutes. Neither doo I, for my part, write this to the intent I woulde detract any thinge from the Scottish glory, in so much as I know very well that this nation, after that it had departed from barbarousnesse and embraced Christian religion, and obeyed lawes and rightes precisely like other people, was so firmlye joyned in league of friendship with our Britaynes that wee reade how in many warres the one nation ayded the other. I acknowledge also that many thinges have bin by them doone both wisely and valiently in Britayne, Fraunce, and Italy, and that the Englishmen, howbeit a stronge nation, seldome assayed the Scots in war, but that they were alwaies readie with al their force to joyne with them in battayle, which is no signe of a cowardly or hartlesse people. But I write this only to this entent, that the truth of the history may be knowne, and that the Scots themselves may contemne this fabler and hold them selves contented with this, that together with the Saxons, Frenchmen and Englishmen, most noble nations, they were first knowne to the Roman world. And now let us see what substantiall and approved writers, whom bothe wee and they must credit, have transported to memorie touchyng the Scots and Readshankes.
spacer 52. The first, therefore, of the Romans, so far as I know, Mamertinus in his Panegyricus called Maximianus, maketh mention of the Readshankes by these woordes. And truly, not like as there is but one name of Britayne, so should the losse be but smale to the commonwealt, of a lande so plentifull of corne, so flowrishyng with numbers of pastures, so flowynge with rivers of metalles, so gaynefull for revenewes, so welbeset with havens, so wide in circuit. Which when Caesar, first of the Romans and the beginner of your name, entred into, wroate that he had founde another world, supposing it to be so bigge that it seemed not to be compassed with the oceane, but rather to compasse the oceane about. But at that time Britayne was nothynge furnished with shippes for warre by sea, and the Romans, after the Punick and Asiatick warres, had lately bin busied agaynst pyrats, and afterward by the Mithridatick fight, was [sic] very well practised by sea and lande. Besides, this nation was then but rude, and the Britaynes, beyng accustomed but only to the Readshankes and Irishmen their enemies, as yet but halfe naked, soone yelded unto the Roman armes and ensignes, that Caesar almost in all that expedition coulde vaunt him selfe but of this owne thing, that he had sayled upon the oceane. He affirmath that the Britaynes only dwel in an iland, and termeth them Hibernenses, whom after were called Scots. Also another Panegiricus unto Constantinus the Emperour speaketh of the Readshankes, called Pictones, as followeth. For neither he (speakyng of his father Constantius) after such and so many notable actes whiche he hath done, vouchsaveth to get not only the wooddes and marises [marshes] of the Calidones and other Pictones, but neither Ireland, which lieth night, neither the farthest Tyle [Thule], neither yet the Fortunate Ilands, if there be any suche. Thus farre the Panegiricus. this he wroate aboute the yere after Christe was borne three hundred and twentie, at what time it seemeth that the Pictones or Readshankes beganne first to inhabite the farthermost partes of Scotland.
spacer 53. After him Ammianus Marcelllinus first of the Latines made mention of the Scots, in the yere of our salvation 364. In the tenth consulship of Constantius, and the third of Julianus, when as in Britayne, by excursion and breakyng foorth of the Scots and Readshankes, beyng wilde nations, peace beyng broken, the places about night to the frontirs were spoyled. And afterwarde in the life of Valentinian and Valens, he sayeth, At this time, as though alarme were sounded throghout all the Roman dominions, the most fierce and savage nations arose, and forcibly invaded their neare neighbours. The Alemanni or Almaynes spoiled the countrie of France and Rhetia together. Sarmatae, the Ponnoniae and the Quadi, now Bohemans., the Readshankes, Saxons, Scots, and Attacotti much molested the Britaynes. And afterward, At that time the Readshankes, beynge devided into two nations, Deucalidonae and Vecturiones, also the Attacotti, a very warlike nation, and the Scots wandrynge uncerteinely about here and there, wasted and spoyled very much. And as for the coastes of Gallia, they were spoyled by Frenchmen and Saxons &c. Hereby it appeareth in what darkenesse the Scottish state is drowned. For Boetheus in no place maketh mention of the Attacotti, who appeare by this authour to have dwelled in Albania, and to have bin of the Scottishe race. Wherefore it is most likely that a litle before that time the Scottes and Attacotti (who afterward vanished into the name of the Scots) foorth of Ireland and from the Hebrides, the Readshankes out of the Orchades, whereas they lurked before, by one consent entred into Albania and there provoked by warre the Romans and Britaynes, and that they departed out of the field some time conquerors, and sometimes conquered. For shortly after, Ammianus reporteth, that after these nations were by Theodosius, a valiant captain under Valentinian, vanquished and driven out of the Roman province, they were at quiet.
spacer 54. And this can be no disparadgment, but rather a greate glorie to the Scottish nation, that rather at that time then before that, forcibly agaynst the Roman will, they planted them seates in Britayne. Whiche is prooved not out of vayne and fabulous writers, such as is Boethius and other suche like, but out of substantiall authours, and such as doo very well know the state of Britayne. After all these Claudianus, a poete singularly learned, in divers places maketh mention of these nations, as for example Of the Getick warre:

A power also there came, against the farthest Britaynes bent,
Which bridled hath the Scots so fierce, and notes with iron brent.
Then, fayling, reads, whilst Readshanks bloud and breath is spent.

And in his Panegyricus to Honorius:

The nimble Moores hath he and the Pictes so termed by name full true
Subdude, and he the Scots with blade at random did pursue.

Also Of the Fourth Consulship of Honorius:

spacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerWere wet with Saxons slayne.
The Orchades and island eke was hot with Readshanks bayne.
And frosen Irland eke dead heapes of Scotschmen wept amayne.

spacer 55. Who did ever set foorth more plainly the natural countrie of both nations? For he sheweth how Readshanks cam from Thule, that is to say islandes of the north, and the Scots but lately out of Ireland. And in another place, in his Panegyricus, Britayne speaketh unto Stilico:

And me (she saith) with countries neare about who was destroyd
Almost, defenced well hath Stilico. When Irlands soyle on every syde
The Scots doo moove, and seas with noysom sayles doo fome about.
By whose helpe now it is that Scottish force I doo not doubt,
Ne doo I dread the Picts &c.

Hereby it appeareth manifestly that at this time, this is to wit the yere of our salvation 410, the Scots possessed no certayne place in Britayne, but many times used to make irruptions out of Ireland, and by litle and litle subdued the north partes of the ilande, and at length havyng driven thence the inhabitants, established their kingedom there under Valentinian the yonger, the yere of God incarnate 444, when as now the Romans had lefte of the charge and care of Britayne.
spacer 56. This much I had breifly to say touchynge the originall of the Scots and Readshanks. Now I will addresse my selfe to the description of Albania or Scotland. It is seperate from England by the river Twede, the hyll Cheviot, and certayne litle rivers runnynge downe into the channell Solvathianus [Solway Firth]. The first people whiche come to hand are Gallovidiani, of olde time called by the Romans Novantes, and not Brigantes, as wee have shewed before. Ptolomaeus called their citie Leucopibia, which wee terme now Caerleil, and standeth in the entrance of both kyngedomes. Next unto these were the Gadini, nigh the river Glota, which some doo better call Cluyda, howbeit that name, by reason of the proprietie of the tongue, is sometimes pronounced Gluyda, wherby grew that errour of calling it Glot. Upon yhis rivers side sometime there stoode a noble citie of the Britaynes called Caer Achluyd or Carchuyd, that is to say, a citie standyng cupon Cluyda, whiche is now of the Scots called Dounbritton, bycause it was restored agayne by the Britaynes about the yere of our salvation 800. Above these, towards the east sea, lieth a region which now is called Landonia and Mercia, March, but in times bast Breunicia, and of the Pictes called also Readshankes, Pictlandia. The Maeatae are placed here by Dion. For (sayeth he) the Maeatae dwel beyonde the wall, unto the Caledonii. Ptolomaeus laieth the Vacomagi beyond Tueda. This limityng wall (as Spartianus reporteth) was first biulded by Adrianus the emperour, fourescore myles in length. And Capitolinus is author that Antoninus erected another made of turfes between the Britaynes. And last of all that Severus, by a trenche which was cast from to sea, devided the Roman province from the other Britains all men do generally agree. Whereby our countrymen call it Mur Severus, that is to say, Severus wall, and in another place Gual Severus, Severus valley, at this day.
spacer 57. In this region standeth Edenburge, the seat of the kinges of Scotland, somtime builded by Eboracus kyng of Britaynes, called also Castle Mynyd agnes, that is to say, the Castel of S. Agnes hill, and afterward the Castel of Virgins. The water there, which is now called Forthea, was called the Picticum Sea, and afterwards the Scottish Sea, and thus farre stretched the kyngedome of Northumberland. Taciatus called the same Bodotua, howbeit Polydorus so termed the river Levinus, whiche out of the lake Lomundus floweth into Cluyda. For (saith he) Glota and Bototua, two divers armes of the sea, runnyng forth a great length are kept a sundre with a narrow peece of ground. wherefore Bodotua floweth not into Glota, neither is it any river, but an arme of the sea, therefore it cannot be Levinus by any meanes. Beyonde these armes of the sea dwelled the Caledonii, the most noblest nation of Albania, where now the inlande Scots inhabite. At the east parte was Horestia, now Angusia, Fifa, and Mernia {Angus, Fife, Merch]. At the west were the Epidii, and more towards the north the Creoni. And after these the Canovaci, where now Lennosia and Argadia, and Lorna [Lennox, Argyll, Lorne] are. The Carini possessed Loguhabri [Lochaber], the Logi Strathnavernia [Strathearn]. And at the other sea coast the Cauti Moravia and Rossia [Moray, Ross], and the Cornabii, which are farthest of al, inhabited Sutherlandia and Cathanisia. And whereas Boethius writeth that in the time of Claudius the Emperour the Moravi came by an whole navie into Scotland, it is most false, as appeareth in hystories. For the nation of the Slavi, whereof the Moravi tooke theyr beginnyng, was altogether unknowen to the worlde until the time of the Emperour Mauritius, aboute the yere of our Lorde 600. The Marcomanni also and the Quadi inhabited those places whiche afterward, the yere of our Lorde 900, beyng under Arnulphus, began by Zuentebaldus kynge of the Slavi to be called the kyngdome of Moravia.
spacer 58. Beyonde Scotlande, in the Germane Oceane, are the islandes called Orchades, whereof the biggest is called Pomonia. And on the other side of Albania, in the sea Vergivium, which the Britaynes call Norweridh, as who should say the Irish Sea, from whence I conjecture that the antique name Vergivium was derived, lie the isles of Hebrides, in numbre two and fortie, of others called Euboniae. the isle of Anglisea is none of these, as I will shew in another place. And not far hence lieth Ireland, an iland also, whiche our countrymen call Ywerdhon, the inhabitants Verni. Wherby, in my opinion, they do farre better which terme it Ivernia, as Mela and Juvenal in his second Satyre, or Ierna, as Claudianus and Dionysius, rather than Hibernia, now Ireland. The Britayanes and Scots doo call the inhabitantes by one name, Guyddhyl.
59. Havynge thus ended the description of Scotland with the ilandes liyng thereabout, let us now proceede to Wales, the third part of Britayne. The same is devided from Lhoegr, that is England, by the rivers Severn and Dee, and on every other side is environed by the Vergivium or Irishe Oceane. And it was called Cambria, as our chronacles doo report, of Camber, the thirde sonne of Brutus, like as Lhoegr of Locrinus and Albania of Abanactus, his other sonnes also. This same only, with Cornwal, a most auncient country of Britaynes, enjoyeth as yet the olde inhabitants. The Welshmen use the British tongue, and are the very true Britaynes by birth. And although some do write that Wales doth not stretch foorth on this side the river Vaga or Wye, this can be no fraud to us. For we have taken in hand to describe Cambria, and not Wales, as it is now called by a new named, and unacquaynted to the Welshmen.
spacer 60. In Northwales the Welshmen keepe their olde boundes. But in Southwales the Englishmen are come over Severn, and have possessed al the lande between it and Wye, so that al Herefordshire and the Forest of Deane and Glocestreshyre and a great part of Worchestershyre and Schreupshyre on this side Severn are inhabited by Englishmen at this day. These regions, with certayne corners of Fluitenshyre [Flintshire] and Denbyghshyre, were sumtime under the kings of March. And our Countrymen unto this day do call their neare borderers Gwyr y  Mers, that is to say, the men of March. For Offa, a most mightie kynge of March, the yere of the incarnate worde seven hundred and seventie, to the intent that the boundes of his kyngdome towardes the Britaynes in Wales might the better be knowne, caused a very deepe ditch with an exceedynge high wall to be made from the water Devanus, a little above the castle called Filix, through hie hilles and deepe valleyes, fennes, rockes, cliffes, and rivers, unto the mouth of the river Wye, about an hundred myles long. The same, reservyng the olde name (for of our countrymen it is called Clauddh Offa, that is to day, Offas ditch) it may easely be seene of all throughout the whole coast. And all the townes and villages almost whiche be on the east side therof have their names endynge in these terminations, ton or ham, wherby it appeareth that the Saxons sometime dwelled there, howbeit now the Welshmen in all places beyond that ditch towards Lhoegr have planted them selves. The inhabitants of this region are called in their mother tongue Cymbri. In whiche word the force of the sounde of the letter B is scarcely perceaved in pronouncing. And it is very likely that this was the moste auncient name, and that Cambria, a region of England, was therof so called.
spacer 61. When I perceaved that the Cymbri, whiche fought with the Romans so manie blouddy battles, were called by the same name that ours are, it came into my mynde to enquyre and search what good writers have thought of the beginnyng of that nation. And havyng read much therof, I founde also very much wherby I am so persuaded, that I dare avouche that it was this our British nation. First the name is all one with ours, then their tongue, which is a very great argument. For Plinius in his fourth Booke and 13. chapter saieth that Philemon was of the Cymbri, called Mori marusium, that is to say Mare Mortuum, the Dead Sea, unto the promontory Rubeas &c. And our countrimen call the Dead Sea in their tongue Mor Marw. And as for these words, neither the Germans, neither the Danes, neither Suenones, neither the Slavi, neither the Lithuani, nor the Lyvones doo understand them. Wherfore it is manifest that the Cymbri were none of these nations. But our Cymbri doo speake so, wherfore it is evident that they were of the same name and tongue. Moreover, Plutarchus in the Life of Marius affirmeth that they departed out of a farre country, and that it was not knowne whence they came, nor whether they went, but that like cloudes the issued into Fraunce and Italy with the Almaynes. Wherupon the Romans supposed that they had ben Germans, because they had bigge bodies with sharpe and horrible eyes. Thus much he.
spacer 62. Since therefore he hath left their originall unknowne, and our chronacles doo testifie how that the Britaynes had alwayes great familiaritie with the northerne Germans, it is like enough that the British Cymbri passed over into Denmark, whereby it was termed Cymbrica, and so, joynyng with the Almaynes, made warre upon the Romans and first vanquished Papirius with his armie in Illyrica. Afterward overcame Aurelius Scaurus with his legions in Fraunce, him self being slayne by kinge Belus, which name is also familiar amongst the Welshmen at this day. Beside that, Manlius and Capio were discomfited nigh Rodanus, when there were 12000 of the Romans slayne. In the ende, at Athesis in Italy, they were overthrowen and almost al slain. And whose whiche remayned after the battayle escaped into Germany, and were devided into two partes. Wherof thone returnyng into Britayne gave name to the countrie Cymbria, the other, departyng out of Germany, rested nigh to the sea Balteum, and afterward were called of the Germans Aestiones, whose tongue, as Tacitus writeth, is like the Britysh. And to confirme all this I read of late in a most auncient fragment of the Britysh tongue how that longe since there departed a very great army of Britaynes into Denmarck, whiche, after many valiant warres stoutly made in moste partes of the worlde, never returned agayne. But wheras diverse do affirme that these were the indwellers of the Danish Chersonesus [peninsula], hereby it appeareth false that the Danes longe before that time possessed that land, as their hystories do declare. Neither is there any Danish or Suetish writer that ever made mention of the Cymbri. Othersome affirme that they descended of the inhabitantes of Cymerius Bosphorus. But neither the nations name, neither their maners, neither their kinges names doo agree. Which if you respect ours, are all one. For Clodic, Lhes, Bel, Lhud, Thudfach, Berich, by whiche the kynges of the Cumbri were called, be very common names amongst the Britaynes. Their neglecting of golde, and silver, the shape of their bodies, theyr sheildes, armour, swordes yea made of brasse (wherof I saw twayne, whiche of late were founde in hollow rocks in Northwales), their reverence towards women and preistes, their custome ot sacrifice men unto Mercury, declareth that they were British Cymbri. Neither will I deny that which many doo write, that the Sicambri, and afterward the Franci, were of theyr broode, unlesse that their owne historicians affirmed that they were so called three hundred yeres before of one Cambra daughter to Berlinus, whiche was kynge of Britayne and maried to Antenor theyr kynge.
spacer 63. Wherefore I conclude that the Cymbri, either departed foorth of Britayne about that time, or els were the remnantes of the greate army whiche was gatherd in Britayne and Fraunce, and setled with Brennus in the marches of Greece at the same time. For it is undoubtedly knowen that Brennus was a perfect Britayne and brother to kynge Belinus, and sonne to Dunwallus, which not only our chronacles doo testifie, abut also the countries name, where the ambitious man fought with Belinus his brother and was called of him Brennich. Divers rivers also amongst us called by that name, and also a most auncient castle standying upon the toppe of an exceedyng high hill in Gwaynia called Duias Bran, that is to say, Brennus courte or palace, are a very good argument hereof. Besides this, there remayne most auncient rimes in the prayse of Cornwenna theyr mother, because that when Brennus came foorthe of Fraunce with ayde agaynst his brother, with her naked breast and pappes she reconciled them together, which one has thus interpreted:

O out ahlas, what meaneth this? Doo you my bowels harme?
What wicked cause doth move to brothers powers to be so warme?
Cannot all Britayne you contayne, since it is very sure
That both you twayne within this wombe of mine did once eundure?

May not your mothers teares nor torne heares from purpose pluck?
Nor naked dolefull breastes, in tender age which both did suck?

spacer 64. Who then joyning theyr armies ranne over all Fraunce and Italy, vanquished the Romans, and tooke the citie, and departed oiut of Italy, as Polybius reporteth. And Belinus returned into Britayne, but Brennus with 15000 thousand [sic] footemen and 61200 thousand horsemen, as Pausanias writeth, set upon the Greekes. And havyng subdued the Macedonians, Thessalians, Thracians, and the Poeonians, all the other people of the Greekes he overthrew at Thermopilae in a most horrible blouddie battayle. In fine, when as he was aboute to sack the temple of Apollo of Delphos, his army was wholy almost miraculously slayne by the fal of a mightie great cliffe and a wonderfull rayne from heaven. Wherwith Brennus, beynge strooke with sorowe, a most coragious gentleman as he was, slew him-selfe. And I wot wel how Polydorus complaineth of the supputation [computation] of yeres, when as in deed the time agreeth very well with the British history. But where as he maketh two Brennus, that is altogether beside credit, since no writer before him ever yelded the same to memory. And as concerning the true supputation of the age of the world, divers authors have diversely written.
spacer 65. Besides these reasons, by theyr owne tongue, which is the best proofe that may be, wee will easely convince that they were Britaynes, and that Brennus souldiers spake the Britysh tongue, wee will likewyse soone declare. Pausanias in his tenth Booke writeth thus. Brennus had with him forth 20400 thousande horsemen, whiche were all fightynge men, for the truer numbre of them in deede were above threescore thousand and two hundred. For there followed every horseman two servants on horsebacke. These, when their may dsters were fightynge, stoode alwayes in the rearewarde and assisted them, that if by chance they were unhorsed, thei shuld set them on theirs, and if the man were slayne, the servant should succeede in his place. But if they were both killed by force of fight, then was the third at hand readie to supplie for them that were dead. If the first and cheif had receaved a wounde, one of these other conveyed him out of the battayle, and the third fulfilled the roomth of him that was hurt. And this practise of fightynge on horsebacke they terme in their country language trimarchisia, for they call an horse marcha. Thus far Pausanias. What can be spoken more playnly? Our Britaynes at this day call tres in the masculine gendre tri, and in the feminine tair, that is, three. And an horse they call march, wherby trimarch unto them signifieth three horses. Hereby therfore all must needes confesse either that the Frenchmen spoke the Britysh tongue (which almost all hystories doo deny), or that these were naturall Britaynes.
spacer 66. And afterwarde he saieth that the Frenchmen call a shield tyren in their country speache, whiche woorde wee doo likewise use at this present, calling a shield taria. Moreover Atheneus writeth that the reliques of the Frenchymen under Bathanasius their captayne tooke up their dwelling about Ister, and after that were parted into twayne. Wherof the one were called Scordisci and dwelled in Hungarye, the other by the name of Brenni possessed parte of the Alpes by the mount Brennerus in Tirolensis shier, whome Appianus calleth by the name of Cymbri, which doo all shew that they were Britaynes. For bathynad in our country language signifieth a formed judge. For bath is beautie or form, is beautie or form, ynad with us is a judge, in authoritie next to the kynge. Farther, yscar with us is to separate, and yscaredic signifieth those which be separated. Wherof this part of Fraunce when it departed from the residew was termed Yscaredic, from whence Scordisciis derived, retaynyng the name of Brennus captayne. And brynn in British is a mountayne or hill, of whiche woorde Brynnerus was so called. Over and besides this, Gatheli or the Irishmen, when as about this time they departed out of Cantabria, now Biscay, wandring upon the sea to seeke new dwellings, called all Britaynes Brennach of Brennus their famous captayne, by which name they call our countrimen to this day.
spacer 67. And thus much sufficeth to have sayde of Brennus. But wheras some affirme that the Frenchmen used the British tongue, by certayne French wordes cited by Rhenanus, Sidonius, and Lazius, it appeareth to be most false. Notwithstanding I can not sufficiently marveyle that of the tongue of this most mighty nation, whose bowndes are comprised by the Rhyn, the Pyrenei mountes, Appeninus, and the oceane, there is almost now shew or token to be founde remayninge. And that it was most auncient it appeareth out of Berosus, Annius, Giambularius, and Postellus. Wherby Gallia, now Fraunce, was so called of rayne, which the Hebrues call gal and the Britaynes glaw, as who should say berayned or overflowed by the deluge. Notwithstanding the Spayniards, although they were afflicted by the Romans, the Catti, the Alani, the Vandali, the Gothes, the Suevi, and Mauri or Moores, yet in Cantabria, called now Biscay and Asthuria (for these are onlye the verie true Spanyardes and Hiberi) they have preserved their auncient speech. For that which is commonly called the Spanish tongue is but a medly made out of the Latine, Gothish, and Arabick.
spacer 68. But let us omit all these thynges and returne agayne unto our Cambria, called Wales, whiche wee in our mother tongue doe term Cymbri. This, more then foure hundred yeres since, as Gyraldus hath very well noted, the Englishmen, after the fashion and maner of the Germans, have called Wallia, that is, Wales. For when the aucient Almaines had sometime joyning next unto them of forreyners, the Frenchmen, whom they called Walli, it came to passe that afterwarde they called all straungers and those which dwelt in other provinces walli and wallisei. Lik,e as at this present as well Frenchmen, as Italians and Burgundians they call walli, and al thinges that come foorth of strange countries walsche. This country, I say, whiche (that I may use the woordes of Gyraldus) by a false name, yet most frequently at these dayes, but lesse proper, is called Wallia, Wales, conteyneth in length two hundred myles, and aboute one hundred in breadth. For it reacheth in length from the haven Gorwyr in Mona, called Anglysey, unto the haven Eskewyn in Venta, eight dayes jorney. In breath from Porth Mayr, that is to say, the greate haven of Menuevia, unto Rhyd helig, which the Britaynes cal Vadum Salicis, the Englishmen Wyllowford, about foure dayes jorney. A land muche aboundynge and very well fortified with high mountaines, low valleyes, great woddes, waters, and fennes. In such sort that from time the Saxons first usurped this iland, the residew of the Britaynes which departed into those coasts neither by the Englishmen longe agoe, neither since by the Normans, coulde be altogether subdued. As for those which betooke them selves to the south corner, which of their captaynes name was called Conavia, by cause it is not so well defensed, were not able to resist. For the thyrd part of the Britaynes, whiche doo now remayne possessyng the souhternly sea coast of Fraunce, a singulare good country, was not translated thither after the destruction and conquest of Britayne, but longe ere that by Maximus the Tyran. Who, after many sharpe battayles which the British youth sustayned under him durynge those warres, was with this farthermoste shoare of Fraunce rewarded by the Emperours liberalitie.
spacer 69. Thus far Gyraldus. This country sometime was inhabited only by the Britaynes, but afterward the Englishmen began to possesse it unto Offas ditch, agaynst whom the Welshmen made infinite warres untill the commynge of Wylliam the Norman. Under whose sonne Henry the Flemminges, beyng then driven out of their country by breaking in of the sea, tooke upon them the possession of Rosse, a province of Demetia. Who in many warres were provoked by the Princes of Wales, but alwayes valiantly defended them selves and theirs, and this day, differyng from the Welshmen in tongue and maners, are yet in the same places recompted for Flemmynges. The kynges of England, especially Henry the First, the Second, and Third of that name, callynge unto them the Scots, Irishmen, and Cantabre Gascons, did very much provoke and molest this nation with continuall warres. but the Welshmen, beyng devided under three kynges, whom they called princes (whiche was the very cause of theyr destrucation), defended them seleves and their owne stoutly.
spacer 70. Howbeit, certaine regions of Southwales, as Rosse, Glamorgan, Wenta, Brechnocke, and parte of Poyws, by Robert, sonne to Hammon, and certeyne worthy Erles of Glocester, the Brusii, the Bohunes, Bryan Gylford, Adam of Newmercate, but specially by Tobert Mountgomery and his sonnes Hago, whiche was slayne in Anglysey, Robert of Belisine, and Arnulph, whiche builded the castell of Penbroke, and the Fytzalanes, Lordes of Ostwastrey and Clun, were quayled and tamed in many battayles, and came into the right and possession of the conquerours. And Gwynedh, although that part thereof whiche lieth on this side Conway, was first weaknes by the Erles of Chester, and afterwarde by the forenamed kynges, which at the river Cluda sundrie times wasted all with fier and sworde, notwithstandyng after the departure of the kynges, they drave the Englishmen thence and raced their castels downe to the grounde, and alwayes defended theyr boundes. Untill the yere of our Lord a thousande two fourescore and two, Edward the first of that name, leading a mighty armie agaynst Prince Lewelyn, and an other arrivyng in the ile of Anglysey and vanquishynge the same, from whence they entred into Arvon, a region exceedyngly well fortified by naturall situation, by a bridge made of boates, in the very same place where sometime Agicola lead over his souldiers. Where the two armies, joynyng together, vanquished a great miultitude of the Gascons and Biernes with divers other noble men, and brought them in subjection to the Englishmen.
spacer 71. When as also at the same time his third armie, under the Erle of Glocestre and Roger Martumar, sacked and spoyled Southwales, beyng accompayned with many erles amd lordes of Wales, which loved not the prince. Untill that the prince him selfe, beyng forsaken by many of his owne men, was by the men of Buelt betrayed, not far from the river Vaga or Wye, whether he came with a very fiew souldiers. And by one Adam Francton whiche faught under the conduct of Helius Walwin, far from the residew of his owne power, beynge accompanyed with one only page and unarmed, with certain other noble men of that country which had tolde the same before to his enemies, was there slayne most dishonorably. After whose death the Welshmen came in subjection to the Englishmen, and had alwayes afterwarde to their prince the kyng of Englandes eldest sonne or daughter, if male issue fayled.
spacer 72. This kynge builded certeyne townes and castles there, whiche he compassed with stone walles and left garisons in them to keepe the Welshmen in awe. And provided by special lawes for that intent made, that Welshmen should enjoy no such liberties nor freedoms as they and their posteritie had graunted unto the Englishmen. But by many edictes and decrees set forth against the Welshmen, especially by Henry the Fourth (who by reason of a rebellion made by one Owen, whiche dwelt neare the Valley of Dee, was verie highly offended with al that nation) the kynges of England kept them under the yoke of servitude and, abolishinge their owne proper lawes, brought in the English lawes, providying by generall commaundement that no man should use the Welshe tongue in any court or schoole. Howbeit the honour of the most auncient tongue so much prevayled that not only the Welshmen themselves, but also the inhabitours of the English townes through Wales, beyng now called by the name of Welshmen, doo gladly frequent the same. And hath remooved the bounds into Englandwardes over the river Dee, chiefly since the beginning of the reigne of Henry the Seventh, a moste prudent prince, untill this day. Who, lineally descendyng from this grandfather Owen Tudyr, a Welshman borne in the ilse of Anglysey, quite delivered al the Welshmen from such lawes of bondage as in other kynges dayes they were subject to. And the mightie prince kynge Henry the eight, his sonne, delivered them wholy from all servitude, and made them in all poyncts equall to the Englishmen.
spacer 73. Whereby it commeth to passe that, laying aside their old maners, they, who before were wonte to live most sparingly, are now enritched and do imitate the Englishmen in diet and apparell, howbeit they be somedeale impatient of labour and overmuch boastyng of the nobilitie of their stocke, applying them selves rather to the service of noblemen than gevynge them selves to the learnyng of handycraftes. So that you shall finde but few noble men in England but that the greater parte of their retinew (wherin Englsihmen exceede al other naitons) are Welshmen borne. For men cheifly brought up with milke meates, beyng nymble and well set of bodie, are very apt to do any kynde of business. Besides, beyng somwhat high minded and in extreame povertie, acknowledgyng the nobilitie of their family, are more given to the culture and trimmyng of their bodies (like Spanyiards) then to ritches or the belly, and beying very apt to learne courtlike behaviour, are therfore by the English nobilitie preferred before Englishmen. Howbeit also of late they have very commendably begun to inhabite townes, to learn occupaions, to exercise merchandise, to till the grounde well, and to doo all other kindes of publique and necessary fucntions as wel as Englismen. And yet in this one thing surpassyng them, that there is no man so poore but for some space he setteth forth his children to schole, and such as profitte in studie sendeth them unto the universities, were for the most part they enforce them to studie the civile law. Wherby it chaunceth that the greater sort of those which professe the civile or canon lawes in this realme are Welshmen, And you shall finde few of the ruder sorte whiche cannot reade and write their owne name and play on the harpe after their maner. And now also the holy scriptures and dayly service are printed in their tongue. And like as this nation (as Tacitus reporteth), beyng very impacient of injuries, was alwayes at variance in continuall warres and slaughter within it self, so now, through feare of lawes whiche they doo very civilly obey, they strive in actions and controversies unto the consuming of all their goodes.
spacer 74. And thus much touchinge the manners and demeanure of the Welshmen at this day. But now heare of their olde, out of Gyraldus, which writeth thus: It is a light nation, a sharpe nation rather than a rough, a nation wholy given unto warres. For here not only the noblemen, burt all the multitude is redy to armur. For the trumpet no sooner soundeth alarme but the husbandman cometh as spedely to battaile from the plough as doeth the courtier from the court. For not here, as inpother places,

The ploughmans toyle in circle rounde doth runne.

For in March and Aprill only they steere once for otes, but they fallow not twise in sommer, and the thyrde winter after for wheatland. The most part of the people is fead with rudder beastes for the payle [i.e., on beasts of the field]. They fead on otes, cheese, mylke, and butter, on fleash most abundantly, and on breade more sparingly. They trouble them selves with no marchendise, with no travell by sea, with no handycraftes, neitehr with any affayres else savynge martial. And yet they seeke for preservation of peace and their liberty. They fight for their country, they labour for theyr libertie. For whiche, not only to blade it out, but also to leese [lose] their lives they compt it sweet. Wherby it cometh that they thinke it shame to die in their beds, and an honour to die in warre. And these beyning now the remnantes of Aensas trayne, would runne foorthe headlongwise in armur for their libertieOf whom this is verie notable to be marked, that many times, beyng naked [i. e., not wearing armor], they dare encounter with those whiche bear weapon, unarmed with those which are armed, and footemen with horsemen. In which conflict, many times, only through their nimblenesse and courage of minde they become the conquerours. And are not unlike unto those in place and nature, of, whom the poet speaketh:

spacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerSubject unto the neorthen Beare,
Most happie folke by their mischance, on whom those heapes of feare,
And cheefest dread of death doth nothing daunt. Whereby doth rise
To them a redie minde to runne to fight and death dispise,
Accompting for to spare life, that wil come againe, great cowardise.

spacer 75. And in another place, A nation slenderly armed, trustyng rather to theyr agilitie then the force of ther men. For if they be overcome to day, and shamefully turned in to blouddy flight, notwithstandinge to morrow they prepare a new expedition, not mindefull of theyr losse nor shame. And althoughe they prevayle not, when warre is proclaymed with open meetynges, yet in secret ambushments and breakynges in by night, they wil vexe their enemy, so that, beyng nothing troubled with hunger nor cold, neither wearied with martial affayres, neither fallynge into desperation by adversitie, but soone redie to rise up after a fall, and prest by and by agayne to assay the peril of war, as in battayle easy, so in continuance of warre harde to overcome. Wherby Claudianus seemeth to speeke of the nature of the same nation, saying,

spacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerIf that their hearts you let a while
To rest, so many slaughters they devoyd of sense doo seeme
To take, and of smale price the losse of so much bloud to deeme.

spacer 76. Thus much he, and more which shortly, God willyng, shalbe set forth. Now let us come to the description of the lande. This lande, after the British destruction, was devided into six regions, as I read of late in a very auncient booke written of the lawes of the Britains. For (sayth that booke) after that the Saxons had vanquished the Britaynes and obtayned the scepter of the realme and the crowne of London, all the peoples of Wales assembled together at the mouthe of the river Deuey to choose a kynge. Andyno i Doethant Gụyr Gụynedth, à Gụyr Powis, à Gụyr Dehenbarth, à Reynnục ac Esyllue, a Morganuc, That is to say, and thither came men of Gywnedh, and men of Powys, and men of Deheubarth, and of Reynnucia, and of Syllucia, and Morgania, and they chose Maylgun, whom others call Maclocunius of Gynedh, to be their kynge. This was aboute the yere of our Lorde 560. Howbeit afterward in the lamentable conflict agaynst Ethelfredus kynge of Northumberland are recited the kings of Dynetia, whiche falsly they call Demetia, of Guenta, of Powysia, and of Northplace. And in aother place mention is made of the kinges of Stratcluyd, so that hereby it is easely gathered that this country was subject to divers petikinges or erles, unto the time of Roderike the Great, who obteined the monarchie of all Wales the yere of our Lorde 843, devidyng it into three partes, which he left in possession of his three sonnes. For unto Mervinius (as Gyraldus termeth him, to whom I consent) his eldest sonne he gave Gwynedth, to Anaraudus (whome some make the eldest) Powys, and to Cadelhus the youngest Deheubarth. And, that I may use the woords of Gyldas, Southwales was alotted to Cadelhus with the blessyng and goodwil of all the people, which they call Deheubarth, which is as much to say as, the right side. Which, although in quantity it be farre the biggest, notwithstandyng by reason of noble men, which in the Welsh tongue are called ychelwyr, that is to say, high men, wherwith it aboundeth, which were wont to rebell agaynst their lordes and to defie them in armur, it seemed to be the worser. This division (whilst their posteritie contended among themselves in civill warre, and ech of them alone with the Englishmen in externall) at last destroyed the kyngedome of Wales.
spacer 77. The cheefest of these kyngdomes, which the inhabitantes call Gwnedth, the Englishmen Northwales, and the Latine writers corruptly Venodotia, had in auncient time these limites. On the weast and the north sides it hath Vergivium or the Irish Oceane, at the southwest and by south, the river Deuye, wherby it is cut of from Southwales. On the south and east sides, it is severed from Powys and England with high hilles, and somtime with waters unto the force of the river Dee. The same also was parted into foure regions, which conteined fifteene cantredi, which signifieth an hundred villages. The principallest of these regions was the ile of Anglysey, of whom wee have spoken in another place, and in the same was a kynges palace, the seate of Northwales, in Aberfraw, whereof the kinges of Gwynedth have the name of the kinges of Aberfraw. For the lawes of Howel Dha (that is to say, good Howel) of walles both kynge and lawier, [sic: read “lawes of both kynge and lawier”?] which I have seen written both in the British and Latin tongues, it was decreed that, like as the kynge of Aberfraw ought to pay threescore and three poundes for tribute unto the kynge of London, so likewise the kinges of Dinesur and Matrafall where severally bounde to pay so much. Whereby it appeareth that this kinge was the cheefest prince of al Wales.
spacer 78. About Anglysey be divers litle ilands, as Ynis Adar, that is to say the Ile of Byrdes sometime, but now it is called Ynis Moylrhoniaid, to witte the Ilse of Whales, in English Ysterild. Also Unis Lygod, that is, the Ile of Myse, and the ile Seirial, in English Preestholme. The seconde region of Gynedth, called Arfon, as who should say above Anglysey, the best fortified parte of all Wales. For it conteyneth the highest mountaynes and rockes of all Britayne, which wee terme Yriri, the Enghlishmen Snowdowne, because they carrie snow, for height and plentie of cattayle, scarce inferiour to the Alpes. It hath in it many rivers and standing waters. Beyond whose farthest promontory, called Lhynus, lieth an ile which Ptolomaeus termed Lymnos, our countrymen Eulhi, the Englishmen Bardesey, hat is to say, the ilse of the Bardi. In Arfon, over agaynst Anglysey, stoode an auncient citie called of the Romans Segontium, of the Britaynes Caaersegont of a river whiche passeth therby. But now out of the ruynes thereof there is a new towne and a castle founded by Edward the first of that name, Kyng of England, called Caer Arfon, tht is to say, a towne upon Anglysey. And not farre from thence, overagaynst Anglysey, lieth the byshops see of Banchor. And upon Conway water, which there ebbeth and floweth, standeth Conwaoy, of our countriemen called Aberconwy, a walled towne builded by the same kynge. Then followeth Meridnia, with us Merionydh, and Gyraldus calleth it the land of the sonnes of Conavius. The same (as he sayeth) is the most roughest and sharpest of al Wales, havynge in it moste highest mountaines. The people use longe speares, wherwith they be of great force, as the Southwales men with their bowes, so that a harniess [harness, armor] cannot beare of it. So much he. The sea coast there, by occasion of great herryng takyng, is much frequented by people of divers countries. I the same standeth the towne Harlechia by the sea side. And within the lande is the great lake Tegid, through which the river Dee, whiche wee call Douerduwy, floweth. Where it is worthe the notyng that there is in that ponde a peculiar kinde of fish, which is never founde in the runnynge water, neither the salmons whereof the river is full, doo entre into the lake. In this country and in Arfon are seene great multitude of deare, and goates upon the high hilles. And these two countries, of all Wales, cam last into the power of othe Englishmen. Neither did the people of this country ever frequent domestical incursions, but before our time always seemed to obey lawes rightfully. The farthest and last part of Gwynedth is called of our countrimen Berfedhwlad, that is to say, the inward and midland region, and is severed from Arfonby the river Conway, of whom Antoninus and Ptolomaeus do speake under the name of Novius. In this, besides the forenamed river, standeth a most antique citie of the Brityanes called Dygawyn in Rosse, of the Englishmen Gannock, and famous in Tacitus by the name of Cangorum, wherof the people in that countrie were called of the Romans Cangi. And Ptolemaeus mentioneth the promontorie of the Ingani, which they call now Gogarth, a place so fortified by nature that it can scarse be taken by mans strength.
spacer 80. This citie (as I say) was the seate and palace of the later kynges of Britayne, when, as now their power began to quayle, as namely of Maylgun Canuanus, Candwalla, whom Bede termeth a most cruell tyranne bicause he persecuted his enemies very fiercely, and of Cadwalladar, who was the last kynge of Britayne of the Brittish bloud. This citie, the yere of our redemption eight hundred and sixtene, Cananus Dyndaythuy reygnynge in Wales, was stroken with lightnynge from heaven, and burned in suche sort that it could never be afterwarde restored, howbeit the name remayneth to the place to this daye, out of whose rubbish Conovia was builded. Moreover in this territory, in Rhyfaniacum, Henry Lacey Erle of Lincolne, to whom the conquerour thereof, Edward the First, gave that land, erected a very stoute castle, not only by naturall situation, but also by a wall of wonderfull thicknesse, made of a very harde kinde of stone, in my opinion the strongest and best defended thynge in England. Addyng also thereto a towne walled about, which by the auncient name he called Dynbech, although those which cam afterwarde termed it Denbigh. This fine towne, and my sweet country, beynge compassed welnigh aboute with very fayre parkes, and standing by the entrance of an exceedynge pleasant valley, aboundeth plentifully with all things that are necessarie to the use of man. The hilles yeelde fleash and white meates. the most fertile valley very good corne and grasse. The sweet rivers with the sea, at hande, minister all sortes of fishe and foule. Strange wynes come thither foorth of Spayne, Fraunce, and Greece abundantly. And being the cheif towne of the shyre, standying in the very middle of the countrie, it is a great market towne, famous and much frequented with wares and people from al partes of Northwales. The indwellers have the use of both tongues. And, beying endued by kynges of England with many priviledges and liberties, are ruled by their owne lawes.
spacer 81. The valley nigh wherto this towne standeth, is termed among us Dyphryn Clwyd, that is to say, the valley of Clwyd. It is almost eighteene miles in length, and in breadth in some place four miles, in other some sixe. On the east, west, and soith sides it is environed with high hilles, on the north with the oceane sea. In the midst it is cut in twayne by the river Clwyd, wherof it taketh name, into whom divers other litle streames fallying out of the hilles doo discharge them selves, by reason wherof irriguous [well watered[ and pleasant medowes and plentifull pastures doo lie aboute the bankes therof. In the entrance of which valley Ruthyn, an auncient towne and castle of the Grayes, from whence the most noble famely amongst the Englishmen tooke beginning, is to be seene. And not farre from the sea standeth Rudhlan in Tegengyl, sometime a great towne, but now a litle vyllage.
spacer 82. In In the same province is a cathedrall churche, of our countrymen called Lhan Elwey, of the Englishmen St. Assaph, buildeth between twoo ryvers, Clyd and Elwey. I remember that I have read that there was one Elbodius, Archbishoppe of Northwales, preferred unto that honour by the Byshoppe of Rome, who fyrst of all, the yere of our salvation seven hundred three score and two, reconciled the Welshmen to the Romishe Churche, from which before they had disagreed. For the Britaynes, imitating the Asiaticke Churche, celebrated theyr Easter from the foureteenth day of the moone unto the twentie, when the Romans, followynge the Nicene counsell, keep theyr Easter from the fifteene to the one and twentie. Whereby it commeth to passe that these nations have celebrated that feast on divers Sundayes. But let the byshoppes take regarde how farre they doo erre from the decrees of the Nicene counsell, while they followe that uncertayne rule of the motion of the sonnel and moone whiche they call the Golden Number, beynge therein very fowly deceaved. Whiche thinge in times past was objected for a cryme agaynst the Britaynes by the over superstitious monke Augustine, and lykewyse by Bede, whiche to muche attributed unto such trifles, insomuch that for the same cause he durst terme them heretiques. But now, howbeit under curse of the Nicene counsell it be otherwyse comaunded, it is rejected by the prelates them selves and the whole Churche of Europe.
spacer 83. But let us returne to our purpose. In that place where the see of Sl. Assaph is was formerly a colledge of learned agonists, that I may use Capgraves woordes, celebrated for multitude under Centigerne, a Scot, whiche was called Elguense or Eluense of a river. This province Tegenia is called of the Latines Igenia, and fater, beynge vanquished by the Englishmen, began to be termed Tegengel, that is to say, the Englishmens Tegenia. Afterward being inhabited by Britaynes cumminge foorth of Scotland and driving the Englishmen thence, with the valley of Clywd, Ruthyn, and Rosse make one kyngdome, which Marianus calleth Streudglead, our countrymen terme it Stradclyd, that is to say the soyle of Clywd. For this woord strat, with the name of some river joyned thereto, doth usually signifie amongst the Welshmen a veyne or soyle of lande night to river, as Strad Alyn, Strad Towyn, with many such like. Theyr last prince called Dunwallon, forsayking his kingdome when the Danes afflicted all Britayne, departed to Rome the yere after the incarnation 971, where shortly after he died. In Tegenia is a well of mervaylous nature, whiche beying sixe myles from the sea, in the parish of Kilken, ebbeth and floweth twise in one day. Yet have I marked this of late, when the moone ascendeth from the east horizon to the south (at what time all seas do flowe), that then the water of this well diminisheth and ebbeth.
spacer 84. And not far from this place is the famous fountayne takynge name of the superstitious worsyppinge of the virgin Wenefride, which hoyling up solvenly out of a place which they call Sychnant, that is to day, a drie vallye, rayseth forth of it self a great streame which runneh immediatly into Devanus. This water, besides that it bredeth mosse of a very pleasant savour, is also most holsome unto mans body, bothe for washyng and drinkynge, and of very good tast, in so much that many beinge washed therin were cured of divers infirmities wherwith they were borne. Morever, in Tegenia there is a certayne auncient monument of an olde building in a place called Pot Vary, sometime renowmed by Roman letters and armes. The towne whiche they call Flynt, standynge upon the water Deva, is knowne not only to be the head of Tegenia, but also the whole shire.
spacer 85. After the description of Gwynedh, let us now come to Powys, the seconde kyngedom of Wales. Which in the time of German Altisiodorensis, which preached sometime there against Pelagius heresie, was of power, as is gathered out of his life. The kynge wherof, as is there read, bycause he refused to heare that good man, by the secret and terrible judgement of God with his palace and all his householde was swallowed up into the bowels of the earth in that place, whereas, not farre from Oswastry, is now a standying water of an unknown depth called Lhunclys, that is to say, the devouring of the palace. And there are many churches founde in the same province dedicated to the name of German. The citie of Schreusbury in olde time was the princes seate of this kyngdome. But when the Englishmen had taken it, it was translated to Mathraval, a place five myles from Pole of Powys. This region had on the northside Gwynedth, on the east from Chestre unto Herford, England on the south and west of the river Wey, and very high hylles whereby it was disjoyned from Southwales. And bycause the lande was plaine and neare to England, and much vexed with continuall warre by Englishmen, and afterward by the Normans, this part of Wales did first experiment the yoke of English subjection. Which brooding stoute men and such, whose nature coulde not abide to be at rest, but given to murther and excursions, not only procured infinite trouble unto the kynges of England, but wrought also great injurie unto theyr neighbours the Welshmen> But afterward, beynge parted between twoo brothers, as was the custome of the Britaynes, it began to wax weake. Andl the part which lieth on the northside of Tanat, Murnia, and Severn befel unto Madoc, wherof it was called Powys Fadoc. The other parte came both in name and possession of Gwenwynwyn.
spacer 86. The first lost the name of Powys, for beyng subdued by the Normans, it came into the power and right of the conquerours. The first region thereof, Mailor, is devided into twaine by the river Dee, namely the Saxon and Welsh, wherof the first appertayneth unto Flintshyre and the other unto Denbyghshyre, in the which standeth the castle of Lion, now commonly called Holt. And not farre from thence are seene the rubbish and relliques of the moste notable and famous monasterie of Banchor, while the glory of the Britaynes flowrished. In the same were two thousand and one hundred moonkes, very well ordred and learned, and devided into seven sortes, dayly serving God. Amongst whom, those which were simple and unlearned by their handie labour provided meate and drinke and apparell for the learned and suche as applied their studie. And if any thyng were remainyng, they devided it unto the poore. That place hath sent foorth many hundreds of excellently wel learned men, amongst whom it hath also vomited forth to the worlde the most detestable archeheretick Pelagius. And afterward, through the envie and malice of Augustine, not the Bishop of Hippo but the most arrogant moonke, and also the most cruell execution of his ministre Ethelfrede, worthy men of far more perfect ordre than he was of were made away, and the whole house, from the very foundations, together with their most noble liberary, more precious then golde, was raysed downe and destroyed with fier and sworde.
spacer 87. It were overlonge to repeate what Latine and British chronicles doo reporte of the intollerable pride of this man. For when he, sittyng in his regal seat, disdayned to ryse up unto the British bishops which came to him humbly and meekely, as it became Christians to doo, they, beholdynge the same, both judged and sayde that he was not the ministre of the most gentle and meeke lambe Christ, but of Lucifer, as they had learned in the holy scripture, and so they departed home againe. For whiche contempt and reproche, and paertly also bycause they agreed not in some poyntes with the Archbishop of Cantorbury, which he had appointed, and with the Church of Rome, he so stirred the hate of the Englishmen agaynst them that shortly after, as I sayde, by Ethelfred, through the ayde and helpe of Ethelbert King of Kent, provoked therto by Augustine, the mounkes whiche desired peace were most cruelly slaine. And afterward the Britaynes, under the conduct of Brochwell Kynge of Powys, were vanquished, until that at length, being ayded with power from Belthrusius Duke of Cornwall, Carduane Kyng of Northwales, Meredoc Kyng of Southwales, and hartned forward by the oration of their most learned Abbot Donetus, who commaunded, as our chronacles reporte, that every one should kisse the grounde in remembrance of the communion of the Body of our Lord, and should take up water in their hands foorth of the river Dee and drinke it in commemoration of the moste sacred bloud of Christ, which was shead for them. Who, having so communicated, they overcame the Saxons in a famous battayle and slew of them, as Huntyngton writeth, a thousande threescore and sixe, and created Caruanus theyr kynge in the Citie of Legions.
spacergreen 88. Next ensue Yale and Chyrk, hilly countries. In this last standeth that antique casrtle which at this day is called Brennus Palace. And these apperteyne unto Denbighshyre. But more to the north are Stradalin, so named of the river Alyn, and Hope of Flintshire. Towardes Schreusbury lieth Whittington and Ostwastrey, a noble market and enwalled rounde at the charges of the Fitzalanes, a moste auncient famely of Englande, whose inheritaunce it is, and these belonge unto Schropshire. Above these in the west are the Edeirnion men, joyned now unto the Merionydh men, upon the ryver Dee. And all these at this presente are calleed Gwhendhii or men of Gwyneth, for the name of the men of Powis is perished amongst them.
spacer 89. Ther second region of Polys conteyned the same province, whiche now only enjoyeth the name of Powys, and sometime stretched very wide, but now contayne h only three cantredes, lying wholy on thel northside of the river Severn, whiche is the seconde river of Britayne, fallyng from the high mountaynes of Plymnonia and rising foorth of the same head with Wey and Rhydwely, and running through Arwistli and Kedewen into Powys, maketh speede to Schreusbury, and so floweth forward through Brydgenorth, Worcestre, and Glocestre, from whiche, not farre of, it ebbeth and flowesth, and between Wales, Devonshyre, and Cornwall, beareth name of the Severn Sea. Our countrymen terme it Hafren and not Severn, as the Englishmen doo. The cheife towne and kyngs seate of Powys, called Matrafal, retayneth the auncient name, howbeit the buildynges be defaced and worne. And one myle from Severn standeth a towne, the only market of all that region, of the Englishmen Pole, of the Welshmen called Tralhung, that is to day, the Towne of the Standynge Water, so called of the lake whereto it is nigh, where there stande aloft two castels, builded sometime by the princes of Powys. This princedom came by inheritance unto a woman called Havisia, who beynge maried unto one Carleton, an Englishmam, made him Lorde of Powis, from which house at length it descended to the Grayes in the north.
spacer 90. Next unto that standeth Cadevenna, a new towne about whom, towardes the rising of Severn, are Arwistle and Lhanidlos, countries wel knowne by reason of the townes. And more up west, and by the north, at the head of Deuey, Mouthwy, now a portion of Merionedh, and Kefelioc, knowne by the towne Machaulhaith. On the other side of Severn, beneathe the region Kereiy, there is a castle by a little towne, which Welshmen call Trefaldwyn, tha is to say Baldwynes town, but the English terme it Montgomery of the biulder Roger of Mont Gomer. From this towne all these regions, beyng joyned together, are called Montgomershire, a country brooder sometime of noble horses. Now it sendeth foorthe but few, and by the forenamed Roger and his sonnes, very valiant and warlike gentlemen, very sorely afflicted, untill that Robert, beynge accused of high treason, was enforced to flie his countrie. The region is hilly, and by reason of plentifulnesse of pastures verie good for grasinge of cattell, aboundynge with many waters, and bryngynge foorthe tall men, very well favoured, much addicted unto idleness and unprofitable games. Whereby it cometh to passe that you shall finde many ritche English farmers amongste them, when as the landelordes themselves, which will take no paynes, do become very poore. These six shirs, namely Anglysey, Arvon, Merionydth, Denbyghshyre, Fluitense, and Montgomershire, Englishmen comprise under the name of Northwales.
spacer 91. There remayneth yet that parte of Powis which stretched sometime unto Wey, whose first region taketh name of the river Colunwy, and of the castle and possession of the Fitzalanes. Next to Melienyth and Gurrtrention, hilly countries, and at the south Radenor, called of the Welshmen Maisifod, head of the shyre. Joyning unto these are the Elvil with the castle of Pane by Wey, which our countrymen call Gwy. Beyonde al these are Prestene, which wee call St. Androwes Churche, and Kynton with the castle of Huntington. And upon Themis, of us called Tefedioc, standth the fayre towne and castle of Ludlaw in Schreupshyre, in olde time called Dinau, the worke of Roger Montgomer. And above that the castle of Wigmore, the patrimony of the Mortumars. And at Severn, Bridgenorth and Beaudely, in old time very wel knowne by the castle Tyrhil. And on the southwest side, upon Logus, which wee cal Lhygwy, on a passyng fertile playn, standeth Lhanlhieni, of the English Lemster. And not farre thence is the auncient citte Henfford, that is to say, an olde way, of Englishmen in old time called Ferleg, how Hereford, standinge upon Wey, or more truly upon Gwy. Toward Severn are Malvern hilles, and in the very corner between Severn and Wey, not farre from the towne of Rosse, is that renowmed woodde, which of the Danes is called the Forest of Deane. These regions, with al Herefordshyre beyond Wey, before they were possessed by the Englishmen, in old time were termed in British Euryeynnwc, and the inhabitants Eurnwyr, of whiche name there remayneth yet some signification apparant in one place of Herefordshire. For that which the Englishmen called Urchenfeld the Welshmen called Ergnig, and afterward Ergengel. And no mervayle, since the least portion thereof retayneth now (as I have sayd) the name of Powis.
spacer 92. There rekmayneth the thyrd kyngdome of Wales, of the English called Sothwales, of our countrymen which inhabite the land Deheubarth, that is to say, the right or south part, for so wee use to terme the south. The same is wholy compassed with the Irish Sea, the streame of Severn, and the rivers Wey and Dyvei. And although the country be very fertile, and the lande ritche, and far more bigger than Gwynedh, notwithstandynge, as Gyraldus sayeth, it was compted the worser and that not only because ychelwyr, that is to say, the noblest and cheefest men, refused to obey their kynges, but also by reason that the sea coastes thereof were continually molested by the Englishmen, Normans, and Flemmynges. Whereby the prince was compelled to forsake Caer Mardthyn his seate, and to apoyncte the principall place of his regalitie at Dinefur in Cantremawr. And although these princes were of greate authoritie in Wales, yet after that Rhesus, the sonne of Theodore the Great, was slayne through the treason of his owne men, they were no longer termed dukes nor princes, but arglwydthi, that is to say, lordes, untill at length through civile warres, by devidyng of their landes amongst many, and also by externall (whyle the Englishmen endevored to possesse all by force and crafte) they were so weakened that after the death of Rhesus, the sonne of Griffith, a very noble and valiant gentleman, they lost bothe the authority and name of princes and lordes.
spacer 93. Now let us descend unto the description of the province, wherof the first region commeth to hande is that whiche Gyraldus calleth Ceretica, our countrymen Ceredigion, the Englishmen Cardigan, where it is to be noted, as in all other, that C and G have the force of Cappa and Gamma. This region on the north hath the Irish Sea, on the east the river Dyuei, whereby it is devided from Gwynedh, and towardes Powis,very high hilles, on the south Caermyrthyn, and on the west Diyfetia. Their tongue (as Gyraldus affirmeth) is esteemed the finest of al the other people of Wales, and Gwyneth the purer, without permixtion, comming nearest unto the auncient British. But the southerne most rudest and coursest, bycause it hath greatest affinitie with strange tongues. The sea coaste of this parte, Rychard Clarens, a very noble man, comminge in with a navie and buildying castles at the mouth of Teifi and Vstwyth, possessed it for his owne, and leaving garisons there, returned into England. But when he understoode that his men were besieged by the Welshmen, beyng bodned by his great power, he entended, by an over rash enterprise, to go ayde them by lande. But at Coed Gronus, not farre from Abergeveni, he was slayne with all his armie by Ierwerthus of Caerlheon. And so those fortes returned agayne unto theyr olde lords.
spacer 94. I suppose that the mouthe of Ystwyth is of Ptolomaeus called Rotossa and Tibium Albertius, but that, through negligence of the transcribers, they were confounded into one. Not farre from this place standeth Lanpaternfawr, that is the Church of Paternus the Greate, which in olde time was had in great veneration. Forl Welshmen above all other nations were accustomed to reverence churches and attribute much honour unto ecclesiasticall persons. For (as Gyraldus reporteth) they used not once to touche the most deadlyest foes they had, and such as were accused of treason, if they escaped into the church. Yea, not so much as their enemies cattell, if they fedde in any pastures or leases which apperetayned unto the Churche. Moreover, when they be armed and goynge unto battell, if they fortune to meete with a priest on the way, they will cast downe their weapons and require benediction with a stoupyng [bowed] head. In the same region is a place in whiche (they say) under Devus feete, whom in Latine they call David, whyle he inveyhed agaynst the Pelagians, the earth bellowed and rose up in an hill, which they terme Lhandewybrevy. In the other part of the region is the principall towne of the shyre, upon the river Teify, which wee terme Aberteifi, to say, the mouth of Teifus, the Englishmen call it Cardigan. This river only of al Britayne, as Gyraldus reporteth, aboundeth with otters, but now our countrimen know not what they ar. The bare name, which is avanc, they  take for a monstre of the water.
spacer 95. Passyng foorth alonge by the same sea coaste, there commeth unto our view a region of auncient time termed of our countrymen Dyfed, of Ptolomaeus Demetia for Dynetia, in English Westwales, and now Penbrokeshyre. The same reacheth from sea the sea, the farther promontorie wherof Ptolomaeus calleth Octopitarum, a litle declinyng from the worde Pebidion. By the northern ocean a longe lie Trefdreaeth and Aberguain and Cilgaren within the mayne lande, and in the west angle is the bishops see of Meneve, sometime famous with an archbishops see. For Devi, who is called David, translated teh archbishopprick from the Citie of Legions, where it was of antiquitie, into Meneve. Afterwhome there sate there five and twentie archbishops, whose names are founde in Gyraldus.The last wherof, called Samson, in the time of a grevous plague of pestilence then reignyng, fled into Armorica, or the lesse Britayne, with his palle, where being chosen Bishop of Dole he lefte there his palle, which his successours have enjoyed unto this daye, before whom the Archbyshop of Turo [Tours] hath prevayled. But ours, by occasion of the Saxon warre and their owne povertie, lost their auncient dignitie, notwithstandyng al bishops of Wales were consecreated by the Bishop of Meneve, and he of them, as his suffraganes, untill the dayes of Henry the First, when as Bernhard was consecrated by the Archbyshop of Cantorbury and used him selfe longe time after as archbyshop, untill in the ende his action [lawshit] fell at Rome. Thus much Gyraldus. Neither was there any Bishop of Meneve before Morgenew, whiche was the xxxiii from David, that tasted any fleash. And he, the very same night when he first tasted fleash, was slayne by pyrates. This church hath been very often spoyled and destroyd by English and Danish pyrates. Here, in the valley of Rosea, was borne the greate Patricke who endued Ireland with the Catholic faith.
spacer 96. Haverfordia, whiche they call now West Hereford, is distant from this see xxi myles, in olde time called of the Britaynes Aberdaughleddaw, that is to say, the mouth of two swords. For so the chiefest ryvers of all Britayne, which make any haven, are termed. Englishmen call the same Milford, and some Alaunicum by the Latin name. The Welshmen call this towne now Hulphordh, and the haven reserveth his antique name. Upon the same crooke or bosome standeth Benbrock, head of the shyre, the worke of Arnulph Montgomer, whiche Girarde of Windelesour valiantly defended agaynst Rhesus sonne to Theodore. And after that peace was established (as Gyraldus reporteth) he tooke to wife Nessa, daughter of Thesus, on whom he begat worthy issue both male and female, by whom both the sea coast of Wales remayned unto the Englishmen, and the force of Ireland was afterward vanquished. At the south sea lieth Tenbigh, as Englishmen terme it, but Welshmen Dinbegh Ypyscot, that is to wit, fishyng Denbygh, so called for difference twixt and the other, which is in Gwynedth. This same part of Demetia or Dyentia is at this day possessed and inhabited by Flemmynges sent thither by Henry the First. The people, beying stout and rough, defended them selves and theirs valiently against the Welshmen. And although many times, especially by Cadwalader, Conanus, and Howell, sonnes of Owaen Prince of Gywneth, and Rhesus sonne to Gryffeth of Northwales, and lastly by Leweline the Greate, as Pariensis termeth him, who had in his armie thirtie thousande men, they were almost destroyed and sleyne, yet have they alwayes recovered their strength agayne, and unto this day are knowen from Welshmen by diversitie of their manners and tongue.
spacer 97.The thyrde province of Southwales, Maridinia, taketh name of Maridunum, a very auncient citie whereof both Latin aeeke writers make mention. By which name it was so called and knowne long before the birth of that very well learned man whom the Englishmen corruptly call Merlin, but our countrymen Merdhin. Neither did the citie take name f im, but he of that, whereas he was borne. Wee call the same Caer Fridhin by reason of proprietie of the tongue, whereby wee change M into V the consonant (for whom our countrymen do use F) “in the Castle and Citie of Merdhyn.” That same Ambrose who was borne of a noble virgin (whose fathers name is of purpose suppressed) for his passing skill in the mathematicals and wonderful knowledge in al other kinde of learnyng, was by the rude common people reputed to be the sonne of an incubus or a male divell, whiche in similitude and likenesse of men do use carnally to companie with women. This towne, as Gyraldus writeth, was in olde times compassed rounde with a fayre brickewall. And upon the river Clarus, which Ptolomaeus termeth Thobius, wee Towi, is sayde that the kynges seat and palace of Southwales was builded, untill that it was taken by the Englishmen. After what time it was remooved unto Dynefur upon the same river, a place very well forested with woodes and hilles. In this region, by reason of the stronge situation of places, the princes of Southwales made welnigh their continuall abode. Which was devided from Ceretica by the river Tifey, by whose side standeth the noble castle of Emlyn. On the other sides it is environed with very high hilles, and with the sea.
spacer 98. Towards the sea is Catguilia, now Cydweili, a country sometime possessed by Mauritius of London. Next whom lieth Gwhir, which joyneth unto Margania with us a towne at the mouthe of Tawai, of us Abertawai, of Englishmen called Swansei. Morgania, of Englishmen Glamorgan, of us called Morganwe and Gwladforgan, that is to say, the country of Morgan, of one Morgan which was there slayne by his auntes sonne Cuneda, who was king of Lhoegri more than twoo thousand yere since, so called. It lieth on the Severn Sea, and was alwaies wont to be rebellious against his prince. Wherefore, when it refused to obey his true and lawfull prince, by the just judgement of God, which alwayes revengeth rebellion and treason, it was enforced to come in servitude unto straungers. For aboute the yere of our Lorde one thousand fourescore and ten, when Jestinus, sonne to Gurgantus Erle of Morgania refused to obey Rhesus, sonne to Theodore, Prince of Southwales, and sent Aeneas sonne to Cedivorus, sometime Lorde of Demetia, into England to take muster of souldiers, and there receaved a great army under the conduct of one Robert, sonne to Hamo, and, joynynge with other rebells out of Wenta and Brechinia, mette with Rhesus in Blackhill and there slew him, and so, paying the Englishmen theyr wages, discharged them. But they, takynge regarde unto the goodnesse of the soyle and the great variance whiche was then amongst the Welshmen, as in foretime the Saxons had done, they turned theyre force of armes agaynst those whiche entertayned them, and soone displaced them wholy of all the champion [flatland] and the best of the countrie. Which Hamo devided amongst twelve knights which he brought with him, reserving the better part to himself. Who, buildynge there certein castels and joynyng their power together, defended their farmes and lordeships which they had possessed and taken. Whose heyres peacebly enjoy the same unto this day. But Jestinus scarsly reserved to him selfe and his the hillye country. The twelve knightes names were these, London, Stradlyng, Sanct John, Turberville, Granville, Humfreysville, Sanctquintin, Sorus, Sullius, Berkerolus, Syward, and Fleminge.
spacer 99. In this province are Neth upon a river of the same name, Pontfayn, that is to say, Stone brydge, Englishmen falsly call it Cowbridge, Lantwyd, Wenny, Dynwyd, townes and castels, besides Caer Phili, a most auncient castle and fortresse. Which, as reporte goeth, was erected by the Romans, and Caerdid, the principall towne of the shyre, standyng upon the ryver Taf. Englishmen terme it Cardyd. And not far from thence is Landaf, to say, a churche standing on Tavus, ennobled with a byshops see. Next unto this region lieth Wenta, under Monmuthshyre. This in olde time was called Siluria, which may easely be proved, contrarie unto the ridiciulous authoritie of Boethius and Polydorus. And first to beginne with Tacitus, who affirmeth that the Siluri lye over against Spayne. But these are farre more neare Spayne then any parte of Scotland, wherefore it is more like that they dwelt here rather then in Scotland. Moreover, whereas in a fayre discourse he describeth the expedition of Agricola agaynst the Albani or Scots, and there reciteth all the people and nations of Albania, he never maketh mention of the Siluri, whiche was the most warlike nation of them all. And undoubtedly, if they had bin in Scotland, he would never have passed them over with silence. Considering also how he telleth that ther were exceedyng greate forestes in Siluria, the tokens whereof remayne as yet in Wenta. Ptolomaeus also, and after him Marius Niger, layeth the Siluri next unto the Demeti and Maridunum, but some deale more easterly. Besides these authorities, the moste auncient booke of the British lawes mentioneth Syllwe, a province of Wales, whose inhabitantes wee must needes call in the British tongue Syllwr, wherby they were of the Romans termed Silures. And one part of Wenta is at this day called Gwent llhwc, leavyng out one silable, as though it were Went silluc. Also Chepstow, a fine market towne in Wenta, before a few yeres since passed was called by the name of Strigulia, whiche seemeth to come somwhat neare to Siluria. Morever Antoninus, a very grave author, maketh mention how Venta of the Siluri was not farre from this, towardes the ferrie or place of passedge over the Svern. Wherfore it were but a jest hence foorth to seeke for the Siluri in Scotland. And although that Plinius writeth that out of the region of the Siluri over into Ireland was but a very shorte cut, wee must thus take it, that at his time Britayne was not sufficiently knowne, nor the people of Albania longe after that subdued. Wherby, when certeyne of the Romanes, as Englishmen use now a dayes, had passed over into Ireland out of Southwales, others, which never saw Britayne, supposed it to be a very short cut.
spacer 100. In this region is situate the most auncient and noble citie of Legions which our countrymen cal Caerlheon al Wisk, that is to say, the citie of Legions upon Usk, for difference sake between it and the other, which is builded in Northwales upon the river Dee. Of whom Gyraldus writeth thus: The same was an auncient and noble towne, the tokens whereof remayne as yet, an huge palace, a giantlike tower, goodly bathes and hotte houses, reliques of churches, and places like theatres, compassed with beautifull walles, partlye yet standynge. Also buildynges under the ground, cunducts, secreat passages, and vautes under the earth, stewes framed by wonderfull workemanship. There lie to martyrs Julius and Aron, which had churches dedicated unto them. There was also a cathedral church of an archbishop under Dubricius, which fell to David. Thus much he. Also on the otherside of Usk, in the way which leadeth to Strigulia, ar seen auncient ditches and the remnants of towne walles of the Siluri of Venta, which now also they call Caerwent, to wit, the Citie Venta, whereof the name grew to the whole countrie.
spacer 101. At the mouth of Wey, which wee call Gwy, is a famous market towne, in olde time Strugulia, but now called the castle of Gwent. The Erles Martials and their heirs of this place did very much weaken the state of Wales. Not farre hence is Monmuth, of us Monwy, so called by the meeting of Mona and Wey together, the head of the whole shyre. Above, at Osca, are the castle of Osca called Brynbuga, and in the upper Venta, at the meetyng of Usk and Gevenna, is Abergevenny, the lorde whereof, Brienne Guilford, wrought muche mischeif against the Wenti. But afterwarde Willus Brustius Lorde of Brecknoc, under pretence of love and freendship, called the nobles of Wenta into this castle to feastyng and banquettynge. Who commynge thither with Sesylius, sonne to Dunwallan, cheif man of all that region, and his sonne Gryffith, suspectyng no deceate and unarmed, were everychone most cruelly slayne by Grustius gward, which were put readie in armour for that purpose. And afterward sodenly breakynge into Sesylius house, the unmerficull butchers murdred the younge infant Cadwaladar his sonne despiteously, before the mothers face. Whose sonnes notwithstandyng, taking the castle and havyng sleyne Ranulphe Poerius with many other noble men, at Lhandyvegad manfully revenged their fathers death. But Brustius, beyng reserved unto greater mischief, was famished to death with his mother in the castle of Windelesour. And here I thought good to note that the name of Sesylius, beynge common among the Britaynes and Welshmen, ought to be written not with C (which alwayes expresseth the nature of the English K), but with S. For els it should be read amongst the Welshmen Kyllius. blue
spacer 102. There remayneth yet the last inland region of Southwales, which maketh the shyre of Brechnock, the head wherof Brechnock, or as the Welshmen terme it Aberhodni, standeth in Usk upon the fall of Hodni. Bernhard of Newmarcat, first of all Englishmen by force of armes subdued the same. Above this region lieth Bogwelth, which they terme Buellt, a rough and hilly countrie reachynge from Wey to Tobius. Beneath is Ewias, woonne by the power of Paganus, the sonne of John. Which afterward was parted in twayne, Herold and Lacey. And not farre thence is Haya, well knowne by Roman monuments, called Tregelli, that is to wit, the Towne of hasels. These seaven shyres, Credigion, Dwetia, called also Demetia, and Penbrokeshyre, Caer marthyn, Morganica, now Glamorgan, Gwenta called also Monmouth, Brechenoc, and Radenor, are by Englishmen ascribed unto Southwales.
spacer 103. Thus much when I had written of the true, antique, and now accustomed names of the regions and cities of Britayne, I determined here to have ended, least by this my unpolished and barbarous writyng I should become tedious to the impatient reader. But when I called to my remembrance how Polydorus Virgilius, whose workes be in all mens hanes, doth in all places nippe and gyrde at the Britaynes, endevorynge in woordes to extenuate [diminish] the glory of the British name and to obscure them with a perpetuall blot, in his history often termynge them a cowardly and false generation, I thought it worth the travell to brynge foorth a few authorities out of the bookes of famous writers and approved hystoriographers, wherby the indifferent reader may easely judge what credite is to be given to the said Polydorus. And that such are of the learnest writers of the state of Britayne, either he read them not, or else (that is more like) beyng incensed with envie and hate of the British name, passed them over with silence.
spacerspacer 104. Caesar him selfe, who first of all the Romans made mention of Britayne, how be it no man is accompted an upright judge in his owne cause, confesseth that at the first encountre, the Britaynes fought valiantly agaynst the Romans, and that they troubled them very much, and afterward that the legion whiche was sent for provision of corne and vitayle was so pressed by their enemies that they coulde scarse endure it. And that at his commyng, for feare (as he sayeth) they retyred. And I may use his owne woordes, Caesar, supposing it to be an unfit time to provoke the enemie, and to give him battell, kept him selfe in his owne place, and after short time brought backe his legions into their tentes. This retreat some termed a flight, whiche may also be proved bycause that shortly after, when it was paste midnight, he tooke shyppyng prively and departed out of Britayne. Neither was this the power of all Britayne, but of a band of Kentyshmen sodenly gathered, as appeareth in his hystory. After this, in his first Booke, he sheweth that the British waggoners fought stoutly upon the way, and in another place that they entred forcibly into his campe. And that the Roman cohortes or bandes, being afeard when Laberius the tribune was slayne, falsly returned backe agayne. Which what other can it signifie then that they escaped by flight? He confesseth also how Casivelanus, by the fallyng from him of Mandubratius and certein his cities, was especially mooved, not by battell wearied, to sende embassadours to intreate of peace.
spacer 105.All these thynges spightfully Polydorus dissembleth. Also Diodorus Siculus, who wrote in the time of Augustus, sayeth, It is reported that the inhabitantes of Britayne are aborigines, that is to say, first borne in the countrie, leadynge their lives after the maner of men in olde times. In fight they use chariots, such as is sayde the auncient worthies of Greece used in the battell of Troye. In behaviour they are simple and upright, farre distant from the craft and wilinesse of men of our age. Their fare is nothing excessive nor costly, far from the deintie delicates of ritchmen. Thus much he. Tacitus also, a worthy writer, doth wonderfully commende the puissant deedes of Caratacus agaynst the people of Rome, and confesseth that after the takyng of him they were oftentimes foyled and discomfited by one only citie of the Siluri. And as for Venusius, whom he writeth to have ben fierce and hatefull agaynst the Romans, he reporteth that he vanquished not only the Romans, but such Britaynes also as ayded them. His woordes be these: The kyngdome to Venusius, and unto us remayned warre. And after it followeth, that he cannot denie but when queene Boadicia (whom Dion termeth Bundwica) was deservedly exasperated, she caused lx and ten thousande Romans to be slayne. Whose courage more than manlike and noble deedes, worthy to be extolled with prayse unto heaven, and equivalent to the actes of renowmed emerours and captaines Tacitus, and also Dion, men of great name have celebrated in fayre and large discourse.
spacer 106. And in the Life of Agricola, In wishing for dangers, there is like boldnesse in Britaynes and Frenchemen. And when they come unto the pynche, in refusinge of them, like dasterdnes. Howbeit, the Britaynes resemblynge more hardinesse, as beynge such whome long rest and peace had not yet made soft or effeminate. For wee have hearde also that the Frenchmen have flowrished in warres. But shortly after, cowardise crepte in through idlenesse, whereby they loste both manhoode and libertie, whiche likewise befell to the vanquished Britaynes, the residew whereof remayne yet such as the Frenchmen were. They are stronge on foote, certeyne of them doo fight in chariottes, the drivers wherof are coumpted the worthier. Whose clientes and servantes do fight and defend them. In fore time they were prepared for kyngs, but now, through favour and faction, every prince hath gotten them. Neyther were there any thynge more profitable for our use agaynst strange and valiant nations, savinge that they doo not generally saveguard and defend all. It is seldom that twoo or three cities do joyne to withstande their common daunger, so that whylst they fight generally they are overcome universally. Also in another place, The Britaynes do muster, pay tribute, and fulfil other commaundments of the empyre without stay or grutchynge [complaint], so that there be no injurie offered, which they can hardly abyde. And now they be subdued to obey, but not yet to be slaves. And a litle afterard, But now they beginne to ensrtruct the children of princes in liberal sciences, sayth Agricola. And to preferre the wittes of the Britaynes in studie before the Frenchmens. That they, whiche of late detested the Roman tongue, doo now desier to be eloquent therein. Afterward, the majestie of our attyre and our gowne was commonly worne, and by litle and litle they came to the imitation of our vices and superfluites, as to have galleries, bathes, and to use our nysenesse in feastyng. Whiche amongst the unskilfull was termed humanitie, hen as in deede it is part of servilitie.
107. Dion Cassius, a man that had bin Consul, among other thynges hath left this in wrything unto posteritie, of Caesars expedition into Britayne. The Britaynes durst not set openly upon the Romans, bycause they kepte diligent watche and warde, but they tooke certeyne which were sent, as it were, unto their freendes and confederates region to provide victayle, whom they slew all excepting a few, which Caesar, commyng with speede, rescued. Then began they to assault the campe, wherin they prevayled not, but were repulsed, not without slaughter on their side. Howbeit, they never tooke peace before that they had byn many times put to the worst. Caesar, contrary to that he had purposed, ended the warre, requiryng yet more pleadges, of whom notwithstandyng he receaved but few. So Caesar returned in to the continent, and such thynges as were unquiet durynge his absence he appeased, gayning nothyng to him selfe, nor to the citie of Rome, out of Britayne, but only the glorie of the expedition taken in hande. which both he himselfe did very much set foorth in woords, and the Romans extolled wonderfully at Rome. In so muche that in consideration of these deedes so happely atcheeved, they decreed a supplication or thankes gyving of twentie dayes. And in another place, The Britaynes, callyng foorth their fellowes and communicatynge the effect of their entent unto Suella, who amongst all the petiroyes [petty kings] or erles of that ilande was of greatest pwer, they marched unto the Roman shyppes where they rode at anker. With whom the Romans meetynge, at the first encounter were troubled with the wagons [chariots], but anon making a lane amongst them, and avoyding the wagons, they cast their dartes agaynst the enemie, which cam runnyng in sidelonge upon them, and so restored the battell. After this battel both partes stoode still in the same place, and in another conflict, when the barbarous people had overcome the Roman footemen, yet being discomfited by the horsemen, retyred backe to the river Thames.
spacer 108. Morever Herodian, in the life of Severus, writeth thus of the Britaines, For divers places of Britayne (sayeth he) by common wasshying in of the ocean, do become marish [marshy]. In these marishes, therefore, the barbarous people doo swymme and wade up to the belly, not regarding the mierynge and durteynge of their naked bodies. For they know not the use of garments, but they arme their bellies and ther neckes, supposing that to be an ornament and a token of ritches, like as other barbarous people doo golde. They paynte also their bodies with divers pictures and shapes of al manners of beastes and livyng thynges. Wherefore they weare on nothinge, least thereby they should hide the payntyng of their body. It is a very warlike nation, and greedie of slaughter, contented only with a narrow shield and a speare, and a sworde hangyng downe by their naked side. They are altogether ignorant of the use of the breastplate and headpeece, taking them to be a let [hinderance] unto them in passing over the fennes and marishes. Besides theres, Eutropius of the French warre writeth thus: Caesar passeth over into Britayne, havynge thereto prepared lxxx shippes, partly for burthen and partly to fight, and maketh warre upon the Britaynes. Where, beyng first wearied with a sharpe battayle, and afterward fallyng into a cruell tempest, returned into Fraunce, and so foorth. And afterward, Agayne, at the beginning of the sprynge, he sayled into Britayne, where at the first encounter of the horsemen he was vanquished, and there was Labienus the tribune slayne, and at the scond battayle, with greate perill of his owne men, he overcame the Britaynes and constrayned them to flee.
109. Suetonius Tranquillus affirmeth that Vespasianus overcame in battell two mightie and valiant nations of Britayne, and that he faught thirtie times with the enemy, which is a token of no cowardly, but of a most stoute and warlike nation. Eutropius also in the ix Booke of his hystorie writeth thus, When notwithstandyng warre was in vayne made agaynst Carausius the Britayne, a man very expert in martial affayres, in the ende peace was concluded. And Sextus Ruffus, recityng the Roman legions, amonge the legions of the mayster of the footemen reckneth up Britannicians and British, and among the legions, Comitalensis, the second British legion. And again among the legions of the mayster of the horsemen the French Britons, and agayne, Britons. And afterward, with the worthy and approved Erle of Spayne, the invincible yonger Britons. And in an other place he numbreth the yonger British carriers with the Earle of Britayne.
spacer 110. But what shall it be needfull to turn over the woorkes of so many learned men, that the glory of Britayne may appeare? When as so many puissant kynges, so many invincible captaynes, so many noble Roman emperours spronge forth of the British bloud have made manifest unto the world by their noble artes, wel worthy immortality, what maner men this iland bringeth foorth. For what shall I speake of Brennus, the tamer of the Romans and Greekes, and almost of all the nations of the world? What of Caswallan, to whom, as Lucane reporteth, Julius Caesar did turne his fearfull backe? What of Caratacus, who molested the people of Rome with warre the space of ix yeeres? What of Bunduica, that valiant manlike dame, who, to begin with all and for hansill sake, slew ixx thousand Romans? Of whom such feare invaded Roman and Italy (as Virunnius writeth) as never the like before, neither at commynge of Brennus, nor of Hannibal. What of Arviragus, the invincible kynge of Britayne, who, in despite of the Romans whiche were lordes of all the worlde, preserved his libertie? What of those coble captaynes which faught thirtie times with Vespasian? Who also with sorrow and angwishe of minde killed Severus, the most valiant Emperour, bycause he coulde not overcome them? What (as I say) shal I speake of these? When as Britayne hath yelded foorth and communicated to the rest of the world Constantinus Magnus, not only a most valiant and fortunate captaine, but, that more is, a perfect goodman and the first Emperour of the Christians, instructed by Helene his mother, a Britayne also. How much Fraunce and Italy for their deliverie from tyrannes are indebted unto Britayne for this man, which was brought foorth out of the midst of the bowels therof, all men do well know, only Polydorus excepted, and William Petit the monke, his scholemayster, of late brought to light (unworthy ever to have seene light) by the slaunderers and detractours of the British glory.
spacer 111. And for as much as a certeine Frenchman of late daies, and also an auncient Greeke author, of the name of Maior affirme that he was borne at Dyrachium, called now Durazo, blue I meane to brynge foorthe the most auncient wordes of the Panegyricus whiche was pronounced before Constantinus himselfe. O (sayth he) most fortunate, and now above all landes most blessed Britayne, whiche diddest first beholde Constantinus the Emperour. Nature hath worthely endued thee with all benefities of ayer and soyle, in whom is neither overmuch colde of wynter, nor heate of summer. Where there is also suche plentie of corne that it suffiseth for the use of Ceres and Liber, that is to say, for bread and drinke. Where are also wooddes without wilde and cruell beastes, the earth without hurtfull serpentes. Contrarywise of tame cattell an innumerable multitude, sproutyng with milke, and laden with flieses, with all other thynges necessarie and commodious for our life, verie longe dayes, and no nightes without some light, whylst that uttermost playnes of the sea shoare rayseth no shadowe, and the shew and aspect of the starres of heaven doo exceede the boundes of night, that the sunne, which to us seemeth to goe downe, appeareth there but to passe by. Good Lorde, what a thyng is this, that alwayes from some furthermost ende of the worlde, there come downe new powers from God, to be worshipped of all the earth? Thus farre he. What of Bonous, out of the captaynes of the boundes of Rheticus, a more couragious then fortunate Emperour? What of Carausius Agsustus, who the place of seven yeres together ware his princely robes contrary to the will of Jovius and Heculius? What of Allectus Caesar, for subduynge whom Mamertinus seemeth to prefer Maximianus before Caesar Julius, whose woordes I will not sticke to alledge, And truly (sayth he) and so foorth.
112. After him sprange the emperour Maximus, a Britayne and nephew to Helene, a man both stoute and vertuous, and worthy of Augustus, but that in his youth, leadyng an army agaynst Gratianus, whom he vanquished, he had sacked his countrie. Who by Helene his wife, daughter to Euda, lefte his sonne Victor Emperour. And as Paulus Diaconus writeth, Britayne also acknowledgeth Marcus and Gratianus the Emperours. Moreover Constantinus, with his sonne Constans, when Gratianus their countriman was slayne, were created Emperoiurs in Britayne, in name like to the above sayde, but not in happinesse, agaynste whom Gerontius theyr captayne (of whose death there are extant very auncient British rhymes) made another Maximus then the first was Augtustus. And after all these Ambrosius Aurelius is by Panvinius accompted the last Emperour of the British bloud.
spacer 113. Basides these xii Emperours, Britayne hath also brought foorth to the worlde the moste puissant and invincible kynge, Arthur, whose everlastynge renowme and moste noble deedes our friende Mayster Leland hath set foorthe and made more apparent by infinite testimonies, and most weightie argumentes agaynst the gnawynge and doggysh mouthe and hatred more than ever was Vatinians, of Polydorus Urbine and of the gresie monke Rhicuallensis, more conversant in the kitchin then in the hystories of olde writers. And not only our countrymen, but also Spayniardes, Italians, Frenchmen, and the Sueones beyonde the sea Baltheum (as Gothus reporteth out of their hystories) doo celebrate and advance unto this day in theyr bookes the worthy actes of this puissant kyng. Caduanne also, who from Prince of Gwynedh became Kynge of the Britaynes, and his sonne Cadwalla (whom Bede called a tyranne because he persecuted the Saxons with cruell warre) whilest the British Empire was in decayinge, were valient kynges. And after the Brityshe destruction, there rose up noble gentlemen in Wales, not to be debarred of theyr due prayse, as Rodericke the Great and his nephue by his sonne Howelle, surnamed Good, both famous as well in warre as peace. Also Gryffith the sonne of Lhewelin, the sonne of Sesylius, who most stoutly defended Wales his native country. And after him Owayn Prince of Gwynedh, who most hardely withstoode at Col Henry the Seconde, the most mightiest kynge of all that ever reygned in England, thrise entrynge into Wales with gerat armies, whose sonne also he slew in Anglysey and the greater part of his armie, as Gyraldus reporteth. And his nephew likewise, borne of his sonne, Lewellyn the Great, whose innumerable triumphes (that I may use the woordes of Parisiensis the Englishmen) doo require speciall treatieses.
spacer 114. And not these only, but also the Cornishmen, beynge the remnantes of the olde Britaynes, as they are the stoutest of all the British nations, so are they coumpted to this day the most valiant in warlike affayres. Neither yet the Britons which dwell night Fraunce, a nation of the same broode, doo any whit degenerate from their forefathers. When as they did not only many hundred yeres prosperiusly defend, amongst the thickest of stoute and sturdy nations, those seates which they had purchased with their manhood and prowes, but also have vantuished the Gothes and Frenchmen in great battels, and stoutly withstoode the most mightie prince Charles the Mayne, put to flight the armie of his sonne Lewes the Emperour, whiche was sent agaynst them under conduct of Murmanus, overcame Charles Calvus then Emperour and kynge of Fraunce in open fight, twise vanquishyng his armie, Numenius beynge kynge, the Emperour prively flyinge thence, leavynge there his pavilions and tentes, and all other his kinglike provision, as Regino writeth. But Herispous, sonne to Numenius, compelled the same Charles to make shamful and dishonorable truce with him. Whom Salomon also, sonne to Herispous, a valiant and warlike gentleman, enforced to retyre backe when he was commynge agaynst him with a mightie armie. But when Salomon was deade, the Britons, through desier to reigne and contention who should next be kynge, fell unto civile warres among them selves, as Sigisbertus sayeth, and so they were constreyned to leave of the destruction and over runnuyge of Fraunce, which they had determined.
spacer 115. What shall I speake of the noble deedes of Urfandus, an invincible captayne, agaynst Hastynge the Norman and Pastquinatus the Briton? Of Judicael also, and Alane, who manfully drave the Normans out of their coastes, which pitifully wasted and spoyled all Fraunce? What shall I neede to touche such warres as they made longe after upon the kynges of Fraunce, beyng therein ayded by the impregnable power of the Englishmen, since it is well knowne to all men that it was alwayes a most potent nation? And, that I may at length stop Polydorus mouth, together with his Gyldas, thus much I say, that if he stricke in any poynte unto him, he was no hystoriographer, but a priest and a preacher. Whose custome is very sharpely to inveigh agaynst the faultes of the hearers. Wherfore, if wee seeke authorities oiut of sermons, as Polydorus Urbine hath done, what parish, what towne, what nation or kyngedome may escape infamie? What hath Bernhard written of the Romans? Thus, surely, terming them impious, unfaithfull, seditious, dishonest, traytrous, great speakers but litle doers. These things are by devines spoken in the pulpit, according unto their manner, that the like faultes might be amended and the life reformed, not that the Romans or Britaynes were such in deed. Neither is there any man, unlesse he be a shamemeles sycophant, that lieth in wait for al occasions to dispraise and accuse, which will go aboute by wrestynge of sentences foorth of the sermons of preachers, sclaundrously to tar and infamously to note any whole covent, shire, citie, or people.
spacer 116. Wherfore let such idle and ill disposed sclaunderers leave of, and suffer the true renowme of Britayne appeare to the worlde. Neither judge me, good reader, of two sharpe a tongue, seyng (so God helpe me) neither envie of any foreine name, neither thyrst of vayn glory, neither hatred of any nation but alonly the love my country, which is evill spoken of undeservedly, and desier to set forth the truth, have provoked me to write thus much. And touching this rude and disordred litle treatise, truly I woulde not have suffred it to have come to light, had I not well hoped that all learned men would accept this my endevour in good parte, and also take occasion by this, which I have rashly enterprised first, to handle the same matter more at large, in fayre discourse and finer stile. And if they shall thinke any thing herein spoken over sharply or not wel advisedly, I submit my self to the judgment of those that be better learned, and if I be admonished of my faultes, I promise to amende them when occasion shalbe given. Thus fare you well.