Click a green square to see the Latin text. Click a red square to see a textual note.    

DAPHN-AMARYLLIS, BY
DAVID HUME OF GODSCROFT, OF WEDDERBURN blue

Whatever the world possesses, you must

defer, and never provoke the great lion.

Gen.49, Hebrew
ΤΟ ΕΧΩΘΕΝ, ΒΛΕΤΤΕΡΟΝ

TRULY THE THE GREATEST OF GREETINGS TO JAMES, THAT GREATEST KING OF THE BRITISH AND THE FRENCH

OES not that greatness of yours, James, best of the world’s kings, permit us shepherds too to invoke your name, to greet and congratulate you? Indeed, does it not permit us to love you and pray for your welfare? Your goodness bids us be all-daring, and calls it a crime to doubt this very thing. It is to be feared that we are behindhand in speeding this forward. But perhaps you have had no respite from the early exertions of your new reign. And who is too late in praising you, whom all men always praise — and deservedly so? No — if you approve, we are not late, but if you disapprove, we are too early. And yet we want a share in the public rejoicing. If you still recall our old affection and are curious what your Caledonia is doing, hear what our rustic Muse has to say: the birds are singing of you, the glens are echoing them; the noble shepherd Alphesiboeus praises you, and likewise the obscure Celiovedus — I mean to say, men of every kind, city and country folk, famous and nonentities, men who are aware of their great worth and those who know they are of none whatsoever are joined in shouting of you with a single voice. Publicly and in private they are congratulating you, themselves, our commonwealth, our Kirk, and the world; they are predicting, praying for, and presaging all manner of good and favorable things. And yet they are neither satisfying themselves nor expressing themselves well enough. For, although they are saying much, they are thinking more. Although they are praying for everything, they crave more. Although they imagine the greatest, they await yet greater: that virtue will flourish, that idleness will wither away, that the Hydra of the vices will be destroyed and the monsters of tyrannies will be exterminated by you, our genuine Hercules. blue Which things, and other ones like them, are now on every man’s lips: are these statements to be regarded as the exaggerations of boasters, or rather as signs of our actual political situation, silently making their way into men’s minds? And, after these steps forward, what can be regarded as a steep climb for a keen-minded man? What does not rather seem to be downhill for the man who has already made these demonstrations on your behalf, whether you consider the circumstances surrounding you, or whether you look upward from them to the man responsible, investigating and weighing their causes? Is anything to be considered average or commonplace, for which God blue prepares you, or for which He places a demand on you, you who, if anybody ever has been, are supported, decorated, and outfitted by so many endowments both external and internal, and by the helps, and supports of character, nature, and good fortune for the doing of every great deed? And for what other purpose, I ask, is this done (if we shepherds may be reckoned among the numbers of the best-advised) but for the establishment of piety (than which no other quality blue in the world is more miserable at this time, more worthy of you, or more in need of your care), first within your own borders, and soon thereafter to be brought to other peoples? And indeed, if we accept the arguments of students of politics, you are perhaps the sole man in the world for whom piety would also be useful as the fittest instrument for expanding your empire, if this were permissible and virtue were not something to be cultivated for its own sake, being the sovereign mistress of our affairs. Tell me, James, you truly greatest king, tell me, you Solomon, well-versed in this very thing, whether your mind can find repose anywhere else? Whether, at this supreme pinnacle of affairs, there is anything else that can fill and satisfy you, or that you deem worthy of your action, your thought, your trouble? Tell me, I say, and meanwhile employ these arts to elevate yourself more and more, just as much as you have lately raised yourself above your old reign, with these same forecasts no less fulfilled in the future. Nobody has ever come to the helm of government with greater popularity, nobody has stimulated men’s minds with greater anticipation, or opened men’s mouths to express greater wishes and pronouncements, so that we all dare hope, anticipate and predict all things, even we shepherds, humble as we may be, in the Lammermoore or Orchill hills, bluebent on rejoicing and congratulating ourselves for being born in these times, for learning by our eyes or ears that you have been set on this throne, on this marble, blue to be seen and marveled at by all the world. If we are unequal to such great joy, being limited spirits and sheep-herders (and hence sometimes forgetful of ourselves and lacking in self-control), if we are unable to restrain our emotions or (as is perhaps the case at present) our speech, once begun, or if we trip or slip in any other manner, let it be the choice of your kindness, most kind of princes, to forgive us; let it be your choice to turn a blind eye and not scrutinize us too carefully. Rather, may you elect to interpret this as a sign of our affection and to excuse the mistakes of your Phyllis blue and her sons, of whatever quality they may be, as we strive, each to the best of his ability, to honor you. May you immediately think of that passage of the great Poet, or of his charming shepherd, “I love Phyllis most of all; for she wept that I was leaving, and in halting accents cried, ‘My fair one, good-bye and a long good-bye, O Iollas.’” blue Nobody can begrudge her this consolation for her bereft condition, deprived of so many advantages. May God thus bring it to pass. And so, you darling of all good men, you ornament of the world, live, thrive, and govern. Amen.

THE LEAST OF YOUR CALEDONIAN SUBJECTS
DAVID HUME

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TO HIS BOOK blue

spacerGo forth, you book, which I believe to be foolish and know to be uncouth, into the hands of the greatest of kings whom the proud moon sees as she returns under the great sky’s clear dome. You are not worthy in any respect to tolerate the countenance of so great a prince, or the brilliance of his keen intellect, that intellect which mounts to the stars above on swift wing, that large intellect which ponders great things with the lofty sweep of its genius. Should he ask you what thing in particular you are relying on when you assume such bold spirits as to dare interrupt his sacred affairs, you must grow very bashful and tell him that that your sole reason was your good will. For the other things that might give pleasure (polish and elegance of verse, their handsomeness, weighty sentiments, and effectiveness) he will supply himself, and, perhaps, he may require these things in vain from any other poet, since he alone possesses these gifts which are to be given either to a sovereign or to his subjects, I mean the gifts of Mother Juno, of great Pallas, and the tuneful strains on sweet Phoebus’ lyre, the gifts of fortune, art, and inherent nature, blue everything that is in any way good, such as a king might bestow on poets, or poets on kings. He alone among sovereigns sings in the choir of the bards, and he alone among bards sits on a royal throne, giving laws to subject mortals. Let him pronounce this to be a point of equity, that a man who possesses things must either himself grant them as gifts, or else cease to demand them.

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TO THE READER

spacerHAVE heard, good reader, that these things have been deemed to be obscure, and I have felt chagrin. I would feel chagrin, if I thought the fault to be mine. There is no obscurity in my words, such as foreign or strange vocabulary, nor in my syntax, phraseology, or word-order. If you are attentive and aware of what is being transacted, there cannot be much to confuse you because of my running allegory, since this too is transparent. I am a little afraid lest the echo attached to the end of my verses might distract your judgment, so that, while you devote your attention to both of them, you actually pay attention to neither. There were little marginal notes on them which (I know not how) were omitted by the typesetter during the printing process. Now, if you allow yourself to be persuaded, I make these few small requests.

1. First read, judge, and weigh the substance of the poem, meanwhile ignoring the echo, even if you have read it beforehand or afterwards.

2. Pay attention to the means of representing things in bucolic verse, particularly keeping in mind their representation by proper names.

3. Otherwise, do not be over-concerned about the allegory. Accept it if comes to your attention. If it does not, do not search for it too anxiously, just recognize the personifications and make the appropriate substitutions as necessary.

4. So that this will go more correctly, above all else you must pay attention to what is being transacted, always keeping this before your eyes.

What I mean is that our right serene King James, the successor to the deceased Queen of England, is being sung of under the name of Daphnis, and that she, having been given an honorable burial, is mourned, praised, and sung of under the name of Amaryllis, as are the advantages gained during her life, and the disadvantages caused by her death, so that it might be better apparent what banes James has removed and what boons he has conferred. Hence the title Daphn-Amaryllis and the plan of its writing and (to mention this in passing), Daphnis’ name is given first because of its smoother sound, as well as because of the first place James rightfully claims. For James is the foremost, and so, although Amaryllis came first in time, he otherwise would seem to have a rightful claim on first place. So, dear reader, this is the gist of things: you should think about these shepherds, the flocks attending upon them, the shepherd’s crook, the sheep, and other suchlike things. The rest will not prove difficult as I hear they are considered to be.

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THE FIRST ECLOGUE, CALLED PHILOMELA

Click a gray square to see an explanation of the allegory.

spacerThe sad forests are mourning the fair dead Amaryllis, the slender hazel trees, the oaks, with their rent foliage and the cypress with their dark locks .blue The Hamadryads, the Naiads in the clear water, and the Oreads are copiously weeping. See how abundantly the hills are sending down streams from their lofty brows, flooding the well-watered fields with all their fountains. The Nereids have perceived the Thames to be swollen, their bedchambers deep below to be sorrowful and the shoreline flooded. The stag shakes and lowers his head, tired of having lived to witness this great sorrow, and grazes no grass along the bank. He has chosen to be slain, and exposed his breast to an oncoming arrow. Or he retreats into thick shadows, disdaining the hand which is not yours, Amaryllis, to which he was often accustomed to yield and collapse with a great fall in death.
spacer Philomela sadly keeps her silence, or sadly groans in the silent fields. Only Echo responds from the sharp rocks of her caverns: “Heaven’s generous indulgence granted her many years, but the shepherds wanted her to see more crops of corn and generations of lambkins of the flock. These prayers, this clamor on all sides used to caress the newcomer’s ears. If she did so much as turn her steps into the forest, the willows and lowly broom would take heart and believe themselves blessed thanks to this single sight. Thus all their cattle hurried along or stood still, in accordance with her will. Their sheep felt no shivers because of the presence of the wolf. Rather, she often dared pursue the guilty wolf (while the shaggy bear looked on, licking her cubs into shape and teaching them their lessons), whether it fled her traps throughout the thick groves of willow or feared for its wolflings. But after the Fates took away Amaryllis, he gave a howl and fiercely regained his dire appearance. The nannies grew fearful and the very ram shuddered at empty noises, whether the leaves rustled on a tree or the rain kept falling. How that goat climbed up to his secret rocks, far from the flocks! What great floods the heifer foreshadowed with her lowing, and made I know not what answer to me from amidst her dale!
spacer“Oh, may the flock not groan under the influence of the sly fox or the savage wolf and, its fleece befouled by its torn guts, flee and drink from the Rhone or the Indian Hydaspes while in exile! Take heart, you goat, and greet such newcomers with your horn. Scarcely to no good purpose does keen Hylax stand at the gateway, barking at deceit. You should fence in your upland pastures, you shepherds. Or hasten, you tawny lion, and in your justice take up your crook, whether you be of Hector’s race or are ennobled with the blood of Achilles, and go where the Fates, where that noble marble and the hope you offer, great in its forecasts, and also the forbodings of your accurate mind call you.
spacer“Oh, if the flock from the nearby hills would add itself in this same pasture, and coexist in this sheepfold, blue watchfully contributing its ancestral concern, bravely contributing its effort! Then, Daphnis, how widely, how handsomely would your flock flood the pasture-land, hard by the Oaxes or, if you chose, the Tiber! Meanwhile there is no lack of cool pails and their milk in the summertime, or of sheaves of corn.
spacer “The grain, the earth decorated with its green grass, and the lily are delighting you in the early springtime and delighting themselves with their precocious growth. And all the land is shining with roses, piled with snow and Tyrian blue purple. . How the great expanses of countryside exclaim and are amazed by your rare fame! How strings, stroked by the thumb, and flutes rejoice to sound your praises, how the birds and beasts imitate them in paying you well-deserved honor!
spacer“Depart, evil enchantment and envy, and you too, fear, banished from the climes where Daphnis brings his sheep to graze. If Daphnis survives long enough, now let Pan rule the pastures once more, and Pales blue the fields. Once more let the blessed stag marvel at the golden years rolling by, and let the happy horse acknowledge the fodder on which he feeds, free of dittany. Let him not fear once more the flying missiles or nets hidden within the flowers. Now that the Fates and the years have been reborn, let a crow on the right deny that it has ever seen such days, during which the the birds could live protected only by the sheltering sky, untouched by the vulture and the eagle. Therefore the cock, dear to night-banishing Phoebus yet deferring to you, lion, sings of every bright thing beneath the light of the sun: now impious Rome will not dread Britons in vain, nor will that Tarpeian flamen  brandish his crashing thunderbolts to frighten men, as they gain their vengeance.”

IF THE METER DOES NOT GIVE DISPLEASURE, THIS CHORUS OF ANIMALS CAN BE ADDED blue

spacerAll the forest ceased its uproar, both the tame beasts and the wild. Oh, thus let it continue, as long as the goat feeds on leafage, as long as bulls munch grass on the ridges, or hay in the winter, and as long as breezes and water relieve the herd in the summer. Let Atropos blue ratify this, in accordance with the will of the Fates.

ADVICE ON UNDERSTANDING ECHO

T this point, should you be unwilling or if you lack the leisure, you may safely ignore Echo. She does not occupy the first place, but rather a secondary one, and a precarious one at that, having promised to be a decorative ornament. If she has deceived me, damn her for her deceit, she is not worth the bother. Let me not thus seem overly clever. My wish, dear reader, was to delight you, not to trouble you, I regard this as a sacred trust which I would not wittingly and willingly do. This is true to the degree that at the point when I heard that Echo was giving offence to some readers, I was determined to remove her. But a scruple crossed my mind about doing harm to someone so friendly and well-disposed towards Daphnis, or to impose silence on anybody celebrating him in any way at all. It also entered my head that she could have failed to annoy some readers, and had the ability to please and delight them. I must keep such readers in mind, and only offer this advice to the rest, that they should ignore that which they dislike and leave it to others who are perhaps willing. And so, whoever wishes to see my effort should consider her responses in as follows.
spacer 2. In the first three verses she adds three individual words to what Philomela says as she sings, either agreeing with, or supplying the reasons for her subjects’ prayers for the welfare of their queen, in the word res [“thing, topic”], or singing of this habit of theirs (in the word mos {“custom”]. For subjects customarily pray for the welfare of princes and greet them with acclamations of good omen. Then she speaks of their genuine good will (in the word amor [“love”]. Henceforth she weaves together sentences out of her responses, as is evident from the fact that they have punctuation marks. These are carefully to be noted, since, perhaps, the neglect of these was no small cause of their obscurity. Nevertheless, so that everything might be easier for you, I shall not find it troublesome to set forth her speeches before your eyes, so that you may take them in at a glance. The first is an epitaph for the deceased queen, wherein Echo sings this praise: Tantum ista solo nutu mores regit, format [“She governs and shapes their manners by her will alone”], and this expression of grief, Icta: ata vos; nos manet motus, luctus [“She is stricken. Woe for you, blue emotion and grief awaits us.”]
spacer 3. Then comes congratulation for the advent of our right serene king, and here we find consolation, praise, and mention of good things in the future: At (o!) ne pelle spem, cornu plenu, altus, iustus, leo, ingens vere rex, vitam, rem det (o!) axem ultra istis [“But, oh, do not drive away hope with its full cornucopia. He is a lofty, just, and a lion, a truly great king. Oh, may he them wealth piled higher than heaven.”] Here we have an exhortation to revere him: Illum vere omnis gens ama corde, laudes ore [“Every nation, you must truly love him with your heart and praise him with your mouth.” In order to praise him, Echo invents this formula: Ora: vivat, regnet foelix, laetus [“Pray that he may live, that he may reign in blessedness and happiness.”] And she repeats her prayer: Ora rurus: floreat natis, solo, caelo charus, gratus annos multos. Amen, Aeque amen, amen, amen, amen [“Pray again: may he flourish for many years, dear to his sons, his land, and to heaven. Amen. Likewise amen, amen, amen, amen.”] If you still want to test the truth of these things, and how they are presesented, it will be easy to assemble these individual words, set out by their verses. You must consider this, dear reader, and be favorable to my attempts: acknowledge my effort and be friendly in overlooking my mistakes. Or make the attempt yourself, and complete it with greater wit, leisure, and good success. Honor our new Daphnis with new artistry.
spacer 4. This is sufficient, or more than sufficient, for my more learned readers. But I will not blush to have a care for my less educated ones, and to add at this point a fuller explanation, especially concerning the allegory. I would only ask you for your open-mindedness, dear reader, by which I mean either your forgiveness or your friendly criticism, if you are of the opinion that something else should have been done.

AN EXPLANATION OF THE ALLEGORY

spacer5. The fair] Physically, to be sure, but more concerning the endowments of her mind. Rent foliage and dark locks] As is the habit of those in mourning. The allusion is to the shape of oak-leaves and the color of cypress, which is also peculiar to funerals. Flooding the well-watered fields] A reference to the time of year, blue which swells rivers with its rain and melting snow. To be sorrowful] Sorrow pertains to those in mourning, and the sea is said to make the shores mourn. Thus in the following verse, The stag shakes and lowers his head] The stag is the liveliest of beasts, and very long-lived. This one has lived very long under the queen’s rule. To which he was often accustomed to yield] She is said to have indulged in this manner of sport, so she would hit a stag with her musket while at the hunt. Philomela] I. e., whoever loves melody and the Muses, with the word insinuating this either by its etymology blue or as a figure of speech. Therefore it particularly designates poets and any literary men you care to name. First she sings praise, and these things in particular: the genuine love of her subjects, their consummate reverence, their ready duty, their security from suffering injury, and their fear of inflicting it because of her exercise of justice, concerning which these things are said. Broom] I. e., men of the lowest condition. Their sheep] The harmless and the weak. The wolf and the bear] The harmful and the violent. The shaggy bear licking her cubs into shape] It is said that this animal gives form and shape to its shapeless newborn by licking it. This is employed by transference as an allusion to the shaping of morals. But after the Fates removed Amaryllis] Here Philomela sings of her grief after the death of the queen, because naked licence is resuming its ferocity: everything is thrown into confusion, the weak feel fear and there is no security even for the powerful, and all men are troubled over their private and public affairs. Here the nannies are the weaker, and the ram and the goat are the leaders and grandees of the flock. Whether the leaves rustled on a tree] I. e., for every trifling reason. Climbed up to his rocks] Namely, he looked out for himself as best he could. The heifer foreshadowed with her lowing] I. e., by her lowing she forecast or predicted the floods and storms in our affairs. Such lowing is one of the signs of an oncoming storm: see Vergil in his Georgics. blueMade I know not what answer] This was Echo. But she, either unwittingly or by dissimulation, interpreted this so as to enhance the fear, indicating the groan of a realm either oppressed or fearing to be oppressed, and perhaps to be dislodged from its foundations in the following spring. Oh when the sly fox &c is said in repugnance, where the fox stands for fraud and the fraudulent man. The wolf is violence or the violent man, and danger is posed for the realm by both these fellows. The Rhone, the Hydaspes] These are rivers of France and India, i. e., of any place at all. Take heart, you goat] The remedy for these evils is that they be resisted with courage, fortitude, and steadfastness. With your horn] i. e., with strength and martial prowess, and likewise by forestalling these dangers by counsel and prudence. Fence in the upland pastures] I. e., close all entryways to the realm, all of which are points of the most prudent counsel, by arming the fleet, forbidding imports &c. (this is the single sure cure, and if this be omitted, all else will prove to be in vain).
spacer 6. This is done so that King James, the lawful heir, chosen by destiny and designated as king by the prophecy of men’s thoughts, full of hope and encouraged by the forecasts of his own mind. might come into his kingdom, and that this be done without hesitation, all other considerations set aside. For the goat, whoever he may chance to be, is the leader of the flock, as above, and its affairs are conducted in accordance with his prudent counsel, power, and fortitude, whether he be a single man or several working in tandem. Hylax] is a dog’s name, signifying every sage man who sniffs out plots during an interregnum or at the beginning of a new reign, whatever he may adjudge. You tawny lion] This is the arms of our right serene sovereign, more familiar than to require explanation. And nothing should or could better be opposed to the fox and the wolf, to fraud and violence, than this noble beast with its proud mind and true virtue, despising and dispelling the both of them. It is indeed just on many a score, being king of the animals, and this thanks to its nature, its good deserts, its right, and their common consent. Hasten] This indicates that speed is to be employed to forestall the strivings of other men. Was this not done when, summoned to the throne, he set aside all other concerns and came without delay? Whether of Hector’s race or ennobled with the blood of Achilles] This pertains to his fame, fortitude, generosity, and also to his right. For it is true that the English have Trojan origin and that London is called Troynovant. blue This origin is shared also by King James, since he is descended from ancient Britons, just as he is from Frenchmen, who trace their race back to Francion, blue and indeed to Hector. Was he not the heir-apparent to Troy? And so was Greek Achilles master by right of war, being the victor, and the bravest of the Greeks, from whom descend our countrymen have their Gathelus, the ancestor of Fergus, blue who in turn was ancestor to James. The Fates] To interpret the predictions of the bards or prophets. All those things which they or the poets have sung about him blue since his cradle days are sufficiently well-known (or possibly too much so), and are unambiguous. That marble] The added epithet “noble” shows that this has always been such for us, and now, as I believe, for all the nations. Concerning which we have that popular old poem, whether written or an inscription, which I read in John Major as a boy and committed to memory: blue

Unless the Fates are faithless found
And prophets’ voice be vain,
Where’er is placed this stone, e’en there
The Scottish race shall reign.

spacer 7. Once upon a time it had been appointed for the inauguration of Scottish kings, until it was taken to London by Edward I. After the coronation of King James, the result goes to show that this saying, long held in derision, was not spoken in vain. The hope, and the forbodings of your mind] I ask you, James, are these things not true? How much and how long did you nourish them? Oh, if the flock from the nearby hills would add itself] The fourth and last future remedy of these evils, even if they should persist, is if these nations would unite as one, setting aside their hatreds and any impediments whatsoever. This would be wholesome for the flock and a glorious achievement for its shepherds, and would be an immeasurably fit instrument for achieving all the great ends you care to name, including extending our empire beyond the limits of this island. My prayers extend to this, and hence our future felicity is proclaimed and predicted at this very juncture. The hills] The mountainous part of this island, Scotland. The flock] That nation. The sheepfold] That realm. Ancestral concern] Who would be so malevolent as to refuse them this? And who would imagine their hearts to be so sluggish? As the poet says, blue “the sun does not harness his horses so far away from our world” that it has not produced, and does not now produce intellects not to be disdained for any purposes whatsoever. Bravely] Not even Envy herself could deny this. Daphnis] They say that the greatest emperor was thus called by the greatest poet, blue so permit me to imitate him and make the same prediction. Nor is this an empty statement, since it is not unlike the bestowal of a laurel wreath, and indicates both Phoebus and Mars, poetry and victory, the arts of peace and war, or a man who excels in both these arts. Your flock] I. e., the people subject to him (call it British, or by whatever name you choose) will flourish abroad far and and wide, and at home will abound in all good things under his guidance, with these helps which these united peoples will supply with their united minds, powers, and conjoined counsel. The Oaxes, the Tiber] I. e., anywhere at all. These are rivers, the one in Crete, the other, which is well-known, in Italy. The pail, milk, the sheaf in summertime] I. e., every kind of good thing, at its proper season. The grain, the earth, lilies and roses are delighting you] What else is this but personification? Is it not permissible? Is it not enough? Thus nothing will obscure or pointless to readers who are not entirely simpletons. Nonetheless, if someone wishes to understand these lilies as the emblems of France, and the roses as a symbol of England, he will not miss the mark or fail to grasp the intention of the author, who did not think it amiss to supply these allusions.
spacer 8. Are delighting you] Either because Daphnis now claims them as his own, blue or because those he who employs these emblems has sent ambassadors attesting his good will. In the early springtime] Either of the year or of his reign. And thus delighting themselves] They think they are wise and acting in their own self-interest in thus displaying their zeal. Precocious] I. e., speedy, and anticipating all else At least these parts, those flowers customarily delight us, not in the early springtime, but during high summer. Snow, purple] These two roses, the so-called white and red, are the emblems of the families of Lancaster and York. The flute, strings] The Muses of the city and countryside. Depart, evil enchantment &c] With all evils abolished, all good things will flourish. At home there will be abundance, of cattle (indicated by the names Pan and Pales), sure peace in all quarters for all humanity (represented by the stag and the birds) from every manner of enemy, foreign and domestic (represented by the vulture and the eagle). This will be true to the extent that we will take the lead in inflicting fear on Rome, ever formidable and menacing. Enchantment] By your leave, good reader, let me be allowed to use this word as if it were some kind of personification of the old gods, such as were imagined by the ancients and inspired them with terror and dread. Although it was thus first written fascine, the printer altered this to the more usual fascinum, blue under the impression this was my mistake, as can be seen in the first edition. And this was written deliberately by me, although, I admit, at the time I could cite no example. But afterwords I chanced to find the word used twice in Julius Caesar Scaliger’s fourth set of Eclogues, which he entitled The Native Nymphs, and in Book VI of his Poetices Libri Septem, called Hypercriticus, in the section devoted to Calpurnius, and what would you not venture to say about his authority among the learned? The tongue, the foot, the eye, and the heart are thought to be liable to enchantment, but this can be averted, and so it is with dislike and fear. Where Daphnis grazes his sheep] I. e., throughout the island, or rather his realm wherever it may now exist or chance to exist in the future, as occupied either by him or his people. Pan, Pales] I have spoken sufficiently about these above, so that you may understand that these simply and clearly designate all of life’s advantages. If you seek to learn more that are meant by these, keep in mind Who is the true Shepherd, and what are His true pastures, as idolatrous Superstition confessed when she abandoned her pagan realm and said Great Pan is dead. At least He is the One whom we seriously acknowledge to be the Shepherd of Souls. And what happy, what broad pastures of His do we hope for under King James! To what anticipation is the world provoked! And it is for this very thing that he thinks he has been given by God and raised to his high station.
spacer 9. Golden years] Not to gratify those who value only gold, but rather those to whom virtue shines forth as the purest gold, when it abounds on all sides, everywhere being held in its place of honor (which is the highest), and in security brings along with itself those attendant goods, I mean those of plenty, of peace, happiness and the like, having been long looked-for, or coming unexpectedly, but in any case now at last returned. The stag] I. e., every long-lived man. Old age is always querulous and dislikes present things, and the poet rightly called it “A praiser of time gone by.” blue The fodder on which he feeds] I. e., those happy times, and an abundance of all things, which he likes to boast he has seen in his youth. And if we remember that great Pan, it is easy to understand what this fodder represents: the true, sincere, and wholesome things of those early days. blue Free of dittany] I. e., entirely free from all fear of open vice on the one hand, and of hidden traps on the other (hidden nets). The power and virtue of dittany for curing the wound arrows is known even to wild beasts. As the greatest of poets said, blue “[a herb] not unknown to the wild goats when winged arrows have fixed themselves in their sides.” I would have thought no notice need be given, except that I have seen that some readers have experienced difficulty, and wished to serve the needs of all my readers.
spacer 10. The crow] is long-lived and prophetic. Having recalled antiquity, it forecasts these things and predicts these times, confirming them by its omen. On the right] Meaning favorable in its auguries. For “on the left” forebodes harsher things. As Vergil wrote, blue “A crow on the left often predicted from its hollow ilex-tree.” Untouched by the vulture and the eagle] I. e., by any form of rapacity. But who is represented by the word “vulture,” and who is called by that same name (that shavepate crew) is familiar “even to blear-eyed men and barbers.” blue And who is denoted by the emblem of the eagle? blue By the sheltering sky] I mean unprotected yet untouched, as being in no need of protection because of the innocence of this age. The cock dear to Phoebus] I. e., the sun’s bird, a lover of its light, hence anything which cleaves to the true Light and the true Sun. Yet deferring to you, lion] Like the cock, the lion is reputed to be an animal of the sun, but, as they say, inferior to the cock by its nature. It is believed that the cockcrow is the single thing in nature that it fears and reveres. Now that safety has been provided for its chicks, the cock is grateful for having received so great a boon, and is induced to yield its privilege and its erstwhile standing with their common master. For which reason it is said to be grateful and to sing bright omens, namely those which follow concerning inflicting fear on the pontiff of Rome. Beneath the light] The familiar cockcrow, and the nature of the cock, which by transference is applied to the illumination of religion. The Tarpeian flamen] The Roman priest. His crashing thunderbolts] The thunderbolts of excommunication, brute and vain ones, by which he terrifies witless kings steeped in superstition. But he himself will not dread Britons in vain For they say that he fell into a panic as soon as he heard James had gained England, and attested his fear in his habitual ways, by leading a processional litany to purify the city, proclaiming a holiday, and instituting public prayers and supplications. We predict this will not be in vain. And let his guilty conscience be a harbinger of his misfortune. Amen.

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THE SECOND ECLOGUE, CALLED ALPHESIBOEUS

THE ARGUMENT

LPHESIBOEUS is not a name derived from παρὰ  τοῦ ἄλφειν τοὺς βούς [“to fodder the cattle”], as we commonly understand. Rather, by just as likely an etymology it comes from ἄλφα [“alpha”] and σέβεια or εὐσέβεια [“piety], as if you were to use it to signify worship or worship of the First, or being the foremost in worship and piety. And, lest the rest be out of keeping with this (after he has sung of the uncontrollable public joy at the arrival of James, with Amaryllis and our grief over her fading into the background), throughout this entire eclogue he conducts himself so as to instill a piety that should be promoted when those two empires have been destroyed, the one Turkish and the other Roman. Therefore he indicates a way to achieve this (not so as to offer untimely counsel, but “as if a vegetable-gardener should chance to stumble over useful things”) blue by the assistance of foreign kings and peoples (for who can suffice by himself?), of the kinds that are more useful and less alien to ourselves. Such is the cock to our lion, joined as he is by league: useful in many ways and particularly powerful with his mounted forces. In his nature, he is marked by old-time simplicity, he is truthful, candid, and patently a beast you can trust. Such would be the eagle, that prince of birds, if someday he becomes able to behold the sun of justice and the Light of true religion with his eagle eyes. Then we have the other princes of Germany, indeed a lesser breed, but the eagle is borne aloft and soars thanks to their wing, and they are no less capable of donating those wings of theirs to the lion, and lifting it up to the same place, namely to the pinnacle of empire. Therefore my verse, while the great national lion with its old-time virtue [II.21] can be applied to the emblem of the King of Scots as a prefiguring type, blue and particularly to that genuine and great tribe of Jehudah, truly victorious, all-dominating, always distinguished and ever to be distinguished by the victor’s laurels, a tribe which NO MAN HARMS WITH IMPUNITY, blue to which all things defer: may the sun and moon serve it, and truly may subject kings kiss the ground upon which he has walked.
spacer 2. This is the nation, to which we all aspire, and this is the old-time virtue, which derives from it of old, which leads us to it, and whereby it is guided. And what more honorable thing has ever befallen our James, or has befallen any nation, than to bear this type of it, beyond controversy the noblest of all emblems, being the king of beasts enjoying the best of colors and conditions, a beast to which nothing can be added without subtracting from it, so far is it from being some kind of object of acquisition for others. Therefore nobody is so great a self-lover (no, not even if he were Narcissus himself) that he does not freely yield to it, setting aside all rivalry or tergiversation, whether this greatness has somehow been acquired, or whether it was granted by fate as an omen from the first beginnings of our nation. What, I ask, has more greatly ennobled you, James, so that you may accumulate realms upon realms, than that you walk in these same footsteps, impress this same thing on your mind, express this same thing in your actions, offer it to the world, and expend yourself and all you possess on this? If ever these nations come together as one thanks to God’s benevolence — and may He bring this to pass — what equally noble emblem of their united government could they devise? What better could they adopt, not because it once belonged to the Scots (this would be a pointless bone of contention), but because it has always been the most honorable, or at least because (let envy not grumble) it has been the type of that truth to which we turn our eyes and our minds, and on which we should pin our all hopes, I mean the greatest, noblest, and most flourishing and genuine empire? What befits us more? What stimulates our mind with greater delight than by this symbol to proclaim ourselves his servants, and to deliver it to the world, whether it wants it or no? Hence, if a motto equal to so great an emblem is to be sought (and I beg pardon of all good men for so saying), there comes to mind that magnificent one, LESSER ONLY THAN JEHUDAH, and that pious one SERVING JEHUDAH, COMMANDING ALL ELSE, or something similar. But you may perhaps express everything with that DEFER, which is short, pointed, great, full, pious, and a motto whereby we are all advised to defer to that lion of Jehudah: everything else should defer to its type, as it acts thus. With that spirit, with these auspices, what, great lion, will not defer to you? Which of your subjects will not act so as all things defer to you? Only arouse yourself blue and undertake this cause of God, this cause of your own, and immediately all other things shall succeed prosperly, blue and do so prosperously. And so I hope for talents of speech equal to so great a subject. And I add an appeal that in the meantime you give a hearing to the slender Muses of shepherds who, though they sing of their peaceful hills and and borderlands in their artless way, nevertheless do so with the best of good will.

ECLOGUE II

spacerThese things Philomela sang, and Echo had caught up her song and made these answers, when Alphesiboeus started up with his reeds. “Happily raise up your head with its rosy face, you golden light, and banish sorrow from the earth. Now the turtledove should not be mourning its lost mate, now Procne should not venture to make her moan. How she is singing well-omened news of approaching happy springtime, and gratefully listens to her more welcome sister!
spacer“You yourself turn away from your funeral rites, Amaryllis, and from high heaven you yourself forbid lamentations. And, having gained this wish, you indulge in dances and take pride in your great-hearted successor (whether because you count up his endowments, or remember the bards’ prophecies), blue you take pride that your throne and the British land is ruled by him, and that he is celebrated far and wide throughout the world. You take pride that now this light is arising from your spark, not from the barren Phoenix. Let this light always be the greatest, let it always come happily for his subjects, filling the land and rivers, and shine wholesomely for all the world, outshining all the suns of this world with its brightness.
spacer“Daphnis, you darling of nature, what lofty glory awaits you from this sublime adoration, you for whom the winged legion at heaven’s topmost pinnacle and the army of the stars take the field, as with your old-fashioned virtue you bring your great national lion to previously unconquered peoples, and teach all this earth’s living creatures to show their obedience, although previously unschooled in their manners, and compel them to follow your victorious standards, standards always wreathed with triumphant laurel?
spacer “See how this wild beaset rears up its noble breast, how its maw gapes, how it darts its eyes about, until it has gained mastery over everything. Tremble, you nation. Oh earth, you will not provoke it with impunity. Let Narcissus himself withdraw into his limpid water, although he lovingly admires himself, and likewise all the flowers, beasts and birds that dwell on earth and glitter as constellations in the skies. The moon and the fiery stars of the sun serve him. Crowns, setting aside their pride, give him praise, and humble kings kiss the ground upon which he has walked.
spacer“Mindful of peace, you must join these cities, these peoples, these rulers of land and sea, and compel them to join in a firm league. You are the foremost ruler at hand, let your keen care attend to this as the foremost thing. Raise your head high, blue and and lift up a renewed hymn. And, mindful of your sun (oh you Frenchman, ever hateful to the darkness of the Styx), of our ancient league and high spirits, join your hands, and join your squadrons. Be gentle, you lion, and do not disdain his true friendship. Rather, admire his light with your keen eye. And so should you do, eagle, you indomitable king of the birds, if neither Phoebus nor the moon (lacking in her own light) are not to accuse you of unworthiness. And you, oh you energetic brood, not so much lesser, as many of you as Germany rears with her worthy care as eagles hostile to the vulture, join your efforts and unite your toils, and lift him up with your wings, lest he be obstructed by any mountain crags, or the great expanses of land and sea slow his progress. So mourn your Tarpeian palaces and wolves, impious Rome, exiled once more blue from your walls, great Rome, which the descendant of Fergus, of the race of Hercules, will overthrow once more. And you, all Ausonia, will marvel at Cacus blue all a-tremble once more and this three-headed monster once more bound on the ground. Soon the Maeotic realms blue will acknowledge you to be deadly, and will quake with alarm, Ceraunia will fear you more than the beasts of Hyrcania, and the furthest dominion of Scythian Selim, as far as its stretches. Do you see how he dreads the servile scourges of his empire’s senile old age, and rightly so?
spacer “Who is to sing of the bronze-clad ranks, the martial powers, captive commanders, and bonds cast on the necks of the Euphrates and Indus? Oh, would that Agrius were alive! blue Or you, Melleus, must take up your trumpet and publish these things throughout the world, beginning with that race descended from the sons of Fergus. blue Begin, and let there be no king from the blood of such great sovereigns whom Phoebus loves the more. So let Clio be favorable, and also Daphnis. Shake all Helicon with your triumphs, victor, and arouse Parnassus as a victor, for whose sake everything will fall silent concerning the battles of the Macedonians, the noble wars of Rome, and that Trojan Aeneid sung by the Muses themselves.
spacer “Meanwhile let it be my pleasure to indulge my slender Muse, Daphnis, a Muse which the springtime of my youth and the chill of my old age consecrate to you. How the Cheviot Hills give a cheer with their happy forests on one side, and the Grampian Hills on the other, and Caledonia resounds, while Lycidas and Tityrus dare sing you in their uncouth measures. But let them proclaim that the mountain-tops and hills are pacified, as are fields unaccustomed to tolerate laws, up there where they have the sea on both sides, after the Grahams have had much to groan about, and the blue MacGregors, bound with many a chain after the Chaonians’ murders have been expiated, although lately a wild clan. Lewis trembles, as will Lochaber, and mother Strathearn sets aside her ways and her monstrous high spirits.
spacer“Just as the thistle rises up for you amidst the roses, and calls forth the very narcissus, blue let all Britain see this, and all France, let the world exclaim far and wide, and Fame sing of this along, and let our descendants celebrate this down to late centuries.”

A NOTICE CONCERNING ECHO

S you see, here too Echo did not want to hold her silence, but rather to sing of her piety, or to make her chattering noise. I indeed concealed this in my former edition, partially because I had heard that this device had received an unfavorable reception in connection with the preceding Eclogue, and partially not to provide my political readers with a laughingstock. Now that it occurs to her that she is safe because of the king’s patronage, she has dared emerge. Thus therefore one can hear her singing. And first she sings of conjugal piety, joined to her preceding words, and of its happiness, in this way: You will be a turtledove? Thus with his lofty words he is giving Anne to the world. She exists thanks to you. Suns for the world. Then she speaks of piety properly so-called, towards God, as expressed in external worship, You only [worship] Jerusalem’s lion; signs of gold, and by inward emotion, genuine and constant, You must not cease to pray, as being useful and efficacious for the world as a whole. Compel kings and nations to give praise to the heavens alone, giving Christ as the true Light out of the darkness denotes its worthy and usefulness. This one thing is worthy of you, whereby it lifts the mind above earth and kingdoms. Hence, with public peace gained, we gain a genuine triumph. Then you must affix reins to Mars’ neck throughout a world lacking in kings. Io you triumph. Wars fall silent for the Muses. With personal peace gained, hence we have consolation and repose for our delightful old age. With true and everlasting peace, which may it receive forever. Lastly, daring to make a pledge on behalf of our most serene king himself, she concludes thus: I do this one thing.
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2. For the rest, dear reader, I must beg your pardon or advise you concerning the quantity in some of my syllables. These are, first, in the words in lucem exoriri, blue where there indeed a kind of bastard iambic foot, but for no reason than that it is of a kind that poets not only allow, but go out of their way to use. This could easily have been altered, by writing lucem hanc exorta or sic lucem exortam, or something of the sort. But this is not only tolerable but, as I think, more welcome to tolerant ears. Another concerns the second syllable in Caledoniae, correpted here. It is written in its full form by Buchanan, with the support of Ptolemy, who wrote Kaledon with an η. But (in addition to the consideration that we are not accustomed to inquire closely into these words which pass into Latin from other languages, but rather to leave it to each man’s individual judgment), in its origin this syllable is so correpted in its origin that it does not seem like a syllable. We do not commonly say Calidon, not even Calεdon, but rather Caludon or Calden, blue as a disyllable, or possibly even as a monosyllable, Caldn. Therefore this same quantity is observed in the third eclogue, Perque tuos, Caledon, &c, although it would have been easier and more simple to write without the apostrophe, perque Caledoniae. Likewise in writing Buchananum with the second syllable correpted, I have elsewhere said Respice Buchanan &c, following that same etymology which, if not always necessary, is always permissible. Also, Echo seems to be blamed for not always replying accurately, and occasionally slipping, indistinctly answering a instead of e, an aspirated syllable instead of a smooth one, and so forth. In response to this, I must admit, I am so far from seeking to avoid blame that I have thought it even a graceful feature, and, even if I have not sought it out, I have eagerly embraced it when it presented itself. And why, pray tell, should I have portrayed this rustic nymph as learned? As so ready to speak, and yet so finicky in her discourse? And although elsewhere, perhaps, it would have been more difficult to introduce a change, this could easily have been done when she answers triumphas to the speaker’s triumphis, by substituting Io triumpha for Io triumphas, in this way, Quatiens Helicona triumpha / Materia ingenti victor &c [“A subject shaking Helicon with its great triumph”], and likewise if there are other instances of this kind, pray be friendly, kind reader, and either acknowledge or allow these instances, or do not disavow them.

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THE THIRD ECLOGUE, CALLED MOERIS, OR DUTY

THE ARGUMENT

N this third eclogue it is explained why it hymns the king in this nearly-empty countryside, far from the court, and likewise the deceased queen. Then the eclogue commences to hymn the king alone in various ways, under various names. Lycidas begins with experiments in praise, lightly and as if in passing, describing the blessed tranquility of our time, and James’ consummate genius and learning, mounting up even to the writing of poetry, with the Muses singing one thing and Apollo the bard singing another. But he, postponing his own song until a later time, urges Moeris to sing. And Moeris sings that James himself is now made Apollo, that is to say, that he is now the prince, president, and patron of literary men: in consideration of him, learning has its honor, men hope to achieve it, and choruses of poets abound everywhere. Among which is Celiovedus, an obscure, unknown shepherd, but nevertheless inspired to repeat his old songs and devise new ones. With these he should have sung songs of prophecy in the past, describing the king as master of seas, lands, and our affairs, or should sing them now. For this reason the noble emblem of the lion are heaven-granted him as an omen, an emblem to which all his others should defer, since they diminish rather than enhance him. Hence rivers and mountain-chains serve him, each in their own way. Concerning these, however, not being unreasonably seduced by the sweetness of power, he mounts up with that truly divine mind of his to far greater things, and to that single concern worthy of him, namely thoughts of heaven. And this is so far from diminishing or obstructing his dignity (as common impiety bandies about), that, quite to the contrary, he enhances his authority and procures himself solid, genuine glory, transcending all the sovereigns of this earth: for he stimulates the expectation, good will and desire of foreign populations, and fires the love of his own subjects, particularly those of his own Scotland, whose disposition is described under the name of Phyllis, acquiescing at length in the future amity or union of these peoples. Then too, though Celiovedus may thus far have been useless and perhaps worn out, he has the power to conjure up this royal efficacity so that it applies to himself as well, in order to perform all the duties of his leisure or business in accordance with the king’s leadership and guidance. Finally, having delivered a brief excuse for the great forwardness and wordiness of his song, which perhaps exceed his limitations and the due size of an eclogue, and, as it were, sounding the retreat, he seizes the opportunity of a goat gone astray to return to his private work, having bid adieu to the Muses.
spacer 2. And furthermore, here King and Crags are the proper names of men blue and, if you translate them into our tongue, names sufficiently familiar, names of men who have lately hymned our right serene sovereign and done him honor. Celiovedus (who is the same as Moeris) represents every humble and unknown poet, such as is the author, as is hinted at by his name, which indicates his uselessness, being compounded out of the Hebrew words celi and oved, as if you were to say “a ruined or broken vessel), and for this very reason he is called Moeris by a Latin etymology, blue because of his very sorrow. The logic of both these names is tacitly indicated when Moeris says, thus may he free your eyes from weeping and greatly console my sad friend in his great sorrow, and (here Celiovedus is meant), Thus may you someday come to be useful for the herd and the farmstead. But the full etymology of the latter name is openly indicated in those words, I am the man for whom nobody has found any uses &c. Phyllis, as I have said, is Scotland, Amaryllis is first the Queen of England, and then her realm, Pindarus (or Pendarus), or Dumpendar Law in our language, is a hill near to Hadington, where the teeth of grazing sheep are said to become covered with gold. blue The Lammermoor Hills are in Marcia, where is located the little farmstead of the writer, named Theager or Godscroft. The Orchil Hills are in Strathearn blue overhanging the Firth of Forth, at the foot of which lies Gleneagles, blue the writer’s present abode. The Leven is a tributary of the Teith, which flows into the Firth of Forth, and both yield gems. Ness is called after a northern loch of the same name which, according to Boece, blue never freezes. The reader will readily comprehend the rest by himself.

LYCIDAS, MOERIS

LYC.

spacerWhy, Moeris, do you idly play God knows what vains songs on your infertile reed for the benefit of the deaf rocks, bothering their crags and their summits to no good purpose? Are you not ashamed to pour into unschooled ears things which the Thames or our lofty Apollo might come to read, whether you sing of Amaryllis, mourned by all the forest, or compare good Daphnis to shepherds of old, pretty Daphnis, at whose name the heavens smile and the friendly earth pours forth golden honey?

MOE.

spacerIs this your concern, Lycidas, that I should not be a strident goose honking among the many swans which the Thames bears on its fair stream, soothing the banks with their sweet nectar? Does great Daphnis or Apollo have any concern from songs? Do they have the leisure for trifles? Here too the woods rejoice over Daphnis, the unshorn hills shake their summits. Here, since Daphnis makes me burn with mad love, let the forest not remain silent, nor let the hills stop moving their tops.

LYC.

spacerBy was this also true of Amaryllis? Though she was said by her subjects to be great and handsome, was not she too a shepherdess mindful of her flock, both mindful while dying and looking out for it during her lifetime?

MOE.

spacerYes, this was true of Amaryllis. She too was a shepherd mindful of our hilltops while dying, and did much to support us during in life. She reserved her crook blue for our Daphnis, and while dying she praised him. As far as I am concerned, anyone who has loved Daphnis should both live on in death, and get more than his highest hopes during his lifetime.

LYC.

spacerSo I have heard. Assuredly, both the nymph and the lad were worth our singing. The Arcadians have hymned him. You have sung of her, Melibaeus, and also you, Menalcas. And you too, whether you sing things said by such great poets or left unsaid, learn that Daphn-Apollo now rejoices in song. He has leisure for the Muses, he loves them and will always have the leisure and love for them, and the Muses will be his second care. So sing, you will not have done so in vain. See how the forest bows to the zephyr, and how the birds fall still on their branches.

MOE.

spacerBut Pan gave you your pipes, Calliope taught you how to blow the your reeds, and Apollo has greatly filled your heart. You who can sing songs worthy of Daphnis alone should be the only one to begin, praising Daphnis to the skies with your music.

LYC.

spacerDo you mean the songs the Pierians sang in their holy caves? We have seen that he himself was not embarassed to move the reeds to his lips. Pan gave way, and Apollo swore an oath and put down his lyre. blue Thetis was amazed, as were Nereus’ deep currents and the seas as far as the shore of Ultima Thule. Or do you mean the songs with which the Clarian god blue honors the Parcae, while these golden ages glide along, spun golden on their distaffs? Pasture your sheep, lads, and entrust your dilings to all the groves. Now the roving wolf does not bristle in any of our fields, now none of our goats are butting each other with their foreheads, nor or our local bulls plotting battles. But soon, perhaps, I shall rehearse what he has commanded me, and you sing the rest, Moeris, for you are able to recall it. Thus Daphnis is your darling, thus may he free your eyes from weeping and greatly console my sad friend. Thus may you someday come to be useful for the herd and the farmstead. Start, and Thymbrius blue will guide our flowing streams.

MOE.

spacerPerhaps I shall sing those which I lately sang at your dictation, great boy. blue You alone grant us songs worthy of you, after Phoebus has resigned his tripods and his laurels at your feet, Daphnis, and Parnassus and the Muses have lifted your person on high. Now the Muses have their reward. Melibaeus has brought these pails of milk, Tityrus a lamb, and Ocnus his field. All these songs of yours, Menalcas, have not been spread about in vain. All the wood resounds far and wide with joy. Now the sheep-herder, now the cowherd himself make noise throughout the ridges of Lammermoor, or throughout those of Orchil, and throughout your dense hazel trees and bramble-bushes, Caledon, comforting his great loves. And somebody coming from a long line of kings hymns you, oh King, being a king himself. The crags will not keep their silence, as Craig is now competing even with the Aeonian blue Muses in calling him handsome himself, and calling his sheepfold handsome. Here, too, the caves sound your presence, Celiovedus breathes you from the caves and the learned forest answers it all. I have seen him purveying his sweetness to the dales, to the steep rocks shaggy with their shrubbery, to the mountains, their tops dark with disorderly moss, and the rivers privy to his song. Now he was singing songs he had sung as a lad, and now he was inventing something beautiful on his reed. In what clime were you born, great boy, under what star were your born? Did Pisces give you all the seas to rule? Or did you, Taurus, bestow on him the bountiful honors of the dry land? Or after the golden-tressed Titan had and made his way further on heaven’s lofty summit, the Gemini left behind him, shedding down his golden light on bright Cancer, while the wild north wind was pent up in his Aeolean caves, when a new breeze was blowing with its gentle whisper, was it not rather then that the sun, standing highest while in the middle of his circuit, raised you up as master of affairs, above the water, above the sky, and added you to high heaven as an indomitable glory? Hence Leo provides an omen and weaponry to the sky: defer, you leopards, you lilies and you harp, blue and do not provoke the great lion.”
spacer Then he sings of the Teith, hastening to contribute its jewels, the winding of the Leven, the fishy mouth of the Clyde, and the perpetual springtime of the Ness, streams hardened by no spells of cold weather. Soon he sang how the Crawford is pledging its gold-bearing veins, blue to the envy of the Tagus and the amazement of the Indus. Dumpendar Law, you rival, why seductively cover the ivory teeth of sheep with gold? Daphnis is unconcerned about such things. Daphnis has dared attain to the lofty inner chambers of heaven with his mind, and has subjected massy Olympus to his footsteps. What do your eyes behold, divine lad, which is your equal? What about what you should do? What you should love? Neither your brilliance nor the beauty of your shepherd’s crook has dazzled your silly mind. Although Aegle and Alcon blue are mad about the brass of your glittering crook and its evenly-spaced joints, although we lads think it a wonder, things fated to perish are hindrances to earth-bound souls. Your heavenly origin now lays claim to you, Jupiter regards you worthy only of the stars. Now your concern is to worship Him and reveal Him to the lands you have conquered, now to tend your flocks for His sake and establish sheepfolds, and also to hunt down wolves and to drive foxes out of their lairs, driving them entirely out of the forest and exterminating them. Why make an outcry, impiety, and contrive empty hopes? This is somebody who instills heaven into this earth and instills only it, let him uplift men’s hearts byt his worthy care: this is the thing for which wisdom exists. This glory elevates him above the other shepherds, and extends his name and his crook to distant lands far beyond these pastures. Hence small flocks and great cattle demand him as their master, and deem themselves fortunate to have him as such. Hence nymphs and goddesses vie in seeking him in marriage. Just as much as you are fairer than the Phyllis he has abandoned, Amaryllis, so much does Deiopeia blue prefer herself to you, and and also Galataea, her hair adorned by gold of the Indies. How she waxes proud, rich in her fields! And she adds Bacchus, she adds the olive, and apples, their skins rivalling those of the Hesperides in their sweetness. What are you to do? What can you match to these, you lost girl? If you vie in affection, dusky Phyllis blue will not yield to you in her love. She burned first in her tender young years, cherished him to her breast, and gave him kisses in his tiny cradle. Now she fears for him in his absence, now she grows pale for his sake, and for his sake she wearies the temples with her constant prayers, sighing and calling you cruel and unfair, and in her folly she hopes to repay you tit for tat. “Will there ever come a day when I, your Phyllis can live long enough to see you again with your reverend face? When I can happily collect the nectar that flows from your rosy mouth and lips? Oh, would I could steal kisses from your lips and wrap my arms around your tender neck! Or, if this be too much, let me kiss your feet and the ground upon which you walk, worshipping you from afar! Should I seem worthless to you because another girl is wealther or better kempt, and because you think it allowed you do disdain your first love?”

LYC.

spacerKeep on, my boy. Do you see how much water is pouring forth from the western slope? Now the fields are drinking, their stalls get back cows well-watered. What are you concerned about? The cow-girl blue will take care lest some Circe dries up their udders. She is working their teats with her own hand, and bringing their milk into the house. She is keeping the kidlings at their grazing long enough and, should she do any harm, Amyntas will repay us. Meanwhile, you tell of Phyllis’ tears and her fires, all her hopes, fears, and prayers, mingled with complaints.

MOE.

spacerAt this point, Lycidas, do you imagine she can utter any more? She has run out of words. Scarcely had Alcippe and Beroe brought her home when it occurred to her to doubt whether Daphnis is faithful, or whether he is indifferent to her great love. Now there is a slender hope for her life, after Doris and Nereus, lord of the sea, have sworn that he is mindful of her, that she has been summoned to be the partner of his bedchamber, and that their sons have been recruited to help care for their sheepfold, shared in common, and how this was Amaryllis’ wish after she had very fairly set aside her hatred, freely inviting her to have a share in all her bridegroom’s honors. They swear this is what the Thames demands, the Severn, the Humber, and the Cam, that the cry of all the British rivers which load their clear waters to the sea by no single path is that Daphnis himself will, perhaps, be present before the ash tree sheds its leaves, before the reaper puts his scythe to the crop, drying her tears and her eyes, and that Amaryllis will be sending her great sons.
spacerOh, if the old Phoebus would return to my heart, such as he was when he brought my first fourteen years to a close! blue Then I was able to blow my first reeds with my lips, then it befell me to grasp the laurels with my daring hand. Even now, should the squabblings of nearby Thestylis ever stop their racket and someone else’s bull cease grazing in my field and tearing at my straw, bound up in its white bundles, oh, let me have the free time, let a trusty guardian look after my stables! Where do you summon me, Daphnis? If you want me to sing songs dignified by the buskin, blue and want me to sing of your conquered enemies, I shall challenge the bards of old with my industry and earn a goat, having devised songs while awake in the day, and in my sleep at night. Or if you want me to hymn your praises and sing of the pains you take, and of your noteworthy deeds, I shall quit the forest, and, making a nuisance of myself to all Helecon, I shall seek manly words, and tunes fit for such great things. If you give me your support, Phoebus, I shall not prove unworthy in being up to this task. But if my spirits and my efforts are still found wanting, you must realize I am the man for nobody has ever discovered a use. I am the man who, scorned, waste my idle hours far removed from the city and the world, in the rough land hard by the Orchil Hills of Strathearn, feeble of head and of hand because of my old age and fruitless toil. Nevertheless I gird myself and, now sufficiently strong and lively, I am the first to take up my ancestral arms. Under such auspices, I am willing to surmount the lofty Alps and snowy Caucasus, or you, Ismare, or Rhodope, or where the Gete and the Gelonian dwell, blue and the peaks of lofty Taurus, or to take up oars and attain to the Indus or the great streams of the Volga and, clad in armor, to fly though capive cities. Or, if you rather I ply the arts of peace and pursue gentle things, neither Rhadamanthus of Cnossus, or Cnossian Minos blue will rival me in justice, in the judgment of Crete or Lycia. Or, if you bid me be daring, and supply me with courage out of your kindness, stretching forth your hand from your throne (for Pallas does not so greatly despise these shepherds’ hearts), I shall not be called the least when it comes to giving good counsel. As far as I am concerned, you may give us Daphnis, either to guide us by his commands, or to sway our minds, or to anticipate deceit by his shrewdness, and mock it once it has been caught out. Thanks to my old-time virtue I shall suffice to set sail on this sea. But why, my humble mind, are you seeking out arts unbecoming to you? Let Italy boast of those, or the degenerate Tiber. Things thought incapable of being joined together will be joined, yet neither my pious wisdom nor my wise piety will ever desert me. The world, wherever it extends, will marvel, and seek the path of righteousness, having you as its champion.
spacerBut my ignorant ardor has carried me Lord knows where, casting of all restraint and limit. Come, sailor, furl your sails and cautiously sail along the shore of the unsure sea. Their countryside suits shepherds. And now, see, a goat has gone astray, this is my concern. Depart, you Muses.

LYC .

spacerAs far as I am concerned, Moeris, you should live a long life. For a long time may you be a honking goose thus making a racket for him, thus pleasing him. If thus you are a noisy goose and please him thus, you are worthily giving songs to great Phoebus. But if these be displeasing, then the throats of the very swans are hoarse, and perhaps their own songs are unpleasant for the Muses. Stay alive, that is enough. The sun is lowering its late fires.

spacerSo that it might better be understood what is said above about poems previously composed, it will perhaps not be inappropriate here to append some surviving ones, of whatever quality they may be. A certain birthday poem, which I wrote as a lad while studying philosphy at St. Andrews, has slipped out of my mind, save for these few verses in which I began to describe the time of the subject’s nativity. They have been inserted in the above eclogue, with one line removed and a few words altered. They were as follows:

spacerThe time when their delights held the wandering sun in Gemini. But after the golden-tressed Titan had made his way further on heaven’s lofty summit, the Gemini left behind him, shed down his golden light on bright Cancer, while the wild north wind was pent up in his Aeolean caves, when winds arose with a new whisper...

But I have forgotten some of what followed, which I began a few years later. The rest was not completed:

spacerThe English have their fleecy flocks and are rich in cattle &c. (= Lusus Poetici 16.1 - 74). Then Hume adds:

spacer Do you not see that Ness stubbornly rejects hard ice during winter chill, its example [is followed] by the Spey, the Deveron, the Dee, and soon both of the Esks...

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THE FOURTH ECLOGUE, CALLED MELIBOEUS, OR UNION

THE ARGUMENT

INCE it was reported that some folk were opposed to the union of these nations, pleading various reasons of no great moment, I imagined I would not displease men scarcely unfamiliar with the Muses if I would play with this thing while not departing from my rural guise and suggesting, after the manner of an eclogue, that this union is a business to be handled by other men, or elsewhere. Meliboeus, concerned about his cattle, meets with Menalcus, a stout man for forthright speech, and they arouse themselves for indulging in poetry, although of a kind men disdain. They touch upon what things are good, and how momentous union is for these goods; what stands in its way; how this should not be an obstacle; how necessary it is for uprooting hatreds, how hateful it is to to their enemies, and how it should foster our fellow-citizens by combining their wealth and joining them in kinship. It is something to be achieved by God, inspiring us with sincere and unsullied affection, with the worship of Himself, and therefore with genuine glory. And may He bring this to pass.

MELIBOEUS, MENALCUS

MEL.

spacerGreat Pales, blue is Menalcas still alive and breathing, but is not singlng, so that his shepherd’s pipes are wearisome toall the forest? Fetch him: if Apollo and the Muses are favorable, we shall sing here, so evil Momus blue may burst his guts.

MEN.

spacerBehold, he is with you, my sad, complaining friend. I come, Meliboeus, without delay. Either the forest and the satyrs will give my songs a hearing, or the wild mountains. Begin. Now the bulls themselves have come, that is sufficient.

MEL.

spacerFirst let Urania bring down great song from heaven’s summit, and drench it with nectar. She inhabits heaven. Should she chance to inhabit this earth, now heaven would be smiling, and golden peace would dwell on hearth.

MEN.

spacerCalliope should come next. What further great thing do you seek, you shepherds? There is nothing. Let Urania serve heaven, Calliope may rule our fields. Thus our soil grows sweet, thus great honor visits our fields, thus Plenty smiles with her full horn.

MEL.

spacerAfter Jupiter has returned Astraea to our exausted fields, blue together with her worship and the morals we have abandoned, “Go,” he said, “and join your sheepfolds together, you Britons. This is the glory owed you by your destiny.”

MEN.

spacer“Go,” he says, “and consecrate great Daphnis on the marble, blue and the bride joined to him in a proud marriage, and the boy the nymph bears for him in that proud marriage. These are the ones who will answer all your prayers.”

MEL.

spacerShe is fairer, and uniquely lovelier than all the girls, even if famous Amaryllis, living alongside the clear waters of the Thames, has conceived great pride in herself, calling Phyllis swarthy and having no fear of Nemesis or the wrath of Daphnis.

MEN.

spacerBut Phyllis, dark as she may be, loves herself and is sturdy enough for her own purposes, nor has she any regret for her sons or her name. But, Daphnis, if you and the glory of a united sheepfold summon her, she will no longer remember either her sons or her name.

MEL.

spacerAmaryllis has heard him, and, thinking it unworthy of herself to be placed in this arrangment, she has fled. Looking at herself in the mirror once more, she says, “Alas, do you compel me to lose myself and my name? Oh cease, good Daphnis. Let not your Phyllis vie with my honor.”

MEN.

spacerTityrus, and you, huge Alcon, whether you are striving to be the more distinguished with your fists or to work up a sweat running on your grassy field of competition, and you others, men to whom Greece can prefer none of her own, nor whom old Amaryllis can match with any of her children, do you see these things?

MEL.

spacerWhere’s Ocnus, and where’s divine Ias, Phyllis-born men who are second only to Daphnis when it comes to competing in song or with the reed? Is Amaryllis scorning you thus? But your divine virtue consecrates you and makes you great men, worthy of great Olympus.

MEN.

spacerI saw her when she was wooing these men she now disdains, blue and was taking the lead in speaking to Phyllis, trying to sway her with sweet words. I saw her when she was vowing gifts with many a word, and assaulting the stars with prayers which were, perhaps, genuine.

MEL.

spacerWhy should we admire her wealth, or praise her idle luxury? Why should we admire the glory of her beauty, destined to perish, or her neatly-coifed hair. Amaryllis, you are pretty, but you must learn to scorn vain things. Often high virtue lies concealed behind a shaggy face.

MEN.

spacerBut she’s not so ugly or so discolored that you can’t acknowledge she’s your sister. If you saw her sons alongside the waters of the Rhine, you’d swear they were your own: they are of equal appearance and vigor, and when they are among themselves they greet each other in a language familiar to you.

MEL.

spacerFather Tweed, the the Carron, and the great Humber once bore witness, hearing great groans, and, oh, we have toiled enough in distant places. Oh, we have seen enough of slaughter, and we have made our rivers flow with blood.

MEN.

spacerBind adamantine bonds with a hundred knots, you shepherds, don’t think anything is too much, don’t be over-trusting, so that we need stand no more watches at our sheepfolds, and horrid strife will not provoke our competing bulls into savage combats.

MEL.

spacerOh evil malice, hostile to good endeavors, may Jupiter use his lightning to thrust you back beneath your ancestral Orcus. Whether you come from the Tajo or the Tiber, or whether the Don has sent you, I scarcely think you are a child whelped in our world.

MEN.

spacerStrew our fields with ashes, strew them throughout Strathearn, scatter moly, blue and the holy waters of heaven, lest poisons of Libya, or those of Circe or the Styx harm us. May this country serve as the death of all those toxins.

MEL.

spacerDepart, Terminus, blue what business have you here? You see our pastures are held in common. Let no Phyllis fence in her fields, nor any Amaryllis. Let the both of them acknowledge both these and those to be hers, and let neither take the trouble to distinguish her own sons.

MEN.

spacerSweet Hymen blue (none readier to join mortal hearts with enduring bonds), bind together our minds, mix our races and our future progeny, and let both nymphs know that we are their true children.

MEL.

spacerBe present, Pan, and carefully enclose our entire sheepfold, safe from catastophes, with the goats penned in. You yourself collect the flocks and in your gentleness inspire them with love, so that concord may dwell in our pens.

MEN.

spacerYou too must worship Daphnis with the chaste rites of youth, with incense and a pinch of salt. Let Tityrus himself lay his hand on the altar, both praying for and offering up true honors. Thus the greatest glory will arise for our undertakings.

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1. A TRANSLATION OF THE VERNACULAR POEM BY HIS RIGHT SERENE MAJESTY ABOUT THE SHIPWRECK OF THE SPANIARDS IN THE YEAR 1588 blue

The nations banded gainst the Lord of might
Prepar'd a force, and set them to the way:
Mars drest himselfe in such an awfull plight,
The like whereof was never seene they say:
They forward came in monstrous aray,
Both Sea and land beset us every where:
Bragges threatned us a ruinous decay,
What came of that? the issue did declare.
The windes began to tosse them here and there,
The Seas begun in foming waves to swell:
The number that escap'd, it fell them faire:
The rest were swallowed vp in gulfes of hell:
spacerBut how were all these things miraculous done?
spacerGod laught at them out of his heavenly throne.

2. APPENDIX

spacerIf the Lord laughs at impious undertakings, and likewise favorably smiles and lends His presence to pious ones, why does blind impiety boast of its deceits and crimes? This is as foolish as it is wise to be pious.

3. TO THE SAME RIGHT SERENE KING

spacerSince you decorate your crown with the Muses, and the Muses with your crown, you surpass the bevies of both scepter-bearers and Aonians. blue And since you also add piety to your scepter and your Camaenae, how greater your piety is than your scepter and your genius! Continue to act thus: thus you should heap up genuine praise and glory, James, and mount up to new titles. Thus throughout the days of your life, with your pious scepter and quill may you increase the Lord’s praises, and He yours. When you are sated with your years and your praises, and this earth and the pallid confinement of your enchained soul have begun to weary you, there is no surer route to the heavenly realms, the only trophies which exceed your prayers. Here too He who granted you your genius, your scepters, and this pious mind of yours will give you rewards worthy of that mind.

4. TO THE SAME, ON THE SAME SUBJECT

spacerYou are not blessed James, by your long line of royal forebears, the scepter you have been bequathed by all those ancesters, nor by your crop of genius, that abundant harvest of yours, thanks to which your honor rises above your ancestors and your scepter. You are blessed by that piety which makes your holy mouth to open, and consecrates your genius and your scepter to their Author. Continue, king, by this means to bless yourself and your reign above your forebears and the perishable realms of this world. That God Whom you acknowledge as King of Kings and ruler of all the things which land and sea embrace in their boundless embrace, to Him you must entrust yourself and that which is yours, and in security you may disdain the threats of land, sea, and Hell. On your behalf He will arm the dry land, the mad waters of the ocean, the air, and fiery heaven. Why, proud Rome, do you vainly threaten schemes and open warfare, with your fellow-conspirator the Tajo? With God as our commander, you will fear a reversal of your fate, Spain, and with Him as our commander, you Tiber, you will mourn for your purple-clad Fathers. The Scotsman is not inferior to the Sassenach, nor James to Fergus: blue neither our hopes nor our fate will suffer a downfall. Oh would that this would provide work for the Muses! In you there is broad scope for my love. This is the summit and culmination for your praise.

5. TO THE SAME, WHEN HE WAS PREPARING AN EXPEDITION TO THE NORTHERN PARTS OF HIS KINGDOM AND A NEW RUMOR AROSE ABOUT THE APPROACH OF A SPANISH FLEET blue

spacerCome, James, fill your mind with great virtues and banish fearful dread from your stout heart. Where the weight of affairs presses, there you must strive and dare oppose it with your God-filled heart. Am I mistaken, or is God thus providing a great source of honor and glory for Himself, and for you? Here is something you can loudly sing of once more: blue how a powerful enemy is baffled in his undertakings, and that he has taken up arms with empty threats. The hand of Jehovah is not yet enfeebled, either for the sinking of ships or the hurling of lightning against serried ranks. Nor are we degenerate in war, although we can endure the bonds of peace and the due bridle of laws. Whoever is our enemy will discover that we scarcely fear arms, although we dread sin and God on high.

6. TO THE SAME, CONCERNING WILLIAM FULLER’S VERNACULAR EPIGRAM ON THE NAVAL BATTLE AGAINST TURKS FOUGHT UNDER THE COMMAND OF JOHN OF AUSTRIA, ENTITLED LEPANTO blue

spacerWhat land is sufficiently large to contain the proclamations of your glory, oh king, oh James, king of kings, you splendid thing? Where Phoebus sinks, or where he rises with his eastern beams, or where the cold torments both the poles? Wherever it extends, the land is too small, insufficient to contain all the trophies of your triumphs and good deeds. Caesar, you great ruler over a conquered world and city, hold your silence about your fine deeds and words. Yield to the toga and the weapon, to the laurels of Phoebus and Gradivus: he has stolen both Gradivus blue and Phoebus from you. Unless my hope and my mind deceive me, he is both an actor and an author: he will wage wars as well as he sings of them, unless I am vainly trusting he will prove fatal to the Parthians and the Turkish realms, blue and to your wolves, impious Rome. Conquered, learn how to yield your hand. Why struggle? Just as the sun gets the best of the stars, so he will get the best of your praises.

7. TO THE KING

spacerYou who wield the greatest reins of the British scepter, greatest king, greatest ornament to our great world, now the seventh moon witnesses me alongside the Thames, making my thankless journeys back and forth, blue while I fill all the earth with your praise and teach the rocks to echo your name, and earnestly summon our nations to join in a lasting league, a league worthy of your genius. Perhaps your mind is hatching some greater work, and the god of Delos blue himself is inspiring you with verses from his cave. Or, if you are unconcerned about verse, with the Muses banished, and are now wearied of their Aonian blue band, then Apollo himself is tired of his work, and I am likewise wearied of that Aonian band. Summon me to anything, and it is certain that no mind will obey you with more devotion. Or if I am not worth that much, and neither are my songs, and I am not thought useful for any labor at all, I shall cease. Let me only be permitted to kiss your sacred hand. This would be enough, this would be a great reward for my talent.

8. TO THE SAME

spacerTake these poems, once the product of my midnight effort, small as they are, and which did not dare enter into your titles of honor. Nevertheless, these are poems rising up to praise you: have a glance, here too you have a place where you are being celebrated. I admit this is old, for my love for you is old. I admit it is something you own already, for you own all that the world possesses. Unless it is permissible to give that which is old, that which you already own, perhaps nobody will give you gifts. There’s nothing new under the sun. blue We are reborn in our own children, and in ourselves our ancestors are reborn.

Finis