COMMENTARY NOTES

15 Rosabella is the love interest in a later Cambridge comedy, George Ruggle’s Ignoramus (1615).
The setting Two temporary “houses” erected in Trinity College’s dining hall represented respectively Pedantius’ school (located in a small village three miles’ distance from a university town) and Tuscidilla’s house, where Crobolus is renting a room (or rather where he would be renting a room if he ever paid his rent). Lydia’s master Charondas is described as being intus at 1574. Since Lydia has been furtively introduced into Tuscidilla’s house for a meal with Crobolus (131ff.), intus probably cannot taken to indicate that Charondas lives in the same building, unless we are to imagine that Tuscidilla presides over a regular boarding-house. Conceivably we should think that a third “house” was set up to represent Charondas’ house, although it plays no further role in the play save to be pointed at by Pedantius at 691, although the house in question may have been offstage and out of sight for the audience.
As was the custom in academic drama of the time, the five Acts are subdivided into numbered scenes. Each of these, prefaced by a list of speaking parts in it, is precipitated either by the entrance of new characters or when the stage is momentarily cleared. As such, these scene-divisions often serve as a rather imperfect means of indicating entrances and exits, and no discontinuity of time or place is necessarily implied.
Crobolus enters wearing a cloak, and Pogglostus is equipped with a rusty and battered old sword.
56 This line echoes Baptista Mantuanus, Eclogue iv.230, incedens humeros discit vibrare natusque [Smith]. Shakespeare’s “good old Mantuan” was an author on the standard Schools curriculum
63 In the printed text frigent nunc dierum praecepta is italicized as if it were a quotation, or perhaps an adage; the source is unidentified.
66 Alter ego comes from Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares VII.5 [Smith].
70 From this line, and also 145f. and 1291f., we can gather that Crobolus is a fat man, which explains his appearance in the final scene disguised as a friar.
81 Cf. Plautus, Captivus iii.84, tu mihi herus nunc es, tu patronus, tu pater, and Terence, Adelphoe ….iv.10, tu es patronus, tu pater [Smith].
91 In view of all the play’s humor about the subject, it perhaps should be pointed out that by crux Forsett always means the gallows, and his jokes are about hanging, the English method of execution, not Roman comedy’s crucifixion. This interpretation is verified by all the hanging humor in IV.i.
93 Smith suggested that Crobolus is speaking in irony and the servuli in question are fleas. An alternative might be to think that in the course of the lost play to which Pedantius seems to be a sequel he acquired a magnificent cloak, perhaps as a further reward for helping Leonidas gain his girl, or possibly by swindling Gilbert the tailor (which would explain Gilbert’s complaint about Crobolus’ non-payment of debts at 1607ff.).
99 Cf. Cicero, de Officiis I.xxv, Crassus negabat ullam satis magnam pecuniam esse ei, qui in republica princeps vellet esse, cuius fructibus exercitum alere non posset [Smith].
108 Smith compared the 1631 translation of Cornelius Agrippa’s de Occulta Philosophia III.lxiii.547 (1631 trans.), amongst the Latines he is called Jupiter, as it were an adjuvant father.
112 The italicized tag nescit servire virtus has the ring of a heraldic motto, possibly that of somebody in the audience, although T. Woodcock, Somerset Herald, informs me that this phrase is not listed in any standard collection of mottoes.
123 For summa summarum cf. Plautus, Truculentus I.i.4 and Seneca, Epistulae Morales lx ad fin. [Smith].
124 Smith wrote “Dr. Reid of Cambridge writes ‘With the substitution of Academiae for reipublicae these words occur in the formula of presentation for degrees in our Senate House.’”
126 Cf. Terence, Adelphoe III.iii.40, Tu quantus quantus nil nisi sapientia es [Smith]. Perhaps less convincingly, Smith also compared Gabriel Harvey, Gratulationum Valdensium libri quatuour V.8, quantus sum denique quantus, Totus ego, totus Risus Ludusque Iocusque.
128 Cf. Plautus, Menaechmi I.1.11ff, Quem tu asservare recte, ne aufugiat, voles Esca atque potione vinciri decet. Apud mensam plenam homini rostrum deliges…Facile asservabis dum eo vinclo vincies. Ista itstaec nimis lenta vincla sunt escaria [Smith].
141 At least in its earlier stages, Crobolus’ ambition is not unreasonable. Consider, for example, the career of Matthew Harrison of Oxford, a character in in Richard Eedes’ satiric travelogue Iter Boreale (. At the time Eedes wrote, he was landlord of The Bear, but later in life he rose to be an alderman and Mayor of Oxford: Anthony à Wood, Survey of the Antiquities of the City of Oxford Composed in 1661 - 6 (ed. the Rev. Andrew Clark, Oxford, 1899) vol. III, index s. v.
145 Another reference to Crobolus’ girth.
146 Smith suggested that globulis might mean marbles. Ball games or bowling seems more likely.
160 The universe is called τὸ πᾶν at Macrobius, Somnium Scipionis I.xvii [Smith].
161 There was a disagreement about the nature of visual perception in antiquity. Some thought that the eye is a passive receptor, while others thought that it emitted a “visual ray” so that sight was a sort of long-range touch. In the printed text intromittendo species, non extramittendo radios is italicized, but these words are not an identifiable quotation.
163 Cf. Macrobius, ib. xvii, coeleste corpus…semper in motu est et stare nescit and I.xiv, sphaerae maximae, id est, ipsius coeli [Smith].
166 Cf. Aquinas’ Summa I.cxv.5, circa daemones fuit triplex opinio. Prima Peripateticorum qui posuerunt daemones non esse [Smith].
167 If Aristotelem non vidisse verum in spiritualibus was a Scholastic formula, Smith offers no citation.
168 For rem ipsam acu attingam cf. Plautus, Rudens 1306.
169 Cf. Cicero, de Republica VI.xxi.6, duo (cinguli) sunt habitabiles, quorum australis ille in quo qui instunt adversa vobis urgent vestigia [Smith].
170 Cf. Abelard’s dictum (Ouev. inéd. Dialecta p. 174), Nulla…substantia in se contraria dicitur alteri [Smith].
172 Dromodotus appears to be thinking of the way in which the four elements are combined in that portion of the cosmic cycle when Love predominates, in the philosophical system of Empedocles. Cf. fr. 17 Diels-Kranz11 (quoted by Simplicius).
181 For the idea that the brain’s function is to cool the blood cf. Aristotle, de Partibus Animalium II.vii. Smith quoted this in Isaac Casaubon’s translation, cerebrum igitur calorem fervorumque cordis moderatur et temperiem affert.
190 See the discussion of Dromodotus’ three miles in the Introduction.
193 For coriis bubulcis cf. Plautus, Poenulus 139 [Smith].
196 I. e., Pedantius has received his M. A., the highest Arts degree.
201 Smith quotes definitions from Schreger’s Studiosus Iovalis, Termini philosophici: Formaliter est quando sensus est, ipsam rei formam adesse. Fundamentaler et Radicaliter quando forma nondum quidem adest, adest tamen fundamentum et radix illius formae.
202 Smith observed that Dromodotus echoes a Greek proverb (for which cf. Georgides Gnomologos in Boissonade’s Anecdota I.53) quoted in Latin form (loquendum ut multi, sapiendum ut pauci) by Ascham at the end of Book II of the Scholemaster and by Sir Francis Bacon in his Advancement of Learning.
209 This summarizes Republic V.473 [Smith].
210 In the printed text philosophum et regem esse voces convertibiles is italicized, but the quotation has not been identified.
212 Cf. Psalm 8.9 (Vulgate), omnia subiecisti sub pedibus eius, oves et boves universas, insuper et pecora campi [Smith].
213 Smith cited various examples of the proverb scientia non habet inimicum praeter ignorantem, including one in a letter of Gabriel Harvey (Letterbook p. 163).
235 The reader cannot help noticing that, for a servant and a casual criminal, Pogglostus is uncommonly adept at academic disputation. Later we are given reason to understand that he is a failed academic: see the Commentary note on 431.
241 C cuts from here to the end of Pedantius’ next speech, and the excision is uncharacteristically maladroit (and so is a particularly cogent reason for doubting that Forsett was responsible for the shorter version). Since so much of his blither is omitted, Dromodotus’ following expostulation haec sunt extra causam loses most of its point.
251 Smith explained “Praedicamenta (= Aristotle’s Categories), the ten highest genera (Substance, Quantity, Quality, etc.). The five Transcendents (Thing, Something, The One, The True, The Good) [or six, with Being] were so called as being still more general.”
254 He calls Saturn his own because that god was thought to preside over melancholics (as Dromodotus observes at 2117), and academics were notoriously prone to melancholy (395f., and cf. the Commentary note ad loc.).
258 Smith cited examples of this logicians’ rule of thumb, beginning with Simplicius in the introduction to his commentary on Aristotle’s Physics xv.
264 The term haecceitates appears to have been coined by Duns Scotus (cf. the sources cited by Smith).
271 In this address to the audience Pedantius, ever the Ciceronian, apes the beginning of Cicero’s speech pro Roscio Amerino: Video, patres conscripti, in me omnium vestrum ora et oculos esse conversos et credo ego vos mirari, iudices, quid sit, cum tot summi oratores hominesque nobilissimi sedeant, ego potissimum surrexerim; …quid ergo? audacissimus ego ex omnibus? Minime. At tanto officiosior quam ceteri? Ne istius quidem laudis ita sum cupidus ut aliis eam praereptam velim. Quae me igitur res praeter ceteros impulit? [Smith]
275 Omnia vincit amor, et nos cedamus amori = Vergil, Eclogue x.69. Smith pointed out that this line was also quoted by the pedant Onophrius in Abraham Fraunce’s Cambridge comedy Victoria 61.
276 Cf. Plautus, Poenulus V.v.15, male ego metuo milvos; ne forte me auferat pullum tuum [Smith].
277 Terra pedibus teritur seems to be the first of Pedantius’ etymologies: cf. Varro, de Lingua Latina V.xxi.1, terra dicta ab eo, ut Aelius scribit, quod teritur [Smith].
278 Evidently an allusion to something that transpired in the lost play to which Pedantius is a sequel: see the discussion of this theory in the Introduction.
279 Murum ahenum echoes Horace, Epistulae I.i.60[Smith].
280 Cf. Cicero, Orator xvi, ut…non sine causa Demosthenes tribuerit et primas et secundas et tertias actioni, noting that actio and pronuntatio are synonyms [Smith].
282 Smith found the saw tempora mutantur, et nos mutamur in illis in the Matthiae Borboni Collin. dicta (sayings of various people versified) collected in Ghero’s Delitiae Poetarum Germanorum I (Frankfurt, 1612), where it is attributed to Lothar I. It is in fact from Matthew Boubon's epitaph on the death of Lothar I.
283 Cf. Terence, Andria II.i.5, quoniam non potest id fieri quod vis, id velis quod possit [Smith].
287 Mentem sanam in corpore sano comes from Juvenal, Satire x.355 [Smith].
289 Sis bonus o faelixque tuis is a quotation from Vergil, Eclogue v.65 [Smith].
292 The statement that Demosthenes’ speeches “smelled of the lamp” comes from Plutarch, Life of Demosthenes viii.2 [Smith].
293 This appears to be the first of several allusions to Gabriel Harvey’s dandyism.
296 Pedantius echoes Cicero’s first oration against Catiline I.ii.4, vivis, et vivis non ad deponendam, sed ad confirmandam audaciam [Smith]. Ad might well be added before audaciam here too. 
299 Now Pedantius is quoting Vergil, Aeneid IV.174, but in that line qua is usually read. [Smith] This is the first of several places where Pedantius interrupts himself to compose a marginal gloss on a text he quotes. Like Harvey, he seems to be an industrious annotator and prides himself on the quality of his marginalia, which, he feels, enhance the value of his books (1583ff. with the note ad loc.).
307 Eloquar, an sileam? comes from Aeneid III.39 [Smith].
308 Amicus sit alter idem is an echo of Cicero’s definition of a true friend at de Amicitia xxi.80.[Smith]
309 Pedantius quotes Ovid, Heroides xvi.10[Smith].
314 Aristotle thus defines avarice at Nicomachean Ethics IV.iii [Smith].

315 Amasios for amatores is a rare case in which C presents a lectio difficilior.
317 The reference is to a part of Petrus Hispanus’ Summulae, a standard university textbook [Smith].
319 In the printed text antequam disputamus, disputatio quid sit? is italicized, but Smith, usually sensitive to echoes of Scholastic literature, did not identify this as a quotation or citation of a standard principle.
323 Cf. Cicero, in Verrem II.iii.66, de qua cum dixero…perorabo [Smith].
324 Smith cites Talaeus, Praelectiones in Ramo dialecticam (1583) p. 167, Definitio perfecta est definitio constans et solis causis essentiam constituentibus.
327 Not having any better response to offer, Pedantius quotes Juvenal, Satire vi.165 [Smith].
328 Smith tentatively suggested that the allusion is to Symposium 206.
331 Smith compared a statement in Roger Bacon’s Communium naturalium (p. 380 Charles), materiae, cum appetitu ad formam quam habet, echoes by Tartaret in his Commentary on Aristotle’s Physics. He also compared Burton’s Anatomy of Melancholy III. ii.i.2, ut materia appetit formam, sic mulier virum.
333 Like the Romans, the Elizabethans thought that this mixture of white and red was the sign of beauty, and enhanced it with lead and vermillion. Cf. the examples cited by Smith (beginning with Ovid, Metamorphoses III.491).
334 The sensibilis sensus is described by Aquinas, Summa I.lxxxiv.4 [Smith].
341 For the heart as the seat of the soul see Aristotle, de Iuventute iv. Evidently an innocent soul, Smith quoted Aquinas, Summa II.i.28, amans non est contentus superficiali apprehensione amati, sed nititur singula quae ad amatum pertinet, intrinsecus disquirere, et sic ad interiora eius ingreditur, and in so doing managed to miss the sexual implication of Dromodotus’ final words.
343 For transitiones cf. the Rhetorica ad Herennium IV.xxvi.35 [Smith].
345 The meaning of archipodialiter seems unknown. In the printed text the words archipodialiter, deinde vicissim reflexive are italicized, but Smith did not identify them as a quotation.
348 No modern edition of Terence seems to have accede ad ignem hanc at Eunuchus 85, though Smith noted that this reading appears at Burton’s Anatomy of Melancholy III.ii.iii, “possibly by a reminiscence of Pedantius.” More likely both authors read Terence in an edition that wrongly had hanc for hunc.
350 Smith quoted a passage from Tartaret’s Commentary on the Physics, tertia [divisio] vero est vocis in significata: ut canis, aliter latrabilis, aliter piscis marinus, aliter sidus celeste.
354 Cf. Ovid, Remedium Amoris 44, una manus nobis vulnus opemque feret and also the Greek proverb “that which wounds will heal” quoted by Suetonius, Claudius xliii [Smith]. Standing behind all of this is the Greek myth of Telephus, who was wounded and healed by the spear of Achilles.
359 Smith quotes a passage from Toletus’ Commentary on Aristotle’s Logic, prima intentio Formalis, ipse actus: secunda intentio Obiectiva dicitur ipsum obiectum cognitum.
361 Ratio, quae est auriga animi seems intended to recall the Myth of the Charioteer in Plato’s Phaedrus.
363 In a note on line 900 of his edition, Smith quoted Brochard’s definition of a syllogism from the Lexicon Philosophicum: quicquid de genere dicitur, de omnibus eius partibus vere dici potest, non autem vicissim.
365 Smith noted that J. C. Scaliger used the phrase solutio continui at de Subtilitate ccxcviii.3.
366 Smith cited Duns Scotus, de Divisione Naturae I.i.4, extremam…animae partem, nutritivam dico et auctivam vitam.
368 Smith wrote “vivere with the Schoolmen was the concrete, vita the abstract act.”
369 Dum vivam is italicized in the printed text, possibly in lieu of a stage direction so as to emphasize that as Pedantius says these words he makes some movement to demonstrate that he is alive.
376 Smith compared some words Forsett wrote in later life in his A Comparative Discourse of the Bodies Natural and Politique (1606), p. 87, [discretion] his best guide, like the threed of Ariadne, to lead thim through the laberinth of so many intricat diuersities.
378 In medieval philosophy the soul had three faculties, the vegetative, sensitive, and intellectual. The first is shared with all living things, the second only with animals, and the third is unique to Man [Smith].
382 The humoris sensitivi superflui (translated as “sensual humor”) is semen: cf. Aquinas, Summa I.cxix.2 and II.ii.153. Smith observed that Dromodotus’ prescribed regimen for purging oneself of love generally follows the recipe laid down by Ovid in the Remedia Amoris: fasting (795), avoidance of wine (805), leisure (136), music (753), and erotic poetry (753).
When he first greeted Pedantius at 287 he wished him “a sound mind in a sound body.” By now we can see how prudishly he meant these words, and his aversion to sex is fully revealed.
385 Smith also pointed that vino abstineas et saccaro means sugared wine, an Elizabethan favorite.
388 This statement by Scipio was reported by Cicero, de Officiis III.i [Smith].
390 Republic X.607A [Smith].
392 The conceit is that courtiers affect normal mortals just as the stars affect our fate in astrology.
395f. This sentiment is in fact attributed to Aristotle by Cicero, de Divinatione I.xxxviii. 81, Aristoteles quidem eos etiam qui…melancholici dicerentur, censebat habere aliquid in animis praesagiens atque divinum. See more generally the long passage in The Anatomy of Melancholy (I.ii.iii.xv) places among the causes of melancholy “Love of Learning, or overmuch Study”[Smith].
398 According to Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the Philosophers IV.ii.7, this philosopher underwent cautery and surgery of his genitals so as not to be affected by courtesans.
400 Cf. Plato, Apology x [Smith].
402 The Symposium.
403 He means the art of logic.
406 Ovid is thought to have been banished from Rome for having had an affair with Augustus’ daughter Julia. The historian Sallust is represented as a wanton by the pseudo-Ciceronian in Sallustium Invectiva (Smith cites an allusion to this at Ascham, Scholemaster p. 192 Mayor). Diogenes Laertius gives an account of Aristippus’ luxurious living at Lives of the Philosophers II.viii.66ff.
407 One could gloss this allusion to Demosthenes with a large number of aspersions on his character and morals in the speeches of his archenemy Aeschines; since wantonness and depravity were uppermost in Forsett’s mind, perhaps he was thinking especially of Aeschines’ in Ctesiphon clxxiii. Cicero’s morals were attacked in turn in the pseudo-Sallustian in M. Tullium Invectiva.
409 Cf. John Hale, The Civilization of Europe in the Renaissance (London, 1993) p. 571:

The image of Aristotle on all fours being ridden by…Phyllis, the doxy with whom he became (according to legend)…infatuated, had been a popular medieval exemplum of the… dangerous power of women over wisdom.

Obviously, mention of his beloved Aristotle was calculated to have an especial effect on Dromodotus. Note too that Pedantius seems to imply that he himself deserves to be ranked with these impressive figures from antiquity.
410 Cf. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations I.xvii.39, errare malo cum Platone quam cum istis vere sentire [Smith].
412 Thais was Alexander’s mistress and accompanied him on his campaign to the East [Smith].
421 As noted in the Introduction, Pogglostus’ lameness is a mystery. Save for providing grist for a couple of remarks by Pedantius and Dromodotus (see the Commentary note on 434), it plays no part in the story.
431 (Dominus was a title reserved for anybody who had been admitted to the B. A.) Evidently the vagabond miscreant Pogglostus is a failed academic.
434 Smith quotes Toletus and Tartarus to the effect that habitus and dispositio were reckoned among the four Qualities, differing from each other in terms of permanence.
On C’s variant doctrina tua erat in crure videlicet: Smith wrote “this reading probably suggested privatio in [line 436].” This suggestion does not seem requisite for us to understand privatio, but the line is a nice comic exploitation of the idea of Pogglostus’ lameness.
438 Cf. Cicero, de Oratore I.xix.87, quae isti rhetores ne primoribus quidem labris attigissent (perhaps this was a Roman proverb), and also Brutus ix.37 for succum et sanguinem [Smith].
443 According to the Schoolmen (Smith cites Aquinas, Summa I.lxxxiv.3) the forma separatae are self-existent forms that are not embodied in matter, such as angels.
447 For the evident proverb operam et oleum perdo, cf. Plautus, Poenulus I.ii.119, and Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares III.vii.3 [Smith].
451 Pedantius quotes Horace, Odes I.xxii.1 [Smith].
452 Forsett was thinking of Cicero, de Officiis I.cxx.1, nec in ullo officio claudicare. Smith points out that Elizabeth made a similar pun regarding Burleigh’s lameness in a Latin speech delivered during her 1584 Cambridge visit.
There is more humor here involving Pogglostus’ limp: perhaps Pedantius is guilty of the same kind of thoughtless cruelty as if he were to say “I have a hunch” in the presence of someone with a spinal deformity.
456 Smith quotes John Seton’s Dialecta, unitas est quiddam non quantum, hence my stage direction. So too for the one added in the next speech.
459 Smith also quotes Nizolius’ Anti-barbarus: hoc aliquid, hoc est, una aliqua numero singularis et indivdual qualitas.
463 He also cites Addison, Spectator no. 500, the learned terms of aeternitas a parte ante and aeternitas a parte post [Smith].
467 Cf. Cicero, de Oratore I.viii.32, Quid tam…regium…quam opem ferre supplicibus, excitare adflictos, dare salutem, liberare periculis, retinere homines in civitate? [Smith].
469 Another comic use of university lingo: after having completed the work for an M. A. but before participating in requisite debates that formally confirmed the degree, one was considered to be incipiens in artibus [Smith]. Some humorless redactor or copyist did not appreciate the joke in substituting arte (i. e., the art of begging), and duly restored artibus.
471 In Elizabethan dedicatory epistles and the like, writers often compared their patrons to Maecenas, the patron of Vergil and Horace under Augustus.
473 According to Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares VII.xxiv, this proverb comes from a man mentioned by the satirist Lucilius, quod simularet dormientem quo impunitius uxor eius moecharetur. This was a pet phrase of Gabriel Harvey (it is also said by Pedantius at 1538) [Smith].
478 Cf. Cicero, Philippics II.xxvii.67, quae Charybdis tam vorax? Charybdim dico? [Smith].
480 For valetudinem tuam cura diligenter cf. Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares XIV.xxii; Smith noted that Erasmus included this among his salutatory formulae in the Colloquia.
484 Though not glossed by Smith, surely cum appertinentibus is a phrase from English common law, used in the conveyance of property.
488 Potentiam hanc in actum producere because it refers to Aquinas, Summa III. supp. lii.i, potentia est, secundum quam potentes dicimur aliquid agere vel pati [Smith].
489 Smith compared O. Shreger, Studiosus Iovialis s. v. “Axiomata philosophica”: a potentia ad actum non valet consequentia, and noted that the same formula is found in one of Harvey’s notebooks. Cf. also Terence, Phormio I.i.3, relicuom pauxillulum nummorum.
497 Smith compared Abraham Fraunce’s Cambridge comedy Victoria 1377, in which Onophrius the pedant says mutuo das cum mihi commodas, et dicitur mutuum quasi meum tuum, quia de meo fiat tuum.
499 The primal matter from which the elements were born. Smith also compared Javellus’ commentary on Aristotle’s Physics cix.2, quaestio 32, Si monstra sunt intenta a natura.
502 The allusion is to Aristotle’s statement at Nat. Auscult. x and elsewhere that it is the nature of heavy things to fall (such as a cutpurse from a gallows) [Smith].
503 Humidum radicale is the body’s fundamental fluid contents quid si subtrahatur, restitui non potest, sucut si amputetur manus aut pes (Aquinas, Summa I.cxix ad. 3) [Smith].
504 Not (as Smith pointed out) sophists in the normal sense but sophisters, a contemporary term used for undergraduate disputants in the Universities.
507 Auri…sacra fames is from Vergil, Aeneid III.37 [Smith]. For Pedantius’ parenthetical remarks cf. the Commentary note on 299.
510 Midas was supposed to have had the ears of an ass. Qui fame peribat, quod auro vesci nequibat is italicized in the printed text; if this is a quotation, it remains unidenified.
511 For campum in quo exultare possit oratio cf. Cicero, Academica II.xxxv.112 [Smith]. Pedantius calls Pogglostus Mercurialem because Mercury was the patron god of thieves.
512 It is Pogglostus’ thieving (and sword-wielding) hand for which Pedantius wishes these ills; he seems to confuse Sisyphus’ rock with Tantalus’ thirst. This list of mythological punishments is of course extremely hackneyed; cf. Seneca, Hercules Furens 750ff., Medea 744ff., and Octavia 621ff.
513 Smith noted that Phlegetontis in undam occurs at Baptista Mantuan, Eclogue III.109.
514 Cf. the Vulgate text of Deuteronomy 23:25, si intraveris in segetem amici tui, franges spicas et manu conteres: falce autem non metes., and also Cicero, Paradoxa Stoicorum iv, si mihi eripuisses divinam animi constantiam and ib. ii (of Regulus) non…magnitudo animi eius excruciabatur, non fides, non constantia, non ulla virtus [Smith].
516 Regulus, the Roman ambassador who was paroled by the Carthaginians and voluntarily returned to his captors to face execution, was a traditional model of virtue. Pedantius paraphrases Cicero’s praise at Paradoxica Stoicorum 2 and 4 [Smith].
522 Cf. Plautus, Curculio III.61, meus hic est, hamum vorat (cf. also Truculentus I.i.21) [Smith].
526 For amoris vias cf. Plautus, Persa I.i.1 [Smith].
535 Now it is Crobolus’ turn to quote Cicero, as he plays at being professor of the criminal arts: cf. de Officiis III.xxix, haec una virtus omnium est domina et regina [Smith]. But at the same time one thinks of the dictum that Theology is queen of the sciences. In the context of a play written for an academic audience, it is perhaps unclear whether, on the basis of this and the following bits of Latin literature put in his mouth, we are supposed to assume that Crobolus has had the benefit of an education, as has Pogglostus.
538 A witty turn on the description of dull men as plumbei. One thinks of the similar wit in the highwaymen’s chorus from The Beggars’ Opera:

Let chemists toil like asses
Our fire their fire surpasses,
And turns all our lead to gold.

539 Cf. Terence, Phormio I.ii.18, modo non montes auri pollicens [Smith].
542 Smith noted that at Rhetor sig. F iii Harvey enthused O artem artium; O doctrinarum doctrinam eloquentiam.
545 For e cellis promptuariis cf. Plautus, Amphitryo i.i.4, e promptuaria cella depromar [Smith].
549 Cf. Terence, Eunuchus III.v.36f., Iovem quo pacto Danaae misisse aiunt quondam in gremium imbrem aureum. Smith also compared Abraham Fraunce’s Victoria 593, ut vel Alchimisticam…artem didicerem Per quam imber in gremium tuum aureus influat [Smith].
559 For intus et in cute cf. Persius, Satire iii.30 [Smith].
563 Cf. Cicero, pro Sestio lxxviii, republicae sanguine saginari [Smith].
564 For exitus acta probabit cf. Ovid, Heroides ii.85 [Smith].
568 Pedantius has organized a posse to ward off any possible return by the hated Pogglostus. He, Dromodotus, and their students enter equipped with various weapons: Pedantius may well be armed with his birch rod (his sceptrum of the next line, and see the note on 610ff. below) and Dromodotus carries some sort of academicum telum (575), possibly a Beadle’s staff, which would make a humorous prop for the play. The boys may have more serious weaponry.
569 Bletus, we gather, is a big ox of a boy. Ludio is obsequious in Pedantius’ presence but disrespectful behind his back, and Parillus, evidently the maturest of the lot, is a good deal more learned than his teacher and derives ironic pleasure from observing his blunders: a suitable crew of students for such a teacher.
571 For Teucer sub Aiacis clypeo cf. Homer, Iliad VIII.267 etc.
574 Smith quotes John Seton’s Dialectica, individuum vagum dicitur singulare de quo fit mentio (cf. also Aquinas, Summa I.xxx.4 c). But whatever this term meant to the Schoolmen, the prime point here is the pun on the word “vagabond.”
576 Heavy objects fall because of a natural proclivity to seek out the center of the universe according to Aristotle, de Caelo IV.iv.8 [Smith].
579 Debellare superbos comes from Vergil, Aeneid VI.853 [Smith].
582 Vel formidandus becomes clearer when we are told later in the play about Pedantius’ propensity for whipping his students (610ff.).
585 Albae gallinae filius is a quotation of Juvenal, Satire xiii.14 [Smith] 1. Books were sufficiently rare and expensive that they were frequently bequeathed in wills. It is also possible that Pedantius prizes his books because, in the manner of Harvey, he imagines that their value is enhanced by his marginalia.
586 Nizolius’ Thesaurus Ciceronianus (first published as Observationes in M. Tullium Ciceronem in 1535) was a Ciceronian phrase-book from which tags could be quarried [Smith]. Pedantius’ confession of fondness for this book makes us wonder whether he has actually read all of the literature he so industriously quotes. This suspicion is verified at 1443 (cf. the note ad loc., and also the note on 1079).
588 For the anecdote cf. Cicero, de Fato v.10 [Smith].
589 At the beginning of Aristotle’s Categories [Smith].
594. For ad abidendas muscas cf. Cicero, de Oratore II.lx.247 [Smith].
596 Smith wondered whether in omnibus nocturnis vigiliis was a Cambridge allusion. Did some colleges employ night watchmen?
598 Smith pointed out that although Pedantius appropriates Cicero, pro Caelio xxi.51, sed quoniam emersisse iam e vadis et scopulos praetervecta videtur oratio mea, he uses vado in the sense of “safe waters,” as at Terence, Andria V.ii.4.
600 Pro aris et focis is found at the conclusion of Cicero’s fourth oration against Catiline [Smith].
604 Smith pointed out that bownce is supposed to imitate the sound of a gun, as at Shakespeare, King John II.i.462, He speaks plain cannon fire and smoke and bounce.
605 I pede faustoi s from Horace, Epistulae II.ii.37. Cf. also Sulla’s saying about Cicero quoted by Plutarch in the first chapter of his Life of Caesar, “if he did not perceive many Mariuses in this lad” [Smith].
608 Smith presents evidence that this was a formulaic schoolmaster’s dismissal and students’ response.
610 Smith also wrote “Complaints to parents by boys of the severity of the schoolmaster are a frequent topic in plays in which a schoolmaster appears,” citing Plautus, Bacchides III.iii.36. This was the great age of the lash: even undergraduates (often considerably younger than their modern contemporaries) were liable to corporal punishment. One wonders whether in real life a child would have any legal recourse against such treatment, save in the extremest of cases.
612 Cf. the anonymous treatise Rhetorica ad Herrenium, that used to be attributed to Cicero, quoniam…docilem, benevolum, attentum auditorem habere volumus [Smith].
614 Smith observed that Harvey wrote sigillatim singula pollicetur Exercitatio at Rhetor sig. P iv.
616 For ignorationem causarum cf. Cicero, Academica I.xxix ad fin. For mater erroris cf. A. Gartner, Dictoria (1574) p. 40b. Cf. also Harvey, Three proper letters p. I.63 Grosart, Least happily through ouer great credulitie and rashnesse, we mistake Non causam pro causa [Smith].
626 The operativum is the effective cause [Smith].
630 Cf. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations III.6, non silice nati sumus. [Smith] The tiger in question is the Hyrcanian one mentioned at Vergil, Aeneid IV.366f.
632 Smith pointed out that Erasmus used the Greek genitival form Sapphûs in his Colloquia.
641 Cf. Cicero, Academica I.vi.22, omnis illa antiqua philosophia sensit in una virtute esse positam beatam vitam. Pedantius could have refuted Dromodotus by continuing the quote, nec tamen beatissimam, nisi adiungeretur et corporis, et cetera quae supra dicta sunt, ad virtutis usum idonea [Smith].
642 For woman as nature’s weakness or mistake Smith cites several passages, including Aquinas, Summa I.xcix.9, foemina est mas occasionatus quasi praeter intentionem naturae proveniens.
644 Smith also cites a passage from Roger Bacon, Communium Naturalium, natura semper intendit quid est optimum.
650 Dromodotus is alluding to Aristotle, Politics I.ii [Smith].
651 Pedantius paraphrases Cicero, de Oratore I.cc, est domus iuris consulti totius oraculum ciuitatis [Smith].
656 See the note on 254.
659 Cf. the definition of the syllogism in Brochard’s Lexicon Philosophicum, quicquid de genere dicitur, de omnibus eius partibus vere dici potest, non autem vicissim. [Smith]
663 Cf. Javellus’ commentary on Book II of Aristotle’s de Anima, si generare sibi simile est naturalissimum omnibus viventibus. [Smith] But surely the kind of sibi simile Dromodotus has in mind is not the procreation of children, but the churning out of students who bear the image of their professor.
664 Forsett plays on the familiar legal dictum qui facit per alium, facit per se. [Smith]
667 Cf. Harvey’s Ciceronianus 16, facere non possum quin exclamem (imitated from Cicero, de Oratore II.x.39) [Smith].
671 C’s variant nascitur indigne per quem non nascitur alter is found in a marginal note of Harvey on Freigerius’ Mosaicus (1583) p. 20, where the saying is attributed to Palingenius [Smith].
673 Prora et puppis is quoted as a proverb by Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares XVI.xxiv [Smith].
677 C’s variant ego sic statui…vel nubere vel nullus esse seems a parody of Caesar’s famous statement (Plutarch, Life of Caesar xi) that he would be first man in the state or nothing.
680 Aethiopem lavo is quoted as a proverb by Lucan, contra Indoctum xxviii [Smith].
681 What Forsett means can be discerned from his A Defense (p. 53), “the deadliest poyson that lyeth in the Dragons Tayle” [Smith]. In the book this is italicized as if it were a proverb.
684 Cf. Hegendorffinus, Dragmata 8, Signa…uniuersalia esse dicunt omnis, nemo, nullis. Signa particularia uaria sunt…ut quidam [Smith].
689 Since Pedantius has been ejected from the university (cf. 2096), one wonders why Dromodotus feels moved to issue this injunction.
690 In Binder’s Novus Thesaurus Adagorum proverb 3122 is si non caste, tamen caute [Smith].
691 For the structure to which Pedantius points see the initial Commentary note on the setting of the play.
695 For O plumbeum pugionem cf. Cicero, de Finibus IV.xviii [Smith].
697 For contrarium expetit suum contrarium cf. Aristotle, Ethica II.ix.4 [Smith].
701 Lynceus was the exceptionally keen-sighted Argonaut.
703 For o fors fortuna! cf. Terence, Phormio V.xvi.1. Descendendum est in solem et pulverem comes from Cicero, Leges III.vi, where it is said that Demetrius of Phalerum brought learning out of its shady leisure into the sunlight and dust of practical human affairs [Smith]. Pedantius is saying he must abandon his ivory tower existence in order to win Lydia.
711 Bonis…avibus comes from Ovid, Fasti I.513 [Smith]. When Pedantius says things like quod aiunt one wonders whether he has acquired these tags at second hand: see the Commentary note on 586.
713 Non vox hominem sonat, o dea certe = Vergil, Aeneid I.328 [Smith].
716 Cf. Terence, Heauton Timorumenos II.iii.123, in tempore ad eam veni quod rerum omniumst primum. Adesdum, paucis te volo comes from Terence’s Andria I.i.ii [Smith].
720 A comic adaptation of the beginning of Cicero’s de Oratore, cogitanti mihi saepe numero et memoria vetera repetenti perbeati fuisse, Quinte frater, illi videri solent, qui in optima re publica, cum et honoribus et rerum gestarum gloria florerent, eum vitae cursum tenere potuerunt, ut vel in negotio sine periculo vel in otio cum dignitate esse possent [Smith]. Forsett’s esse posse videatur mimics Cicero’s favorite, and famously overused, formula for ending a sentence.
724 P has foelix anima where C has flexanima. This seems a reversal of the normal state of affairs, where P usually presents a lectio facilior. Flexanima is a word used by the early Roman writer Pacuvius (o flexanima atque omnium regina rerum oratio!, quoted by Cicero, de Oratore II.xliv.187) [Smith], and it seems likely that the printer substituted foelix anima, because he misread the manuscript text before him.
726 Hos regit artus is a tag from Vergil, Aeneid IV.336. v
728 Tabernaculum vitae collocemus comes from Cicero, de Oratore III.xx.77 [Smith].
732 Dromodotus’ sudden reversal of tack, whereby he acts as Pedantius’ second in his suit, seems out of character. Evidently Pedantius’ promise (690ff.) to love chastely and philosophically has momentarily silenced his qualms (cf. his remark at 749f.). Then too, he is not one to miss any chance for argumentation.
735 Cf. Seneca, de Beneficiis vii.1, homo animal sociabile (so also Epistle xcv) [Smith].
737 I do not know why naturalitate, et id ipsum quid hominis is italicized in the book [Smith].
739 I am not sure that my translation of confusa notio is adequate: this looks like it might be a technical Scholastic phrase, but Smith offers no gloss for it.
745 For Momus’ wish cf. Lucian, Hermotimus xx. Harvey alludes to this passage in his Letterbook, p. 140 [Smith].
746 Cf. Cicero, de Officiis I.v.14, (facies honesti) quae si oculis cerneretur, mirabiles amores, ut ait Plato, excitaret (sapientiae) [Smith].
752 Smith suggested that the actor playing Lydia had his face whitened with cosmetics.
753 Cf. Boetius’ commentary on Aristotle, Topics VII.ii p. 74, ut de albo et nigro: nam illud quidem disgregativum, hoc autem congregativum visus est [Smith].
755 Cf. Cicero, de Officiis I.lvii, patria…pro qua quis bonus dubitet mortem oppetere? [Smith]
759 Cf. ib. I.xi.35, quamvis murum aries percusserit [Smith].
762 Pedantius’ conceit may be based on Aristophanes’ erotic myth in Plato’s Symposium of the originally spherical beings now torn in two and searching for their lost missing halves.
764 Abiit, exit, evasit, erupit comes from the beginning of Cicero’s second Catilinarian Oration [Smith].
770 The quote comes from Gartner’s Dicteria (1574) p. 75, (mulier) attrahit ut Fiscus [l. viscus ?] sed decipit ut Basiliscus [Smith].
775 Cf. Macrobius, in Somnium Scipionis xv, tertia (linea) ducta per medium ecliptica vocatur, quia cum cursum suum in eadem linea pariter sol et luna conficiunt, alterius eorum necesse est venire defectum [Smith].
777 Cf. Gartner’s Dicteria p. 14, quot campo flores, tot sunt in amore dolores [Smith].
778 These insistent references to the liver here and at 785f. have to do with a grotesque couplet from Harvey’s elegy to Sir Philip Sidney at Gratulationum Valdensium libri quatuour IV. p.17 [Smith]:

Sum Iecur, ex quo te primum Sidneie vidi:
Os oculosque regit, cogit amare iecur.

Cf. also the medical theory expounded at 1988ff. Compare the following lines from the second Epistle of Thomas Watson’s Amintae Gaudia of 1592 (88 - 90) from a passage about Cupid invading the body of a lover:

si splenem, spleni placida sub imagine risum
imperiosus Amor subdit, tollitque cacchinum
ipsis vel satyris dignum, levibusque Napaeis.

Amintae Gaudia is full of comedy, as when Amyntas looks down on his sleeping Phyllis and congratulates her on her lack of dandruff, or when we are given a description of the defeat of the Armada and the principal navigations of the English nation all nicely painted on the side of a milkmaid’s bucket. It is not out of the question, therefore, that the passage just quoted (from a poem in which Amyntas describes Love setting up housekeeping in various parts of his anatomy) is inspired by Pedantius.
780 For Furiarum taedis ardentibus cf. Cicero, in Pisonem xx.46 [Smith].
781 He quotes Vergil, Georgics IV.263 [Smith].
782 More parody of Harvey’s poetry: cf. his apostrophe to the Earl of Oxford at Gratulationum Valdensium IV, fac ad portas astare Britannas Hannibalem. This in turn echoes Cicero, de Finibus IV.ix.22, si Hannibal ad portas venisset [Smith].
783 Cf. venias portus et ara tuis at Ovid, Heroides i.110 [Smith].
785f. Cf. the Commentary note on 778.
792 For the music of the seven planets Smith cites a passage from Macrobius, in Somnium Scipionis, but there the idea is not attributed to the Pythagoreans.
794 Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses XIII.6, ante rates causam? et mecum confertur Ulixes? [Smith]
795 For terrae filius used of an upstart cf. Cicero, Epistulae ad Atticum I.xiii.4. For infaelix reipublicae lolium cf. Vergil, Eclogue v.7 [Smith]. For the Oxford terrae filius (a jester who performed at commencement exercises) cf. Thomas Secombe and H. Spenser Scott, In Praise of Oxford, An Anthology in Prose and Verse (London, 1912) II.512. I do not know if Elizabethan Cambridge had a similar custom.
796 For irruere in alienas possessiones cf. Cicero, de Oratore I.x.41. This phrase is imitated by Harvey at Ciceronianus lvi [Smith].
799 He quotes Cicero’s translation of Homer, Iliad IX.646 (Tusculan Disputations III.ix.18) [Smith].
803 Cf. Aquinas, Summa I.cxviii.2, generatio unius est corruptio alterius [Smith].
811 Cf. Cicero’s Second Philippic i.2, non video nec in vita nec in gratia nec in rebus gestis nec in hac mea mediocritate ingenii quid despicere possit Antonius [Smith].
813 In mentioning Hannibal’s comment about Phormio Pedantius is alluding to de Oratore II.xviii [Smith].
821 Tyrophagus is the only one of Forsett’s characters who has a name that means something: “Cheese Eater,” a suitable name for a parasite. He is a somewhat higher type of rascal than Crobolus’ other confederate, Pogglostus.
825 For the mysterious Leonidas see the Introduction.
836 Like Crobolus, and as befits a parasite, Tyrophagus is a man of prodigious girth (1349).
846 Not Aristotle’s quintessence, but that of the alchemists and Paracelsus [Smith].
856 Pliny, Natural History X.i, writes of the ostrich’s wonderful capacity for digesting things indiscriminately. Presumably Forsett imagined this to be because of the unusual heat of the bird’s stomach [Smith].
869 The words tanquam ad mercaturam bonarum artium come from Cicero, de Officiis III.ii. Likewise unitalicized in the printed text are the words in the following sentence, which are closely based on Cicero, de Oratore II.xxii.94, Isocrates…cuius e ludo tamquam ex equo Troiano meri principes exierunt. These words are quoted by Harvey at Rhetor sig. H 1 [Smith].
879 Toto erras coelo is a phrase taken from Macrobius, Saturnalia iii.12 [Smith].
880 This famous observation comes from Cicero, de Officiis I.xxii [Smith]. As indicated by the translation, I understand pedibus ire in sententiam tuam as a metaphor drawn from voting in Parliament.
881 Pedibus ire in sententiam tuam comes from Livy IX.viii, and is imitated by Harvey at Rhetor sig. E ivv [Smith].
886 For laus sequitur fugientem cf. Sallust, Catiline liv, qui minus petebat gloriam, eo magis illum sequebatur, and Seneca, de Beneficiis v.1, gloria fugientes magis sequitur [Smith].
897 Cf. Hesiod, Works and Days 349f. and Cicero, de Officiis I.xv.48 [Smith].
898 Cf. Cicero, de Senectute xv.51, terra quae nunquam…sine usura reddit quod accepit. [Smith]
907 According to Smith this proverb is found in Culmann’s Sententiae Pueriles.
910 Smith also cites ib., protinus apparet quae plantae frugiferae sint.
915 This proverb goes back to the Roman mime-writer Publilius Syrus.
918 In the book splendidae vestes sunt nobilitatis testes is italicized as if it were a quote or proverb; Smith cites no source.
921 No doubt the idea of Market Square being crammed full of miscreants and malefactors would seem as ludicrous in 1581 as today.
923 A comical use of the famous line at Terence, Heauton Timorumenos I.i.25 [Smith].
931 A comic variant on the notorious wish of Caligula (Suetonius, Calig. xxx.2) that all Rome’s citizenry had one collective throat that he could cut.
936 At the end of III.i Tyrophagus has gone in to Pedantius’ school to be given the money. Now, after Pogglostus has given his soliloquy, he reenters. He is still wearing his royal livery.
948 For littus avarum cf. Vergil, Aeneid III.44 [Smith].
950 Smith observed that Lily’s Latin grammar, the standard one of the period, had the sentence levabo te hoc onere.
1003 Cf. Plautus, Pseudolus III.ii.63, coquum…milvinis aut aquilinis ungulis. [Smith]
1013 For the proverb cf. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics IX.iii and Macrobius, Saturnalia vii [Smith].
1019 Nec omne nec solum nec semper was a definition of a proprium in logic. Cf. Harvey, Ciceronianus 32 in which he wrote that we should imitate Cicero, sed neque solum neque totum neque semper [Smith].
1022 Walter’s Gnomologia attributes an adage amicitiae coagulum est cum bonis convivium. Cf. also Varro, Menippean fragment 111, hoc continet coagulum convivia (quoted by Nonnus) [Smith].
1026 For emunctae naris cf. Horace, Satire I.iv.8 (where it means “keen-scented”) [Smith].
1029 Smith traced this evergreen proverb back to Gartner’s Dicteria (1574) p. 70; it is employed by Harvey at Gratulationum Valdensium libri quatuour I.21.
1044 Totum in toto, et totum in qualibet parte comes from Aquinas, Summa I.lxxvii.1. Cf. Abraham Fraunce’s Victoria 1338, nunc non ero totus in toto, et totus in qualibet parte [Smith].
1045 Brochard’s Lexicon Philosophicum defines subalterna genera as genera quorum unum ab altero continetur, vel quorum unum alteri genus est, alterum subiacet [Smith].
1047 Tartaret in his commentary on Petrus Hispanus’ Summulae wrote vox significativa ad placitum est illa quae ad voluntatem primi instituentis aliquid significat [Smith].
1052 Smith explained that genus generalissimum = genus supremum or remotissimum, one of the ten Predicaments.
1054 P’s text is quarum altera continet omnia (scil:) protendens, altera nihil: (scil:) praestans. Smith wrote “This is the most obscure passage of the play, and seems not to have been understood by either scribe. I take it that the words protendens, praestans are not, as might be thought, examples of voces contradictorias, but are practically stage-directions: You must have hands like words of contradictory import, of which one contains every thing (holding out his hand), the other nothing (offering other hand).”
Forsett perhaps had in mind the game in which one extends two closed hands, one containing something, the other nothing. The two words scil<icet> represent indications to the actor ought to mime the gestures, but I not quite certain whether the parentheses ought to be extended so as to make protendens and praestans part of the stage direction. Nevertheless, I follow Smith’s suggestion here and have adjusted the parentheses accordingly.
1057 Cf. Cicero, de Senectute III.viii, est istuc quidem…aliquid, sed nequaquam in isto sunt omnia. Smith pointed out that est hoc aliquid quod dicis, sed non sunt in eo omnia is founda t Abraham Fraunce, Victoria 55 [Smith].
1059 Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses I.85, os homini sublime dedit caelumque videre [Smith].
1063 Cf. Harvey’s Rhetor sig. P iir, mitto auream comam et calamistratos capillos. Cf. also Burton, Anatomy of Melancholy III.ii.iv.i, Tis the common humor of all Sutors to be… neat, comb’d and curl’d, with powdered hairs, comptus & calamistratus [Smith].
1064 In defending himself against Nashe (Pierce’s Supererogation p. II.81 Grosart) Harvey wrote can he not…object any certaine vice against me, but onely one greuous crime called Pumps and Pantofles (which indeed I haue worne euer since I knew Cambridge)…and Pride [Smith].
1066 Speculum Tuscanismi is the title of a poem by Harvey, included in a letter to Spenser (Smith quotes it on p. xxxix of his Introduction).
1074 For voces…amplificativae cf. the treatise Rhetorica ad Herennium II.30 [Smith].
1076 Cf. Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares I.i, ceteris satisfacio omnibus, mihi ipse nunquam satisfacio [Smith].
1078 Cf. Harvey’s Rhetor sig. B ii, Ciceronianissime. parcite mihi, o egregii Ciceroniani, si non debeam eo gradu uti comparationis [Smith].
1079 Again, there is much in this speech to suggest that Pedantius’ method consists of stringing together snippets culled from Cicero and other ancient writers. This requires no deep understanding of these authors, and in fact does not require that one has actually read them.
1086 Cf. Hegendorffinus, Dragmata 11, propositio modalis est quae fit vel per possibile, impossibile, contingens, verum etc [Smith].
1090 Cf. Cicero, de Finibus II.vi, rhetoricam palmae, dialecticam pugno similem esse dicebat Zeno [Smith]..
1093 Lily used the phrase tenebris…Cimmeriis in his standard Latin grammar [Smith]. The Cimmerians were a people of the far north who lived in near-perpetual darkness.
1098 Cf. Cicero, de Finibus I.vi.20, sol Democrito magnus videtur, quippe homini erudito in geometriaque perfecto: huic bipedalis fortasse [Smith].
1099 For tractas…illotis manibus cf. Plautus, Poenulus I.ii.103 [Smith].
1110 An argument redolent of Duns Scotus and Nicholas de Orbellis (or Dorbellus), a commentator on Petrus Hispanus (Pope John XXI), “whose Summulae Logicales reigned supreme in the schools. Petrus Hispanus enunciated the theory which Duns Scotus developed, dyalectica est ars artium, scientia scientiarum” (Smith). Cf. also Cicero, de Oratore II.lvii.233 for the foenum . . . ambrisia contrast [Smith].
1102 Cf. Cicero, de Oratore II.xxxvii.156, sic decrevi philosophari potius, ut Neoptolemus apud Ennium, paucis [Smith].
1105 Cf. Seton’s Dialectica sig. D iiii, de imperfecte mistis. meteoron est corpus compositum imperfectum ex vapore vel exhalatione effectum [Smith].
1113 Literally, as Smith noted, his words are “brooms falling to pieces.” Despite this reference cf. Cicero, Orator ccxxxv, etsi humilius dictum est tamen simile est — scopas ut ita dicam mihi videntur dissolvere.
1116 For some obscure reason nil ad rhombum means “not to the point.” Cf. the various possible explanations quoted by Smith in his note ad loc. (his line 1538).
1118 For cedendo vincere cf. Ovid Ars Amoris II.197 [Smith].
1125 Evidently Pedantius regards the difference between the second and fourth declensions in Latin to be something arcane.
1126 Cf. Erasmus as quoted in R. Pott’s Aphorisms, “Some while they hasten…with unwet feet, as they say, to learn things, neglect the care of language and words…”; Smith quotes other examples of this saying.
1127 Cf. Hegendorffinus, Dragmata 17, diversorum generum et non subalternatim collocatorum. “Dromodotus means that rhetoric is a branch of natural philosophy, cum nullum violentum sit perpetuum” [Smith].
1130 Cf. W. Fulke, Meteors (1602) p. 5v, “the aire is devided into three regions, the highest, the middle and the lowest” [Smith].
1134 Another university “in-joke”: “It was no unusual even into the 16th century for the University or a College to find itself deprived of its right of electing its own officers by receiving a ‘mandatory letter’ from the crown instructing it to appoint a particular person” (Smith, Introduction p. xlvii).
1137 Smith cites Agrippa, Of occult Philosophy I.3 p. 6, “Aire being kindled, passeth into Fire,” but quotes no commentator on Aristotle or anybody else to this effect.
1141 Cf. Cicero, de Oratore II.lvii.234, requiescam in Caesaris sermonem quasi in aliquo peropportuno deversorio [Smith].
1145 Forsett burlesques the first words of Cicero’s first Catilinarian oration [Smith].
1150 For multos modios salis comederem cf. Cicero, de Amicitia xix.67 [Smith].
1152 For deliciae generis humani cf. Suetonius Life of Titus i. For Suadae medulla cf. Cicero, de Senectute xiv.50. This was a favorite phrase of Gabriel Harvey: cf. Smith’s Introduction, p. xxxv. Cupidineam stultitiam is italicized in the book, but Smith identifies no quote.
1157 Cf. Cicero, de Amicitia xiii.47, solem enim a mundo tollere videntur ii, qui amicitiam e vita tollunt [Smith].
1159 Cf. Plautus, Mercator III.iv.32, montes…mali in me mardentes…iacis [Smith].
1163 For maledictis onerem cf. Plautus, Pseudolus I.3 [Smith].
1168 The close conjunction of privatio spirituum vitalium and hoc reipublicae membrum makes one wonder if there is some sexual innuendo present. Is Dromodotus hinting that if the girl doesn’t marry his friend he will ruin himself by masturbation? The following membrum may support this view.
1182 For this logicians’ axiom cf. the authors quoted by Smith, such as Abraham Fraunce, Lawiers Logike (1588), the end is more to be desired than those things that bee referred to the end.
1186 I do not understand why in coeteris est contrarium reperire is italicized in the printed text.
1192 Smith quotes from a fifteenth century ms., vento quid levius? fulgur: quid fulgure? flamma. Flamma quid? mulier: quid mulier? nihil. Cf. also the other examples he cites.
1196 “Pedantius was no doubt represented as a tall gaunt man, like Gabriel Harvey” [Smith]. This may well be so, but this explanation does not seem fully to explain the use of this word in the immediate context. I would like to think that quadratus means “square” in the sense “honest, candid.” The difficulty is that in English this word only acquired this meaning in the second half of the seventeenth century according to O. E. D. “Square” III.b.
1198 Phalaris was the Sicilian tyrant who broiled men alive in a brazen bull until he received the same treatment. Cf. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations II.vi.17, sed Epicuro…non est hoc satis: in Phalaridis tauro si erit, dicet: Quam suave est hoc! quam hoc non curo! [Smith]
1199 A list of impossibilities or adunata that will have to be fulfilled before something can happen, a cliché of ancient literature.
1205 Smith identifies this as a misrepresentation of what Aristotle writes about Anaxagoras’ doctrine at Aristotle, Physics I.iv.
1208 The tripartita ratio bonorum: cf. Cicero, Academica I.v.19 [Smith].
1211 Although this argument is attributed to Socrates by Erasmus in the Adages, it belongs to Diogenes (Diogenes Laertius VI.xxxvii) [Smith].
1215 This echoes a sentence in Lilly’s standard Latin grammar, quis nisi mentis inops oblatum respuat aurum? [Smith].
1216 For this image of the divining rod cf. Cicero, de Officiis I.xliv.158, a phrase imitated by Harvey (cf. Smith’s Introduction, p. xxxv).
1220 In the Gnomologia Walter gives the proverb in the form propria laus sordet [Smith].
1223 For stultorum plena sint omnia cf. Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares IX.xxii.4 [Smith].
1225 For dies me deficeret cf. Cicero, in Verrem II.ii.21 [Smith].
1231 The use of femur as a slang expression for the penis appears to be entirely absent from classical Latin, but it is also used at the anonymous 1595 comedy Laelia 79.
1234 This is the second time Ludio links Cicero and Terence (cf. 1162f.); I do not understand why. Cf. Plautus, Truculentus II.vi.25, ubi natus’t machaeram…poscebat.
1247 The aqueous humor of the eye was sometimes called the humor cristallinus: cf. for example Duns Scotus, in Physicas Aristotelis Quaestiones 73 [Smith]
1250 For calling a hooked nose Persian cf. Plutarch, Praecepta Gerundae Reipublicae xxviii ad fin. Thomas Watson glossed Passion VII.8 (Her Eagles nose is straight of stately frame) of his 1582 Hecatompathia with a sidenote Nasus Aquilinus ex Persarum opinone maiestatem personae arguit.
1254 Dromodotus misuses the Scholastic phrase intellectus agens, really to be contrasted with intellectus possibilis [Smith]. Clearly, he is of the opinion that a woman’s highest duty is to do as she is told.
1255 Smith quotes the maxim quoted by Gassendi to Descartes, quicquid est in intellectu, praeesse debere in sensu.
1264 Cf. Cicero, Paradoxa Stoicorum xxvii, ego vero te non stultum ut saepe, non improbum ut semper, sed dementem insanire [Smith].
1267 For cane peius et angue cf. Horace, Epistulae I.xvii.30 [Smith].
1280 This scene, in which Pogglostus and Tyrophagus amuse each other with banter while Crobolus tries to wrack his brains, exhibits fine writing. There is something almost Shakespearean about the manner in which the two rascals keep spinning out their witty talk about hanging.
1290 Campos, ubi Troia fuit comes from Vergil, Aeneid III.11 [Smith].
1291 Recall that Crobolus is evidently a fat man.
1294 Cf. Plautus, Amphitruo I.i.97, usque a mane ad vesperum. [Smith]
1297 For tua vicit comoedia cf. Plautus, Trinummus III.ii.80 [Smith].
1310 In the printed text, for what it is worth, there is no comma after scutigerorum. Hence I take armigerorum to be a modifying adjective (“armigerous,” in the sense employed by the College of Arms). But of course repunctuation could make the word stand as a third noun.
1312 Cf. the initial Commentary note on the play for the evident meaning of intus. More generally, for this mysterious Chremylus and the play’s evident background, see the discussion in the Introduction.
1314 This conceit of convoking a private mental senate is taken from Plautus, Epidicus I.ii.56, Mostellaria III.vii.158, and Miles Gloriosus II.ii.41 [Smith]
1317 The taxatores were University officials responsible for regulating weights, measures, and rental fees in the town.
1327 Colli-frangibulum is modelled after denti-frangibula (fists) and nuci-frangibula (teeth) at Plautus, Bacchides IV.ii.14 and 16 [Smith].
1329 Cf. Plautus, Miles Gloriosus II.iv.19, noli minitari: scio crucem futuram mihi sepulchrum: ibi mei maiores sunt siti [Smith].
1331 Smith thought this was an allusion to Hercules’ wearing woman’s clothes when serving Omphale.
1338 Cf. Cicero, Academica II.xliv.135, iracundiam fortitudinis quasi cotem esse dicebant [Smith].
1342 Cf. Cicero, de Finibus II.xxx.97, philosophi in suis lectulis plerumque moriuntur [Smith].
1383 Frigidus est philosophus is the first of a number of indications that Parillus is nobody’s fool. He pretends to take in his teachers’ wisdom with due gratitude, but peppers his responses with ironical remarks and sarcastic asides.
As Dromodotus delivers his discourse, he and Parillus pace up and down in front of Pedantius’ school.
1390 The axiom in question is that of Nizolius, Anti-barbarus 322, ipsum scire definiunt hoc modo, scire est cognoscere per causam [Smith].
1391 Cf. Agrippa, Of Occult Philosophy II.7 p.184, There are four Elements…viz. Fire, Aire, Water and Earth…There are four first qualities…viz. Cold, Heat, Driness and Moystness: …also the wind is divided into Eastern, Western, Northern and Southern [Smith].
1396 Cf. Seton’s Dialectica, Privatio est absentia rei naturals & per se reiicitur a praedicamento (privatio enim rei, res non est) [Smith].
1403 For intus et in cute cf. the Commentary note on 559.
1406 Quod efficit tale, illud ipsum est magis tale is quoted as an axiom by E. Sowernam, Ester hath hang’d Haman (1617); cf. also Schreger, Studiosus Jovialus, causa est nobilior et perfectior suo effectu. Smith]
1421 The Aristotelian definition of Man: cf. Analytica p. 92a Bekker [Smith].
1423 Cf. Cicero, de Republica VI.xxvi.8, nec enim tu is es, quem forma ista declarat, sed mens cuiusque is est quisque, non ea figura, quae digito demonstrari potest [Smith].
1432 Smith cited Harvey, Rhetor sig. K iiir, Iovem sic, aiunti philosophi, si Graece loquatur, loquuturum ut Plato. But I think the humor lies elsewhere: Parillus is thinking of the notoriously cryptic responses of Apollo’s oracle at Delphi.
1443 Parillus is maliciously alluding to Pedantius’ tendency (which we have already detected) to get his learning from second-hand sources. There were a number of phrasebooks and anthologies with titles like Flores Poetarum, and Mirandula’s Illustrium Poetarum Flores (1566). Significantly, the copperplate portrait of Pedantius at the beginning of the 1631 edition shows him clutching such a book.
1447 Smith suggested the italicized words are a parody of ibi incipit fides ubi desinit ratio.
1452 Cf. Cicero, in Catilinam I.ix, quam rempublicam habemus? in qua urbe vivimus? For cuius hominis fides imploranda? cf. Cicero’s pro Quinctio xciv[Smith].
1453 Cf. Terence, Adelphoe II.i.1, obsecro populares, ferte misero atque innocenti auxilium: subvenite inopi [Smith].
1458 The sentence is to be completed “…call himself happy.” Pedantius is referring to Solon’s famous dictum (originally given by Herodotus I.lxxxvi), quoted by Ovid, Metamorphoses III.135f. in the form dicique beatus / ante obitum nemo, supremaque funera debet [Smith].
1463 Cf. Ovid, Heroides xvii.166, an nescis longas regibus esse manus? Cf. also Terence, Adelphoe III.ii.21, ruerem, agerem, raperem, tunderem et prosternerem [Smith].
1466 For nam nemo reipublicae inimicus, qui non idem mihi bellum indixeret cf. the beginning of Cicero, Phillipic II [Smith]
1469 For ne saevi tantopere cf. Terence, Andria V.ii.27 [Smith].
1471 For proprio me gladio iugulat cf. Terence, Adelphoe V.viii.35 [Smith].
1473 For aperire fenestram ad omnem nequitiam cf. Terence, Heauton Timorumenos III.i.72 [Smith].
1479 Cf. Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares XIV.vii, ita sum levatus ut mihi deus aliquis medicinam fecisse videatur [Smith].
1487 For arrige aures cf. Terence, Andria V.iv.30 [Smith].
1488 For par pari referes cf. Terence, Eunuchus III.i.55 [Smith].
1492 For frigeat totus cf. Terence, Phormio V.ix.5 [Smith.]
1493 Cf. Dionysius Cato, Distycha II, fronte capillata, post haec occasio calva [Smith]. I assume the point is that, like a comb going over the head of a man with a bald spot, once it works through his hair in front, it sails smoothly over his pate: the going is tough at first, easy thereafter.
1497 Cf. the beginning of Cicero, pro Lege Manilia, frequens hic conspictus…hic autem locus ad agendum amplissimus [Smith].
1499 Cf. Cicero, pro Flacco xxiii.54, cuius lingua, quasi flabello seditionis, illa tum est egentium concio ventilata [Smith]. Pedantius’ enthusiasm for waxing Ciceronian leads him to say some magnificently inappropriate things.
1501 Per tot discrimina rerum comes from Vergil, Aeneid I.204 [Smith].
1052 The Gymnosophists were fabulous naked philosophers of India [Smith].
1053 For comes in via facundus cf. Publilius Syrus quoted at Macrobius, Saturnalia II.vii [Smith].
1506 Exiguum munus cum dat tibi pauper amicus, accipito placide, plene, et laudare memento comes from Dionysius Cato, Disthica I [Smith].
1511 Cf. the beginning words of Cicero’s Tusculan Disputations, Cum defensionum laboribus senatiriisque muneribus aut omnino aut magna ex parte essem aliquando liberatus, rettuli me, Brute, te hortante maxime, ad ea studia quae &c. [Smith].
1514 Although the story of the echidna has a history going back to Aristotle (listed by Smith), Forsett probably got it from Corderius’ Elegantiores aliquot paraboa ex Erasmi Rote. similibus in puerorum usum selecta (1533), quemadmodum echidneis sive remora piscis perpusillus…quamvis magnam navim velis ac remis incitatam, subito sistit: ita scortulum aliquoties adamantum ingentes animi, ad honesta, impetus retinet adligatque. “Pedantius’ application of this parable to Lydia is a piece of the author’s characteristic humor” [Smith].
1515 Cf. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations III.ii.25, velis, ut ita dicam, remisque [Smith].
1517 Pedantius quotes a variant of Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto IV.x.5 [Smith].
1520 This adage is from Lily’s Latin grammar, an adaptation of Seneca, Agamemnon 243, nam sera nunquam est ad bonos mores via [Smith].
1521 The Greek proverb “fine things are difficult” was rendered in Latin by Erasmus in the Colloquium Proci et Puellae [Smith].
1522 This hexameter comes from the carmen de moribus in Lily’s grammar. It is based on Manilius I.95, omnia conando docilis solertia vincit [Smith].
1525 Cf. Terence, Heauton Timorumenos IV.ii.6, crucior bolum mihi tantum ereptum tam desubito e faucibus [Smith].
1526 P has tanquam Popam aliquam spectaturae and C tanquam pompam aliquam spectaturae. At least if the gentle emendation aliquem (or perhaps Papam aliquem) were introduced into P, both variants would make sense: the ladies of the Court come to stare at Pedantius as if he were a Pope, or as if he were a passing parade. The latter is to be selected if Smith was right in thinking this passage is based on Plautus, Miles Gloriosus I.58ff., which contains the line ut te hodie quasi pompa illa praeterducerem. But the Plautine parallel is a weak one.
1528 You dare not act on the stage in the presence of the greatest actor in the world. Cf. Cicero, de Oratore II.lvii.233, eorum impudentiam qui agunt in scaena gestum spectante Roscio. Quibus ego non interfui solum, verum etiam praefui echoes Cicero’s Epistulae ad Familiares I.vi and I.viii [Smith].
1530 Cf. Persius, Satire i.28. In Iter Boreale Richard Eedes of Oxford employs this same line of a Canon of Durham Cathedral who was a bad preacher but had a high opinion of himself. Did Eedes know Pedantius? The allusion to Demosthenes is inspired by Cicero, Tusculan Disputations V.xxxvi.103, insurrantis “his est ille Demosthenes.” [Smith].
1532 For tanquam pisces hamo cf. Plautus, Mercator V.iii.2f [Smith].
1535 For munusculum levidense cf. Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares IX.12, glossed by Soranus vulgare et parvi pretii. Smith thought that the word implied “a gift sent to poorer friends”; if so, this is yet another thing said by Pedantius to Lydia that contains an unintentional insult.
1538 For non omnibus dormio cf. the note on 473. Smith notes that this tag is quoted in the Introduction to Lily’s Latin grammar in immediate juxtaposition with the words huic habeo non tibi. This time Pedantius manages to insult Tuscidilla.
1543 Cf. Cicero, Academica II.xxxviii.119, veniet flumen orationis aureum fundens Aristoteles [Smith]. One cannot help thinking that this most unfortunate phrase elicited a snicker from Forsett’s audience (as it should have from Cicero’s readers as well).
1544 The allusion is to Iliad I.249. Cf. Harvey, Ciceronianus 4 (of Cicero), oratio melle dulctior, ut Nestoris apud Homerus [Smith].
A festal day was marked with a white stone on a Roman calendar. Cf. Martial, Epigrams IX.liii, diesque nobis signanda melioribus lapillis, and also Harvey, Gratulationum Valdensium libri quatuour IV, merit niveo signari lapillo [Smith].
1546 The Lydius lapis is the touchstone. This is one of Harvey’s pet phrases (cf. Smith’s Introduction, p. xxxv). But if the inmates of the university gave him this sobriquet, doubtless something else was intended: the blockhead in love with Lydia. This interpretation seems to imply that his infatuation goes back some time. Did it figure in a predecessor comedy suggested in the Introduction? Possibly in that play Pedantius counseled Leonidas against love but it was revealed that he himself suffered from the same affliction.
1554 Aurum potabile was a famous quack nostrum of the time. Cf. Burton’s Anatomy of Melancholy II.iv.i.iv.
1558 He alludes to Terence, Andria IV.ii.14 [Smith].
1567 For the saying see Erasmus, Adagia (1558 ed.) p. 280 [Smith].
1568 Odio plusquam Vatiniano comes from Catullus xiv.3 [Smith]. Vatinianus was an adherent of Cicero who frequently became entangled in litigation.
1569 For curialis = aulicus cf. the epistle to the reader prefacing Clerke’s 1571 translation of Castiglione [Smith].
1571 Harvey uses this same saw at Letterbook p. 184 [Smith].
1572 Semper acerbae sunt in amore morae is italicized as if it were a quote or proverb, unless this is only done to reinforce the word play amore morae.
1576 For Papae! Iugulastae hominem cf. Terence, Eunuchus III.i.26, and for animus est in dubio cf. Terence, Andria I.v.31 [Smith]. There is some question about the distribution of parts in this passage. C gives Papae! . …nodum to Ludio, but there is no harm in leaving them with Pedantius, as it is dramatically effective to have him drop his pretentiousness here: faced for once with a genuine crisis, he talks like a normal human being. The speech at 1581ff. could equally well be delivered by Lydia or Tuscidilla. Favoring the latter, perhaps, is the cool and experienced appreciation of Pedantius’ behavior.
1577 Cf. Terence, Andria V.iv.37, at mi unus scrupulus etiam restat, qui me male habet [Smith].
1579 Silicernium means a funeral feast; it is used of an old man at Terence, Adelphoe IV.ii.48. Qui cernit silices is a phrase like “to look daggers”: a man who “looks flints at you,” though “skinflint” (a word not current in Forsett’s day) conveys the general idea for the translation.
1582 Cf. Plautus, Miles Gloriosus II.ii.53, quicquid est , incoctum non expromit: bene coctum dabit. [Smith].
1583 Pedantius addresses the audience directly. No doubt selling one’s books was a standard expedient for raising cash. In the course of this offer he makes the point that his copious marginal annotations have raised their value. Harvey was a great one for annotation (and see 299 with the note ad loc.)
1589 For this saw about the gold-bearing donkey cf. Cicero, Epistulae ad Atticum I.xvi.12 and Plutarch, Apothegmata Regis Philippi xiv [Smith].
1603 Although Gilbert is named in the text of both P and C at 1830, in the initial part-lists and margins of C he is identified only as Mercator. One wonders why this character alone was given an English name. Was there a contemporary Cambridge draper who had this surname?
1607 He mutters to himself as his eye runs down the column in his ledger.
1617 P has cum di: qua: (the line is missing from C). Smith tentatively thought this might mean cum differentia quadam. I would suggest cum digitis quatuor (“and four inches”). This would also explain the et di: in the next line, which Smith’s idea does not.
1619 For figura binaria = 2, cf. Seton’s Dialectica, binarius est numerorum minimus. Smith also quotes Massinger, The Old Law III.i, GNOTH. So! forty; what’s this now? CLERK The cipher is turned into 9 by adding the tail, which makes forty-nine. Despite his later protestations of probity, Gilbert appears to be doctoring his numbers after the customer has signed for the goods (during his later confrontation with Pedantius we shall see that someone buying goods on credit was required to sign his name next to the appropriate ledger entry).
1621 Presumably libros in nihilum redigit has two meanings: a.) his book has more power than those of the university men; b.) to pay their bills they are obliged to sell their books. This latter meaning is acknowledged in Ludio’s et auferet at 1635.
1628 The authorities which support Gilbert’s argument are not Aristotle and other great thinkers, but the bailiffs.
1629 Smith noted that Nos ex singulari nostro amore, et mero motu misericordiae permittimus imitates the style of a royal proclamation.
1634 Smith compares the later Cambridge comedy Return from Parnassus, Part I (II.i 522), in which a tailor complains when I came to inquire…he told me they were not within.
1638 There was a Roman superstition that if a wolf saw a man before he saw the wolf, he would be struck dumb: cf. Vergil, Eclogue ix.53f. [Smith].
1640 The italicized words come from Terence, Phormio I.liv.17 [Smith].
1647 For Vah, consilium validum cf. Terence, Andria III.iv.10. Smith says that this reading is superior to P’s Vah, consilium callidum but, at least in the copy selected for Tucker’s photographic reprint, validum is found in the book as well.
1653 Cf. Plautus, Mostellaria IV.ii.4, vide ut fastidit simia! [Smith].
1655 This appears to have been a contemporary term for townsmen. Cf. J. Thorus ap. Grosart’s edition of Harvey’s works II.39, Boyes swarm’d: youthes throng’d: bloudes swore: brutes rear’d the howt [l. howl ?].
1658 Classical Lat. ocreatus = “wearing greaves” would scarcely seem to make sense. Doubtless Smith was right to gloss this word with Middleton and Rowley, Spanish Gipsy II.2, Gipises but no tanned ones: no red-ochre rascals umbr’d with soot and bacon as the English gipsies are. Hence my translation of peregrinus as “gypsy.”
1665 For salvere te iubeo cf. Plautus, Asinaria II.ii.30. Cf. also Catullus xlix.1f., disertissime Romuli nepotum / quot sunt quotque fuere [Smith].
1669 Cf. Plautus, Pseudolus I.i.33, ubi ea est, obsecro? eccam in tabellis porrectam: in cora cubat [Smith].
1670 Smith suggested that as Ludio says excitemus eum he knocks the register out of Gilbert’s hand.
1673 Smith wrote of castigationes in Ciceronem “A phrase frequent on title pages, e. g. Gryphius’ ed. of Cicero, Rhetorica ad Herennennium, Lugd. 1551 &c: ex P. Victorii ac P. Manutii castigationibus.
1680 The source of the adage litera scripta manet remains untraced.
1687 Smith glossed flocci faciendo with the idiom non flocci facio (“I don’t care a fig”), as exemplified by Plautus, Menaechmi V.vii.5 etc., but I do not think that is what Forsett meant. Rather, Pedantius is denigrating Gilbert as a small-time dealer in shoddy goods.
1694 Cf. Cicero, de Oratore II.xliv.186, currentem incitare and Pliny the Younger, Epistulae I.viii.1, addere calcaria sponte currenti [Smith].
1698 Cf. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations V.xxviii.80, oratio redeat illuc unde deflexit and Harvey, Ciceronianus p.60, ut unde paululum deflexit, eodem nostra revolvatur ortaio [Smith].
1700 Cf. Cicero, Parodoxa Stoicorum proem, nihil tam incredibile quod non dicendo fiat probabile [Smith].
1705 For the saying cf. Plutarch, Life of Themistocles xviii.4. In a note on the next sentence, Smith wrote “probably a hit at Harvey’s frequent apologies for haste.”
1708 A hit against Harvey’s usually bad poetry. A man capable of writing the following specimen of English hexameters is a man urgently in need of a satirist:…

What might I call this Tree? A Laurell? O bonny Lauretto
Needes to thy bowes will I bow this knee, and vayle my bonnetto.

Worse yet, Pedantius is a plagiarist. The first line is no. 3405 from Binder’s Novus Thesaurus Adagiorum, the second from an elegy by Pamphilus Mauritanus (xlix.1, contained in the 1610 Frankfurt edition of Ovid’s Erotica) [Smith].
1711 Cf. Plautus, Persa I.i.25, sagitta Cupido cor meum transfixit [Smith].
1716 For e silice nata cf. the note on 631.
1722 Cf. Terence, Andria II.ii.11, obtundis, tametsi intellego? [Smith].
1735 Battologia is saying the same thing over and over, like a stammerer.
1737 These italicized words seem to be a quotation (they scan as the second line of an elegiac distich), but I cannot identify them.
1746 I do not think nos…pleniorem represents a faulty text. Rather, in a scene in which much humor is generated by Pedantius’ bad grasp of Latin, this grammatical error was probably introduced for comic effect. Indeed, Parillus’ reply, beasti me istoc verbo, may indicate that he is already deriving fun from his teacher’s incompetence.
1748 Cf. Horace, Satire II.vi.1, hoc erat in votis [Smith].
1749 This hexameter line from a poem by Cicero is quoted by the author at de Officiis I.xxii.77, etc. It is usually quoted with laudi as the final word, but evidently linguae was maliciously substituted by Cicero’s detractors (Quintilian, Institutes II.i.24); it is quoted in the latter form by Plutarch in his comparison of Demosthenes and Cicero. Cf. also Harvey’s Musarum Lachrymae sig. F iiiv, vate ab eo cuius cedebat laurea linguae, arma togae [Smith].
1750 He is alluding to Juvenal, Satire x.122f [Smith]..
1754 The four levels of polysemous allegory, a hermeneutic system explained by Dante in his letter to Can Grande. For pingue Minerva cf. Cicero, de Amicitia xix [Smith].
1784 He quotes Vergil, Georgics I.145f. [Smith].
1792 Ambrosius Calepinus’ Dictionarium (1502) [Smith].
1800 Gentemque togatam comes from Aeneid I.282 [Smith].
1808 At Rhetor sig. B iv, Harvey calls his undergraduate audience aureum hunc argenteumque partum [Smith].
1816 On the basis of Abraham Fraunce, Arcadian Rhetorike sig. F 3, Smith defines epiphonema as “a sentence added to finish with, ‘l’Envoi.’” The word is used by Harvey at Rhetor sig. N iii.
1822 Although Smith glosses this line with some Ciceronian citations, surely the reference is to Augustus’ drowned nephew, movingly memorialized by Vergil at Aeneid VI.854ff.
1823 Pedantius’ final words do not seem entirely friendly. Perhaps Pedantius senses Parillus’ disrespect; and, if I am right in thinking that Parillus is the oldest of his students, he may perceive the boy as a potential rival.
1827 Cf. the beginning of Ps. - Cicero, in Sallustium Invictiva as printed in the Aldine edition, quo me vertam, patres conscripti, unde initium sumam? [Smith].
1833 The allusion is to de Officiis I.xii.37 [Smith].
1834 The concluding sentence is from Plautus, Stichus III.ii.16 [Smith].
1855 He alludes to de Officiis III.xiv.60 [Smith].
1858 Pedantius quotes Ovid, Fasti I.217 [Smith].
1862 “I cannot find any of the Distichs of Dionysius Cato quite to this effect. Is the writer thinking of the lines of Lily’s Monita pedagogica in his Introduction: Nil dabis aut vendes, nil permutabis, emesve. Ex damno alterius commoda nulla feras?” [Smith].
1865 “Aelius Donatus, grammarian at Rome, fl. A. D. 356. The old Latin Grammars used in England (called ‘donates’) were superseded by Colet’s (first edition 1511) as revised by Lily and Erasmus”: [Smith].
1871 He quotes Ovid, Ars Amatoria II.24 [Smith].
1872 A pyrrhic consists of two short syllables, a tribrach of three. Both are often resolutions of a long, and in that sense, I suppose, might be called semilongi.
1874 Smith suggested that novitii oratores alluded to Cambridge undergraduate disputants. Rostra disertus amat comes from some verses in W. Lily’s de Latinorum Nominum Generibus (1532) p. 36 [Smith].
1878 Smith suggested that the letters S. S. P. represent the tailor’s private pricing marks.
1882 Sorte sua nemo contentus echoes Horace, Satire I.i.1ff [Smith].
1891 He quotes Aeneid VIII.657 [Smith].
1892 He alludes to Cicero, pro Roscio Amerino xx.56 [Smith].
1894 Now he quotes Propertius IV.iii.12 [Smith].
1895 I regret that I cannot reproduce this witty bilingual pun in English.
1900 This etymology is copied from the Preface to Dionysius Cato’s Distich [Smith]
1901 Cf. Horace, Ars Poetica 268f., vos exemplaria Graeca / nocturna versate manu, versate diurna [Smith].
1903 Cf. Plautus, Pseudolus I.i.27, an, obsecro hercle, habent quoque gallinae manus? nam has quidem gallina scripsit [Smith].
1906 The italicized words = Vergil, Aeneid VIII.64 [Smith].
1911 Cicero tells this story at de Natura Deorum I.xxii.60 [Smith].
1918 The italicized words come from Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares II.vi.
1919 Cf. Plautus, Aulularia I.i.18, si…digitum transversum aut unguem latum excesseris [Smith].
1920 Pedantius is not normally strong on biblical quotes, but this = Ecclesiasticus 3:1 [Smith].
1923 For Poenos…foedifragi cf. Cicero, de Officiis I.xii.38 [Smith].
1930 Cf. Plautus, Amphitryo prologue 34, iuste ab iustis iustus sum orator datus. Smith also compared the dedicatory epistle prefacing Harvey’s Ciceronianus, minime omnium Ciceronianus homini cum primis et in primis ciceroniano Ciceronianum meum commendo dedicoque, based on Cicero, de Amicitia I.v, sed ut tum ad senem senex de Senectute, sic in hoc libro ad amicum amicissimus de Amicita scripsi [Smith].
1939 For Iuno, Lucina fer opem cf. Terence, Adelphoe III.iv.41 and Andria III.i.15 [Smith].
1941 Smith compares a marginal note of Harvey’s, pragmatica et cosmopolitica curanda…quae alunt familiam et parasitos quae semper aedificant.
1942 (In fact the name comes from dromo, “runner,” but I could not preserve the pun). Smith compared Terence, Heauton Timorumenos II.ii.8, abi dum tu, Dromo, illius obviam: propera: quid stas?, and added “Whether suggested by the above passage of Terence or not, there was an association between the name Dromo and the character of a sluggard.” (The humor in the name is similar to that in the extremely lazy character Lightning in the old Amos ’n Andy radio show.) The Monopolium Philosophorum (first printed 1505) has a mock Papal Bull which begins thus: In nomine domini amen. Dromo Dromonis de Dromonia suffraganeus…universis nobilibus, lenonibus, ioculatoribus…et omnibus cocis quos et operum tarditas nostrae dicioni subiectos esse comprobat, salutem et robur in esu, in potibus et dormitionibus &c. [Smith].
1946 Just having been rebuked for fobbing off Gilbert with quotations, Pedantius replies with another. For habes confitentem reum cf. Cicero, pro Ligario ii. Cf. also Cicero, ad Quir. xvii, huic ego homine, Quirites, tantum debeo quantum hominem homini debere vix fas est [Smith].
1950 Necessitas non habet legem appears to come from a statement of Publilius Syrus, necessitas dat legem, non ipsa accipit. It appears in the form quoted by Forsett in Langland’s Piers Plowman (C text) xiv.467 (cf. also xxiii.10) [Smith].
1952 Cf. Terence, Adelphoe IV.vii.43, ipsa, si cupiat, Salus servare prorsus non potest hanc familiam [Smith].
1955 Pedantius quotes Ovid, Remedia Amoris 94 [Smith].
1962 This definition comes from Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics II.v.13 [Smith].
1970 Cognoscibilitas was used by Aquinas, Summa Contra Gent. I.71 [Smith].
1971 Italicized in the book as if a quote: perhaps from Giordano Bruno or some similar esoteric writer of the day.
1980 This is not a quote from Vergil.
1988 See the Commentary note on 778.
1989 Here and at 2063 below temperatura refers to the general condition of the body and more specifically to the mixture of the four humors.
1994 Cf. the epigram in Effigiem Democriti in Harvey’s Gratulationum Valdensium libri quatuour, which begins, cur ita, cur semper Democrite candide rides? In Frischlin’s Priscianus Vapulans II.ii nimietas is included among a list of Scholastic substantiva barbara [Smith].
1998 He slightly misquotes Plautus, Poenulus I.ii.96, abi domum ac suspende te [Smith].
2001 Cf. the beginning of a companion epigram by Harvey, in Effigiem Heracliti, which begins Salve Heraclite: quid est? lachrymas cur fundis, amice? [Smith].
2005 In both Roman comedy and tragedy, having some character remark on the creak of the opening door of the scenae frons serves as an entrance-cue for a new character [Smith].
2013 For the souls of the dead ascending to the Milky Way cf. Cicero, Somnium Scipionis (ap. Macrobius I.x) [Smith].
2014 For the idea cf. Aquinas, Summa Contra Gent. I.79, relativa oportet simul esse, ut uno interempto interimatur alterum [Smith].
2016 He applies the same logic that he used about running Socrates in his discourse to Bledus (1427ff.).
2018 The quote is unidentified.
2019 For mea…res ad restim rediit cf. Terence, Phormio IV.iv.5 [Smith].
2025 He alludes to Metamorphoses I.625 [Smith]. This unforeseen tragedy has not quite cured Pedantius of his old habits.
2028 Cf. Aquinas, Summa I.ii.53.1c, per accidens (dicitur aliqua forma corrumpi) per corruptionem sui subiect [Smith].
2031 Cf. Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares I.i, testificatione. amoris erga te sui [Smith].
2034 For fragilemque fortunam cf. the conclusion of Cicero, de Republica II [Smith].
2038 Cicero tells the story at de Finibus V.30 (based on Herodotus, III.39) [Smith].
2044 Evidently Dromodotus is telling Pedantius that, bereft as he is, he may still look forward to the joys of whipping his pupils. But the sexual innuendo is undeniable.
2046 According to Smith this axiom is taken from Simplicius’ reply to the argument of Aristotle’s Physics, Book I.
2050 Forsett wanted Crobolus to be present at the play’s dénouement, but if Pedantius spotted him he would realize a trick was being played. Therefore it was necessary to bring Crobolus onstage in some sort of disguise. The idea of presenting him as a hooded friar was suggested both by the dramatic situation and by the fact that he is a fat man. If only for the dramatic effect, it is tempting to adopt C’s extra sentence at the end of this speech, Sancte Francisce, ora pro nobis.
2057 For the anecdote about Alexander cf. Pliny, Natural History VI.xx(xxiii), Lulus Gellius, Attic Nights V.ii, &c. [Smith].
2059 Italicizedin the book as if a quote.
2060 The title of one of Harvey’s works.
2062 Imaginativa vis is a Thomistic term [Smith].
2065 Neither textual tradition seems to have the distribution of parts right. P attributes 2065f. to Tuscidilla, but the idea of a landlady teaching philosophical scorn of death seems improbable. So C must be right in assigning them to Pedantius (this attribution is not without a certain interest, as it strongly hints that Lydia is not the first girl on whom he has tried to foist himself). P, on the other hand, correctly attributes 2067 to Tuscidilla, fresh from the supposed deathbed scene.
2069 For the dictum’s evident source cf. the Commentary note on 765.
2070 Vivit post funera virtus is from Harvey’s Musae Lachrymae sig. G iir. According to Smith, these words were written by Dr. Caius for Linacre’s tomb in the Abbey and are also inscribed on Caius’ own tomb; Smith gives further examples.
2071 For non ad deponendum, sed ad confirmandum dolorem cf. the Commentary note on 296.
2073 For what Aristotle said, cf. Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights XX.v [Smith].
2083 Cf. Macrobius, Somnium Scipionis I.v, omnia corpora superficie finiuntur,…superficies…lineis terminantur, …punctis linea finiuntur [Smith].
2088 For the dictum cf. the axiom of Shreger, Studiosus Iovialis: contraria non possunt esse simul in eodem subiecto…quod intelligi debet de contrariis in statu perfecto, non de contrariis in statu imperfecto et remisso [Smith].
2093 Cicero had a Tusculan estate where he went to enjoy otium cum dignitate. Harvey affectedly called his Saffron Waldon home his “Tusculan” one (Smith, Introduction xxxiv, xlix). Cf. also Cicero, de Oratore I.i.1, ut vel in negotio sine periculo vel in otio cum dignitate esse possent [Smith].
2094 Cf. the end of Cicero, pro Archia vii, haec studia…pernoctant nobiscum, peregrinantur, rusticantur [Smith]. But in the ears of a Cambridge audience rusticantur would have a significance scarcely imagined by the Roman orator. The suspicions raised by this sinister verb are verified in the following sentence.
2095 For the dictum about Hannibal cf. Livy XXII.li [Smith].
2099 According to Herodotus (V.vi), the Thracians wept when a child was born but celebrated when a man died.
2100 For natura nihil fecit frustram cf. the beginning of Aristotle’s Politics [Smith].
2102 In fact Aristotle said this at Rhetoric I.iii.4 [Smith].
2103 Agathon (who was a poet, not a philosopher) ap. Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics VI.ii.6 [Smith].
2108 The italicized quotation is from Horace, Ars Poetica 142 [Smith], but this is in turn translates a phrase from the proem of the Odyssey.
2113 Cf. Vergil, Eclogue iii.79, et longum Formose, vale, vale, inquit, Iolla [Smith].