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THE ARRAIGNMENT OF HENRY GARNET
SUPERIOUR OF THE JESUITS IN ENGLAND
ON FRIDAY THE 28. DAY OF MARCH 1606, AT GUILDHALL IN THE CITIE OF LONDON,
BEFORE THE LORDS COMMISSIONERS THERE PRESENT
SIR LEONARD HOLIDAY LORD MAIOR
THE EARLE OF NOTTINGHAM
THE EARLE OF SUFFOLKE
THE EARLE OF WORCESTER
THE EARLE OF NORTHAMPTON
THE EARLE OF SALISBURY
THE LORD CHIEFE JUSTICE OF ENGLAND
THE LORD CHIEF BARON OF TH’ EXCHEQUER
SIR CHRISTOPHER YELVERTON KNIGHT, ONE OF HIS MAJESTIES JUSTICES OF THE KINGS BENCH
The substance and effect of the inditement of Henry Garnet Superiour of the Jesuites in England appeareth before in the relation of the former arraignment, and therefore unnecessary to be repeated againe. Which inditement was summarily and effectually repeated by Sir John Coke his Majesties Sergeant at Lawe, in this manner.
HIS person and prisoner here at the barre, this place, and this present occasion and action doe prove that true, which the Author of all trueth hath told us, that nihil est occultum quod non manifestebatur, et nihil est secretum quod non revelabitur et in palam veniet, there is nothing hid that shall not be manifest, there is nothing secret that shall not be reveiled and come in publique, and that God by whom kings doe raigne consilium pravorum dissipat, doeth scatter and bring to nought the counsell of the wicked.
That he spake with feare and trembling, and with horror and amazednesse, against that rotten roote of that hideous and hatefull tree of treason, and of that detestable and unheard of wickednes, he did crave pardon for in affirming that no flesh could mention it without astonishment.
He shewed that Henry Garnet of the profession of the Jesuits, otherwise Walley, otherwise Darcy, otherwise Roberts, otherwise Farmer, otherwise Philips (for by all those names he called himselfe) stood indicted of the most barbarous and damnable treasons, the like whereof were never heard of. That hee was a man multorum nominum but not boni nominis, of many names, as appeared by the indictment, but of no good name, adorned by God with many gifts and graces, if the grace of God had bene joyned with them, but, that wanting, quanto ornatior [the more endowed] in other gifts, tanto nequior [the more vicious].
That this Garnet (His Majestie summoning his Parliament to be holden at Westminster the 19. of March in the first yeere of his reigne, and by divers prorogations continuing it til the third of October last) together with Catesby lately slaine in open rebellion, and with Oswald Tesmond a Jesuit, otherwise Oswald Greenwell, as a false traitor against the most mighty and most renowned King our soveraigne, Lord King James, the 9. of June last traiterously did conspire and compasse:
To depose the King and to deprive him of his government.
To destroy and kill the King and the noble Prince Henry his eldest sonne, such a King and such a Prince, such a sonne of such a father, whose vertues are rather with amazed silence to be wondred at, then able by any speech to be expressed.
To stirre sedition and slaughter throughout the kingdome.
To subvert the true religion of God and whole government of the kingdome.
To overthrowe the whole state of the Commonwealth.
The manner how to performe these horrible treasons, the serjeant sayd, horreo dicere, his lips did tremble to speake it, but his heart praised God for his mightie deliverance. The practise so inhumane, so barbarous, so damnable, so detestable, as the like was never read or heard of, nor ever entred into the heart of the most wicked man to imagine. And here he said he could not but mention that religious observation so religiously observed by His religious Majestie, wishing it were ingraven in letters of gold in the hearts of all his people, The more hellish the imagination, the more divine the preservation.
This Garnet together with Catesby and Tesmond had speech and conference together of these treasons, and concluded most traiterously and devilishly.
That Catesby, Winter, Fawlks with many other traitours lately attainted of high treason would blow up with gunpowder in the Parliament house the King, the Prince, the Lords Spirituall and Temporall, the judges of the realme, the knights, citizens and burgesses, and many other subjects and servants of the King assembled in Parliament at one blow traiterously and devilishly to destroy them all, and piece meale to teare them in sunder, without respect of majesty, dignity, degree, age or place.
And for that purpose great quantitie of gunpowder was traiterously and secretly placed, and hid by these conspirators under the Parliament house.
This being the substance and effect of the indictment, Garnet did plead Not Guilty to it, and a very discreet and substantiall jurie, with allowance of challenges unto the prisoner, were sworn at the barre for the triall of him.
To whome the Serjeant shewed that they should have evidences to prove him guiltie, that should be luce clariores [clearer than light], that every men might read them running.
That they should have testimonia rerum and loquentia signa, witnesses and testimonies of the things themselves.
That every one may say unto him, serve nequam, thou wicked subject, thou wicked servant, ex ore tuo te iudico, of thine owne mouth I judge thee, of thine owne mouth I condemn thee.
And this shall bee made so manifest by him that best can do it, as shall stop the mouth of all contradiction.
VI. THE EFFECT OF THAT WHICH SIR EDWARD COKE KNIGHT, HIS MAJESTIES ATTOURNEY GENERALL, SAID AT THE ARRAIGNEMENT OF HENRY GARNET, SUPERIOUR OF THE JESUITES IN ENGLAND, AS NEERE TO HIS OWN WORDS AS THE SAME COULD BE TAKEN
OUR Lordships may perceive by the parts of the indictment which have beene succinctly opened, that this is but a latter act of that heavy and wofull tragedy which is commonly called the Powder-Treason, wherein some have already plaied their parts, and according to their demerits suffered condigne punishment and paines of death. We are now to proceed against this prisoner for the same treason, in which respect the necessary repetition of some thinges before spoken shall at the least seeme tollerable for that nunquam nimis dicitur quod nunquam satis dicitur, it is never said too often, that can never bee said enough. Nay, it might be thought justifiable to repeate in this case, for that in respect to the confluence and accesse of people at the former arraignment, many could not heare at that time. And yet because I feare it would be tedious, for that most of all my Lordes Commissioners, and of this honourable and great assembly, were present at the arraignement. And for that I am now to deale with a man of an other qualitie, I will only touch, and that very little, of the former discourse or evidence, and that little also shall be mingled with such new matter as shall be worth the hearing, as being indeed of waight and moment, and all this with very great brevitie.
But before I further proceede to the opening of this so great a cause, I hold it fit and necessary to give satisfaction to two divers and adverse sorts of men, who according to the divers affections of their hearts have divined and conjectured diversly of the cause of the procrastination and delay of proceeding especially against this person, the matter wherewith he stands charged being so transcendent and exorbitant as it is. The first sort of these out of their heartie love and loyaltie to their naturall liege lord and King, and to their deare countrey, and this State have feared the issue of this delay, least that others might bee animated by such protraction of judgement to perpetrate the like. For they say (and it is most true), quia non profertur cito contra malos sententia, absque timore ullo filii hominum perpetrant mala, because speedie justice is not executed against wicked men, the people without all feare commit wickednes. And pittie it were that these good men should not be satisfied. The other sort are of those, who in respect no greater expedition hath bin used against this prisoner at the bar, fal to excusing of him, as gathering these presumptions and conjectures. First, that if hee or any of the Jesuites had indeed bin justly to be touched with this most damnable and damned treason, surely they should have been brought forth and tried before this time. Secondly, that there was a bill exhibited in Parliament concerning this treason and this traitor, but that it was deferred and proceeded not for want of just and sufficient proofes. Nay, thirdly there was a particular apologie spread abroad for this man, and an other generall for all Jesuites and priests, together with this imputation, that King-killing and Queen-killing was not indeed a doctrine of theirs, but onely a fiction and pollicie of our State, thereby to make the Popish religion to be despised and in disgrace. Now for these men, pittie it were that the eye of their understanding should not bee inlightened and cleered, that so being by demonstrative and luculent proofes convinced, they may bee to their prince and countrey truely converted. First therefore concerning the delay (though it be true, quod flagellatur in corde, qui laudatur in ore [what torments them in their hearts though they praise it with their mouths]) yet must I remember the great paines of my Lords the Commissioners of His Majesties Privie Counsell in this cause for Garnet, being first examined upon the 13. of the last moneth, hath sithence beene againe examined and interrogated above 20 severall times, which lasted unto the 26. of March within 2 daies of this arraignement. Touching the bill in Parliament, it was indeed exhibited before Garnet was apprehended, but His Majesties gracious pleasure was that, albeit this treason be without all president and example, yet they should quietly and equally be indicted, arraigned, publickely heard, and proceeded withall in a moderate, ordinarie, and just course of law. Concerning their apologies and the fictions of State (as they terme them) answere shalbe made by Gods grace in the proper place, when I come to lay open the plots and practises of the Jesuits to the satisfaction of all this honourable and great assembly. But first I have an humble petition to present to your Lordships and the rest of this grave auditorie for my selfe, in respect that I am necessarily to name great princes, yet with protestation and caution, and no blot is intended to be laid upon any of them. I know that there is lex in sermone tenenda, a law and rule to be observed in speaking, especially in this kinde, and that kings and great princes, and the mighty men of this earth are to be reverently and respectfully dealt withall. And therefore I humbly recommend unto you these considerations concerning this point of mentioning forreine States. First, that the kingdomes were at those times in open enmitie and hostilitie, and that might bee honourable at one time was not so at an other, so that hostile actions were then justifiable and honourable, as being in times of hostilitie and warre. Secondly, in these thinges it is not the Kings Atturney that speakes, but Garnet the Jesuit. As also that it proceedeth from an inevitable necessitie, for that the examinations aswell of this, as of the rest of the traitors, cannot otherwise bee opened and urged against them, so is the mention of great men by the impudencie of these wicked traitors woven into their confessions, as they cannot be severed.
And with this comfort I conclude the preface, that I hope in God this dayes worke, in the judgement of so many as shal be attentive and well disposed, shall tend to the glory of Almighty God, the honour of our religion, the safety of his most excellent Majestie and his royall issue, and the securitie of the common wealth.
For memorie and methode, all that I shall speake may bee contracted to two generall heads. First, I will consider the offences, together with certaine circumstances,
Precedent before the offence.
Concurrent with the offence.
Subsequent after the offence
Secondly I will lay downe some observations concerning the same.
For the proper name of this offence, because I must speake of severall treasons, for distinction and separation of this from the other, I will name it the Jesuites treason, as belonging them to ex congruo et condigno, they were the proprietaries, plotters, and procurers of it, and in such crimes plus peccat author quam actor, the author or procurer offendeth more then the actor or executor, as may appeare by Gods owne judgement given against the first sinne in Paradise, where the serpent had three punishments inflicted upon him, as the original plotter; the woman two, being as the mediate procurer; and Adam but one, as the partie seduced.
Circumstances precedent and subsequent so termed here, are indeed in their proper natures all high treasons, but yet in respect of the magnitude, nay monstrousnes of this treason, may comparatively without any discountenance to them in this case be used as circumstances. And because I am to deale with the Superiour of the Jesuites, I will onely touch such treasons as have bin plotted and wrought by the Jesuites, of whom this man was Superiour, and those treasons also sithens this Garnet his comming into England, whereof hee may truely say, et quorum pars magni fui [and of which things I had a great part].
The comming of this Garnet into England (which very act was a treason) was about 20 yeeres past, viz. in July 1586 in the xviij yeere of the raigne of the late Queene of famous and blessed memorie, whereas the yere before, namely the 27. yere of Elizabeth, there was a statute made whereby it was treason for anie who was made a Romish priest by anie authoritie from the See of Rome, sithens the first yere of her raigne, to come into her dominions. Which statute the Romanists calumniate as a bloody, cruell, unjust, and a new upstart lawe, and abuse that place of our Saviour, O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the Prophets, and stonest them that are sent unto thee etc. But indeed it is both mild, mercifull and just, and grounded upon the ancient fundamentall lawes of England. For (as hath already in the former arraignements bene touched) before the Bull of impious Pius Quintus in the 11. yeere of the Queene, wherein Her Majestie was excommunicated and deposed, and all they accursed who should yeeld any obedience unto her etc., there were no Recusants in England, all came to church (howsoever Popishly inclined, or perswaded in most points) to the same divine service we now use. But there upon they refused to assemble in our churches or joyne with us in publike service, not for conscience of any thing there done against which they might justly except out of the word of God, but because the Pope had excommunicated and deposed Her Majestie, and cursed those who should obey her. And so upon this Bull ensued open rebellion in the North, and many garboiles. But see the event. Now most miserable in respect of this Bull was the state of Romish Recusants, for either they must be hanged for treason in resisting their lawfull soveraigne, or cursed for yeelding the due obedience unto Her Majestie, and therefore of this Pope it was sayd by some of his owne favorites that hee was homo pius et doctus, sed nimis credulus, a holy and a learned man, but over credulous, for that he was informed and beleeved that the strength of the Catholiques in England was such as was able to have resisted the Queene. But when the Bull was found to take such an effect, then was there a dispensation given, both by Pius Quintus himselfe and Gregorie the 13. that all Catholikes here might shew their outward obedience to the Queene ad redimendam vexationem et ad ostentendam externam obedientiam, but with these cautions and limitations, 1. rebus sic stantibus, things so standing as they did; 2. donec publica bullae executio fieri posset, that is to say, untill they were able to give the Queene a mate, that the publike execution of the said Bull might take place. And all this was confessed by Garnet under his owne hand, and now againe openly confessed at the barre.
In the 20. yeere of Queene Elizabeth came Campion the Jesuit and many others of his profession with him, purposely to make a partie in England for the Catholike cause, to the end that the Bull of Pius Quintus might bee put in execution. And though all this while Recusancie, being grounded upon such a disloyall cause, were a very dangerous and disloyall thing, yet was there now lawe made in that behalfe until the 23. yeere of Her Majesties raigne, and that also imposing onely a mulcte or penaltie upon it, until conformitie were offered and shewed. Anno 26. Elizabethae came Parry with a resolution from Cardinall de Como and others, that it was lawfull to kill Her Majestie, as being excommunicated and deposed. Whereupon Her Majestie entring into consultation how (together with her safetie and the protection of her subjects) she might avoyd the imminent dangers, and yet draw no blood from these priests and Jesuits, found out this moderate and milde course as the best meanes to prohibite their comming at all into her land, there never being any king who would endure, or not execute any such persons, within their dominions, as should deny him to be lawfull king, or goe about to withdraw his subjects from his allegiance, or incite them to resist or rebell against him. Nay the bringing of a Bull by a subject of this realme against another, in the time of Edward the First, was adjudged treason. But by the way, for that Garnet hath exclaimed, saying Shew us where was your Church before Luther, designe the place, name the persons and so forth, it is answered by a comparison with a wedge of pure gold, which coming into the hands of impostors is by their sophistications and mixtures, for gaine and worldly respects, increased and augmented into a huge body and masse, and retaining still an outward faire shew and tincture of gold. Where is now the pure gold? saith one, Shew me the place. I answer, in that masse, but for the extracting thereof and purifying it from drosse, that must bee done by the art of the workeman, and the triall of the touchstone. So the true religion and service of Almightie God, being for humane respects and worldly pompe mixed and overladen with a number of superstitions, ceremonies and inventions of Man, yet ever had God His true Church holding his trueth, which hath bene by skilfull workemen with the touchstone of the Word of God refined and separate from the drosse of Man’s inventions.
But to proceed. In the 28. yeere of Queene Elizabeth, being the yeere of our Lord 86, in June came Garnet into England, breaking through the wall of treason, being in trueth totus compositus ex proditione [wholly composed of treason]. And this was at that time when the Great Armado of Spaine, which the Pope blessed and christened by the name of the invincible navy, was, by the instigation of that high priest of Rome, preparing and collecting together of many parcels, out of divers parts, where they could be bought, or hired, or borrowed, and therefore may be called a compounded navie, having in it 158 great ships. The purveyors and forerunners of this navie and invasion were the Jesuites, and Garnet among them being a traitor, even in his very entrance and footing in the land. But the Queene with her owne ships and her owne subjects did beat this Armado, God Himselfe (whose cause indeede it was) fighting for us against them, by fire, and sea and windes, and rockes, and tempests, scattering all, and destroying most of them. For offenso creatore offenditur omnis creature, the Creator being offended, every creature is readily armed to revenge his quarrell, in which respect hee is called the Lord of Hostes. So that of 158, scarse 40 of their ships returned to their bar of their owne haven, and, as is reported, most of them also perished, in so much that in this respect we may say of Queene Elizabeth, as the poet writeth of the Christian Emperour,
O nimium dilecta Deo, cui militat aether,
Et coniurati veniunt ad classica venti.
Observe here, that about the time of this invasion, there being in Spaine met in consultation about that businesse the Cardinall of Austria, the Duke of Medina, Count Fuentes, two Irish bishops, with sundry militarie men, and amongst others Winslade an English man, the Irish bishops perceiving that they expected a partie of Catholikes in England, resolved that true it was that it was not possible to doe any good here in England, unlesse there were a partie of Catholikes made before hand. But such, said they, was the policie of England, as that could never be effected. For if any suspition or feare arose, the Catholikes should quickly bee either shut up or quite cut off. Oh faith, an old souldier there present, hoc facit pro nobis, that makes for us. For by that meanes their soules shall goe to heaven for their religion, their bodies to the earth for their treason, and their lands and goods to us as conquerours. And this was that indeede they principally aymed at. Note that sithence the Jesuites set foote in this land, there never passed foure yeeres without a most pestilent and pernicious treason tending to the subversion of the whole State. After that hostile invasion in 88 the Jesuites fell againe to secret and treasonable practises. For then, in the yeere 92, came Patricke Cullen, who was incited by Sir William Stanly, Hugh Owen, Jacques Fraunces, and Holt the Jesuite, and resolved by the said Holt to kill the Queene, to which purpose he received absolution, and then the Sacrament at the hands of the said Jesuite, together with this ghostly counsell, that it was both lawfull and meritorious to kill her. Nay, said Jacques, that base laundresse son (who was a continuall practiser both with this Cullen and others to destroy Her Majestie), the State of England is and will be so setled, that unlesse Mistris Elizabeth be suddenly taken away, all the Devils in Hell will not be able to prevaile against it, or shake it.
Now Cullens treason was accompanied with a booke called Philopater, written for the abetting and warranting of such a devilish acte in generall by Creswell the Legier Jesuite in Spaine, under the name of Philopater. Anno 94 came Williams and Yorke to the same end, viz. to kill the Queene, being wrong to undertake so vile and detestable a facte by Father Holt the Jesuite and other his complices. And thereupon the said Williams and Yorke in the Jesuites Colledge received the Sacrament together of Father Holt and other Jesuites, to execute the same. And that treason likewise was accompanied by a booke written by the Legier Jesuite and Rector at Rome, Parsons, under the name of Doleman, concerning titles, or rather tittles, a lewde and a lying book, ful of falshood, forgerey and malediction. Anno 97 came Squire from Spaine to poyson Her Majestie, incited, directed, and warranted by Walpole a Jesuite then residing there, at whose hands likewise after absolution he received the Sacrament, aswell to put to the practise in execution as to keepe it secret. All these treasons were freely and voluntarily confessed by the parties themselves under their owne hands, and yet remaine extant to be seene.
In the yeere 1601, when practises failed, then was force againe attempted, for then (as in the former arraignement hath beene declared) was Thomas Winter imployed to the King of Spaine, together with Tesmond the Jesuite, by this Garnet, who wrote his letters to Arthur alias Joseph Creswell (the only man whom I have heard of to change his Christian name), the Legier Jesuite in Spaine, for the furtherance of that negotiation, which as, as hath bene said, to offer the services of the English Catholikes to the King, and to deale further concerning an invasion, with promise from the Catholiques heere of forces both of men and horses to bee in a readinesse to joyne with him. This negotiation by the meanes of Creswell, to whom Garnet wrote, tooke such effect that, the two kingdomes standing then in hostilitie, the proposition of the English Romish Catholiques was accepted and intertained. An armie to invade (as hath bene specified in the former arraignement) promised, and 100000 crownes to bee distributed amongst Romanists and discontented persons making of a partie in England, and for the furtherance of the said service granted. In the meane time the King earnestly desired that, if the Queene of England should happen to die, he might receive present and certaine advertisement thereof.
Now this treason was accompanied with the Popes own writing. For now doeth the Holy Father cause to be sent hither to Garnet to briefes or Buls, one to the clergie, and an other to the laietie, wherein observe the title, the matter, the time. The title of the one was Dilectis filiis, principibus et nobilibus Catholicis salutem et apostolicam benedictionem, that is, To our beloved sonnes the nobles and gentlement of England which are Catholiques, greeting, and Apostolicall benediction. The title of the other was Dilectis filiis, archipersbytero, et reliquo clero Anglicano, To our beloved sonnes, the archpriest, and the rest of the Catholique Clergie. The matter was that, after the death of Her Majesty, whether by course of nature or otherwise, whosoever should lay claime or title to the crowne of England, though never so directly and neerly interessed therein by descent and blood royall, yet unlesse hee were such an one as would not onely tolerate the Catholique (Romish) religion, but by all his best endeavours and force promote it, and according to the ancient custome would by a solemne and sacred othe religiously promise and undertake to performe the same, they should admit or receive none to be King of England. His words are these, Quantumcunque propinquitate sanguinis niterentur, nisi eiusmodi essent qui fidem Catholicam non modo tolerarent, sed omni ope et studio promoverent, et more maiorum iureiurando se id praestituros susciperent, etc.
As for King James (at whome the Pope aimed), he hath indeed both propinquitatem and antiquitatem regalis sanguinis, propinquitie and antiquitie of blood royall for his just claime and title to this crowne both before and since the Conquest. To insist upon the declaration and deduction of this point, and passe along through a series and course of so many ages and centuries, as it would be overlong in this place, so further I might seeme as it were to guild gold, onely in a word, His Majesty is lineally descended from Margaret the Saint, daughter of Edward sonne of King Edmund grandchild of great Edgar the Britaine monarch. Which Margaret, sole heire of the English Saxon King, was maried to Malcome King of Scotland, who by her had issue David the Holy their King, from whom that race royall at this day is deduced, and Maud the Good, wife of the first and learned Henry King of England, from whom His Majesty directly and lineally proceedeth, and of whome a poet of that time wrote,
Nec decor effecit fragilem, nec sceptra superbam,
Sola potens humilis, sola pudica decens.
[Neither her beauty made her fragile, nor her scepter arrogant. She only was humble though mighty, she only was chaste and modest.]
And lastly His Majesty commeth of Margaret also the eldest daughter of Henry the 7. who was descended of that famous union of those two faire roses, the white and redde, Yorke and Lancaster, the effecting of which union cost the effusion of so much English blood, over and besides fourescore or thereabouts of the blood royall. But a more famous union is by the goodnesse of the Almightie perfected in His Majesties person of divers lions, two famous, ancient and renowned kingdomes, not onely without blood or any opposition, but with such an univerall acclamation and applause of all sorts and degrees (as it were with one voice) as never was seen or read of. And therefore, most excellent King, for to him I will now speake,
Cum triplici fulvum coniunge leone leonem,
Ut varias atavus iunxerat ante rosas,
Maius opus varios sine pugna unire leones,
Sanguine quam varias consociasse rosas.
[Join the tawny lion to the triple lion, as your ancestor previously has joined the different roses. It is a greater task to unite different lions without a war, than it was to link the different roses with bloodshed.]
These foure noble and magnanimous lyons, so firmely and individuall united, are able without any difficultie or great labour to subdue and overthrow all the letters and Bulles (and their calfes also) that have beene, or can be sent into England.
Now for the time, observe that these Buls or briefes came upon the aforesaid negociation of Thomas Winter into Spaine, at what time an army should shortly after have bin sent to invade the land, and this was to bee put in execution quandocunque contingeret miseram illam foeminam ex hac vita excedere, whenever it should happen that that miserable woman (for so it pleased the high priest of Rome to call great Queene Elizabeth) should depart this life. Was Queene Elizabeth miserable? It is said that miseria constat ex duobus contrariis, scilicet copia et inopia, ex copia tribulationis et inopia consolationis [Misery consists of two contraries, namely abundance and scarcity, from an abundance of tribulation and a scarcity of consolation]. Was she, I say, miserable, whom Almightie God so often and so miraculously protected, both from the arrow that flyeth by day, their great Armado, and from the pestilence that walketh in the darkenesse, their secret and treacherous conspiracies? That did beat her most potent enemie? That set up a king in his kingdom? That defended nations, and harbored and protected distressed people? That protected her subjects in peace and plentie, and had the hearts of the most and the best of her subjects? That reigned religiously and gloriously, and dyed Christianly and in peace? Oh blessed Queene our late deere soveraigne, semper honos nomenque tuum laudesque manebunt [your honor, name, and praise will ever endure]. But Queene Elizabeth of famous memorie (for memoria eius semper erit in benedictione [her memory will always be blessed]), as a bright morning starre in fulnesse of time, lost her naturall light, when the great and glorious sunne appeared in our horizon. And now sithence the comming of great King James, there have not passed, I will not say foure yeres, but not foure, nay not two moneths, without some treason. First in March 603 upon the death of Her Majestie and before they had seene His Majesties face, was Christopher Wright imployed into Spaine, by Garnet, Catesby, and Tresham, to give advertisement of the Queenes death, and to continue the former negocation of Thomas Winter. And by him also doeth this Garnet write to Creswell the Jesuite in commendation, and for assistance and furtherance of his businesse.
As also in the 22. of June following was Guy Fawlkes sent out of Flanders by Baldwine the Jesuite, by Sir William Stanley and Hugh Owen about the same treason, and by letters from Baldwine directed and commended to Creswel the Legier Jesuit in Spaine for the procuring of his dispatch, as in the former arraignement hath been declared. In the same June doeth Grant the Superiour, together with Gerrard and other Jesuites and Jesuited Catholikes labour, not onely in providing of horses, which by Thomas Winter and Christopher Wright upon their severall negotiation they in the names of all the Catholikes in England had promised the King of Spaine to assist and doe him service withall, at such time as the said King should send his forces to invade, either at Milford Haven or in Kent, as hath before beene shewed, but also did by force of the said two Bulles or breefes disswade the Romish Catholiques from yeelding their due obedience to His Majestie, for that he was not of the Romane religion, contrary to the practise of the true Church and churchmen that undergoe warres ferendo, non feriendo, with patience not with strookes, their weapons being properly orationes et lachrymae, prayers and teares.
In the same June 9. which was 603 primo Iacobi broke out likewise the treason of the Romish priests Watson and Clarke, as also that other of Sir Walter Raleigh and others. But the Jesuites seeing that the peace was now in great forwardnesse, and having adverstisement also that the King of Spaine did now distaste their propositions, so that there was no further hope left in force, then fell they againe to secret practise. As for the Buls or breefes before mentioned, when Catesby had informed Garnet that King James was proclaimed and the State setled, they were by Garnet, as himselfe hath affirmed, burnt. But to proceede. In March 603 Garnet and Catesby (a pestilent traitor) conferre together, and Catesby in generall telleth him (though most falsely) that the King had broken promise with the Catholikes, and therefore assuredly there would bee stirres in England before it were long. In September following meetes Catesby and Thomas Percy, and after an unjust but a grievous complaint made by Catesby of the Kings proceedings, for that contrarie to their expectations His Majestie both did hold and was likely continually to runne the same course which the Queene before had held, Percy presently breakes forth into this devilish speech, that there was no way but to kill the King, which hee the said Percy would undertake to doe. But Catesby, as being versuto ingenio et profunda perfidia, a cunning, a wily, and a deepe traitor, intending to use this so furious and fierie a spirit to a further purpose, doeth as it were stroke him for his great forwardnesse, yet with sage and stayed counsell tells him, No, Tom, thou shalt not adventure thy selfe to so small purpose. If thou wilt bee a traitor, there is a plot to greater advantage, and such a one as can never bee discovered, viz. the Powder Treason.
In Januarie in the first yeere of His Majesty, Garnet tooke out a general pardon under the great Seale of England of all treasons, which pardon His Majestie of his grace granted to all men at this first entrance into his kingdom, under the name of Henry Garnet of London, gent., but therein he never used any of his alias dictus Walley, Farmer, or any other of his fained names. But Catesby fearing lest any of those whom he had or should take into confederacie, being touched in conscience with the horror of so damnable a fact, might give it over and endanger the discoverie of the Plot, seeks to Garnet (as being the Superior of the Jesuits, and therefore of high estimation and authoritie amongst all those of the Romish religion) to have his judgement and resolution in conscience concerning the lawfulnesse of the fact, that thereby he might be able to give satisfaction to any who should in that behalfe make doubt or scruple to goe forward in that treason. And therefore Catesby comming to Garnet propoundeth unto him the case, and asketh whether the good and promotion of the Catholique cause against heretiques (the necessitie of time and occasion so requiring), it be lawfull or not among many nocents to destroy and take away some innocents also. To this question Garnet advisedly and resolvedly answered that if the advantage were greater to the Catholique part by taking away some innocents together with many nocents, then doubtles it should be lawful to kill and destroy them all. And to this purpose he alleaged a comparison of a towne or citie which was possessed by an enemie, if at the time of taking thereof there happen to be some few friends within the place, they must undergoe the fortune of the warres in the generall and common destruction of the enemie. And this resolution of Garnet the Superior of the Jesuits was the strongest and the onely bond whereby Catesby afterwards kept and retained all the traitors in that so abominable and detestable a confederacie. For in March following, Catesby, Thomas Winter, and others resolve upon the Powder-Plot, and Faux as being a man unknowen, and withall a desperate person and a souldier, was resolved upon as fit for the executing thereof, to which purpose hee was in Aprill following by Thomas Winter sought and fetched out of Flanders into England. In May, in the second yeere of his Majestie, Catesby, Percy, John Wright, Thomas Winter, and Fawkes meete, and having upon the holy Evangelists taken an oath of secrecy and constancie to this effect,
You shall sweare by the blessed Trinitie, and by the Sacrament you now purpose to receive, never to disclose, directly or indirectly, by word or circumstance, the matter that shalbe proposed to you to keepe secret, nor desist from the execution thereof, untill the rest shall give you leave.
They all were confessed, had absolution, and received thereupon the Sacrament by the hands of Gerrard the Jesuite then present. In June following Catesby and Greenewell the Jesuite conferre about the Powder-treason. And at Midsummer Catesby having speach with Garnet of the Powder-treason, they said that it was so secret as that it must prevaile before it could be discovered. Then Garnet seemed to desire that the Popes consent might be obteined, but Catesby answered, that he tooke that as granted by the Pope in the two Buls or breefes before, for that, said he, if it were lawfull not to receive or to repell him, as the said Buls or breefes did import, then it is lawful also to expell or cast him out. Upon the 7. of July 604 was the Parliament prorogued untill the 7. of Februarie. And in November following, Thomas Bates, being (as hath beene declared more at large in the former arraignment) fetched in by Catesby his master to participate in the Powder-treason, for better of his secrecie and prosecution thereof, is by Greenewel the Jesuite confessed, encouraged, and tolde that, being for a good cause, he might and ought not only conceale it, as committed unto him in secret by his master, but further said that it was no offence at all, but justifiable and good. About this time was Robert Keyes taken into the confederacie, and by Catesby resolved of the lawfulnesse thereof from the Jesuits.
In the 11. of December they entred the mine, and in March, which was in 1605, was Guy Faulx sent over to Sir William Stanley with letters from Garnet to Baldwine the Legier Jesuite there, to take order that against the time of the blow the forces might be brought neere to the sea side, to the ende that they might suddenly be transported into England. And there doth Faulx by consent of the confederates give Owen the othe of secrecie and perseverance, and then acquaints him with the whole treason. Who, having beene a most malicious and inveterate traitor, greatly applauded it, and gave his consent and counsell for the furtherance thereof. In May 1605 fell out certaine broiles in Wales by the Romish Catholiques, at what time also Rookewood was by Catesby acquainted with the Powder Treason, and resolved of the lawfulnes of the fact by him as from the Jesuites. Now doth Garnet write to the Pope, that commandement might come from His Holinesse, or els from Aquaviva the generall of the Jesuites, for the staying of all commotions of the Catholiques here in England, intending indeed to set their whole rest of the Catholique Romish cause upon the Powder Plot, and in the meane time to lull us asleepe in securitie in respect of their dissembled quietnes and conformitie, as also least impediment might bee offered to this maine Plot by reason of any suspicion of the stirring of Papists, or of inquirie after them upon occasion of any pettie commotions or broiles. But when he further desired that it might bee so enjoyned upon censures, that latter request was not graunted, least it might indeed be an impediment to the Powder Plot.
In June following doeth Grenewel the Jesuite consult with Garnet his Superiour of the whole course of the Powder Treason at large. Wherin observe the politique and subtile dealing of this Garnet. First he would not (as he saith) confer of it with a lay man (other then Catesby whom he so much trusted). Why so? Because that might derogate him from the reverence of his place, that a Jesuite, and a Superiour of them, should openly joyne with lay men in cause of so much blood. And therfore secondly, as he would consult of it with a priest, and a Jesuite one of his owne order and his subject, so for his further securitie, hee would consult thereof with Greenwel the Jesuite, as in a disguised Confession. And being informed that the discourse would be too long to repeat kneeling, he answered that he would consult with him of it in Confession walking, and so accordingly in an ambulatorie Confession he at large discoursed with him of the whole Plot of the Powder Treason. And that a Protector (after the blow given) should be chosen out of such of the nobilitie as should be warned and reserved.
In this moneth likewise was there a great conference and consultation betwixt Garnet, Catesby, and Francis Tresham concerning the strength of the Catholiques in England, to the end that Garnet might by letters send direct advertisement thereof to the Pope, for that His Holinesse would not bee brought to shew his inclination concerning any commotion or rising of the Catholique part untill such time as hee should be certainly informed that they had sufficient and able force to prevaile.
And in August following, Garnet in a conference had about the acquainting of the Pope with the Powder Treason, named and appointed Sir Edmund Baynam for to carrie that message to the Pope, yet not to him as Pope but to him as a a temporall prince, and by him doeth Garnet write letters in that behalfe, as also for staying of commotions, under paine of censures, well knowing that before his letters could be answered, the House of Parliament (according to their designes) should have beene blowen up, and the whole State overthrowen. But this tricke hee used like a thiefe, that going to steale and take partiriches with a setting dogge, doth rate his dogge for questing or going too neere, untill he have laid his net over them, for feare the game should be sprung and the purpose defeated.
In this moneth also doth Garnet write to Baldwine the Legier Jesuite in the Low Countreyes in the behalfe of Catesby, that Owen should move the Marques for a regiment of horses for him the said Catesby, not with any intent, as it was agreed, that Catesby should undertake any such charge, but that under colour of it, horses and other necessaries might be provided without suspition to furnish the traitors.
In September following doth Parsons the Jesuite write to Garnet, to know the particulars of the project in hand, for the journey to Saint Winifrides Well in this moneth. It was but a jergon [a ruse], to have better opportunitie by colour thereof to conferre and retire themselves to those parts.
In October doeth Garnet meete the other traytors at Coughton in Warwickshire, which was the place of rendevous, whither they resorted out of all countreys.
Upon the first of November Garnet openly prayeth for the good successe of the great action concerning the Catholique cause in the beginning of the Parliament, and prayer is more then consent. For nemo orat sed qui sperat et credit [nobody prays who does not hope and believe]. Hee in the prayer used two verses of a hymne,
Gentem auferte perfidam
Credentium de finibus,
Ut Christo laudes debitas
[Remove faithless folk from the believers’ lands, so we may eagerly offer up due praises to Christ]
Now was the letter with the Lord Mountegle, whose memorie shall be blessed, on the fourth of November. By the providence of the Almightie, not many houres before the treason should have been executed was it fully discovered.
On the 5. of November, being the time when the traitors expected that their devilish practise should have taken effect, they convented at Dunchurch under colour of a great hunting march, appointed by Sir Everard Digby, as being a man of qualitie and accompt thereabout, purposing by this meanes to furnish themselves with company for their intended insurrection and rebellion, for that men being gathered together, and a tumult suddenly raised, the traitors thought, that every or most of them would follow the present fortune, and be easily perswaded to take part with them, and that they might easily surprise the person of the Lady Elizabeth, then being present in those partes in the Lord Harringtons house.
Upon the 6. of November, early in the morning, Catesby and the said confederates dispatched Thomas Bates with a letter to Garnet the Superiour of the Jesuites, who was (as they well knew) then ready at Coulton neere unto them, earnestly intreating his helpe and assistance for the raising of Wales, and putting so many as he could into open rebellion. At what time Garnet and Greenewell (who then of purpose was there with Garnet) then certainely perceiving that the Plot was indeede discovered, and knowing themselves to bee the chiefest authors thereof, prophesied the overthrow of the whole order of the Jesuites, saying that they feared that the discoverie and miscarrying of this practise would utterly undoe and overthrow the whole Societie of the Jesuites. But Greenwel the Jesuite being caried with a more violent a firie spirit, posteth up and downe to incite such as he could to rise upon in open rebellion. And meeting in Master Abingtons house with Hall an other Jesuite, adviseth him the said Hall likewise to loose no time, but foorthwith to seeke to raise and stirre up so many as hee could. But Hall seeming to deliberate thereof, whether seeing no ende of so rash an attempt, or fearing by that meanes to bee himselfe apprehended, Tesmond told him that he was a flegmatique fellow, and said a man said a man may herein see the difference betwixt a flegmatique man (such as he meant Hall was) and a cholerique, as he sayd himselfe was, and further added that he was resolved to doe his best endevors for the raysing of a rebellion under this false pretext and colour, that it was concluded that the throats of all the Catholiques in England should be cut. So perswading himselfe to incite them to take armes for to stand upon their guard and defence, and with this devise he posted way into the County of Lancaster. Afterwards Hall the Jesuit, otherwise called Oldcorne, being urged by Humfrey Littleton with the evill successe of their intended treason, that surely God was displeased and offended with such bloody and barbarous courses, in stead of an humble acknowledgement of the justice of God, and a sence of the wickednesse of the treason, fell rather Sathanically to argue for the justification of the same, and sayd, Yee must not judge the cause by the event, for the eleven tribes of Israel were by God Himselfe commaunded to goe and fight against Benjamin, yet were they twice overthrowen. So Lewes of France fighting against the Turke his army was scattered, and himselfe died of the plague. And lastly, the Christians defending the Rhodes were by the Turkes overcome. And these he applyed to the Powder-treason, and perswaded Littleton not to judge it ungodly or unlawfull by the event.
Observe here a double consequent of this Powder Treason: 1. open rebellion, as hath beene shewed both immediately before, and more at large in the former arraignment. And since that, blasphemy in Garnet the Superior of the Jesuits. For hee having libertie in the Tower to write, and sending a letter (which letter was openly shewed in the court before him) to an acquaintance of his in the Gatehouse, there was nothing to bee seene but ordinary matter, and for certaine necessaries. But in the margent [margin], which he made very great and spacious, and underneath, where there remained cleane paper, he wrote cunningly with the juice of an orenge or of a limmon to publish his innocencie and concerning his usage, and there denieth those things which before hee had freely and voluntarily confessed, and said that for the Spanish treason he was freed by His Majesties pardon, and for the Powder-treason, he hoped for want of proofe against him to avoyd that well enough, but concludeth blasphemously, applying the wordes which were spoken of our blessed Saviour to himselfe in this damnable treason, and saith necesse est ut unus homo moriatur pro populo, it is necessary that one man dye for the people, which words Caiphas spake of Christ. Wherein note his prevarication and Equivocation. For before the Lords Commissioners hee truely and freely confessed his treasons, being (as himselfe under his own hand confesseth) overwhelmed tanta nube testium [by so great clouds of witness], and yet ad faciendum populum [for the purpose of persuading the people] in his letters which he wrote abroad hee cleareth himselfe of the Powder-treason. And thus much concerning the two circumstances subsequent, which were rebellion and blasphemy.
The circumstances concurring are concerning the persons both offending and offended. For the principall person offending here at the barre, he is, as you have heard, a man of many names, Garnet, Wallye, Darcy, Roberts, Farmer, Phillips, and surely I have not commonly knowen or observed a true man that hath so many false appellations. He is by countrey an Englishman, by birth a gentleman, by education a scholler, afterwards a corrector of the Common Law print with Master Tottle the printer, and now is to be corrected by the law. He hath many gifts and endowments of nature, by art learned, a good linguist, and by profession a Jesuite, and a Superior, as in deed hee is superior to all his predecessors in devilish treason, a doctor of Jesuites, that is, a Doctor of the five Ds, as Dissimulation, Deposing of princes, Disposing of kingdomes, Daunting and deterring of subjects, and Destruction. Their dissimulation appeareth out of their doctrine of Equivocation. Concerning which it was thought fitte to touch something of what which was more copiously delivered in the former arraignment, in respect of the presence of Garnet there, who was the Superiour of the Jesuits in England, concerning the treatise of Equivocation seene and allowed by Garnet, and by Blackwell the arch priest, wherein under the pretext of the lawfulnesse of a mixt proposition to expresse one part of a man’s mind, and retaine another, people are indeed taught not onely simple lying, but fearefull and damnable blasphemie. And whereas the Jesuites aske why wee convict and condemne them not for heresie, it is for that they will equivocate, and so cannot that that way be tryed or judged according to their words.
Now for the antiquitie of Equivocation, it is indeed very old, within little more then 300 years after Christ used by Arrius the heretique, who having in a generall Councell beene condemned, and then by the commandement of Constantine the Emperour sent into exile, was by the said Emperour upon instant intercession for him, and promise of his future conformitie to the Nicene faith, recalled againe. Who returning home, and having before craftily set downe in writing his hereticall belief and put it into his bosome, when he came into the presence of the Emperour, and had the Nicene faith propounded unto him, and was thereupon asked whether hee then did indeed and so constantly would hold that faith, he (clapping his hand upon his bosome where his paper lay) answered and vowed that hee did, and so would constantly professe and hold that faith (laying his hand on his bosome where the paper of his heresie lay), meaning fraudulently (by way of Equivocation) that faith of his owne which he had written and caried in his bosome. For these Jesuites, they indeede make no vow of speaking trueth, and yet even this equivocating and lying is a kind of unchastitie, against which they vow and promise. For as it hath been said of olde,
Cor lingua foederat naturae sanctio,
Veluti in quodam certo connubio.
Ergo cum dissonent cor et locutio,
Sermo concipitur in adulterio.
That is, the law and sanction hath (as it were) married the heart and tongue, by joyning and knitting of them together in a certaine kinde of marriage, and therefore when there is discorde between them two, the speech that proceedes from them is said to be conceived in adulterie, and he that breedes such bastard children offends against chastitie. But note the heavy and wofull fruit of this doctrine of Equivocation. Francis Tresham, being nere his naturall death in the Tower, had of charitie his wife permitted (for his comfort) to come unto him. Who understanding that her husband had before and truly accused Garnet of the Spanish treason, least belike her husband should depart this life with a conscience that he had revealed any thing concerning the Superiour of the Jesuites, a very litle before he died drew him to this, that his owne hand being so feeble as that he could not write himselfe, yet hee caused his servant then attending on him to write that which he did dictate, and therein protested upon his salvation that hee had not seene the saide Garnet of 16 yeeres before, and thereupon praied that his former confession to the contrary might in no wise take place, and that this paper of his retraction which hee had weakely and dyingly subscribed might after his death be delivered to the Earle of Salisbury. Whereas Master Garnet himselfe hath cleerely confessed the Spanish treason, and now acknowledged the same at the bar, and he and Mistress Vaux and others directly confesse and say that Garnet and Tresham had within two yeeres space beene very often together, and also manie times before. But, qua lis vita, finis ita [as the life, so the death]. And Garnet himself, being at the barre afterwards, urged to say what he thought of such the departure of Francis Tresham out of this life, answered onely this, I think hee meant to equivocate. Thus were they stayned with their owne workes, and went a whoring with their owne inventions, as it is in the Psalme. So that this is indeed gens perfida according to the hymne, a perfidious people, and therefore,
Iurat? Crede minus. Non iurat? Credere noli.
Iurat, non iurat hostis, ab hoste cave.
[He swears? Don’t trust him much. He doesn’t swear? Don’t trust him at all. An enemy swears or doesn’t swear, beware of your enemy.]
For their doctrine of deposing of princes, Simanca and Philopater are plaine (as hath in the former arraignment beene more amply declared, and was nowe againe at large to Garnets face repeated), if a prince be an heretique, then is he excommunicated, cursed, and deposed, his children deprived of all their right of succession, himselfe not to be restored to his temporall estate upon repentance, and by an heretique they professe that hee is intended and meant, namely, whosoever doth not hold the religion of the Church of Rome. Now there is an easier and a more expedite way then all these to fetch off the crowne from off the head of any king christened whatsoever, which is this, that princeps indulgendo haereticis amittit regnum, if any prince shall but tolerate or favour heretiques, he looseth his kingdom. Nay, whereas Garnet in defence of this usurped power of the high priest of Rome alledged Nos sanctorum etc. out of the Decretals, in the very next Title before that, there is another decree that passeth all we have recited, wherein is shewed that Zacharie the Pope deposed Childericke of Fraunce for nothing else there specified sed quia inutilis, but onely for that he was reputed unprofitable to governe.
Now as concerning their daunting and deterring of subjects, which is a part of the Jesuites profession, it were good that they would knowe and remember how that the most noble and famous kings of England never were afraid of Popes Buls, no not in the very midnight of Poperie, as Edward the Confessor, Henry 1, Edward 1, Richard 2, Henry 5, Henry 4 etc. And in the time of Henry the seventh, and in all their times, the Popes legate never passed Callis [Calais], but staied there and came not to England untill he had taken a solemne oath to doe nothing to the detriment of the Crowne or State.
For the persons offend, the were these. First the King of whom I have spoken often, but never enough, a King of high and most noble ancient descent, as hath beene briefly declared, and in himselfe full of all imperiall vertues, religion, justice, clemencie, learning, wisedome, memorie, affabilitie, and the rest. Then the Queene, and she in respect of her happie fruitfulnesse is a great blessing, in so much that of her in that respect may be said that shee is,
Ortu magna, viro maior, sed maxima prole,
great in birth, greater in her marriage, but to all posteritie greatest in the blessed fruite of her wombe, as having brought foorth the greatest Prince that ever England had. 3. The noble Prince, of whom we may say with the poet,
Never Prince true heire apparant to the imperiall crowne had such a father, nor ever King had such a sonne. Then the whole royall issue, the Councell, the nobilitie, the clergie, nay our religion it selfe, and specially this City of London, that is famous for her riches, more famous for her people (having above five hundred thousand soules within her and her Liberties), most famous for her fidelitie, and more than most famous of all the cities in the world for her true religion and service of God. Hold up thy head (noble citie) and advance thy selfe, for that never was thy brow blotted with the least taint or touch, or suspicion of disloyaltie. Thou mayest truely say with the Prophet David, I will take no wicked thing in hand, I hate the sinne of unfaithfulnesse, there shall no such cleave unto me. Therefore for thy fidelitie thou art honoured with the title of the Kings chamber, as an inward place of his greatest safetie. And for thy comfort and joy this day hath Britaines great King honoured thee with the proceeding upon this great and honourable commission, after the heavie and dolefull rumours this other day, when it was certainly knowen that King James was in safety, well did the fidelitie appeare (whereof I was an eye-witnesse), una voce conclamaverunt omnes, Salva Londinum, salva patria, salva religio, Iacobus rex noster salvus, our citie, our countrey, our religion is safe, for our King James is in safetie.
The observations are many, and onely in a word to be touched. The first is, that in the Spanish treason before mentioned, and this Powder Treason, there was the same order, cause and ende. The order was, first to deale by secret practise and treason, and then by force and invasion. The cause which they pretend was the Romish Catholique religion. The end was the finall destruction of the royall succession, yea even occidere regnum, to overthrow and dissolve the whole kingdome.
2. Note that even the enemie hath acknowledged that our State is so setled and established as neither strength nor stratageme can prevaile, unlesse there be a partie made in England.
3. We shal never have Bull more to come from Rome to England, because they shall never have a party strong enough to incounter with so many lions.
4. All their Canons, decrees, and newe found doctrines tend to one of these 2 ends: either worldly pride or wicked policie, for the amplitude and inlargement of the Popes authoritie, and for the safetie of the Jesuites, priests, etc.
5. Observe that Baynam, a laie man and one of the damned crue, and so naming himselfe, was sent to informe the Pope as a temporall prince.
6. I conceive their all to be neere at hand, both by divinitie and by philosophie. For the first, there are now in England about 400 priests. So many were there in Israel in the dayes of Achab. Who, saith God, shall goe and deceive Achab, that he may fall? A lying spirit in the mouths of his 400 prophets undertooke and effected it. There fall was neere, when once a lying spirit had possessed the priests, according to the vision of Micheas, as now it hath possessed the Jesuites. 2. The imitation of good for the most part comes short of the patterne, but the imitation of evill ever exceedes the example. Now no imitation can exceede this fact, and therefore their time is at an end.
7. Many comdemne it now, that would have commended it if it had taken effect, for this, say they, is e numero eorum quae non laudantur nisi peracta [of the number of those things which are not praised if not achieved].
They and their adherents spread abroad false rumors, as that the King should have broken promise with them concerning toleration. Which mixture of Gods service rather then hee would suffer, hee would loose children, crowne, life, and all. Nay, they may see there is no such hope left, for that His Majestie bringeth up his royall issue in the true religion and service of the Almightie.
Lastly observe the wonderfull providence of God in the admirable discovery of this Superior Jesuite to be partie to this treason, and that in two respects.
First, in respect of the means of secrecie used by him in conference onely with Catesby of the laytie.
Secondly, they had a strong and a deepe othe given them both for secrecie and perseverance.
Thirdly, they hereupon received the holy Sacrament.
Fourthly, they were allowed and taught by the Jesuites to equivocate upon othe, salvation or otherwise, and how then should it be discovered.
Fiftly, their secret intelligence was such as it was unpossible by the wit of man to be found out. And therefore the second thing is, how this treason being long sithence plotted, the providence of God did continually from time to time divert and put off the executing thereof, by unexpected putting off the times of assembly in Parliament. For the Parliament begunne the 19. of March in the first yeere of his Majesties reign, and continued till the 7. of July following, before which time the conspirators could not bee ready; from thence it was proroged until the 7. of February, against which time they could not make the myne ready, in respect that they could not digge there, for that the Commissioners of the Union sate neere the place, and the wall was thicke, and therefore they could not be provided before the 7. of February, and on the 7. of February the Parliament was proroged untill the 5. of October. After this they found an other course, and altered the place from the myne to the cellar. O blessed change of so wicked a worke! Oh but these fatall enginers are not yet discovered, and yet all things are prepared. Oh prorogue it once more. And accordingly God put it into His Majesties heart (having then not the least suspicion of any such matter) to prorogue the Parliament, and further to open and inlighten his understanding, out of a mysticall and darke letter, like an angell of God to point to the cellar and command that it be searched, so that it was discovered thus miraculously, but even a few houres before the designe should have bene executed.
The conclusion therefore shall be this, qui cum Iesuitis, non cum Iesuitis. For they courage themselves in mischiefe, and common among themselves secretly, how they may lay snares and say that no man shall see them. But God shall suddenly shoote at them with a swift arrow, that they shall be wounded. In so much that whosoever seeth it shall say, This hath God done. For they shall perceive that it is His worke.
Go to Part IV