1. Linsi-woolsie. Or two centuries of epigrammes. Written by William Gamage was first published in Oxford in 1613; a second edition was published in London in 1621. Both editions are very rare. Of the 1613 edition there is a copy in the Huntington Library in California, and an imperfect copy in the British Library (it lacks the 31 epigrams which follow the two centuries); of the 1621 edition only one copy, in the Bodleian Library, Oxford survives.
2. To readers of the English poetry of the period the name Gamage is familiar from one of Ben Jonsons most famous (and finest) poems, To Penshurst. Jonson celebrates (and beautifully mythologises) the grounds of the Sidney home at Penshurst. Amongst the locations visited by the satyrs and fauns, he tells us, is a copse…named of Gamage:
That never fails to serve thee seasoned deer,
When thou wouldst feast, or exercise thy friends.
Quite why the copse is named of Gamage is explained by Herford and Simpson in their standard edition of Jonsons works. The spot is known as Barbara Gamages Bower and is in front of the gateway at the entrance to the park. Lady Gamage used to feed the deer there. NOTE 1 Barbara Gamage was the wife of Robert Sidney, younger brother of Sir Philip. In his edition of Sir Roberts poems, Philip Croft quotes from the Sidney family register in the so-called Sidney Psalter (in the library of Trinity College, Cambridge) the following account of their marriage: NOTE 2
The marriage betweene Robert Sydney esquier, and Barbara Gammage daughter and sole heire to Jhon Gammage of the Castell of Coitie in the Countie of Glamorgan esquier was celebrated in the house of Sr Edward Stradlinge of St Donnets in the same countie on Wenesdaie the three and twentith of September 1584 in the presence of the right honorable Harry Erle of Pembrook, Sr Edward Stradlinge and my Ladie his wife and manie others.
Barbara Gamage had been left a wealthy heiress on the death of her father on September 8th 1584. Before her fathers death she had been courted by, amongst others, Sir James Whitney of Whitney in Herefordshire and Sheriff of that county, by Thomas Johnes (heir of Sir Henry Johnes who had been Sheriff of both Carmarthenshire and Breckonshire) of Abermarlais in Carmarthenshire and, with most hopes of success, by Herbert Croft of Croft Castle in Herefordshire. His grandfather, Sir James Croft, was the great-uncle of John Gamage; he had a good deal of influence both in the Marches and at court, where he was an ally of Lord Burghleys and was both a privy councillor and comptroller of the royal household. At her fathers death Barbara Gamage was taken into the custody of her uncle Sir Edward Stradling. (The Gamages were related by marriage to — amongst others — important Welsh families such as the Stradlings and the Crofts and also to the families of Lord Howard of Effingham and Sir Walter Raleigh). Stradling had hitherto shown every sign of supporting Herbert Croft as a suitor to the young heiress. When, however, Croft attempted to visit his intended wife he was refused permission to see her. The young heiresss marriage became a matter of great controversy — opinions were expressed by the Privy Council and Lord Burghley, by Raleigh and Lord Howard of Effingham. Somewhat surprisingly, Stradling favoured a new suitor, Robert Sidney. The Sidneys were allied with the Leicester faction at court and thus rivals of Burghley (and his ally Croft). Roberts father, Sir Henry Sidney, was Lord President of the Council in the Marches, so that the Crofts were rivals of the Sidneys on another front too. For whatever reasons, the Sidneys won this particular struggle, and the marriage took place only some fifteen days after John Gamages death. The bride was probably in her twenty-second year; the bridegroom was a year younger. Whatever the circumstances surrounding their wedding, the years of their marriage seem to have been ones of great happiness and mutual trust. Public duties often took Sidney away from his wife; more than 300 letters that he wrote to her survive and they are full of evidently very real affection. NOTE 3
3. That the author of Linsi-woolsie was related to Barbara Gamage, heiress of Coity (sometimes given as Coety) and wife of Sir Robert Sidney, is clear. Barbara Gamage herself is the subject of one epigram (I.45); the dedicatory epistle that precedes Linsi-woolsie is addressed to THE RIGHT NOBLE, AND my much honoured Ladie, KATHERINE, Ladie MANSELL, daughter to the Right Honourable Lord, L. Viscount de Lisle. Katherine (or Catherine), daughter of Sir Robert and Barbara Sidney, married Sir Lewis Mansell, of Margam in Glamorgan, their marriage being the subject of another of Gamages epigrams (II.31). The dedicatee is addressed by Gamage as his heroike, and splendent Patronesse in the title of the first poem in Linsi-woolsie, and made the subject of an acrostic (On her name) in the second poem. Sir Robert Sidney is praised more than once in Linsi-woolsie. Epigram I.60 is addressed to the Illustrious L: Viscount de Lisle, brother to the Noble Sir Phil. Sidney, and he is praised in the twenty-eighth epigram of the series of thirty-one which follows the second century of epigrams — On the most ho: and worthy lo: Lord Viscount de Lisles Posie. Quò me fata vocant. Other Sidneys are prominent in Linsi-woolsie too: Sir William Sidney (Epigram I.48), Sir Philip Sidney (I.49, II.11), Francis Sidney (II.3), Lady Mary Wroth (II.25) and Sir Robert Wroth (II.60). The family connection with the Stradlings is also in evidence — II.98 is dedicated to his loving Cosen John Stradling and I.41 carries the title To Sr. Jo. Stradling, Knight and Baronet, of his learned Epig. (Stradling himself was the author of a volume of Latin epigrams). Many of the other influential families amongst the gentry of Glamorganshire are alluded to. I.14 is dedicated to the studious Gent. Mr. J. Carne: the Carnes of Ewenny were a politically significant family, who, as Glanmor Williams puts it, came of old and gentle stock, but...acquired most of their manors as the result of the success of Sir Edward Carne [d. 1561] as a diplomat and his well-judged investments in monastic lands. NOTE 4 II.4 is addressed to his deere Cosin, Edm. Basset. The Bassets of Beaupré (or St. Hilary), near Cowbridge, were another of those families who, to quote Glanmor Williams again, left their mark writ large on Glamorgan life. NOTE 5 I.11 is addressed to his deare interessed friend Mr. M. Cradocke and I.24 to his fr[iend]. M. Je Cradocke — the addressees probably being members of the Cradocks of Cheriton, a junior branch of the family of which Sir Mathew Cradock [1468 - 1531] was the most important member, a royal official in South Wales whose first wife was Alice Mansel of Oxwich Castle. Other Gamage connections are alluded to also, as in II.49, addressed to the worthie and famous Earle of Nottingham, high Admirall of England (i.e. Charles, Second Lord Howard of Effingham).
4. The Welsh background of the author is evident in many of the poems in Linsi-woolsie. Place names from south Wales are frequent. Coity Castle itself is the subject of Epigram I.78. Epigram I.83 is addressed to the Bishop of Llandaff and I.89 to the Bishop of St. Davids. A number of other epigrams (e.g. I.93, II.15, II.37 and III.14) are similarly local in their references. The William Gamage who composed the epigrams of Linsi-woolsie, drawing on the Gamage familys connections in and beyond south Wales, can be identified with some certainty, though our knowledge of him is not extensive. He was surely the William Gamage of co. Glamorgan who matriculated at Jesus College, Oxford on the 18th of May 1604 (aged 20), was awarded his B.A. on the 17th of December 1607, and became Vicar of Eglwysilan in 1614. (See Foster, Alumni Oxonienses). Confirmation of the poets Oxford connections can be found in a number of epigrams in the collection (as well as in its initial publication in the university city). One epigram, II.23, is actually presented as a kind of dramatic monologue in the person of Jesus College. Elsewhere (I.27) he commemorates the establishment, in 1610, of Wadham College, Oxford. There are lines (II.73) on Great Tom, the bell of Christ Church in Oxford which are (like the epigram on Wadham College) notably anti-Catholic in sentiment. Epigram I.33 is a feeble piece of wit In the praise of Brasen-nose.Coll[ege]. The commendatory verses with which Gamages volume comes garlanded are all the work of men with Oxford connections (see notes).
5. The Gamages were an important South Wales family — though their importance naturally lessened as the direct line came to an end with Barbara Gamage. The family was Norman in origin. Godfrey de Gamaches, of Viscin near Rouen in Normandy, in A. D. 1159 received from Henry II a grant of lands in Shropshire and Herefordshire. His second son, William de Gamage, inherited the English estates of Mansel Gamage, county Hereford, Gamage Hall in Dimock, and other lands in the county of Gloucester. NOTE 6 A later William Gamage was Sheriff of Gloucestershire in 1325 and his son Gilbert succeeded to the lordship of Coity Castle in Glamorgan. Details of the familys history can be read elsewhere. NOTE 7 In the case of the poet, we are concerned with an illegitimate branch of the family. What follows is based on G. T. Clarks account — and shares Clarks all-too-common lack of exact dates. John Gamage (son of William Gamage of Coychurch, illegitimate son of John Gamage of Coyty and Wenllian, daughter and heir of David Llewelyn of Llanbedr-Fynydd) married — as his first wife — Margaret (or Mary) daughter of Llewelyn of Pwll-Duw. Their children included a son named William. This William Gamage married Joan, the daughter of one Jenkin Havard. Their children, in turn, included another John Gamage, who married Nest, daughter of Meyric ap Meyric Goch of Glyn-Ogwr. William Gamage the poet was their son. So, although related to an important (and wealthy) family, the poet found himself doubly distanced from it. He belonged to an illegitimate branch of the family; the wealth and standing of the family was, to use Gamages own metaphor (see I.45), swallowed up by an even grander family when Barbara Gamage married Robert Sidney in 1584 (probably the very year of the poets birth). While William Gamage dutifully (and hopefully?) dedicated epigrams to the wealthy and powerful relations of the Gamages, he seems always to have been something of an outsider. He can write (II.60) of how Sir Robert Wroth has a reputation as a famous housekeeper, but there is no suggestion that, distant relation though he was, he had ever been invited to enjoy Wroths hospitality in person. His childhood was presumably spent at Llanbedr-Fynydd, now usually known as Peterston-super-montem, north-west of modern Cardiff. After his years in Oxford he was perhaps hopeful of acquiring one of the four Glamorganshire rectories — Coity, Coychurch, Llanharry and St. Brides Minor — which were in the gift of the Sidneys. If so, his hopes were disappointed. Instead he was, as we have seen, appointed to the parish of Eglwysilan, the patronage of which belonged to the Archdeacon and Chapter of Llandaff. Eglwysilan was a large, bleak upland parish (near modern Caerphilly) which generated very little in the way of income. There William Gamage stayed until his death (at he age of approximately forty one) in 1626. NOTE 8 He was succeeded by Nathaniel, son of his own brother John. Gamages church, medieval in origin, still survives though changed by restorations in the 1870s and the 1980s. Its sturdy, battlemented tower, a late-medieval or sixteenth century structure, perhaps looks much as it did in the poets days. According to G. T. Clark, the poet married Blanch, base d[aughter] of Nicholas Herbert. NOTE 9 Clark provides neither source nor date for this information. If we assume it to be correct, the connection was a potentially valuable one for Gamage. Nicholas Herbert was the third son of Matthew Herbert of Swansea. Linsi-woolsie contains epigrams about or addressed to Nicholas Herbert (II.79) and to his older brothers, William and John Herbert (III.16). Nicholas Herbert twice served as High Sheriff of Glamorgan; in 1577 and in 1586 (when his Under-Sheriff, significantly, was John Gamage). In 1585 he acquired the substantial property of St. Fagans Castle, near Cardiff (his son, William, was to sell it to Sir Edward Lewis of Y Fan in 1615/16); in the same year he was elected member of parliament for Cardiff. There were also more turbulent aspects to his career, however. In 1578 he was fined for his involvement with the activities of pirates. NOTE 10 He was involved in rioting in Cardiff, product of a feud between, on the one hand, the family of the Mathews (and their servants and followers) and, on the other, the Herberts and the Lewises. For his part in these matters, Nicholas Herbert was fined, charged damages and removed from the commission for the peace. NOTE 11 He died in 1603, perhaps before Gamage married his daughter. It is (in II.79) to Nicholas son William that Gamage addresses himself directly.
6. In his dedicatory let ter to Lady Katherine Mansell, Gamage has the good grace to describe his work as the product of a Rurall, and unacquainted muse (A 3r), the work of Cherillus Pen rather than Apelles Pencill. Gamages self-deprecation is continued, implicitly, in the title he chose for his one and only collection. Linsey-woolsey was originally a material woven from a mixture of flax and wool and the term was later used to refer to dressmaking material of inferior, coarse wool. In these senses it is recorded in the O. E. D. from the 1480s; from the 1590s it occurs in figurative usages denoting, to quote the O. E. D., a strange medley in talk or action; confusion, nonsense. It is a particular variant of the common Renaissance trope whereby language is viewed as the "clothes" in which ideas are dressed to go out into the world. Gamage may perhaps have intended all this as a kind of modesty topos, but the simple truth is that his work is, indeed, largely undistinguished. It is not, though, quite as worthless as some have asserted. Bliss, for one, is very ready to dismiss it in his revision of Woods Athenae Oxonienses, citing Park: NOTE 12
Mr. Park, who has given some extracts from this rare volume, in the Censura Literaria V.348, says that it had another title-page, dated in 1621, but he supposes the book not to have had more than one impression, as it consists of the saddest trash that ever assumed the name of Epigrams.
There were, indeed, two editions of Linsi-woolsie, as close collation has revealed, and without making any great claims for the merits of Gamages poems, they assuredly reward reading in what they tell us of the intellectual and social life of their time and place. Gamages sub-title, Two Centuries of Epigrammes signalled his books position firmly within the English Renaissance tradition of the epigram. John Heywood had published Two Hundred Epigrammes in 1555 and followed it with An Hundred Epigrammes and A Fourth Hundred of Epygrams in 1556 and 1560 respectively. Amongst Gamages immediate predecessors was John Heath, with his Two Centuries of Epigrammes published in 1610. Imitations (in the loosest sense) of Martial were everywhere:
Mediocre epigrammatists would turn off their poems by the hundred; the composition of centuries of epigrams was nothing to men who made untrammelled use of Latin and Greek predecessors. Most of them, their worrks never having been reprinted, are hardly names, though a few, such as Heywood the dramatist, and Thomas Bastard have been more fortunate. NOTE 13
Certainly Gamage felt himself to be a latecomer in a well-worked field, as in "To our Moderne Epigrammatists, of his Poems" (I.16):
All Arts, which latest come to common view,
Are commonly the best without compare;
But in these lines you cannot find this true,
Like timelesse fruits, unmellowed right which are,
For you have gatherd all the Sommers flowers.
Here are but leavings mixt with Hyems showers.
Amongst the modern predecessors he singles out John Owen (see Dana F. Suttons edition of Owens Epigrammata elsewhere in The Philological Museum) and John Heath for particular praise (see I.67). The abundance of modern users of the form Gamage finds cause for an alarm which seems to be as much social as literary, when he complains that the epigram is common grownn / Squisd out of Coblers, Tinkers, base of Trade (II.2).
7. Though it may have no distinctive literary merit, Gamages collection remains fascinating in what it reveals of the attitudes and interests, the reading and the connections of its author. The poems throw light on a little-known network of literary-minded men in South Wales at the beginning of the Seventeenth Century. We can catch some glimpses, at least, of Gamages early education. In III.20 Gamage writes of his old friend and Schoolefellow, Mr. D. Jenkins, a worthy Barrister in the Lawes. The Jenkins family connections were with Hensol and Pendoylan, more or less equidistant between Cowbridge and Llandaff. According to Professor Glanmor Williams: NOTE 14
Though no endowed grammar schools, so numerously established in the sixteenth century, were found in Tudor Glamorgan, one of Rice Merricks observations informs us that there were schools of one sort or another in existence in Elizabethan times at Cardiff, Llandaff, St. Nicholas, Cowbridge (not as yet Cowbridge Grammar School), Neath, Swansea, and Llantwit (Major).
Given Gamages connection with the Stradlings, however, and William Gamages probable early residence at Peterston-super-montem, Cowbridge is the the most likely venue for the shared schooling of the two. (Sir Edward and then Sir John Stradling were patrons of education in the town, activities resulting in the formation of the Grammar School). David Jenkins, Gamages schoolfellow died at the age of 81. If he had looked back to his schooldays, he would perhaps have shared the sentiments of William Gamage, who wrote an epitaph (II.69) on their teacher:
The Epitaph of his deerely beloved Scoole-master, Mr W. Edwards:
Here lies the picture of pure honestie.
Here lies, the sire of many a learned Sonne,
Here lies, the zeale of Christianitie,
Here lies, the Patron of Religion.
Here lies, that man, whose life was naught to none,
Here lies, that friend, whom young and old bemone.
After his initial schooling Gamage proceeded, as we have seen, to Jesus College, Oxford. On the evidence of his poems, it was through his years at University that Gamage made or cemented the friendships that remained important for him after his return to Glamorgan. Any attempt to identify the addressees of many of the poems in Linsi-woolsie reveals the presence of two overlapping circles — one formed by the gentry families of Glamorgan, the other by Oxford-educated clerics in south Wales (overlapping because many of the latter were themselves the sons of the Glamorganshire gentry). Many of those directly addressed by Gamage were, indeed, in Oxford at much the same time as Gamage himself (approximately 1605-1607). A few examples have already been given; many more will be found in the notes to the poems. The family connection which exerted the greatest influence on the poets own extended family remained, however, that with the Sidneys. Interesting evidence of this is offered by several poems in Linsi-woolsie. In 1585, the year after his marriage to Barbara Gamage, Robert Sidney served at Flushing alongside his brother and in the following year was knighted in recognition of his bravery during the battle of Zutphen in which his brother received his fatal wounds. In 1589 Robert Sidney was appointed Governor of Flushing, a post he held until 1616. Epigram I.90 has as its subject the poets brother buried in Zealand; II.50 is on [t]he Flushing fray and is addressed to his Cousen, Leiftenant Je. Watkins; II.78 carries the title To his Cosin Lieftenant William Watkins, of Flushings Scituation and II.89 is On bibbing Belgicus. To his cosin Jo: Watkins, Ensigne bearer. It was doubtless the connection with Sir Robert Sidney that paved the way for these cosins of Gamages to come to such positions and, indeed, led to his brothers death abroad.
8. The poet himself, as we have seen, chose life as a clergyman. In II.12 we encounter him as the reader of a borrowed copy of A Plaine and Familiar Exposition of the Ten Commandments by John Dod and Richard Cleaver. The Puritan leanings which that volume suggests are confirmed by his choice of clerical heroes elsewhere in Linsi-woolsie. The Puritan William Perkins (1558-1602), is made the subject of two epigrams (I.40, I. 88) and described by Gamage as a sweet, profound Divine (I.40). Gamages sympathies clearly lay with the Puritan wing of the Anglican church, though he was no kind of extremist. His theological reading included the anti-Catholic writings of Bishop Jewel, referred to as the Hammer of Heretickes in I.42 and he wrote in praise of Thomas Holland, Regius Professor of Divinity at Oxford. (Holland died in 1612; the title of epigram I.56 refers to him as lately Deceased). Other areas of Gamages literary interests are hinted at in Linsi-woolsie. Side notes direct us to Aristotle, Seneca and Eusebius; one epigram is devoted to Prudentius. He was probably familiar with the Adagia of Erasmus. His admiration for Sidneys Arcadia (e.g. I.71, III.5) was presumably not generated merely by a desire to curry favour with the Sidneys. Ben Jonson is the subject of one epigram (I.97) of rather strikingly qualified praise. Of particular interest is I.51:
In Du Bartas praise, and his Translator
Right well Du Bartas may we call thy name,
For Duw in Welch betokens more then Man.
So wast, I thinke, when thou thy Laies didst frame,
Such Heavnly Muse sole Man could scarsly scan.
And Josuah thou that tookst this verse in hand
To turne; for ere thy sunne of praise sshall stand.
Joshua Sylvesters translation of Du Bartas Divine Weeks and Works was first published in 1605. The bilingual (or perhaps one should say trilingual) wordplay of line 2 raises the question of quite how much Welsh Gamage knew. Certainly some of the circles in which, to judge from Linsi-woolsie, he moved included important scholars and patrons of Welsh poetry and history: NOTE 15
…a small group of professional poets, in the period c.1540 - 1640, sang to a modest number of gentry families in east Glamorgan. The most prominent bards were Sils ap Siôn, Dafydd Benwyn and Meurug Dafydd, and among the patrons the most bountiful were the Herberts of Cardiff, Stradlings of St Donats, Lewises of Y Fan, Mathews of Llandaff and Radyr, Kemeyses of Cefnmabli as well as a broader section of more modestly placed gentry.
In Epigram II.79 (which takes us back to the Nicholas Herbert who was perhaps father to the poets wife) there seems to be evidence that Gamage too was a reader of Welsh (at least so far as to be able to consider the significance of a family motto in Welsh — in modern Welsh Llai cymero — may he take less):
On Nic: Herberts Posie, (Lle y Kymero.)
To his worthy Son Mr.Will: Herbert.
Thy, (Lle y Kymero) did well Sympathize,
(Right worthy Nichlas) with thy noble minde:
For where thou tookst, thou didst not temporize,
But all thy friends did a sure Friend thee find.
Thou wast not like the glosers of our Age,
Which disagree most from their Posies Sage.
In III.17 he praises — lavishly — the work of our wise Brittish Barde, Mr W: Mathew, Esquire; for wit, and judgement excellent, where the use of the word British surely implies that his work was written in Welsh. Gamages interest in Welsh history (and literature) is perhaps implied by his friendship with the family of the important Glamorgan historian Rice Merrick (Rhys Meurug), whose home was in the mansion of Cotrel near St. Nicholas. Merrick himself, author of Morganiæ Archaiographia or A Booke of Glamorganshires Antiquities, died in March 1586/7. Gamages epigram I.75 is addressed to his loving Cosen Mr. Rees Myricke, doubtless the Rice Meyrick of co. Glamorgan who is recorded as matriculating at Lincoln College, Oxford in 1605, aged 13. Quite what relationship he had with his illustrious namesake is unclear. (II.97 is relevant here too).
9. Gamages achievement as a poet is undoubtedly very limited, though his work is not perhaps absolutely duncing, to borrow the word Robert Greene applied to the verses of the original Cherillus. In what it reveals of the cultural life of Glamorgan at the beginning of the seventeenth century Linsi-woolsie is, however, of considerable interest. Enough, indeed, to merit for its author a place — however small — in the canon of Welsh writers of English verse and in the history of the epigram in Renaissance Britain.
A NOTE ON THE TEXT
10. The editions of 1613 and 1621 both contain a fair number of obvious errors. Some of those contained in 1613 are corrected in 1621. A smaller number of new ones are introduced. I suspect that the printer of 1621 worked from a copy of 1613 with some corrections marked. In just a few cases the changes look as though they may be the work of the poet. The most striking example comes in line 2 of III.26 where the 1621 reading, "Endendures" (1613 has "Indentures") very effectively mimics the slurred speech of the drunken ‘Titubus and creates a contrast (absent from the text of 1613) with the satirists sober repetition of the word in line 3. In I.64 1621s ‘Thrasco (where 1613 has the Terentian ‘Thraso) makes greater sense of Gamages title: ‘On Thrasco, the kill Cow. Because of such cases, and because of its generally more intelligent use of marks of elision, I have chosen to use 1621 as the copy text for this edition. I have, however, sometimes corrected it by reference to 1613.
11. In the titles of individual poems the editions of 1613 and 1621 adopt rather different practices as regards the use of italic and roman print. These differences have not been recorded in the following notes. Nor have differences of lineation in the titles of individual poems, or the employment of different sigla for the indication of side-notes. With these exceptions, a full collation of the two editions is presented here as an Appendix. Only more significant textual errors and variants are noted by linked references in the text itself.
12. I am very grateful to Professor Dana F. Sutton for providing me with English translations of the Latin commendatory verses. The photograph on the title page of this edition, taken by the author, is of the church of St. Ilan at Eglwysilan, where Gamage was Vicar.
1. The Works of Ben Jonson. Ed. C. H. Herford, Percy and E. M. Simpson (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1952) XI, 34.
2. Quoted from Robert Sidney, The Poems of Sir Robert Sidney, edited from the Poets Autograph Notebook, with introduction and commentary by P. J. Croft (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984) 70.
3. See The Poems of Sir Robert Sidney, ed. cit., 69-81, and Millicent V. Hay, The Life of Robert Sidney, Earl of Leicester (1563 - 1626) (Washington: Folger Shakespeare Library c. 1984).
4. Glanmor Williams, The Economic Life of Glamorgan, 1536-1642, Glamorgan County History: Volume IV, Early Modern Glamorgan, ed. G. Williams, Cardiff, 1974, 1 - 72. Quotation from p.12.
5. Ibid., ix. (A later Edmund Bassett, born c. 1608, was hanged for the murder of his wife, the daughter of Edward Carne!).
6. Thomas Nicholas, Annals and Antiquities of the Counties and County Families of Wales, London, 1872, II.566.
7. See Nicholas, op. cit. and George T. Clark, Limbus patrum Morganiæ et Glamorganiæ: Being the genealogies of the older families of the lordships of Morgan and Glamorgan, London, 1886.
8. See John R. Guy, The Gamage Family: A study in Clerical Patronage in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, Morgannwg: Transactions of the Glamorgan History SocietyXIV, 1970, 35 - 61.
9. Clark, op. cit., 395.
10. Glanmor Williams, art. cit. (see note 4), 71.
11. Penry Williams, The Political and Administrative History of Glamorgan, 1536-1642, Glamorgan County History: Volume IV, Early Modern Glamorgan, ed. G. Williams, Cardiff, 1974, 143-201. See, esp., pp.188 - 91.
12. Anthony à Wood, Athenae Oxonienses, edited by Philip Bliss [London, 1813-20], reprinted Hildesheim, 1969, II.350.
13. Paul Nixon, Martial and the Modern Epigram, New York, 1927, 59 - 60. Nixon calls his third chapter Centuries of Epigrams.
14. Glanmor Williams, Glamorgan Society, 1536-1642, Glamorgan County History: Volume IV, Early Modern Glamorgan, ed. G. Williams, Cardiff, 1974, 73 - 141. Quotation from p. 115.
15. J. Gwynfor Jones, The Gentry of East Glamorgan: Welsh Cultural Dimensions, 1540-1640, Morgannwg, XXXVII, 1993, 8 - 39. Quotation from p.11.