COMMENTARY NOTES

spacer1 Here “Hesperian”is used for “Spanish,” as in Milton, In Quintum Novembris 102, Et memor Hesperiae disjectam ulciscere classem.

spacerpaginas aliquot praetermittens The pages skipped would have contained a scene in which Jupiter convened a council of the gods and delivereda harangue in which he expressed his grievance against the Christian religion and England (besides similar councils in works enumerated in the Introduction, one might compare the council in John Donne’s Ignatius His Conclave).

spacer23 Cf. Grattius Faliscus, Cynegeticon 227, spatiis qualis permissa Lechaeis / Thessalium quadriga decus; permissum: “ready to start,”as at Silius Italicus, Punica I.316, permissum ventis abscondit in aera telum.

spacer26 {36]Cf. the description of the hellish horses at Milton, In Quintum Novembris 70 - 74:

Praecipitesque impellit equos simulante flagello:
Captum oculis Typhlonta, Melanchaetemque ferocem,
Atque Acherontaeo prognatam patre Siopem
Torpidam, et hirsutis horrentem Phirca capillis.

spacer47 (English) Here the translator confusingly uses “Hesperian” to mean “Italian” rather than “Spanish” (the same problem does not exist in the original Latin).

spacer57ff. [82ff.] The “Hesperian realms” are Spain and Italy; Solyma is Jerusalem, but how Jerusalem obeys Philip is unclear. Almany is Germany.

spacer61 Cf. Milton’s Elegia tertia, Anno aetatis 12, Flevit et amissos Belgia tota duces.

spacer69f. [99f.] The allusion is to Pius V’s excommunication of Elizabeth in 1570, announced in a bull which absolved her subjects of their allegiance to her.

spacer74 Cf. Aeneid IV.570, sic fatus nocti se immiscuit atrae.

spacer98 [141] Cf. Paradise Lost I.612 - 15:

As when Heavens Fire
Hath scath’d the Forrest Oaks, or Mountain Pines,
With singed top thir stately growth though bare

Stands on the blasted Heath.

spacer110 Cf. Aeneid II.599.

spacer133 [186] Cf. the iron scepters in Psalm 2:9 and Paradise Lost II.327.

spacer140 Cf. ib. IV.181, monstrum horrendum, ingens, cui quot sunt corpore plumae.

spacer141 [195] The Chalybes were a legendary tribe on the south coast of the Black Sea, noted for iron work. First mentioned by Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 715f., as wild and hostile to strangers.

spacer156 Cf. ib. VI.204, discolor unde auri per ramos aura refulsit (aura = “glow”).

spacer157 [228] Cf. Lucretius V.282, largifluum fontem scatere atque erumpere lumen. This image of dawn is less mythological than the parallel passage in Milton’s In Quintum Novembris

spacer166ff. [231ff.] Compare the swan simile at Aeneid VII.698 - 701.

spacer240 (English) “Cates” = foodstuffs.

spacer180ff. [257ff.] The following passage is so heavily mythologized that a reader may be pardoned for momentarily failing to realize that the poet is describing a specific historical event. Having passed through the Channel without achieving anything in particular, the Armada anchored off Calais so that future movements could be planned and also in the hope that it would be joined by the forces of the Duke of Parma coming from the Netherlands. During the night of June 28 the English sent in fireships against the densely-packed Spanish fleet, causing terrific panic and confusion. After that night of terror, the Armada never fully regained its cohesion as a military force.

spacer193ff. [276ff.] Compare the wolf simile at Aeneid IX.59 - 64.

spacer213 [307] According to Pliny, Natural History VIII.54, bear cubs are born shapeless and licked into shape by their mothers. But, although the translator rendered ursique inforemes as “unlicked bears.” there is nothing particularly dire or dreadful about newborn cubs. Read “shaggy bears.”

spacer223 For horrendum attollit risum cf. ib. III.673.

spacer228 For this line cf. ib. IV.180.

spacer312 (English) “Lemures” Anglicizes a Latin word for “ghosts,” here a two-syllable word.

spacer334 (English) “Cronian” (“northern,” “Arctic”) comes from Paradise Lost X.290; the word is not in the Latin—an example of tendentious translation.

spacer233 [351] For iron wings Cf. Faerie Queen II.vii.23.

spacer243 [367] At Paradise Lost VI.482 - 491 Satan invents gunpowder.

spacer375 (English) Ammiral = “admiral” in its archaic sense “flagship.” The Latin merely has aplustria (“sterns,” a synonym for puppes).