COMMENTARY NOTES

I Sources: A p. 1, B p. 4r. Meter: elegiac couplets.

II Sources: A p. 1, B p. 4r. Meter: elegiac couplets.

III Sources: A p. 1f.,B p. 4r - v. Meter: elegiac couplets. For some reason, swans had a special attraction for Leland: besides a number of items in this collection that deal with them, in 1545 he published his longest and most ambitious poetical work, the topographical Κύκνειον ᾇσμα (with magnificent disingenuity, Bradner, p. 828, wrote “this man [Cygnus] also has eluded me. Leland addressed a number of poems to him, none of which gives any biographical clue.” Leland imitates Erasmus, Carm. 65, where Erasmus compares swans and poets. See Harry Vredeveld’s edition in Erasmi Opera Omnia I.7 (Amsterdam, 1995), with introduction and notes. Erasmus, in turn, imitates Poliziano. William Gager’s poem LXXIV was written on this same subject, and at least one other poem in this collection (LXXXI) bears a striking resemblance to a Gager poem (albeit on a considerably smaller scale). Were Leland’s poems circulating in manuscript widely enough that Gager could have read them?

IV Sources: A p.2, B p. 4v. Meter: elegiac couplets. If Leland was describing an actual painting, it must have taken its inspiration from Disticha Catonis II.26:

Rem, tibi quam noscis aptam, dimittere noli;
Fronte capillata, post haec occasio calva.

See also poem CXIV.

V Sources: A p. 2, B p. 4v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Because Hermes invented the lyre by using a tortoise shell, as described in the Fourth Homeric Hymn, testudo has been employed to designate musical instruments employing a similarly-shaped resonating chamber, in this case most likely a lute.

VI Sources: A p. 3, B pp. 4v - 5r, Meter: elegiac couplets. In a good deal of academic poetry of the sixteenth century we find the conceit that Apollo and the Muses have deserted the ancient world and come to England (often specifically to one of the two Universities): besides poem XXI below, cf., for example, John Sanford’s 1592 Apollonis et Musarum Εὐκτικὰ Εἰδύλλια.
3
Pandion was an early king of Athens.
7 An echo of Vergil, Eclogue i.66, et penitus toto divisos orbe Britannos.

VII Sources: A p. 3, B p. 5r. Meter: hendecasyllables. The prolific poet Jovianus Pontanus [Giovanni Gioviano Pontano, 1426 - 1503].

VIII Sources: A p. 3, B p. 5r. Meter: elegiac couplets.

IX Sources A pp. 3f., B p. 5r. Meter: elegiac couplets.
3 The meaning of this line is far from self-evident. At a guess, the idea is that Leland has stayed up all night (a time presided over by Urania, Muse of astronomy) working on his studies. Now he realizes people will be coming looking for him and urges the new day to begin.

X Sources: A p. 4, B p. 5r - v. Meter: hendecasyllables. Sir Brian Tuke [d. 1554] was secretary to Cardinal Wolsey, Postmaster, and Treasurer of the king’s household. From the number of poems in this collection addressed to him (he is mentioned in others as well), one gathers that he was an important friend and patron to Leland. Bradner (pp. 834f.) wrote:

Dunovedi is very puzzling. The poem says that the painting is in Tuke’s house and that the subject of it died in a fierce naval battle inter fulmineos ignes. This may simply mean gunfire, but it sounds very much like the disaster of the Regent, which blew up in an explosion during a battle with the Cordelière [off Brest in August 1513]. The only officer on board with a name even remotely like Dunovedus was Sir Thomas Knyvett; the first name, at any rate, is identical. The possibility that this guess is right is increased by the fact that Leland wrote another poem, entitled Ad Musam, de H. Dunovedo Equite [poem CCXXII]. This may well be Sir Henry Knyvett, third son of Sir Thomas. Those who are acquainted with Leland’s strange forms of English personal and place names, which he first archaizes and then Latinizes, will not be too much surprised by the difference between Dunovedus and Knyvett.

Foister discusses this portrait in the course of her study of Leland and the graphic arts.

15 In the context of a description of a painting, it is perhaps not entirely clear what the coronis is supposed to be. I would imagine it is some kind of inscription added by the painter, which Leland regards as the finishing touch of the artist’s work.
20 Two famous Greek painters.

XI Sources: A pp. 4f., B p. 5v. Meter: hendecasyllables. The addressee is probably Erasmus’ correspondent Zacharias Deiotarus, who immigated to England from Friesland and entered the service of William Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury. Cf. Peter G. Bietenholz and Thomas B. Deutcher, Contemporaries of Erasmus; A Biographical Register of the Renaissance and Reformation (Toronto, 1985) I.382. (My thanks to James Carley for this identification).

XII Sources: A p. 5, B pp. 5v - 6r. Meter: elegiac couplets. For Andrew Smith and his son Christopher, cf. John Arthur Gee, The Life and Works of Thomas Lupset (New Haven, 1928) 125f. and Bietenholz - Deutcher III.261. (My thanks to James Carley for this identification).
1“Apelles” must have been some artist of distinction, and (since Apelles was Alexander the Great’s painter of choice) quite likely a court painter. Holbein of course comes to mind.

XIII Sources: A p. 5, A p. 6r. Meter: hendecasyllables.
4 Paestum was a town in Campania famous for its roses in antiquity.
8 Vulcan.

XIV Sources: A pp. 5 - 6, B, p. 6r. Meter: Elegiac couplets. Although not printed in this way, the poem naturally falls into four four-line stanzas, each ending with the same refrain. Since this is not a classical way of structuring elegiac epigrams, one wonders whether Leland was writing with a musical setting in mind.
13f. Two rivers famed in antiquity for bearing gold (one in Asia Minor, the other in Spain).

XV Sources: A p. 6, B p. 6v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Compare poem CCVII.
1f. This literary image of ideal feminine beauty became commonplace when women began to use white lead and rouge cosmetics.

XVI Sources: A p. 6, B p. 6v. Meter: Elegiac couplets. Thomas Linacre [d. 1524], the English Humanist and physician, the first President of the Royal College of Physicians.

XVII Sources: A p. 6, Bp. 6v. Meter: elegiac couplet.

XVIII Sources: A p. 6, B p. 6v. Meter: elegiac couplets.
1 Evidently Leland was under the impression that in mythology the Graces were daughters of Bacchus, which is what Leneia proles means (Lenaeus was a cult-title of that god). Cf. line 1 of the second of Jonathan Swift’s mock-epitaphs on the great bottle buried by Dr. Delany, Hoc tumulata iacet proles Lenaea sepulchro. In reality, they were the daughters of Jupiter and Euryonome.
3 Persuasion personified.

XIX Sources: A p. 7, B pp. 6v - 7r. Meter: elegiac couplets.
2 See the note on XIII.4.
5 Bacchus.

XX Sources: A p. 7, B p. 7r. Meter: elegiac couplets. Meter: elegiac couplets. William Gonson [d. 1544, the surname was understood by Leland to be a shortened form of Gunderson], Treasurer of the Navy. In this case, Leland uses the Greek patronymic ending -ides. In this poem Leland appears to be describing his time at St. Paul’s School, when he was advanced enough to contemplate going to a University (represented as Athens here). After Leland had been orphaned, he seems to have been adopted by Sir Thomas Myles, who subsidized his education (cf. poem LXVII). But this poem seems to suggest that Gonson shouldered part of the burden.
5 Aonian = Boeotian (Boeotia was the region of Greece which contained Mt. Helicon, the home of the Muses).

XXI Sources: Ap. 7, B p. 7r. Meter: elegiac couplets. See the note on poem VI.

XXII Sources: A pp. 7f., B p. 7r. Meter: elegiac couplets. This poem, expressing the wish that Henry would father a son and heir, must have been written prior to the birth of Prince Edward in 1537.
3 I do not recall any tradition that old King Cecrops himself was especially long-lived. Maybe Leland just means that he hopes Henry will live as long as an Athenian, since many Athenians — think of Sophocles! — did enjoy long lives.

XXIII Sources: A p. 7, B p. 7r. Meter: elegiac couplets.

XXIV Sources: A p. 8, B p. 7v. Meter: hendecasyllables. Appropriately enough, this poem is modeled on Martial I.lxx:

Vade salutatum pro me, liber: ire iuberis
Ad Proculi nitidos, officiose, lares.
Quaeris iter, dicam. Vicinum Castora canae
Transibis Vestae virgineamque domum;
Inde sacro veneranda petes Palatia clivo,
Plurima qua summi fulget imago ducis.
Nec te detineat miri radiata colossi
Quae Rhodium moles vincere gaudet opus.
Flecte vias hac qua madidi sunt tecta Lyaei
Et Cybeles picto stat Corybante tholus.
Protinus a laeva clari tibi fronte Penates
Atriaque excelsae sunt adeunda domus.
Hanc pete: ne metuas fastus limenque superbum:
Nulla magis toto ianua poste patet,
Nec propior quam Phoebus amet doctaeque sorores.
Si dicet ‘Quare non tamen ipse venit?’,
Sic licet excuses ‘Quia qualiacumque leguntur
Ista, salutator scribere non potuit.’

Martial is imagined as living next door to Cardinal Wolsey’s residence at Rome.
5 This line would appear to suggest that Wolsey had newly been made a Cardinal, but he had been elevated to that rank in 1515.

XXV Sources: A pp. 8f., B p. 7v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Evidently this is a loose translation of an epigram by Aelian (Greek Anthology Appendix 111):

Ἡρώων κάρυκ’ ἀρετᾶς μακάρων τε προφήταν, (1)
Ἑλλάνων δόξης δεύτερον ἀέλιον,
Μουσέων φέγγος, Ὅμηρον, ἀγήρατον στόμα κόσμου
παντός, ὁρᾷς τοῦτον δαίδαλον ἀρχέτυπον

XXVI Sources: A p. 9, B p. 7v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Leland confuses two separate works by the fifth century B. C. painter Zeuxis, one of Eros crowned with a flower garland kept in the temple of Aphrodite in Athens (cf. the Scholiast on Aristophanes, Acharnians 951) and one of a bunch of grapes allegedly so realistic that birds tried to eat the fruit (Pliny, N. H. XXXV.ix.3).

XXVII Sources: A p. 9, B p. 8r. Meter: hendecasyllables. Thomas Lupset [1595 - 1530], Oxford lecturer in Rhetoric, was a promising young Humanist whose life was cut short at an early age: cf. John Archer Gee, The Life and Works of Thomas Lupset, with a critical text of the original treatises and the letters (London, 1928).
3 Nireus was the handsomest man in the Greek army after Achilles (Horace, Odes III.xx.15, Epodes xv.21, Propertius III.xviii.27, Ovid, Ars Amatoria II.109, etc.).

XXVIII Sources: A p. 9, B p. 8r. Meter: hendecasyllables. Leland frequently alludes to Cambridge and Oxford by referring to the rivers on which they stand (the Granta — i. e., the Cam — and the Isis). In this short autobiographical poem he sketches the course of his university education: he took his B. A. at Cambridge in 1521, then migrated to All Souls’ College, Oxford, and thence went to the University of Paris, where he studied under François Dubois (Sylvius) and made the acquaintance of a number of prominent continental Humanists.
4 I. e., in elegiac couplets.

XXIX Sources: A p. 10, B p. 8r. Meter: elegiac couplets. After leaving Cambridge, Leland was appointed tutor to Lord Thomas Howard, a younger son of the Duke of Norfolk [d. 1524]. This, therefore, is presumably one of the earliest items in this collection.

XXX Sources: A p. 10, B p. 8v. Meter: elegiac couplets. In this epigram Leland boldly states his preference for modern Neo-Latin poets over even the best of the ancients.
3 Michael Tarchaniota Marullus [d. 1500], a friend and pupil of Pontanus (the two are mentioned together by Ariosto, Orlando Furioso xxxvii.8), author of epigrams, hymns, and the Hymni Naturales.
5
For Pontanus see the note on poem VII.

XXXI Sources: A p. 10, B p. 8v. Meter: elegiac couplets.

XXXII Sources: A pp. 10f., B p. 8v. Meter: hendecasyllables.
10f. See the note on XXX.3 and 5 directly above.

XXXIII Sources: A p. 11, B p. 8v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Compare poem XCV.

XXXIV Sources: A pp. 11f., B p. 9r. Meter: hendecasyllables. For Lupset see the note on XXVII. He translated a sermon of St. John Chrysostom, The sermon of doctor Colete made to the Convocacion, and may have had a hand in the 1552 translation of Xenophon’s Oeconomica.
12 Como (Novum Comum) was the home town of Pliny the Elder.

XXXV Sources: A p. 12, B p. 9r. Meter: elegiac couplets. The schoolmaster - playright Nicholas Udall [1504 - 1556]. He and Leland were together at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, in the 1520’s, and evidently Udall gave or loaned Leland some money that allowed him to continue his studies. The two subsequently collaborated in producing poetry employed for the coronation of Anne Boleyn in 1533. One wonders why this poem is addressed “to a handsome man” — is there some covert allusion to Udall’s homosexual proclivities, which got him convicted on a charge of buggery in 1541?

XXXVI Sources: A p. 12, B p. 9r. Meter: elegiac couplets.

XXXVII Sources: A pp. 12f., B pp. 9v - 10r. Meter: elegiac couplets. A description of Bath.
1 The Celtic tribe that originally inhabited Somersert is usually called the Durotriges (at CCLVII.17 Leland calls them the Surotriges).
29 According to legend Bladud — the father of King Lear — suffered from leprosy and was forced to go into hiding. He found employment as a swineherd at Swainswick, about two miles from the later site of Bath, and noticed that his pigs would go into an alder-moor in cold weather and return covered in black mud. He found that the mud was warm, and that they did it to enjoy the heat. He also noticed that the pigs which did this did not suffer from skin diseases as others did, and on trying the mud bath himself found that he was cured of his ailment. He was then restored to his position as heir-apparent to his father, and founded Bath so that others might also benefit as he had done.
31 Evidently there was a tale that some local king founded Bath to gratify Julius Caesar (although he never came as far as Bath, as Leland points out). But the story seems garbled by a confusion with Maidulph, the seventh century Irish missionary who founded Malmesbury Abbey.

XXXVIII Sources: A pp. 13 - 14, B p. 10r. Meter: elegiac couplets. We have met Christopher as an infant dandled on his father’s lap (poem XII) and will meet him again as a beginning schoolboy (poem XLVIII). Here, in what must be the last poem in chronological sequence, we learn that he is a child prodigy both at Latin and at acting. He must have acted at his school, but there is no record of his participation in dramatic activities at either of the Universities: did he die young, or is this simply because, at the time he attended a University, academic dramatics there had not yet hit their stride?
10 I. e., they are worthy of preservation (Romans used to encase their valuable scrolls in cedar to ward off moths).
15f. For an elucidation of this remark, cf. poem XXVI.

XXXIX Sources: A p. 14, B p. 10r. Meter: elegiac couplets. Plutarch is contrasted with the fourth/fifth century historian Sulpicius Severus, author of a biography of St. Martin. The remark about his fides in line 4 probably has do with his Christian faith, and need not be read as an adverse criticism of Plutarch’s reliability as a historian.

XL Sources: A p. 14, B p. 10r. Meter: elegiac couplets.

XLI Sources: A p. 14, B p. 10r - v. Meter: elegiac couplets. William Blount, fourth Baron Montjoy [d. 1534], a pupil of Erasmus and friend of Cole, More and Grocyn. He was also a noted patron of learning

XLII Sources: A pp. 14f., B p. 10v. Meter: hendecasyllables. Leland’s brother was also named John, which is readily understandable according to the assumption that he was our poet’s half-brother. The diminutive fraterculum could signify either “younger brother” or “beloved brother.” The addressee is currently pursuing his medical studies at one of the universities.
9 The columns of the lecturer’s podium.

XLIII Sources: A p. 15, B p. 10v. Meter: elegiac couplets.

XLIV Sources: A p. 15, B p. 10v. Meter: elegiac couplets. This poem, written to celebrate the 1545 Peace of Ardes ending the inconclusive war fought between England and France, was printed under the title ΣΥΓΚΡΙΣΙΣ prefacing Leland’s 1546 Ἐγκώμιον τῆς εἰρήνης.

XLV Sources: A p. 15, B p. 10v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Leland seems to have been offering his own commentary on Menander, Sententiae 810, Φίλους ἔχων νόμιζε θησαυροὺς ἔχειν.

XLVI Sources: A pp. 15f., B p. 11r. Meter: hendecasyllables.

XLVII Sources: A p. 16, B p. 11r. Meter: elegiac couplets. For Andrew Smith see the note on poem XII.

XLVIII Sources: A pp. 16f., B pp. 11r - v. Meter: hendecasyllables. For Christopher Smith see the note on poem XII.
23 The imagery of this final couplet seems forced, but Leland may have been thinking of the myth of Philemon and Baucis.

XLIX Sources: A p. 17, B p. 11v . Meter: hendecasyllables.
20 Roman poets frequently write of the incense of Arabian Sabaea (Sheba).

L Sources: A p. 18, B p. 12r. Meter: elegiac couplets. William Latimer [d. 1545] of Canterbury College, Oxford, an Italian-trained Greek scholar, tutor to Reginald Pole and adviser to Henry VIII on the theological implications of his divorce from Catherine of Aragon.
1 Cecrops was an early king of Attica, so in Leland’s idiolect “Cecropian” is a frequent equivalent of “Attic.”

LI Sources: A p. 18, B p. 12r. Meter: elegiac couplets. Perhaps Leland took his inspiration from some animal on display at the Tower of London zoo. The physical description in line 4 seems more appropriate for a leopard than a panther.
5 I. e., the arrows shot by the Cretan hunting-goddess Dictynna (often identified with Artemis).

LII Sources: A pp. 18f., B p. 12r - v. Meter: hendecasyllables. The addressee is John Ritwise or Rightwise [d. 1533], William Lily’s son-and-law and successor as headmaster of S. Paul’s School (from 1522 to 1532), whose name was punningly Latinized as Justus..

LIII Sources: A p. 19, B p. 12v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Nicolas Cratzer was a Bavarian astronomer and clock-maker who had come to England at the invitation of Cardinal Wolsey and served as Royal Astronomer. In terms of its purpose, the invention Leland describes is not entirely unlike the astronomical clock Cratzer designed for Hampton Court.

LIV Sources: A pp. 19f., B pp. 12v - 13r. Meter: hendecasyllables. On the basis of its resemblance to poem XLVII, we can probably assume that these too are words of encouragement written for a young schoolboy. The addressee (possibly named Nicholas Jones) cannot be identified.
18 See the note on poem XX.5.
24 I. e., he will be able to write narratives like those contained in Ovid’s Metamorphoses (B’s transferatque cannot be considered because the enclitic -que is meaningless).

LV Sources: A p. 20, B p. 13r. Meter: elegiac couplet. Addressed to the French Neo-Latin poet Salmon Macrin [1490 - 1557]

LVI Sources: A pp. 20f., B p. 13r. Meter: hendecasyllables.
18f. The writing here is a little unclear, but it would seem that the idea is that Henry bears the weight of his nation, just as Hercules once bore the weight of the globe when he relieved Atlas of his burden.

LVII Sources: A p. 21, B p. 13v. Meter: Sapphic stanzas.

LVIII Sources: A pp. 21f., B pp. pp. 13v - 14r. Meter: hendecasyllables. Evidently the addressee is Sir Francis Poynings of Bletchworth, Surrey.

LIX Sources: A p.22, B p. 14r. Meter: elegiac couplets. The French Humanist Germanus Brixius [Germaine de Brie, d. 1536]. According to Romuald I. Lakowski, “Sir Thomas More’s Correspondence: A Survey and Bibliography,” published inin Disputatio: An International Transdisciplinary Journal of the Late Middle Ages, volume 1, The Late Medieval Epistle (edd. Carol Poster and Richard Utz, 161--179, edited by Carol Poster and Richard Utz, Evanston Ill., 1996), “In 1518 [Thomas] More got involved in a major literary quarrel with the French humanist Germain de Brie (Brixius), who had criticised More’s Latin Epigrams, published that year by Johann Froben in Basle. More answered Brixius in a long letter, which has much to say about poetics and literary criticism, and which was actually printed in 1520 by Pynson. The quarrel was brought to an end by the intervention of Erasmus who was friends with both men and who persuaded More to make peace with Brixius.” Here Leland gives his opinion of the quarrel.

LX Sources: A p.22, B p. 14r. Meter: elegiac couplets. It would seem that Leland gave him a bag of tennis balls, in a number corresponding to his age.

LXI Sources: A pp. 22f., B. p. 14r. Meter: elegiac couplets. See the note on X.
2 Tuke’s name has replaced the actual subject of this statement in both copies of this poem. Obviously, the reference is to the tradition that the dying Vergil wanted the Aeneid to be burned, but that Augustus intervened and rescued it. But Caesar cannot stand here because it would be unmetrical. Possibly Leland simply wrote Ille.

LXII Sources: A pp. 23 - 25, B pp. 14v - 15v. Meter: hendecasyllables.
10f. The Latin word for a squirrel was a loan-word from the Greek σκίουρος (“shadow-tail”). See Pliny, Natural History VIII.cxxxviii.
72 For Chaonian love-birds cf. Propertius I.ix.5.

LXIII Sources A pp. 25f., B p. 15v - 16r. Meter: First Asclepiadeans. Richard Pace [d. 1536] was an Oxford-educated English dipomaticist, and at various times Dean of St. Paul’s, Exeter, and Salisbury. In 1521 he went to Venice in an attempt to secure support for Wolsey’s bid to be elected Pope, and was recalled in 1526.
2 See the note on poem XX.5.

LXIV Sources: A p. 26, B p. 16r. Meter: elegiac couplets. The great Humanistic educator John Colet [1467 - 1519], Dean of St. Paul’s from 1505.
1 William Lily [d. 1522], first headmaster of St Paul’s School, founded by Colet (Leland himself had been one of his pupils).

LXV Sources: A p. 26, B p. 16r. Meter: elegiac couplets. John Dygon [d. 1552], an antiquarian and composer. He figures as an interlocutor in John Twyne’s 1590 De Rebus Albionicis.

LXVI Sources: A p. 26, B p. 16r. Meter: elegiac couplets.

LXVII Sources: A pp. 26f., B p. 16r - v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Thomas Myles, who more or less adopted Leland after he had been orphaned, and generously subsidized Leland’s studies at St. Paul’s School and Cambridge (although poem XX suggests that William Gonson also helped). The present poem contains a succinct autobiography.
6f. For Lily see the note on LXIV.1. He was the author of the standard Latin grammer employed throughout the remainder of the sixteenth century.
17 Guillaume Budé [1467 - 1540], Jacques Lefèvre d’ Estaples [1455 - 1536], Paolo Emilio [d. 1529], Jean Ruel [1479 - 1537].
18 See the note on XXXVIII.10.

LXVIII Sources: A pp. 26f., B p. 16v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Italian-born Peter Vannes [d. 1563] served as Latin secretary to Cardinal Wolsey and as a diplomat, and rose in the Church to become Dean of Salisbury.
2 For Leland’s friend and patron Sir Brian Tuke, cf. the note on poem XX.

LXIX Sources: A p. 27, B pp. 16v - 17r. Meter: elegiac couplets.

LXX Sources: A pp. 28f., B pp. 17r - v. Meter: hendecasyllables. The schoolmaster William Gonell [d. 1560], who had studied under Erasmus at Cambridge. He lived in London, acting as tutor to the daughters of Thomas More, and S. F. Ryle, the author of the O. D. N. B. article on Gonell, suggests this was written in 1525, when all three of the More girls were married his services were no longer needed, and that Leland was urging him to return to Cambridge, which he did. Evidently he was fond of hunting, and Ryle quotes a letter to him from Erasmus praising his horsemanship.
2 See the note on poem XX.5 (i. e., Gonell is a devotee of the Muses).
35f. At first sight, Leland seems to be using the language of the legal profession. But here patronus means “property-holder” and his clientes are the dependent members of his household.

LXXI Sources: A p. 29, B p. 17v. Meter: elegiac couplet. The French courtier and Neo-Latin poet Nicolas Bourbon Vandoeuvre [1503 - 1550], author of the verse collection Nugae (“Bagatelles”, 1533).

LXXII Sources: A p. 29, B p. 17v. Meter: elegiac couplet.

LXXIII Sources: A pp. 29f., B pp. 17v - 18r. Meter: elegiac couplets.
3 An imperfect quote of Ovid, Metamorphoses XV.430, quid Pandioniae restant, nisi nomen, Athenae?
17 The Scythians and the Getes were two fierce barbaric peoples of Asia Minor.
19 King Sigibert of East Anglia is supposed to have founded the University of Cambridge in the year 895 (Polydore Vergil, Anglica Historia V.13). At his request, Christianity is supposed to have been introduced into East Anglia by St. Felix of Burgundy.
23 Greek, Latin and Hebrew.

LXXIV Sources: A pp. 30f., B p. 18r-v. Meter: elegiac couplets. For Sir Brian Tuke see the note on poem X. Probably Leland gave Tuke a copy of the Procopius’ De rebus Gothorum, Persarum ac Vandalorum libri VII, una cum aliis mediorum temporum historiis (printed at Basel in 1531), the first Latin translation of this late Greek historian.

LXXV Sources: A p. 31, B p. 18v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Thomas Sulmo [d. 1545] was French Secretary to Henry VIII.

LXXVI Sources: A pp. 31f., B p. 18v. Meter: elegiac couplets. I do not think Leland actually wrote this as a young man. Rather, lines 1 - 14 (which therefore should be printed in quotation marks) represent his youthful aspirations, and the remainder of the poem is his mature commentary on them.
7 The Romans marked lucky days with white stones on their calendars. Cf., for example, Martial, Epigrams IX.liii, diesque nobis signanda melioribus lapillis.

LXXVII Sources: A pp. 30 - 32. (in the book a second p. 30 appears after p.31, which in turn is followed by p. 32), B pp. 18v - 19r. Meter: hendecasyllables. The addressee cannot be identified; both Sparchford and Sparkford are attested surnames.
13 For Andrew Smith see the note on poem XII.

LXXVIII Sources: A p.32, B p. 19r. Meter: elegiac couplets.
2 A famous painting by Apelles was called Venus Anadyomene, meaning “Venus rising from the sea.” Literary descriptions of this work provided the inspiration for Botticelli’s “Birth of Venus.”

LXXIX Sources A p. 32, B pp. 19r - v. Meter: elegiac couplets. For William Gonson see the note on XX. This poem was written to congratulate Gonson for his appointment as Vice-Admiral of Norfolk and Suffolk in 1536.
2ff. Leland mentions three wayfarer-molesting ogres defeated by mythological heroes: the Italian Cacus, killed by Hercules, and Sinis and Sciron, killed by Theseus as he crossed the Isthmus of Corinth.

LXXX Sources: A p. 33, B p. 19v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Wolsey was both Archbishop of Canterbury (from 1503) and York (from 1514), and the ancient capital of the Brigantes, the Celtic tribe that occupied the north of England, was Isurium Brigantium (Aldborough, in north Yorkshire).

LXXXI Sources: A p. 33, B pp.19v- 20r. Meter: hendecasyllables. For Udall cf. the note on poem XXXV.
Reference to fighting, actual or at least impending, between English and Scots that led to the battle of Solway Moss in November 1542 led William L. Edgerton, Nicholas Udall (Boston, 1965) to think Udall had taken a trip to the north of England in the early 1540’s.
This poem bears a distinct resemblance to William Gager’s 1583 Musa Australis (poem CXXXVIII): a an expression of mock-anxiety for an Oxford man about to depart for the wild and dangerous North Country.
8 The Brigantes were an ancient Celtic tribe that inhabited a large swath of northern England.

LXXXII Sources: A pp. 33 - 35 (p. 35 comes before p. 34 in the book), B p. 20r - v. Meter: elegiac couplets. I have no idea what naval engagement is being described in such heavily mythological terms. Presumably it was some insignificant incident that occurred when Gonson was Vice-Admiral of Norfolk and Suffolk (his suicide occurred before war broke out between England and France in September 1544). Since he was a chair-bound administrative officer and not a fighting sailor, it is unlikely that the victorious English ship was under his personal command.
88f. Glaucus and Palaemon were minor sea deities.

LXXXIII Sources: A pp. 34 - 35, B p. 20v. Meter: elegiac couplets.
1 Guillaume Budé [Budaeus, 1467 - 1540], the great. French Humanist, and legal scholar. His 1508 Annotationes in XXIV libros Pandectarum was enormously influential.
2 Although Andrea Alciato [1492 - 1546] is principally remembered for his Emblematum Liber, he was also a legalist who wrote several treatises on the law as well as his De Verborum Significatione libri quatuor (1531).

LXXXIV Source: B pp. 20v- 21r. Meter: Dactylic hexameters. Edward Wotton [1492 - 1552], an English physician often regarded as the father of modern zoology. “The College of the Bees” is an old nickname for Corpus Christi College, Oxford. See, for example, the passage from Charles Butler’s 1609 The Feminime Monarchie quoted by T. J. Haarhoff, “The Bees of Vergil,” Greece and Rome 7:2 (second series) (1960) p. 155. This poem is incomplete at its beginning. Stow left a long space between the title and the first surviving line of the poem, sufficient to hold four or five lines. When the extant poem begins Leland is speaking of Orpheus.

LXXXV Sources: A p. 34, B p. 21r. Meter: elegiac couplets. For Sir Brian Tuke see the note on poem X.
3 The reference is to coinage minted by Alexander’s father Philip of Macedon.

LXXXVI Sources: A p. 34, B pp. 21r - v. Meter: elegiac couplets. 0
5
The poets mentioned by Leland are Marco Hieronimo Vida, for whom see the note on poem CXLIX, Caspar Ursinus Velius, Helius Eobanus Hessus, for whom see the note on poem CCXXXIX, and Nicolas Bourbon Vandoeuvre, for whom see the note on poem LXXI.

LXXXVII Sources: A pp. 34-36 (there is no second p. 35 in the book), B p. 21v. Meter: hendecasyllables. The addressee is unidentified.

LXXXIX Sources: A p. 36, B p. 23r. Meter: elegiac couplet. I cannot identify the addressee of this epigram (certainly not the celebrated Paulus Melissus Schedius, who was born in 1539). The name permits a pun with mellitus (“honeyed”).

XC Sources: A p. 36, B p. 23r. Meter: elegiac couplets.
6 Imparibus sonis = elegiac couplets.

XCI Source: B p. 23r. Meter: elegiac couplets.

XCII Sources: A pp. 36f., B p. 23v. Meter: elegiac couplets.

XCIII Sources: A p. 37, B p. 23v. Meter: elegiac couplets. The addressee is unidentified. He is also mentioned in poem CCIX.
& Cf. Aeneid VI.625, non, mihi si linguae centum sint oraque centum.

XCIV Sources A pp. 37 - 39 (in the book p. 39 comes before p. 38), B pp. 23v- 24r. Meter: First Asclepiadeans. For Thomas Lupset see the note on XXVII.
12 See the note on poem LXXVI.7.
16 Towards the end of his live, when the Aeneid was nearly, but not quite, complete, Vergil went off to Athens. He died of a fever caught during his return journey.

XCV Sources: A p. 39, p. 24r. Meter: elegiac couplets. Compare poem XCV.

XCVI Sources: A p. 39, B p. 24r. Meter: hendecasyllables. Like his father (for whom see the note on poem XLI), Charles Blount, fifth Lord Montjoy [1516 - 1544], was a distinguished patron of learning. Since a volume containing the Iliad or the Odyssey could scarcely be decribed as a small one, and in view of tribuit in line 4, it would seem that this epigram was written to accompany the gift of a text of a Latin translation of the Batrachyomyomachia (“The Battle of the Frogs and Mice”), attributed to Homer in antiquity. Such translations had been published by Johannes Reuchlin [1455 - 1522] and Johann Feobenius [d. 1527].
11 See the note on poem XX.5 (i. e., they are devotees of the Muses).

XCVIII Source: B p. 25r. Meter: elegiac couplets.

XCIX Sources: A p. 38 (which comes after p. 39 in the book), B p. 25r. Meter: elegiac couplet. For Sir Brian Tuke see the note on poem X.

C Sources: A pp. 38f. (i. e., pp. 38 and 40), B p. 25r - v. Meter: First Asclepiadeans. For Smith cf. poem XII.

CI Sources: A p. 40, B p. 25v. Meter: elegiac couplets.
1 This first comparison was suggested by Vergil, Eclogue i.24f. (writing of Rome):

verum haec tantum alias inter caput extulit urbes
quantum lenta solent inter viburna cupressi.

8 Roses were sacred to Venus, the goddess of Cyprus.

CII Sources: A pp. 40f., B p. 25v. Meter: elegiac couplets. For Sir Brian Tuke see the note on poem X.

CIII Sources: A p. 41, B pp. 25v- 26r. Meter: elegiac couplets. John Clerk was Bishop of Bath from 1523 until his 1541. He also served Henry VIII as a diplomat and was qualified as a lawyer (at another time in his life he had acted as Master of the Rolls).
3 Leland means the University of Bologna.

CIV Sources: A p. 41, B p. 26r. Meter: hendecasyllables. John Crayford [d. 1562], Chancellor of Durham diocese.
2 Apelles.

CV Sources: A p. 42, B p. p. 26r. Meter: elegiac couplets. For Linacre see the note on XVI.

CVI Sources: A p. 42, B p. p. 26r. Meter: elegiac couplets. See the note on LXXI.

CVII Sources: A p. 42, B p. 26r - v. Meter: elegiac couplets.

CVIII Sources: A pp. 42f., B p. 26v. Meter: elegiac couplets.
2 See the note on XIII.4.

CIX Sources: A p. 43, B p. 26v. Meter: elegiac couplets. For Linacre, see the note on XVI. He published his De emendata structura Latini sermonis, a frequently-reprinted work on Latin composition, in 1524.
1f. Leland simply means a huge tome such as would require a Homeric hero to write it.
9 I must confess I do not fully understand this expression. Cf. the proverb used by Cicero, Pro Murena xxv.10, Cn. Flavius, qui cornicum oculos confixerit (“who daily deceived the most wary.”)

CX Sources: A p. 43, B p. 27r. Meter: elegiac couplets.
3 Permessus was a river watering Mt. Helicon.
4
Cyrrha was the port of Delphi.

CXI Sources: A p. 43, B p. 27r. Meter: elegiac couplets. In all probability “Richard Gunther” is Richard, the eldest son of Leland’s patron William Gonson (for whom see the note on poem XX), since his father’s name is thus Latinized in poem CXXIV. Himself a sailor, Richard died on Chios in 1530.

CXII Sources: A p. 43f., B p. 27r. Meter: hendecasyllables. John Claymond [1468 - 1537], a noted Humanist, was the first President of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. See Jonathan Woolfson, “John Claymond, Pliny the Elder, and the Early History of Corpus Christi College, Oxford,” English Historical Review 112: 448 (1997) 882 - 903.
3 See the note on poem LXXVI.7.

CXIII Sources: A p. 44, B p. 27r - v. Meter: hendecasyllables. The English Humanist Richard Hyrde or Hirt [d. 1528], is best remembered as the translator of Juan Luis Vives’ Instruction of a Christen Woman (printed 1530). Bradner (p. 831) cites the entry in Joseph Foster, Alumni Oxonienses (repr. Nendeln, 1968), A. W. Reed, Early Tudor Drama (London, 1926) p. 171 and “Ro. Ba.,” The Lyfe of Syr Thomas More, Sometymes Lord Chancellor of England (1599) p. 129 of the 1950 edition.

CXIV Sources: A pp. 44f., B p. 27v. Meter: elegiac couplets. This poem would appear to be about the same painting that inspired poem IV, or at least a very similar one.
2 Apelles.

CXV Sources: A p. 45, B p. 27v. Meter: elegiac couplets. For Budé, cf. the note on LXXX.1. Cuthbert Tunstall, Bishop of Durham {1474 - 1449], was a leading English churchman, but was also a trained legalist who at one point served as Master of the Rolls.
7 Bυdé published De asse et partibus eius (1522), a study of Roman coins and weights, and in the same year Tunstall published a Latin work on doing calculations, De arte supputandi libri quattuor.
10 Evidently by an extension of the image of marking lucky days on a calendar with a white stone (for which see the note on poem LXXVI.7), Leland repeatedly uses the image of marking a person with some kind of white marks as a sign of honor. I am not sure what the idea is supposed to be: possibilities may include marking his birthday on a calendar or somehow adorning his statue or portrait.

CXVI Sources: A p. 45, B pp. 27v- 28r. Meter: elegiac couplets. It would seem likely that this poem was written during Leland’s French period, in reaction to the murder of some individual named Hippolyte.

CXVII Sources: A p. 45, B p. 28r. Meter: hendecasyllables. Was this written as a tactful hint to a patron that Leland required more funding? Such an interpretation is, perhaps, suggested by the fact he writes of “my west wind.”

CXVIII Sources: A p. 46, B p. 28r. Meter: elegiac couplets.

CXIX Sources: A p. 46, B p. 28r - v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Dr. John Redman [1499 - 1551] was the first Master of Trinity College, Cambridge.

CXX Sources: A p. 47, B p. 28v. Meter: hendecasyllables. Written, of course, to accompany the gift of a book to King Henry.

CXXI Sources: A p. 47, B p. 28v. Meter: hendecasyllables. The diplomat, soldier and poet Sir Thomas Wyatt [1503 - 1542]. To mark his death, Leland published a poetry volume entitled Naeniae in Mortem Thomae Viati Equitis Incomparabilis.
1 Presumably John Dudley [1501 - 1553], subsequently Viscount Lisle, Earl of Warwick and Duke of Northumberland. Leland seems to have written this during his stay in France.
15 See the note on poem XX.5.

CXXII Sources: A pp. 47f., B p. 29r. Meter: elegiac couplets. For Sir Brian Tuke see the note on poem X.

CXXIII Sources: A p. 48, B p. 29r. Meter: hendecasyllables. Andrew John Lascar [Janus Lascaris Rhyndacenus, d. 1535] was a Greek Humanist who enjoyed the patronage of Lorenzo de Medici.
3 See the note on poem L.1.

CXXIV Sources: A p. 48, B p. 29r. Meter: elegiac couplets. Meter: elegiac couplets. For William Gonson see the note on XX.
5f. Cf. Horace, Epistulae I.i.5ff.,

Veianius armis
Herculis ad postem fixis latet abditus agro,
ne populum extrema totiens exoret harena.

I. e., the helmet is supposedly hung on a column outside a temple of Hercules as the votive gift of a retired warrior.
7 The camp is white because of all its tents.

CXXV Source: B pp. 29v - 30r. Meter: elegiac couplets.
8 The Saxon leaders brought in by Vortigern to help ward off the Picts and the Scots in 449.
17 St. Augustine of Canterbury, sent to convert the Anglo-Saxons by Gregory the Great in 597.
20 Two Greek-speaking Christian missionaries sent by Pope Vitalianus in the seventh century (see the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles for the year 668).
23 For Sigibert and St. Felix of Burgundy see the note on LXXIII.19.
30 Before the foundation of modern Cambridge, there was a Roman fort with a small associated town called Duroliponte in the area of Castle Hill and the Huntington Road.
35 Leland seems to have subscribed to the prevailing confusion (shared, for example, by his contempore Polydore Vergil) of Danes and Dacians.
40 The Schoolmen.
42 “Both Minervas” = the study of both Greek and Latin

CXXVI Sources: A pp. 49f., B p. 30r - v. Meter: hendecasyllables. Stephen Gardiner [1483 - 1555] the future ultra-Catholic Bishop of Windsor under Mary. A Cambridge-educated Humanist, he served as secretary to Cardinal Wolsey.
16ff. Leland must have been present at the performance of Plautus’ Miles Gloriosus at Queen’s College, Cambridge, in 1523 (for this performance see Alan H. Nelson, Records of Early English Drama: Cambridge, Toronto, 1990, I.93 - 5). A member of Trinity Hall, Gardiner was an actor in this play. Leland mentions other actors: Nicholas Hawkins of King’s College, and two whose names he Latinized as Achinus and Fabrilegus. From a letter of Gardiner to William Paget (quoted by Nelson pp. 93f.), we learn that Thomas Wriothesley, the Lord Chancellor, played the part of Palaestrio. The actor “Achinus” is unidentified. In line 29 of this poem, puellus probably means “slave,” so that Fabrilegus (“Lawmaker”) refers to him (so Abigail Ann Young in her translation of this passage at Nelson, II.1105). This performance is also commemorated in poems CXC (addressed to Gardiner) and CCLIX (addressed to Wriothesley).

CXXVII Sources: A p. 50, B p. 31r. Meter: elegiac couplets. Leonard Cox or Coxe was an English Humanist who spent a good deal of time on the Continent. He studied under Melanchthon at Tübingen and lectured at the University of Cracow from 1518 - 20 and again from 1525 - 27, and served as a schoolmaster in Hungary Leland’s poem is the principal evidence that he was also at Prague and Paris. In 1529 he returned to England was appointed headmaster of a grammar school in Reading.

CXXVIII Sources: A p. 50, B p. 31r. Meter: hendecasyllables. “I think the French poet may be identified as Pierre Rousset, a writer of four volumes of religious verse published between the dates of 155 and 1537. Their titles may be found in the printed catalogue of the Bibliothéque Nationale”: Bradner (pp. 830f.). I am not sure whether this is the same individual as the Pietro Rosseti whose poetry volume Pratum ((Paris, n. d.) is also available from the Bibliothéque Nationale, here).

CXXIX Sources: A p. 50, B p. 31v. Meter: elegiac couplet. Philip is a true lover of horses.
1 The Scythians were a semi-nomadic people of antiquity inhabiting what is now southern Russia. In several poems Leland imagines that Scythia was a source of fine horses.

CXXX Sources: A p. 50, B p. 31v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Anthony Barker [1499 - 1552], a canon of St. George’s, Windsor.

CXXXI Sources: A p. 51, B p. 31v. Meter: elegiac couplet. See the note on LXXI.

CXXXII Sources, A p. 51, B pp. 31v- 32r. Meter: elegiac couplets.

CXXXIII Sources: A p. 51, B p. 32r. Meter: hendecasyllables. Written to accompany the gift of some philosophical work of Seneca. If in English, this is likely to have been Lucii Annei Senecae ad Gallioneni de remediis fortuitorum. The remedyes agaynst all casuall chaunc (printed at London, 1547), the only such work printed during Leland’s lifetime, but by the time this appeared Leland’s mental health has collapsed, and so the book was more likely in Latin, or possibly a French translation.
7 See the note on poem XIII.4.

CXXXIV Sources: A pp. 51f., B p. 32r - v. Meter: hendecasyllables. Nicholas Wilson [d. 1548] a conservative churchman educated at Cambridge and Padua. In the 1520’s he was Henry’s chaplain and confessor.
6 For Thomas Lupset see the note on XXVII.

CXXXV Sources: App. 52, B p. 32v. Meter: elegiac couplet.

CXXXVI Source: B p. 32v. Meter: elegiac couplets. For Richard Hyrde see the note on poem CXIII.
11 I. e., only the grapes of France are more plentiful than those of Italy.
15 For Janus Lascaris see the note on poem CXXIII.
17 For Budé see the note on CLXXXIII.1.
18 The Italian-born historian Paolo Emilio de Verona had been invited by Charles VIII ca. 1499, but died in 1529 before completing his De rebus gestis Francorum.
21 Bradner (loc. cit., n. 4) tentatively suggests this individual may be identifiable as John Barber, a law student at Oxford around 1524.

CXXXVII Sources: A p. 52, B pp. 32v- 33r. Meter: elegiac couplets.
1 The German Humanist Beatus Rhenanus [1485 - 1547], author of the 1531 Rerum Germanicarum Libri III and the Origines Gothicae.

CXXXVIII Source: B p. 33r. Meter: hendecasyllables. The addressee, François Dubois, professor of rhetoric and principal of the Collège de Tournai, is not to be confused with his brother, the celebrated anatomist François-Jacques Dubois. He had exerted great influence on Leland during his sojourn in France.

CXXXIX Source: B p. 33r. Meter: elegiac couplets. “William Weldon was a fellow of Corpus Christi, Oxford, in 1524”: Bradner(p. 828). Whatever translation activity Weldon was engaged in failed to bear fruit: the only English translation of a work by Lorenzo Valla [1406 - 1457] printed in Leland’s lifetime was Thomas Godfray’s 1534 A treatyse of the donation or gyfte and endowme[n]t of possessyons, gyuen and graunted vnto Syluester pope of Rhome, by Constantyne emperour of Rome, and none of the works by his cousin Georgio Valla [1447 - 1500].

CXL Source: B p. 33v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Leland was writing about the portrait by Hans Holbein now in the Louvre.

CXLI Source: B p. 33v. Meter: elegiac couplets. The addressee is unidentified; perhaps some French translator of a work by Galen.
1 Cecropian = Athenian.
2 Ausonian = Roman.
7 A mountain in Arcadia.

CXLII Source: B p. 33v. Meter: elegiac couplets.

CXLIII Sources: A p. 52, B p. 33v. Meter: hendecasyllables.

CXLIV Sources: A pp. 52 - 53, B pp. 33v - 34r. Meter: hendecasyllables. For Charles Blount see the note on XCVI.

CXLV Sources: A p. 53, B p. 34r. Meter: elegiac couplets. The scholar and educator Roger Ascham [d. 1568], best known as the author of The Scholemaster and Toxophilos, and for being Elizabeth’s tutor. I am not sure what the diminutive litterulas means in the first line: merely belles lettres, or more specifically Ascham’s letters (which were collected and printed in 1576, and went through several reprintings down to the early eighteenth century).

CXLVI Sources: A pp. 53f., B p. 34r - v. Meter: elegiac couplets. The addressee is unidentified.

CXLVII Source: B p. 34v. Meter: elegiac couplets. For Sir Brian Tuke, see the note on poem X. As readers of Thomas Pynchon’s The Crying of Lot 49 will know, Fransisco Tasso (otherwise known as Franz von Taxis) and his three brothers founded a private mail service between Milan and Innsbruck. He was ennobled by the Emperor in 1512, thus founding the princely house of Thurn und Taxis. Bradner (p. 833) points out that Tuke must have made his acquaintance in connection with his service as Henry’s Master of the Posts, particularly when he was performing these duties at Calais.

CXLVIII Sources: A p. 54, B p. 34v. Meter: elegiac couplets.
4 Martial haled from Bilibis in Spain.

CXLIX Sources: A p. 54, B pp. 34v - 35r. Meter: hendecasyllables. Written before Erasmus’ death (July, 1536).
12 Mt. Parnassus has two peaks.

CL Sources: A p. 55, B p. 35r - v. Meter: hendecasyllables. For William Blount, Lord Montjoy [d. 1534], see the note on XLI. He had befriended Erasmus in Paris and invited him to make his celebrated visit to England.

CLI Sources: A pp. 55f., B p. 35v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Eaglestone (aetites) is a concretionary nodule of clay ironstone. The ancients believed that the eagle transported these stones to her nest to facilitate the laying of her eggs, and that it protected pregnant women from miscarriage (Pliny, Natural History X.12).

CLII Sources: A p. 56, B p. 35v. Meter: hendecasyllables. “Johannes Chaeredamus may certainly be identified with Jean Chéradame, listed in the Nouvelle Biographie Générale as professor of Greek in the Collège de France at this time” (Bradner p. 830).

CLIII Source: B pp. 35v - 36r. Meter: elegiac couplets. According to Bradner (p. 831):

To the uninitiated it might appear that Leland (or whoever wrote the title) was referring to an author named Aulus Macer Serenus. No such author exists. The meaning appearently is that the volume in whose frontispiece the verses were found, or for which they were written, contained the works of three medical writers: Aulus Cornelius Celsus, Macer Floridus, and Serenus Sammonicus. I have not been able to discover any book in which these three authors were actually printed together, but the U. S. Army Medical Library, History of Medicine Division, in Cleveland, has a volume in which a printed edition of Aulus Celsus and Serenus Sammonicus (1527) has been bound with a printed edition of Macer Floridus (1528)…This combination shows, what was inherently probable in any case, that people were binding these three works together at about the same Leland wrote his poem. I should add that the Army Library’s book does not contain Leland’s verses. But there is a further pecularity about this poem. Although the title mentions all three writers the poem itself names and discusses only Macer Floridus…He says that this a new and improved edition of Macer which is being offered to the reader. The verses sound as if intended to appear at the front of a printed book, but I have not been able to learn of any edition which contains them in printed form. Probably the edition referred to is that by Johannes Atrocianus, printed at Basel in 1527… I suspect that the copy in which Leland himself wrote the poem was later bound with Aulus and Serenus, and that Leland himself did not write the title. The original title was probably merely Ad Lectorem.

“Macer Floridus” (thought to be a pseudonym of the twelfth century French physician Odo of Meung) wrote a versified herbal entitled De viribus herbarum.

CLIV Sources: B p. 36r, repeated at B pp. 64v - 66v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Bradner (p. 830) wrote:

Nicolaus Beroaldus, Berauld in French, was much older than Leland, having been born in 1473, and belonged to he first generation of French humanists. Leland writes in praise of a Latin poem which Beroaldus had written about “the chaste eyes of a heavenly virgin.” This poem does not seem to have been preserved.

CLV Source: B p. 36r. Meter: elegiac couplets. The Italian painter Antonio Solario [ “Lo Zingaro,” d. 1530]. His painting of Salome with the head of John the Baptist is in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.

CLVI Source: B p. 36r - v. Meter: Sapphic stanzas. The addressee of this poem is the German physician Johann Winter von Andernach [1505 - 1574].
6 The sun is in the house of Leo July 23 - August 22.
14 I. e., in elegiac couplets.

CLVII Sources: A p. 56, B p. 36v. Meter: elegiac couplets. For Gonson see the note on poem XX.
1 See the note on poem XIII.4.
7 In mythology the Oceanid Nymph Clytia was transformed into the heliotrope (Ovid, Metamorphoses, IV.256 - 70)

CLXVIII Sources: A pp. 56f., B p. 36v. Meter: elegiac couplets. For Bourbon see the note on poem LXXI.

CLIX Source: B p. 36v. Meter: elegiac couplet. The great German Humanist and reformer Philipp Melanchthon [1497 - 1560]. The portrait in question is in the Landesgalerie, Hanover.

CLX Source: B p. 37r - v. Meter: Sapphic stanzas. This poem reads like an ode written to celebrate the occasion of Tuke’s receipt of his knighthood, but that had occurred in 1516, when Leland was ten years old.
17 See the note on poem LXXVI.7.

CLXI Source: A p. 57. Meter: elegiac couplet.

CLXII Source: A p. 57. Meter: elegiac couplet. The traditional badge of the Prince of Wales is three ostrich feathers, together with the motto ich dein.

CLXIII Source: A p. 57. Meter: elegiac couplets. Sir John Mason [1503 - 1566] was Oxford-educated and for a while was a Fellow of All Souls, and then a King’s Scholar in Paris. In the early 1532’s he went into diplomatic service, and acted as secretary to Sir Thomas Wyatt during his embassy to Spain in 1537. Under Edward VI he was English ambassador to France, and under Mary to the court of the Holy Roman Emperor. Under Elizabeth he was Dean of Winchester and Chancellor of the University of Oxford.

CLXIV Sources: A pp. 57f., B pp. 64v - 65r. Meter: elegiac couplets. Edward could be described as a “Count Palatine” by dint of the fact that one of his subsidiary titles was Earl of Chester, and Chester was an independent palatinate jurisdiction. In this poem Leland says how he has already published his Genethliacon Illustrissimi Eaduardi Principis Cambriae i(1543) in celebration of the boy’s birth (it contains a great deal of antiquarian lore about Wales). He concludes by expressing his intention to publish the present collection of short poems, although, if he really did intend to dedicate the resulting volume to Edward (presumably together with his father), one would imagine the present poem would have needed to be moved up to much more conspicuous place near the beginning.
A considerably longer version of this poem is preserved at B pp. 64v - 65r: the full text is given in a special Appendix.

CLXV Sources: A pp. 58f., B pp. 66v - 67r. Meter: elegiac couplets. The first lines, occupying the bottom of p. p. 66v, are written in a second hand.
4 See the note on poem XXXVIII.10.
13 The children were staying at Ampthill Castle, Bedfordshire. The comment on this poem by T. W. Baldwin, William Shakespere’s Small Latine & Lesse Greeke (Urbana, 1944) I.257 is worth quoting:

It would seem clear, however, that Elizabeth had made a fair amount of progress with her Latin before [William] Grindall began his labors about 1544. For Leland, the antiquary, records how at [John] Cheke’s direction Elizabeth at Ampthill addressed him in Latin and French, and played for him. As Nichols very shrewdly remarks,

Another Latin poet, the antiquary John Leland, has also left a memorial of a visit paid to the Price: but, as it is unaccompanied by any praise of Edward’s acquirements, we may conclude that Leland saw him in his early childhood, shortly after the first appointment of Cheke to his tuition, and which is the more probable, as the only other notice that has occurred of Edward’s being at the honour of Ampthill, is before he had attained his eighth year.

Since Edward was too young, Elizabeth was permitted to put on the exhibition for Leland. To make even a royal effort at doing what Leland attributes to her in 1544 or 1545 she must already have had some two or three years at least of Latin.

For Edward’s tutor John Cheke, see the note on poem CCXXXI.

CLXVI Sources: A p. 59, B p. 67r - v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Sir John Pollard, M. P. for Oxfordshire and Speaker of the House of Commons in 1553.

CLXVII Sources: A pp. 59f., B p. 67v. Meter: elegiac couplets. The addressee must have been named Sir John Brenn (or Bren or Brenne), but he is unidentified. This poem begins by comparing the addressee with his supposed namesake, Brennus, leader of the Senones, a Gallic tribe that invaded Italy in the fourth century B. C., whom Leland equates with Geoffrey of Monmouth’s fictional Brennius, who fell out with his brother Belinus in a dispute over the kingdom of England, went into exile in Gaul and became Duke of the Allobroges. After he and Belinus were reconciled, they joined forces and conquered Rome.

CLXVIII Source: A p. 60. Meter: elegiac couplets. The historian Hector Boetius or Boese [1465 - 1536]. His Scotorum Historiae a Prima Gentis Origine (1526) heavily relied on legendary sources.

CLXIX Sources: A pp. 60f., B pp. 36v - 37r. Meter: elegiac couplets. The reference is to the 1527 De Scaccorum Ludo, a poetic description of a game of chess, by Marco Hieronimo Vida [1485 - 1566]. (The Latin neologism used for a chess-game is an Italian loan-word, that also provides the etymology of the word “exchequer.”)

CLXX Sources: A p. 61, B p. 37r. Meter: elegiac couplets. Polydore Vergil [d. 1555]. This Italian immigrant wrote the first comprehensive history of England since Bede, the Anglica Historia (original version printed 1534). When he wrote about the Roman period Polydore was perforce obliged to equate some Roman place-names with modern English locations, and in so doing poached on Leland’s antiquarian preserve. Leland’s reaction is expressed in a remark in the notes to his 1543 Genethliacon (sig. E ivv), Tantum abest ut Polydorus, aliis multis nominibus orbi commendatus, haec primum luci restituerit.

CLXXI Sources: A p. 61, B p. 37r. Meter: elegiac couplets. Carlo Capello was Venetian ambassador to England in the 1530’s, but was recalled in 1535 in token of his nation’s displeasure with Henry VIII’s break with Rome.
5f. Sebastian Munster [1489 - 1552], author of several works on Semitic philology (including a translation of Moses Kimhi’s Hebrew grammar). Wolfgang Fabricius Köpfel [Capito, 1478 - 1541], author of the Hebraicarum Institutionum Libri Duo (1518). “Divus” would appear to be the Jewish scholar Eli Levita [1468 - 1549].

CLXXII Sources: A p. 61, B p. 37v. Meter: hendecasyllables. The addressee is perhaps Sir Anthony Rouse of Dennington, Suffolk [d. 1545]

CLXXIII Sources: A pp. 61f., B pp. 37v - 38r. Meter: hendecasyllables. The Spanish-born Humanist Juan Luis de Vives [1492 - 1540]. Paris-trained, he taught at Louvain and Oxford, and was outspoken in defense of Catherine of Aragon’s marriage.
14 Marcus Fabius Quintilian, a famous Roman professor of rhetoric and author of the Institutio Oratoria.
16 The fourth/fifth century Neoplatonist Macrobius wrote a lengthy commentary on The Dream of Scipio, part of Cicero’s lost De Republica.
32 Vives’ edition of The City of God was dedicated to Henry VIII, and led to his being invited to come to England.

CLXXIV Sources: A pp. 62f., B p. 38r - v. Meter: elegiac couplets. The reference is to Udall’s Floures for Latine spekynge selected and gathered oute of Terence (1535).
8 See the note on poem XXXVIII.10.

CLXXV Sources: A p. 63, B p. 38v. Meter: hendecasyllables. Edward Foxe [d. 1538], Provost of King’s College, Cambridge. A prominent churchman who supported the Henrican divorce, he was created Bishop of Hereford in 1535.

CLXXVI Sources: A p. 63, B p. 39r. Meter: elegiac couplets. The addressee, surnamed Payton or Peyton (who received his medicial education at Padua), is unidentified.
7 For Linacre see the note on poem XVI.

CLXXVII Sources: A p. 64, B p. 39r. Meter: elegiac couplets. Probably this was written at the beginning of a copy of Petronii Arbitri quatenus extare comperitur, Satyrae fragmentum (Paris, 1520).

CLXXVIII Sources: A p. 64, B p. 39r. Meter: elegiac couplets.

CLXXIX Sources: A p. 64, B p. 39v. Meter: elegiac couplets.
1 For Andrew Smith see the note on poem XII.
12 See the note on poem XXVIII.4.

CLXXX Sources: A p. 65, B p. 39v. Meter: hendecasyllables. For Edward Wotton and for Corpus Christi College, Oxford, as “The College of the Bees,” cf. the note on poem LXXXIV.
4 Sweeter than the flowers investigated by real bees.
6 Theocritus.

CLXXXI Sources: A pp. 65f. , B p. 39v - 40r. Meter: elegiac couplets.
13 See the note on poem XIII.4.
25 Idalium is a mountain on Cyprus, the island sacred to Venus.
34 Leland could say this because the rose was the emblem of the Tudor dynasty.

CLXXXII Sources: A pp. 66f. , B p. 40r - v. Meter: hendecasyllables. The addressee is Sir Anthony Coke, of Gidea Hall, Essex. A believer in educating his daughters, he was the father of Mildred, wife of Willam Cecil, Lord Burleigh.

CLXXXIII Sources: A p. 67, B p. 40v. Meter: elegiac couplets.

CLXXXIV Sources: A p. 67, B pp. 40v - 41r. Meter: elegiac couplets. Thomas Runcorn [1555], an archdeacon of Bangor Cathedral.

CLXXXV Sources: A pp. 67f., B p. 41r. Meter: elegiac couplets. The title seems calculated to call to mind poem CXXXII.
1f. Hortensia, the daughter of Hortensius, a great Roman orator and friend and rival of Cicero, was reknowned for making a public speech in Rome.
10 Demonsthenes.

CLXXXVI Sources: A p. 68, B p. 41r - v. Meter: hendecasyllables. The addressee is unidentified.

CLXXXVII Sources: A pp. 68f., B p. 41v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Henry FitzRoy, First Duke of Richmond [1519 - 1536], the only illegitimate son acknowledged by Henry VIII.
4 The Muses. See the note on poem XX.5.

CLXXXVIII Sources: A pp. 69f., B pp. 41v - - 42r. Meter: elegiac couplets. The extra verses at the end are marked by a marginal line.
6 See the note on CXXIX.1.
8 “Great Caesar” is François I, who personally jousted against Henry at the diplomatic conference known as the Field of the Cloth of Gold, in 1520.

CLXXXIX Sources: A p. 70, B p. 42v. Meter: elegiac couplets.

CXC Source: B p. 42v. Meter: elegiac couplets. This poem plays on the fact that στέφανος is the Greek word for a wreath. As in poem CXXVI, Leland congratulates Gardiner on being both a lawyer and a theologian. Like that poem, it also mentions his involvement in the 1523 Cambridge production of Plautus’ Miles Gloriosus (see the note on CXXVI.16ff.). Now we learn that he was the choragus (produceer) of that performance.

CXCI Sources: A p. 70, B pp. 42v - - 43r. Meter: hendecasyllables. Robert Aldrich or Aldridge [d. 1555], Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge, Bishop of Carlyle, register of the Order of the Garter, and headmaster of Eton College.

CXCII Sources: A p. 71, B p. 43r. Meter: dactylic hexameters. Written on the occasion of Henry’s visitation to Oxford in 1535. See F. Donald Logan, “The First Royal Visitation of the English Universities, 1535,” English Historical Review 106 (1991) 861 - 66.

CXCIII Sources: A pp. 71f., B p. 43r - v. Meter: elegiac couplets.
5 For Pontanus see the note on poem VII.
7 For Marullus see the note on poem XXX.3.
9 “Actius Sincerus Sanazzarius,” the Italian poet Jacopo Sannozaro [1458 - 1530], author of the Ecologiae piscatoriae.
11f. Baptista Mantuanus {Battista Spagnoli, 1447 - 1516]. Although Leland alludes to such devotional poems of Mariolatry as Ad divam virginem carmen votivum, Opus divinum de purissima virgine Maria, and Parthenice pars I, Mariana, he is best remembered for his Bucolica, which were standard fare in English schoolrooms (hence Holofernes’ mention of the “Good old Mantuan” in Love’s Labor’s Lost).
13 Angelus Politianus [Angelo Poliziano, 1454 - 1494]
14 Marco Hieronimo Vida, for whom see the note on poem CXLIX.
15 Helius Eobanus Hessus [1488 - 1540], who, in addition to original poetry, produced a Latin translation of the Iliad.
17 Niccolo Valla published his Latin translation of the Iliad in 1474.
21 For Nicolas Bourbon see the note on poem LXXI.
22 See the note on poem XXXVIII.10.
23Volcatius Sedigitus, a leading Roman literary critic (Leland is only saying “I am no critic.”)
24 See the note on poem XX.5.
36 See the note on poem CXV.10.

CXCIV Sources: A p. 72, B pp. 43v - - 44r. Meter: elegiac couplets. Edmund Bonner [d. 1569] was not yet the intransigent Catholic “bloody Bonner” he would become under Mary when he was Bishop of London. He was chaplain to Thomas Cromwell, represented Henry VIII at the Vatican in the matter of the divorce of Catherine of Aragon, and performed various other diplomatic missions. He also asserted the supremacy of kings over the Pope in his preface to Stephen Gardiner’s 1536 De Vera Obedientia.

CXCV Sources: A pp. 72f., B p. 44r. Meter: elegiac couplets. Despite Leland’s Lod[ovocum], the addressee of this poem is in fact Thomas Bedyll [d. 5347], an administrator and canon laywer. He served as secretary to William Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury and in that capacity became a correspondent of Erasmus. He subsequently became an champion of royal supremacy and an agent of Thomas Cromwell and was active in the dissolution of the monasteries.
6 See the note on poem XX.5.
16 The English scholar and friend of Erasmus William Grocyn [d. 1519].
18 For Linacre, see the note on poem XVI.

CXCVI Sources: A pp. 73f., B p. 68r. Meter: elegiac couplets. The religious controversialist Thomas Harding [1516 - 1572] of New College, served as Oxford’s Regius Professor of Hebrew from 1540 to 1548.
6 The allusion is to Cicero’s speech Pro Milone.
18 See the note on XXXVIII.10.

CXCVII Sources: A p. 74, B p. 44r - v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Franciscus Barbarus [Francesco Barbaro, 1390 - 1454], author of De re uxoria.

CXCVIII Sources: A pp. 74f. , B p. 44v. Meter: elegiac couplets.
3 Greek, Latin and Hebrew.
5 There is probably an intended pun involving vivos and the name of the leading Spanish Humanist of the time, Juan Luis Vives.
9ff. The men named in this catalogue are John Free [d. 1465], John Tiptoft Earl of Worcester [1470], Robert Wydow [d. 1505], Robert Flemming [1416 - 1483], William Grocyn (see the note on CXCV.1), William Selling [d. 1494], Thomas Linacre (see the note on poem XVI), Hugh Latimer [d. 1555], called pius because of his reforming proclivities, Cuthbert Tunsall (see the note on poem CXV), John Stokesley [d. 1539], Principal of Magdalen Hall, Oxon., and latterly Bishop of London; John Colet (see the note on poem LXIV), William Lily (see the note on LXIV.1), and Richard Pace (see the note on poem LXIII). Since “Phaenix” seems unidentifiable, in a partial English version of this poem on p. 22 of his Intellectual Culture book, J. W. Binns followed the suggestion of Hoyt Hudson at Huntington Library Quarterly 2 (1939), p. 302, of deleting the comma after Dunstallus in line 13 and translating “Dunstall the Phoenix.” This may well be the right solution.
20 See the note on poem XXXVIII.10.

CXCIX Sources: A p. 75f., B pp. 44v - 45r. Meter: hendecasyllables. The antiquarian Robert Talbot [1506 - 1558]. best known for his Annotationes in eam partem Itinerarii Antonini quae ad Britanniam spectat (Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, ms. 379).
12 See the note on poem XX.5.
33 “Codrus” is a traditional generic name for a poet: cf. Pope’s Epistle to Arbutnot 85f.:

Let peals of laughter, Codrus! round thee break,
Thou unconcern’d canst hear the mighty crack:
Pit, box, and gall’ry in convulsions hurl’d,
Thou stand’st unshook amidst a bursting worl
d.

CC Sources: A p. 76, B p. 45r. Meter: elegiac couplet. Favonius was the Roman god of the gentle west wind.

CCI Sources: A p. 76, B p. 45r - v. Meter: elegiac couplets.

CCII Sources: A p. 76, B p. 45v. Meter: hendecasyllables. The addressee (presumably having the surnme Lucas, Luce, or Lucy) is unidentified.

CCIII Sources: A p. 77, B p. 30v. Meter: elegiac couplets. For Sir Brian Tuke see the note on poem X. Written to accompany the gift of a copy of the Aldine edition of the works of the minor historians Pomponius Mela, Julius Solinus, Antonius Augustus, Publius Victor, and Dionysios Periegetes Afer (Venice, 1518).

CCIV Sources: A p. 77, B pp. 30v - 31r. Meter: elegiac couplets. For William Gonson see the note on poem XX.
8 Evidently there was a theory abroad — possibly having its origin in some pun or misunderstanding involving creta, “chalk” — that the Roman custom of marking lucky days with a white stone (see the note on poem LXXVI.7) was Cretan in its origin The phrase is also used By Jacobus Micyllus in his 1564 Silvarum Libri quinque in the poem Epithalamion illustrissimi principis Ioannis Friderici ducis Saxoniae et dominae Sibyllae ducis Clevensis filiae, in the line Lux tibi Cretensi more notanda venit, and also by Joachim Münsinger von Frundeck, in Book I of his Austriadis (in the 1612 Delitiae Poetarum Germanorum,p. 981):

Adventum Ducis optatum, lucemque Iapillis
Optatam niveis, Cretensi more, notandam.

7 Panomphaeus was an epithet of Jupiter as a god of divination (Ovid, Metamorphoses XI.198).

CCV Sources: A p. 77, B p. 31r. Meter: elegiac couplets.

CCVI Sources: A p. 77, B p. 31v. Meter: elegiac couplets. This reads like encouraging advice written for a schoolboy (compare poems XLVIII and LIV). The addressee is unidentified.

CCVII Sources: A pp. 77f., B p. 31v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Compare poem XV.

CCVIII Sources: A p. 78, B pp. 45v - 46r. Meter: elegiac couplets. Tightrope-walking seems to have been an exotic novelty for Tudor Englishmen, since such performers as we hear of were foreigners, such as the Dutchman who successfully performed at Mary’s coronation and a Spaniard who suffered a fatal injury attempting to do the same thing as part of the pageantry for the marriage of Mary and Philip II of Spain (Sidney Anglo, Spectacle, Pageantry, and Early Tudor Policy, Oxford, 1969, 337f.).

CCIX Sources: A p. 79, B p. 46r. Meter: hendecasyllables. The addressee is unidentified, as is “Tomio” (the addressee of poem XCIII).
13 “Lentulus” must be some other mutual friend. Since the Lentuli were one of the old Roman patrician families, this would appear to suggest that the individual in question was equally high-placed.

CCX Sources: A p. 79, B p. 46r - v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Leland wrote the first biography of Chaucer in his De catalogo virorum illustrium, which was influential although it existed only in manuscript, and, like a number of his contemporaries, assumed that Chaucer must have had a university education. See Derek Brewer, Chaucer: the Critical Heritage (London - New York, 1995) II.67 (Brewer provides an English translation of Leland’s biography at I.90 - 96).
4 See the note on poem XX.5.

CCXI Sources: A pp. 79f., B p. 46v. Meter: hendecasyllables. Henry Cole [d. 1581], a pro-Henry cleric who subsequently became Dean of St. Paul’s.

CCXII Sources: A p. 80, B p. 38v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Just as Leland had the idea that Chaucer was Oxford-educated, at the beginning of his biography he asserted that Chaucer was “of noble birth.”

CCXIII Sources: A p. 80, B pp. 46v - 47r. Meter: elegiac couplets. In 1529 Vienna withstood a two-week siege by the Turks under the command of Sulieman the Magnificent.
10 See the note on CXXIX.1.

CCXIV Sources: A pp. 80f., B p. 47r. Meter: hendecasyllables. Nicholas Wotton [d. 1567] was a diplomat and Dean of both Canterbury and York.

CCXV Source: B p. 47r. Meter: Elegiac couplet. Sir Anthony Denny [1501 - 1559] was a member of Henry’s Privy Council. This epigram does not describe any published work by Leland, but James P. Carley, Distinguished Research Professor, York University, Toronto, suggests the gift may have been some variation on Leland’s Sententiae ex antiquis scriptoribus (Hearne, Collectanea, second ed. IV. 129 - 34).

CCXVI Sources: A p. 81, B p. 47r - v. Meter: elegiac couplets. The addressee (possibly surnamed Wentham) is unidentified.
16 The diplomat Sir Edward Carne [d. 1561]. For Edward Wotton see the note on poem LXXXIV.

CCXVII Sources: A pp. 81f., B p. 47v. Meter: hendecasyllables. John Shepreve [d. 1542], classical scholar and poet. (For some reason, in his Intellectual Culture book, J. W. Binns writes his surname as Shephery).

CCXVIII Sources: A p. 82, B pp. 47v - 48r. Meter: elegiac couplets. The addressee is probably the nephew [d. 1538] or grand-nephew [d. 1561] of the London lawyer Thomas Marow [d. 1505], whose biography is in the O. D. N. B. The latter was an M. P. in 1553 and became lord of the manor of Birmingham.

CCXIX Sources: A pp. 82f., B p. 48r. Meter: elegiac couplets.
9 The sun is in the house of cancer from June 21 to July 22.

CCXX Sources: A p. 83, B p. 48r. Meter: elegiac couplets. The antiquarian John Twyne [d. 1581], author of De rebus Albionicis (printed posthumously in 1590). He was the first headmaster of The King’s School, Canterbury, from 1541. In line 9 Dorovernae means Canterbury and the allusion is to Christ Church, i. e., the Cathedral of Canterbury: it is only coincidence that there is a modern elementary school operated by the church of St. Saviour, Dover.

CCXXI Sources: A pp. 83f., B p. 48v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Sir Thomas Elyot [d. 1546], diplomat aud author of The Boke named The Governour.
18 See the note on poem XXVIII.4.
24 See the note on poem XXXVIII.10.

CCXXII Sources: A p. 84, B p. 48v. Meter: elegiac couplets. For the addressee of this poem, see the note on poem X.
3 L. Arruntius Stella, a friend and patron of Martial (who haled from Βilbilis in Spain).
5 In fact, the friend of the satirist Persius (to whom his sixth satire is dedicated) was the poet Caesius Bassus.
6 Ausonia = Rome.

CCXXIII Source: B p. 49r. Meter: elegiac couplets.
2 For Sir Brian Tuke, see the note on poem X. In his discussion of this poem, Bradner (p. 834) wrote “The word porogiana in line 2 I can make nothing of. It seems to refer to the collection or the room in which it was housed.” The meter will not permit the otherwise attractive emendation to pinacotheca.
11 For Tuke’s friend Francisco Tasso (Franz von Taxis) see the note on poem CXLVII.

CCXXIV Sources: A pp. 84f., B p. 49r - v. Meter: hendecasyllables. Nicholas Wotton [d. 1567], diplomat and Dean of both Canterbury and York. The son of Sir Robert Wotton of Boughton Malherbe, Kent, he seems to have studied both canon and civil law at Oxford. After spending some time abroad, he was a practitioner of ecclesiastical law (being involved both in Henry’s divorce and the trial of Anne Boleyn), and was sent on various diplomatic missions, of which the most successful was that which secured peace with France in 1546.
32 He expects that if Wotton were to write a poem it would be in elegiac couplets.

CCXXV Sources: A pp. 85f., B pp. 49v - 50r. Meter: hendecasyllables. The addressee (having the surname Mothershed or Mottershead) is unidentified.
11 See the note on poem XX.5.

CCXXVI Sources: A p. 86, B p. 50r. Meter: elegiac couplets. Meter: hendecasyllables. Hugh Weston [d. 1558], a Baliol-educated Dean of Windsor.
5 I. e., at Oxford.
21 Hybla was a town on the slope of Mt. Edna famous in antiquity for its honey.

CCXXVII Sources: A pp. 86f., B p. 50r - v. Sir Richard Shelley [d. 1587], diplomat and last Prior of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem in England.
9 Alexandrian.

CCXXVIII Sources: A p. 87, B p. 50v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Erasmus died in 1536.

CCXXIX Sources: A p. 87, B p. 50v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Sir Thomas Smith [1513 - 1577] lectured on natural philosophy and Greek at Cambridge, then went abroad for further studies, including a law degree at Padua. Regius Professor of Civil Law at Cambridge, he performed various diplomatic missions under Elizabeth and towards the end of his life was appointed Chancellor of the Order of the Garter. His De Republica Anglorum; the Manner of Government or Policie of the Realme of England was printed posthumously in 1583.
7 See the note on poem XX.5.

CCXXX Sources: A p. 88, B p. 51r. Meter: hendecasyllables. The addressee cannot be identified.
9 (B’s Philonem makes more sense than A’s evidently meaningless Roaeum). I would suppose “Philo” is used here as a generic term for “poet” (possibly with a pun on φίλος in view of Leland’s friendship with Tidrington: compare the use of Codrus at CXCIX.33).
11 I. e., Tidrington is an eloquent speaker.

CCXXXI Sources: A p. 88, B p. 51r. Meter: hendecasyllables. The Dutch theologian Albert Pighius [Pigghe, d. 1542] zealously defended the Roman Church against Protestantism, and in 1538 wrote an attack on Henry VIII entitled Hierarchiae ecclesiasticae assertio. By way of rebuttal, Leland wrote his Antiphilarchiae Dialogus or Antiphilarchia in Pighium (for which cf. T. C. Skeat, “Two ‘Lost’ Works by John Leland,” English Historical Review 65: 257 (1950), 505 - 8.

CCXXXII Sources: A pp. 88f., B p. 51r - v. Meter: hendecasyllables. John Cheke [1514 - 1557], England’s great Greek scholar of the age. He served as tutor to the future Edward VI and was the first Regius Professor of Greek at Cambridge.

CCXXXIII Sources: A p. 89, B p. 51v. Meter: hendecasyllables. Sir Thomas Legh [d. 1545], a diplomat and Church administrator. The subject of the poem is Richard Cox [d. 1581], tutor and almoner to Prince Edward and subsequently Bishop of Ely.
7 A Latin proverb for a rare thing (cf. Erasmus, Adagiorum Chiliades IV.vii.35).

CCXXXIV Sources: A p. 90, B p. 51v. Meter: elegiac couplets.

CCXXXV Sources: A p. 90, B p. 52r. Meter: hendecasyllables. John Stow wrote the title of this item at the top of the page, then left the remainder of the page blank. The poem was supplied by a second hand. Thomas Cranmer [1489 - 1556] was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury in 1533.

CCXXXVI Sources: A pp. 90f., B p. 52v. Meter: hendecasyllables. This time Stow left the top half of the page blank, and this poem was filled in by a second hand.

CCXXXVII Sources: A p. 91, B p. 52v. Meter: elegiac couplets. The second hand supplies the title and first word of line 1, then Stow resumes. The addressee is unidentified, although it is tempting to imagine that he may be Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey [d. 1548] — but one cannot guess how Howard got transmogrified into Hovertonus, or Surrey into Regnorum.
3f. Leucadia was the mistress of the poet Varo Atacinus (cf. Propertius II.xxv.8f., Ovid, Tristia II.439).
5f. The poet Gaius Licinus Macer Calvus lost his mistress Quintilia and wrote an elegy on her death, of which small fragments survive. See the poem of consolation written by Catullus (xcvi).
7f. Cornelius Gallus wrote four Books of elegies on his mistress Lycoris; their relationship figures in Vergil’s tenth Eclogue.
9f. Although Ovid came from Sulmo, some medieval biographers (such as Arnulf) identified his home town as Pelignum. Corinna is his mistress in the Amores.
12 Cinara is mentioned by Horace at Odes IV.i.4, IV.xiii.21, Epistulae I.vii.28 and I.xiv.33.

CCXXXVIII Sources: A pp. 91f., B p. 53r. Meter: elegiac couplets.

CCXXXIX Sources: A p. 92, B p. 53r. Meter: elegiac couplets. Helius Eobanus Hessus [1488 - 1540], the most accomplished German Latin poet of his time. Besides original works, collected in his Operum farragines duae (1539), he produced versified Latin translations of the Psalms and the Iliad, and his Epistolae were published posthumously in 1543, 1553, 1557, 1561, and 1568.
9 Leland appears to have made a hash of unfamiliar German surnames. He is referring to the members of the 1538 German embassy that sought unsuccessfully to make Henry an ally of the Lutheran cause. The ambassadors were the Lutheran Humanist Johann Myconius and two other individuals named Burkhardt and Boyneburg. Cf. P. Smith, “Luther and Henry VIII,” English Historical Review 25 (1910) 669.
11 The Chatti were an ancient Germanic tribe inhabiting what is now Lower Saxony and Hesse.

CCXL Sources: A pp. 92f., B p. 53r - v. Meter: elegiac couplets. For Denny cf. the note on CCXV.
6 For William Lily see the note on poem LXIV.1.
12 For Leland’s friend Sir Brian Tuke see the note on poem X.

CCXLI Sources: A pp. 93f., B p. 53v - 54r. Meter: hendecasyllables.

CCXLII Sources: A p. 94, B p. 54r. Meter: elegiac couplets. The Humanist and diplomat Sir Richard Moryson [d. 1556]. The Oxford Dicitonary of National Biography itemizes a number of political tracts by Moryson, as well as a translation of wisdom literature by Juan Luis Vives, but no epic poetry such as is described by Leland.
2 “Even feet” of hexameters (as opposed to the “uneven feet” of elegiac couplets).
6 Aristarchus was a great Alexandrian literary critic who specialized in Homer.
8 Lit. “that I had perhaps given an opportunity to your verses,” i. e., evidently, that I had given them the opportunity to have a fair hearing.

CCXLIII Sources: A p. 94, B p. 54r. Meter: elegiac couplet.
2 The Attalid dynasty was a Hellenistic dynasty that ruled the city of Pergamon after the death of Lysimachus, a general of Alexander the Great.

CCXLIV Source: B p. 54r. Meter: elegiac couplet. For Denny cf. the note on CCXV. Tudor Englishmen imitated the Roman practice of exchanging New Year’s gifts (strenae). Evidently Denny gave the King or some prominent nobleman a painting respresenting his coat of arms, and Leland furnished this accompanying epigram (possibly included on its frame).

CCXLV Sources: A pp. 94f., B p. 54r - v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Presumably this individual was a descendant of Thomas Danet [d. 1483], almoner to Edward IV and a member of his Privy Council.
2 Possibly Leland wrote this because Danet was a descendant of the Thomas Danet who had been Philippe de Commynes’s English translator.
8 See the note on poem XXVIII.4.
10 Roman.

CCXLVI Sources: A p. 95, B p. 54v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Leland’s friend Thomas Caius [d. 1572], an antiquarian and Master of University College, Oxford.
4 Roman.
8 See the note on poem XX.5.

CCXLVII Sources: A p. 95, B p. 54v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Sir Edward Fitton of Gawsworth, Cheshire [d. 1548].

CCXLVIII Sources: A pp. 95f., B p. 55r. Meter: elegiac couplets. George Day [d. 1556]. First Linacre Professor of Medicine at Cambridge (1525), College Praelector in Greek and University Orator, and Provost of Kings College. Appointed Bishop of Chichester in 1543.
5 Both Greek and Latin.

CCXLIX Sources: A p. 96, B p. 55r. Meter: elegiac couplets. Two extra lines in B make it clear that the portrait in question was executed by Holbein. Thus Leland was writing of the portrait of Edward in early childhood owned by the National Gallery, Washington D. C.

CCL Sources: A p. 96, B p. 55r. Meter: hendecasyllables. George Owen [d. 1558]. He delivered Prince Edward.
7 Either Kathryn Howard or Katherine Parr.

CCLI Sources: A pp. 96f., B p. 55r - v. Meter: elegiac couplets. Edward North [d. 1564}, subsequently Baron North, a legalist and aministrator. He had attended St. Paul’s School together with Leland and such other figures who appear in these poems as Willam Paget and Thomas Wriothesley, and was a friend of Leland’s important patron Sir Brian Tuke (for whom see the note on poem X). He was knighted in 1542.
24 Legius is perhaps Sir Thomas Legh, for whom see poem CCXXXIII.
26 Either Leonard Coxe (the addressee of poem CXXVII) or Richard Cox (the subject of poem CCXXXIII).

CCLII Sources: A p. 97, B pp. 55v - 56r. Meter: hendecasyllables.

CCLIII Sources: A p. 98, B p. 56r - v. Meter: elegiac couplets. William Henry Bourchier, Earl of Essex [1472 - 1540].
5 I. e. the Avon of Warwickshire, not the one in the West Country which passes by Bath and Bristol.
spacer6 John and J. A. Venn, Alumni Cantabrigienses; a biographical list of all known students, graduates and holders of office at the University of Cambridge, from the earliest times to 1900 Cambridge, 1922 - 54) III.366f., list two individuals named Pinder with whom this schoolmaster could conceivably be identified, Thomas (B. A. 1526) and William (B. A. 1510).
20 The Morini were the Gallic tribe inhabited the region occupied by modern Boulogne (captured by Henry’s forces in 1544).
29 The idiom comes from Horace, Ars Poetica 343, omne tulit punctum, qui miscuit utile dulci.

CCLIV Sources: A pp. 98f., B p. 56v. Meter: elegiac couplets. For Hessus see the note on poem CCXXIX.
5 See the note on CCXXXIX.9.

CCLV Sources: A p. 99, B pp. 56v - 57r. Meter: elegiac couplets. The courtier-poet George Ferrers [d. 1579]. He haled from St. Albans (Roman Verulam). By 1538 he entered the service of Thomas Cromwell. When Cromwell fell from power in 1540 (as mentioned in 15f.), he was taken on as a royal servant. In that capacity he accompanied Henry to the French war in 1544. He seems to have been the editor and translator of The Great Boke of Statutes (a collection of laws from the beginning of the reign of Edward III). although he had done this before 1538. He seems to have been a merry fellow and was notable in the 1550’s for playing the Lord of Misrule.
3 See the note on poem LXXVI.7.
20 See the note on poem CCLXIII.20.

CCLVI Sources: A pp. 99 - 101, B pp. 57r - 58r. Meter: elegiac couplets. William Paget, first Baron Paget [1506 - 1563]. He was a fellow student of Leland’s at St. Paul’s.
2 See the note on poem CXV.10.
13ff. For William Lily, Colet’s choice as the first headmaster of St. Paul’s, see poem LXIV. For William Gonell (the tutor of Thomas More’s daughters), see poem LXX. Evidently Lily and Gonell established some kind of Latin-writing contest between their pupils in which Paget particularly distinguished himself.
23 At the time Stephen Gardiner (for whom see poem CXXVI) was Master of Trinity Hall, Cambridge.
25 He means Schoolmen. Leland was not alone in his revulsion: this was a widespread attitude among Humanists, and later in his reign Henry VIII banished scholasticism from the universities.
33 He entered Gardiner’s service in 1527 or 1528, at a time when Gardiner was Henry’s Secretary and performing diplomatic missions.
34 Paget’s friend Sir Thomas Wriothesley, for whom see the note on poem CCLIX. Like Paget, he was one of the four clerks of the signet, and as such was answerable to Gardiner.
39 At about this time Paget married Anne, daughter of Henry Preston of ‘Prestcon,’ Lancs.
53 The scholar-diplomat Sir John Mason, for whom see poem CLXIII.
59ff. In the book the poem abruptly breaks off at 58, and must have been incomplete in Newton’s manuscript. Hence the remainder, with its satisfactory ending, is taken from Stow’s copy. In it, Leland describes Burton-upon-Trent Abbey (originally called Andresega), part of Paget’s landholdings in Staffordshire, which was repaired after Danish depredations by Wulfric Spot, Earl of Mercia.
69 Leland explains the etymology of “Burton,” with conspicuous redundancy, as being derived from burg and dun, the Germanic and Celtic words for a hill.

CCLVII Sources: A pp. 101f., B p. 58r - v. In B the following cycle of short epigrams is preceded by a collective heading Inscriptiones ornamentorum quae Lucas regius pictor delineavit (“Inscriptions on the devices drawn by Lucas, the royal painter.”) The artist in question was the Dutch painter Lucas Horenbout, court painter to Henry VIII from 1525 to his death in 1544.
1ff. Meter: dactylic hexameters.
8ff. Meter: hendecasyllables.
14ff. Meter: elegiac couplets.
16 The reference is to Henry’s illegitimate son Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset [1519 - 1536], and not to Jane Seymour’s brother Edward, who was not created Duke of Somerset until the reign of Edward VI.
17 See the note on poem XXXVIII.1.

CCLVIII Sources: A pp. 103 - 102 (in the book p. 103 comes before p. 102), B p. 58v. Meter: hendecasyllables. Walter Haddon [1515 - 1571], a Protestant reformer known for his excellence at writing Latin prose.

CCLIX Sources: A pp. 102 - 105, B pp. 58v - 60r. Meter: elegiac couplets. Thomas Wriothesley [1505 - 1550], first Earl of Southampton, Garter King of Arms, and Lord Chancellor of England. He owned the manor of Beaulieu at Titchfield, Hampshire.
21 Leland and Wriothesley were fellow students at St. Paul’s School.
34 For Stephen Gardiner, see the note on poem CXXVI. He was Wriothesley’s tutor at Trinity Hall, Cambridge.
35 More properly Urovicum (= York). Wriothesley’s father was York Herald of Arms.
43ff. For Wriothesley’s successful acting in the 1523 Cambridge performance of Plautus’ Miles Gloriosus, see the note on poem CXXVI.16ff.
50ff. If Leland was thinking of any specific person, it was probably Roscius, the great comic actor of Cicero’s day.
54 In about 1524 Gardiner became Wolsey’s secretary. The obvious implication is that while occupying this position he gave Wriothesley a leg up on starting a public career.
57ff. In 1530 Wriothesley was appointed clerk to Edmund Peckham, Cofferer of the Royal Household.
61 Probably this refers to Gardiner’s mission to France at the beginning of 1532.
65ff. During the 1530’s Wriothesley was private secretary to Sir Thomas Cromwell.
71f. In 1539 he served as Henry’s ambassador to the Regent of the Netherlands, Margaret of Parma, the illegitate daughter of the Emperor Charles V.

CCLX Source: A p. 105. Meter: elegiac couplets. Richard Croke [d. 1558] was Cambridge’s Second Lecturer in Greek. He was University Orator there, and tutored Henry in Greek. In general, Leland’s epigrams are remarkably free of outbursts against enemies, so this exception is notable. What he means by mathematicum caput in line 4 is not clear. In the Latin of the time, mathematicus was a word used to designate an astrologer, but I find no evidence that Croke had any interest in the subject. Maybe it just means “learned,” but with an implication that the learning is somehow bogus.

CCLXI Sources: A p. 105, B p. 60r, John Leland, Genethliacon illustrissimi Eaduerdi Principis Cambriae (London, 1542), title page. Meter: elegiac couplets. This epigram appeared as a preface to a lengthy poem celebrating the birth of the future Edward VI under the title Genethliacon Ilustrissimi Eaduardi Principis Cambriae in 1537. Embedded in this poem (which is largely occupied with antiquarian lore) is the text of a masque performed to celebrate the occasion. The present epigram apologizes for the long delay before the volume’s publication. It is likely that the following four epigrams were written to celebrate the same occasion.

CCLXII Sources: A pp. 105f., B p. 60r, ib. title page (verso). Meter: dactylic hexameters. This epigram was written to accompany the gift of a copy of Quintus Septimus’ Dictys Cretensis Ephemeris belli Trojani (“Dictys of Crete’s Chronicle of the Trojan War”), a fourth century translation of a Greek account of the Trojan War. Henry may read about his ancestors’ glories because he, like all Britons, is supposedly a descendant of the eponymous Brutus, a refugee from the fall of Troy.

CCLXIII Sources: A p. 106, B p. 60r, ib. title page (verso). Meter: elegiac couplets.

CCLXIV Sources: A p. 106, B p. 60r, ib. sig. c iv. Meter: elegiac couplets. The name Edward means “rich, blessed protector,” from A. S. ead (“rich, blessed”) and weard (“guard”).
5 The title conferred on Henry by the Pope.

CCLXV Sources: A p. 106, B p. 60v. Meter: elegiac couplet.
2
Ascanius was the son of Aeneas. He is born of a Phoenix because the Phoenix was featured in the coat of arms of his mother, Jane Seymour.

CCLXVI Sources: A pp. 106f., B pp. 61 v - 62r. Meter: elegiac couplets. William Cecil [1520 - 1598]. This item was evidently written to celebrate his marriage to Mildred, daughter of Sir Anthony Coke, in late December, 1545. Poem CLXXXII is addressed to Coke and may have been written at this same time.
1 A Latin proverbial for an extremely lucky man (cf. Erasmus, Adagiorum Chiliades I.i.78).
6 See the note on poem XXXVIII.10.
7 For Cheke see the note on poem CCXXXI. Cecil had studied under him at St. John’s College, Cambridge.
13 See the note on poem LXXVI.7.
19f. Leland’s expressed hope that the Muses will protect both Cecil and his Mildred is entirely appropriate, since she was one of the best-educated women in England.

CCLXVII Sources: A pp. 107f. B p. 60v. Meter: elegiac couplets. John Harley [d. 1558], an outspoken Protestant who eventually was appointed Bishop of Hereford.
5 The “Nag’s Font” = the Hippocrene.

CCLXVIII Sources: A p. 108, B pp. 60v - 61r. Meter: elegiac couplets. Richard Goodrich [d. 1568], a Protestant legalist and administrator.

CCLXIX Sources: A pp. 108f., B p. 61r, published independently as a broadside under the title Fatum Bononiae Morinorum (1544). Meter: elegiac couplets.
6 The Celtic tribe that occupied that part of Gaul.
13 A mountain in earthquake-troubled Greece.
18 The “Rhutupine shores” are the coast of Kent (which as far back as Roman times was “familiar” because Gessoriacum, and then Boulogne, was a port of embarkation for those crossing over to England).

CCLXX Sources: A p. 109, B p. 61r, John Leland, Bononia Gallomastix (London, 1545), sig. Ajjjj. Meter: elegiac couplets.

CCLXXI Sources: A p. 109, B p. 61v, John Leland, Bononia Gallomastix (London, 1545) title page. Meter: elegiac couplets. This appeared prefacing a longer poem written to celebrate the English capture of Boulogne in 1544.

CCLXXII Sources: A pp. 109f., B p. 61v. Meter: elegiac couplets. The addressee of this poem would appear to be Henry Collyns [admitted to Oxford in 1524], who went on to be vicar of Foway, Cornwall. His older brother was John, admitted to Exter College, Oxon, in 1521, who eventually became a canon of Chichester Cathedral and was executed with members of the Pole family in 1538. See A. B. Emden, A Biographical Register of the University of Oxford, A. D. 1501 to 1540 (Oxford, 1974) p. 130. It would appear tha, although John had been the first to go up to Oxford, he was inspired with a new zeal for the Liberal Arts by observing the studies of his younger brother.
1 The Atrebates were an ancient Celtic tribe whose capital lay within modern Hampshire.

CCLXXIII Source: B p. 62r. The abortive beginning of an otherwise lost poem.

CCLXXIV Sources: A p. 110, B p. 62r - v. Meter: the first eight lines are Second Asclepiadeans. Then alternating First Asclepiadeans and glyconics. John Poent [d. 1556], Thomas Cromwell’s chaplain and subsequently Bishop of Winchester and Rochester, and wrote an important work on political theory, A Shorte Treatise of Politike Power (1556).

CCLXXV Sources: A p. 111, B p. 62v. Meter: elegiac couplets. George Heneage [d. 1549], studied canon law at Bologna, and was archdeacon of Lincoln Cathedral.

CCLXXVI Sources: A p. 111, B p. 62v. Meter: dactylic hexameters. Each line is a separate inscription or motto. The version in A is very incomplete, consisting of line 2 only. The castle of St. Mawes (built to protect Falmouth harbor, Cornwall) was one of a series of such coastal defenses built by Henry. At Κύκνειον ᾇσμα 547ff. Leland provides a catalogue of these construction projects.
3 Duke of Cornwall is one of the subsidiary titles of the Prince of Wales.

CCLXXVII Sources: A pp. 111f., B p. 63r - v. Meter: elegiac couplets. The addressee is unidentified; if A is right his surname was Butler or Boteler, if B is right, it was likely to have been Buckler. Could this be a son of James Buckler, Earl of Ormonde?
7 John Chambers [1470 - 1549], was a cleric and physician to Henry VIII, one of the founders of the Royal College of Physicians, and Dean of St Stephen’s Westminster.

CCLXXVIII Source: B p. 63v. Meter: elegiac couplets. The first two of these three items have appeared earlier in the collection. The third is written about the arms of Sir William Leyland of Morleys Hall, near Leigh, Lancs. Our poet was orphaned as a small boy and presumably Sir William was some kind of relative (although Leland was adopted by the Londoner Thomas Myles, who paid for his education at St. Paul’s and Cambridge: see poem LXVII). It may be worth remarking that Leland does not (because he could not?) actually provide a circumstantial description of Sir William’s coat of arms.

CCLXXIX Source: B pp. 63v - 64r. Meter: elegiac couplets. About the addressee of this poem, Bradner (p. 832) wrote:

Another Oxford scholar addressed in these manuscript poems is called in Latin Jacobus Curio — at least he appears to have been an Oxford man, for Leland says of him: Quem fovet Isiacus chorus. The poem says he is a writer of books which learned men look forward to with eagerness. Mr. A. B. Emden has suggested that Curio may be James Turberville, registrar or scribe of the University of Oxford 1520 - 24, since curio in Latin means the priest of a curia and is also the surname of the gens Scribonia.This sounds far-fetched, perhaps, but it is not beyond some of the things we know Leland did with names.

CCLXXX Source: B p. 64r. Meter: elegiac couplets. For Sir Richard Shelley cf. the note on poem CCXXVII.

CCLXXXI Source: B p. 64r. Meter: elegiac couplets.

CCLXXXII Source: B p. 64r - v. Meter: elegiac couplets. John Caius [1510 - 1573], scholar, physician, and re-founder of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. “Summarizes the life and travels of Dr. Caius to 1544”: Bradner (p. 829).
13 Caius’ Norwich friend William Framyngham [1512 - 1537]. Dying young, he left all his unpublished works (detailed in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography article) to Caius, who managed to lose them.
27 Caius published translations of seven works by Galen at Basel in 1544 under the title Libri aliquot Graeci.

Appendix I (see also the notes on poem CXLIV)

28 Edward is equated with Ascanius, the son of Trojan Aeneas (and the British, descended from Brutus, are of Trojan stock).
33 I. e., he is an extremely lucky fellow (see the note on poem CCLXVI.1).
35 The conceits in the following passage are based on the fact that a figured in the coat of arms of Edward’s mother Jane Seymour.
47 Leland is alluding to the fourth-century poem Carmen de ave phoenice traditionally ascribed to the Christian theologian Lactantius.
55 Leland seems actually to have been thinking of a painting by Zeuxis, the subject of poem XXVI.
67 Perhaps Leland is recalling the same visit to Ampthill described in poem CLXV.
87f. For Edward’s tutor Richard Cox see the note on poem CCXXXIII.
89ff. For Edward’s tutor John Cheke, see the note on poem CCXXXI.
99 Not “with your skilful right hand and left hand,” but rather “with your skilful forehand and backhand” (tennis was a popular Tudor pastime).

Appendix II

TITLE This poem was written on the death of Sir Henry Dudley, third son of John Dudley (currently Viscount Lisle and Earl of Warwick, subsequently Duke of Northumberland), killed in the English siege and capture of Boulogne in September 1544. In the title of this poem, the words Insulani and Verovicani refer to his father’s titles, not his own, and so should be understood and translated “son of Lisle and Warwick”. I have no idea what the third word Somarigani is supposed to mean, unless (according Leland’s occasionally far-fetched and bizarre understanding of proper nouns and their etymologies) it somehow refers to his father’s office of Lord High Admiral.
10 See the note on poem CCLXVII.5.
16 See the note on poem CCLIII.20.