COMMENTARY NOTES

spacer1 Titulus Tutanus was a Roman guardian deity, who is supposed to have routed Hannibal (Varro ap. Nonius 47 a fin, cf. Becker, Antiqu. IV.24 and v. Tutelina), so it makes sense to retain the word here. It is possible, therefore, that Forbes is taking advantage of an occasion to display his erudition. Nonetheless, in the context of a volume so rife with printing errors, the principle lectio difficilior potior conceivably does not apply, and this word may lie under suspicion of being a mistake for the much commoner word tutamen [“protection.”]

spacer1.3 The Pierian Spring in Macedonia was sacred to the Muses.

spacer1.9 Cirrha was the port that served Delphi. See Milton’s Sylvarum Liber, In obitum procancellarii, medici 31f., Frondosa quem nunc Cirrha luget / Et mediis Helicon in undis.

spacer1.10 “Aonian” = Boeotian (Boeotia was the home of the Muses).

spacer1.11 Patara, a maritime city of Lycia, was the site of one of Apollo’s oracles, which operated six months in every year (Ovid, Metamorphoses I.516).

spacer1.16 For gravi...veterno cf. Vergil, Georgics I.124.

spacer1.24f. Pindus is a mountain range in Thessly. Ascra (the home of the early poet Hesiod) was a town on Mt. Helicon, for which it stands here. Mt. Pierius in Macedonia was the home of Orpheus and the Muses.
spacerFor vertice nutant cf. Aeneid II.629 and IX.682.

spacer1.27 Here Forbes gets it right and has ceu. Often he writes seu instead (in the Latin of his day, these two words were homophones).

spacer1.29 Two rivers that flow through Aberdeenshire and into the sea on either side of Aberdeen; the way that Forbes characterises their different characters is caught in a traditional rhyme:

Bloodthirsty Dee
Each year needs three,
But bonnie Don
She needs none.

spacer1.32 The Greek goddess of justice.

spacer1.38 Aeois = eois (unless it is a misprint for that word). Cf. exerens undis caput at Seneca, Agamemnon 554.

spacer1.40 In ancient Rome, the number of clientes (hangers-on) clustered around a great man’s doorway was a visible index of his prestige.

spacer1.43 Ionian Clarus was the site of another oracle of Apollo.

spacer1.44 The Vale of Tempe in Thessaly was another favorite haunt of Apollo and the Muses.

spacer1.46 Cf., perhaps, dividat horas at Lucan II.689.

spacer1.48 Tethys was an ancient Greek sea-goddess, and her name often is used to stand for the sea as a whole. For declivia flumina cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses I.39.

spacer1.49 Cf. ripis...capacibus at Ovid, Amores III.vi.19.

spacer1.59 Cf. si ficta loquor at Ovid, Metamorphoses I.771.

spacer1.60 For pectora with forms of stringo cf. ib. X.526, Tristia V.vi.21, and Lucan VII.467.

spacer1.66 For famae melioris cf. Vergil, Aeneid IV.221 and Horace, Odes III.i.12.

spacer1.70 According to such historians as Hector Boece and George Buchanan, the mythological King Fergus I, led the Scots out of their temporary home in Ireland and founded Scotland in the fourth century B. C.
spacerFor vestigia with forms of lego cf. Aeneid IX.393f., Ovid, Metamorphoses III.17, and Lucan IX.953.

spacer1.73ff. In this section of the poem, Forbes expresses his gratitude to Scott for his “twofold gift,” by which surely he means the two volumes of Delitiae Poetarum Scotorum (the evident point is that, thanks to Scott, these volumes were the proof that all the skills of Classical poets have been bestowed upon the northern Muses.).

spacer1.76 Mt. Parnassus is twin-peaked.

spacer1.77 This roster of authors can be deciphered as follows: Maeonia was the ancient name for a district of Lydia, as Homer was believed by some to have been a native of Lydia he was sometimes called Maeonides, i. e., “the Maeonian bard”; Horace’s full name was of course Quintus Horatius Flaccus; the phrase Peleusiacae Musae alludes to Pelusium, a city in the eastern Nile delta, and refers either to the one Alexandrian epic poet, Apollonius of Rhodes, author of the Argonautica, or to Lucan (insofar as a portion of his Bellum Civile has an Egyptian setting) — one might otherwise prefer the former interpretation because it provides a better balance between Greek and Roman authors, but the remarkable number of verbal echoes of Lucan in poem 4 goes to show that Forbes was a close student of that poet; Maronaeis...chartis refers to Vergil (Publius Vergilius Maro).

spacer1.83 Tenedos was an island off the Troad, and, according to Homer, Apollo was its presiding deity.

spacer1.86 At least in antiquity the Hermus (the modern Gediz, in Turkey) was a gold-bearing river. The following allusion is to the shower of gold Jupiter poured into Danae’s lap.

spacer1.87ff. These instructions are modeled after those given his “little book” by Martial when it was about to visit some potential reader (such as XI.1 and XII.22)

spacer1.91f. Edinburgh’s most conspicuous feature is Castle Rock, upon which stands Maiden Castle.
spacerCf. Lucan VI.411, inseruit celsis prope se cum Pelion astris, Ps. - Seneca, Hercules Oetaeus 493, qua gelidus astris inserit Pindus caput, and ib. 1152ff.::

Nunc Thessalicam Pelion Ossam
Premet et Pindo congestus Athos
Nemus aetheriis inseret astris.

spacer1.95 Cf. Metus remitte at Seneca, Phaedra 435 and also Ovid, Amores I.xi.9f., nec silicum venae nec durum in pectore ferrum / aut adamanta gerit.

spacer1.97 For Nudaque simplicitas cf. ib. I.iii.14.

spacer1.103 The Tagus in Spain (modern Tajo) was another gold-bearing river in antiquity.

spacer1.107 Marpessus or Marpesus was a town on the island of Paros, the ancients’ favorite source of marble. Cf. Aeneid VI.471, quam si dura silex aut stet Marpesia cautes.

spacer1.111 Cf. Ovid, Tristia III.vi.20, pars desiderii maxima paene mei.

spacer1.118 Conceivably Forbes’ mention of nectar contains an allusion to John Leech’s epigram IV.18 (quoted in the Introduction).

spacer1.119f. Cf. Aeneid IV.336, dum spiritus hos regit artus.

spacer1.121 Cf. ib. XI.50, et vota facit cumulatque altaria donis.


spacer2.5ff. Here the bridegroom is the king himself (i. e., the previous kings of Scotland). The imagery of this passage is of course suggested by the standard Christian interpretation of the Song of Songs, according to which the bride is the Church and the bridegroom is Christ.

spacer2.7 “Mygdonian” = Phrygian. Ovid mentions this kind of marble at Heroides xv. 142.

spacer2.14 For ventilat aura cf. Ovid, Amores I.vii.54.

spacer2.15 This line = Aeneid IX.616.

spacer2.16 Forbes is describing the biretta.

spacer2.21 The allusion is to the Dutch Reformed theologian Jacobus Arminius [1560 - 1609], a Protestant whose teachings in some ways differed from those of Luther and Calvin, earning the wrath of followers of these two.

spacer2.23f. Cf. Aeneid IV.169, ille dies primus leti primusque malorum.

spacer2.30 For vis violenta cf. Lucretius III.296 and V. 964.

spacer2.33 Cf. Horace, Odes I.xii.45, crescit occulto velut arbor aevo.

spacer2.36 For civilibus undis cf. Horace, Epistulae I.i.16.

spacer2.37 For habenas with forms of moderor cf. Lucretius II.1096 and Ovid, Metamorphoses VI.223.

spacer2.40 For fastigia rerum cf. Aeneid I.342 and Juvenal iii.39 (both at line-end).

spacer2.45 Cf., perhaps, Vergil, Georgics IV.91, maculis...squalentibus.

spacer2.47 For contempta iacet cf. Ovid, Remedia Amoris 140. For sanguinis alti in the sense “of high, noble, ancient blood,“ cf. Aeneid IV.230, V.45, VI.500, XI.633, and Juvenal viii.27

spacer2.53 “Ausonian” = Italian, or specifically Roman.

spacer2.55 The allusion is to Maarten Tromp’s victory over a Spanish invasion fleet in the recent Battle of the Downs, fought in in 1639 (the subject of poem 4).

spacer2.56 His Majesty’s dominions of Ireland, England and Scotland are represented by these three place-names having to do with bodies of water: Banna Beach in Tralee Bay, the river Isis (the part of the Thames above Iffley Lock, which flows through Oxford), and Bodotria, the classical name for the Firth of Forth. blue Charles was born at Fife in 1600.

spacer2.58f. For materna viscera cf. Seneca, Phoenissae 250f.

spacer2.60 For area belli cf. Lucan III.513 and VI.60.

spacer2.64f. Cf. Tibulllus II.v.57, Roma, tuum nomen terris fatale regendis.

spacer2.66 Cf. Seneca, Thyestes 26, nec sit irarum modus.

spacer2.73 For numina testor cf. Aeneid XII.201 (also at line-end).

spacer2.75 Cf. ib. II.157, fas mihi Graiorum sacrata resolvere iura.

spacer2.77 Cf. vasta percussa procella at Ovid, Tristia I.i.85.

spacer2.79 For venerabile nomen cf. Ovid, Ars Amatoria III.407, Epistulae ex Ponto II.iii.19, Tristia I.viii.15, and Lucan IX.202 (all at line-end).

spacer2.80 For sceptraque sacra cf. Ovid, Heroides vii.152.

spacer2.82f. For paterna libertas cf Tibullus II.iv.2.

spacer2.87 Cf. Aeneid XII.200, audiat haec genitor qui foedera fulmine sancit.

spacer2.88 For sidera torquet cf. ib. IX.93 and Ovid, Metamorphoses II.71.

spacer2.89 Cf. Seneca, Hercules Furens 730, quis iste veri rector atque aequi arbiter?

spacer2.90 Cf. Aeneid XII.725f., Iuppiter ipse duas aequato examine lances / sustinet.

spacer2.91 For trutina castigat cf. Persius, Satire i.7.

spacer2.94 Cf. Aeneid II.309f., tum vero manifesta fides, Danaumque patescunt / insidiae.

spacer2.96 For flecto habvenas cf. ib. XII.471 and Ovid, Metamorphoses II.169.

spacer2.97 These seven stars are presumably the seven churches in Asia mentioned at Revelation 2 - 3.

spacer2.98 Here Forbes puns on the two meanings of lupa, “she-wolf”and “whore.” Mention of a she-wolf also, of course, makes one think of the she-wolf which nutured Romulus and Remus, and so becomes a word with strong Roman associations.

spacer2.100 For longumque dolorem cf. Aeneid IV.693 and Ovid, Metamorphoses XIV.716.

spacer2.101 For vice mutata cf. Ovid, Tristia IV.i.99.


spacer3.1 Cf. per auras / dilapsum at Ovid, Metamorphoses XIV.824, and also dilapsus in auras at Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto III.iii.93 and Ibis 141 (both at line-end).

spacer3.2 Parrhasia was a region of Arcadia, the home of Callisto, subsequently transformed into Ursa Major. Hence “Parrhasian” here is merely a recondite way of saying “northern.”

spacer3.3 The Roman goddess of justice. Cf. iamque novi praeeunt fasces at Ovid Fasti I.81.

spacer3.5 The Hydaspes was a river in India (the Jelum of modern-day Kashmir). It was supposed to be rich in gems (Statius, Thebais VIII.237 and Seneca, Medea 725).

spacer3.7 Cf. Lucan IV.189ff.:

Nunc ades, aeterno conplectens omnia nexu,
O rerum mixtique salus Concordia mundi
Et sacer orbis amor.

spacer3.14 Enyo was a Greek battle-goddess.

spacer3.20 For the relevance of this mention of (Habsburg) Austria see the note on 3.57 below.

spacer3.21 Cf. Acheronta movebo at Aeneid VII.312.

spacer3.23 Cf. sub ursae at Lucan V.23 (also at line-end).

spacer3.28 For aperto Marte cf. Seneca, Oedipus 275.

spacer3.29 For invictam gentem cf. Aeneid XII.191.

spacer3.31 For civili sanguine cf. Lucretius III.70 and Lucan II.713.

spacer3.33 Since Forbes otherwise has a habit of interchanging e and i (as when he writes Calidonia), it is not quite certain that here we have a printing error for Ausonios, even if he writes Ausonii at line 47.

spacer3.39 For indomitumque populum cf. Lucan IV.146.

spacer3.56 Ausonian = Italian (i. e., Roman). Hispania Baetica was one of the three imperial Roman provinces in Spain.

spacer3.62 Cf. gemma variante capillos at Ovid, Amores I.ii.42

spacer3.57 Forbes urges Charles to rebuild the Protestant churches of the Palatinate, destroyed when the Imperial forces conquered the territory of the Elector Palatine Frederick V and his consort, Charles’ sister Elizabeth, after the Austrian emperor had driven them from Bohemia where they had briefly reigned for a single winter in 1619. From 1638 to 1641, their son Prince Rupert was in Austrian captivity. With what Forbes says here, compare these lines by the Dutch-based Scottish soldier William Lauder, at the end of his violently anti-episcopal and anti-Roman Tweeds Teares of Joy, to Charles, Great Brittains King, celebrating the bloodless acquiescence of the king in the Covenanters’ demands at Duns Law, 1639; Lauder tells Charles:

…Thou seest what armed bands
Thy will can raise, and even thy wink commands.
They, if thou speak the word, can sack proud Rome,
And give the law for thee to Christendome:
While yet their armes are clear, their courage hot,
Doe not, o mighty King! dissolve them not,
Bu let Eliza lead them to her Rhine,
And repossesse her there. Her cause is thine;
These hopeful Princes, that thee Uncle call,
Pearls of the Crowne, which from her head did fall,
All beg the same, and even with tears intreat,
Brave Rupert may at libertie be set,
And that thy Scots may on proud Isters streams
Their valour show, and with thy Nephews names,
In wounds and bloud in Vienns battered walls,
Which boast that royal spoil, and Princes thrals.

spacer3.78 For famulas dextras cf. Lucan IV.207.

spacer3.79 Cf. Vergil, Georgics I.37, nec tibi regnandi veniat tam dira cupido.

spacer3.80 For the idiom verto solum cf. Juvenal xi.49.

spacer3.83 The Getae were a savage people of ancient Thrace. For inhospit littora Ponti cf. Ovid, Tristia III.xi.7.

spacer3.84 Nobody who did not share Forbes’ religious beliefs could possibly be a true Briton. Compare this sonnet (ca. 1639) by the minister Patrick Hamilton (National Library of Scotland, Wodrow Quarto Manuscript XXIV, fol. 161):

OF THE DECEATFUL CONVENANTED IN & ABOUT ABERDEIN

Thow bailfull Aberdein, our nations bane,
Thy factious doctors and thy hellisch train
By poysing doctrin and fals covenanting
Have maid thy name famous by oft recanting
Thou baill of burriours, fyrbrand of the north
A schrod to all good Christians beyond forth
Boyn Banff and Breich* Satans most barbarous brood
spacer(*Broch, i. e. Fraserburgh)
Chief causes of spilling most mens saikless blood
Unnatural natures who wold have bein content
To sie religion sacked your countrie schent
Romes patriots, men pleisers, not of God
Whois bloodie broyle all pens sall blaiss abrood,
spacerMaugre your mynds, all true Scots weill sal be
spacerAnd blotted yow with endles infamie.

spacer3.86 The bloodless victory was that of the non-battle at Duns Law when Charles “lost” the First Bishops’ War, celebrated in an anonymous sonnet which addresses Scotland thus (same ms., fol. 162:

Most happie Scotland, if thow thankfull be,
God from his holie hill shall blink on the.
The terrour of the lord fell upon thy foes
In eis then thow, quhill thay in wants and woes
But* seiknes thow in pleisoures all abounding
(* - Without)
Whil as thy foes in shaddowes of death swounding.
spacerBasse sin to quhich in Duns we bad adew
spacerAnd without straik of sword we did our foes subdue.

spacer3.88 I. e., the east, where the sun rises, and the west, where it sets. Cf. Ovid, Heroides ix.16, inplesti meritis solis utramque domum.

spacer3.92 Cf. Propertius II.xv(c).60, aurea divinas urna profudit aquas.

spacer3.95 The urim and the thummim were jewels on the breastplate of the High Priest of Israel.

spacer3.96 See the note on 1.97.

spacer3.100 Calling the King of Spain dux Libiae is a little strange. True, the Spaniards had taken control of Tripoli in 1511, but had lost the city forty years later. The term is also found, clearly meaning the King of Spain as the ally of the Pope, in the works of the Amsterdam Humanist Caspar Barlaeus, with which Forbes was familiar (in the course of his Britannia Triumphans, sive in inaugurationem serenissimi ac invictissimi principis Caroli)

spacer3.102 For gloria gentis at line-end see Aeneid VI.768 and Ovid, Metamorphoses XII.530.

spacer3.105 Rhamnusia was a minor Greek goddess with a function approximately identical to that of Nemesis. For ultrix Rhamnusia see Ovid, Tristia V.viii.9.

spacer3a One might imagine that this appended epigram is addressed to King Charles’ sister Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia, currently living in exile at The Hague, and that Forbes perhaps hoped that, with her strong Protestant inclinations, she could exert a corrective and restraining influence on her brother. But we learn otherwise from the National Library ms. version, where this epigram is given the title NOBILISSIMAE LECTISSIMAEQUE VIRGINI ELISABETHAE SCOTAE, FILIAE NOBILISSIMI ET CLARISSIMI VIRI D. IOHANNIS SCOTI... But is not unlikely that Forbes would have been quite happy to allow his English readers the assumption that that the addressee of this epigram indeed was the Queen of Bohemia. Certainly, his remarkably fulsome phrase of a Scottish girl seems more appropriately directed to a royal personage.
spacer If, as I suspect, poem 3 originally appeared as an independent pamphlet, it is likely that this epigram was printed first, as dedicatory epigrams normally are (note that in the National Library ms. version, the epigram comes before the poem).

spacer3a.1 Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses V.412, inter Sicelidas Cyane celeberrima nymphas.

spacer3a.3 For frontem with forms of redimio cf. Ovid, Fasti III.269 and IV.661.

spacer3a.5 Paphos on the island of Cypris was a favorite haunt of Venus.

spacer4.1 For violata sacraria cf. the Vergilian Ciris 154.

spacer4.3 For natantia monstra cf. Horace, Odes I.iii.18.

spacer4.9 For concretas sanguine cf. Aeneid II.277, XII.270, Ovid, Metamorphoses XIII.492, XIV.201, and Lucan III.573.

spacer4.12 For languida vita cf. Lucretius V.887.

spacer4.14 For virides capillos cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses II.12, and V.575.

spacer4.15 A sea-nymph. For notas artes cf. Juvenal i.123.

spacer4.18 For caeruleo curro cf. Aeneid V.819 and Seneca, Oedipus 255.

spacer4.20 Although the text is the same in both the pamphlet and 1642 versions, the syntax is hard to understand: what noun is celeres supposed to modify? It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that either Agminis or celeres is written in error. The words glebasque maritans only make sense when one recalls Claudian, De Raptu Proserpinae II.89, et glebas fecundo rore maritat.

spacer4.21 For liquidis lymphis cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses III.451.

spacer4.22f. For haustus aetherios cf. Vergil, Georgics IV.220 and Seneca, Oedpius 220.

spacer4.24 Cf. the description of the beast with seven heads and ten horns at Daniel 7:24.

spacer4.26 The allusion is of course to the Pope’s triple crown. Cf. Aeneid X.538, infula cui sacra redimibat tempora vitta.

spacer4.27 For aeternis odiis cf. Seneca, Hercules Furens 362.

spacer4.29 Abaddon is the angel-prince of Hell who appears at Revelation 9:11 as leader of the infernal scorpions.. For Stygiasque paludes at line-end cf. Aeneid VI.323.

spacer4.31 Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses VI.662, vipereasque ciet Stygia de valle sorores.

spacer4.32 In other words, a Fury. She plays the same role that Allecto does vis-a-vis Juno in Book VIII of the Aeneid.

spacer4.33 For fida ministra cf. ib. II.837 and Ovid, Tristia III.vii.2.

spacer4.38 Cf. Aeneid XII.569, et aequa solo fumantia culmina ponam.

spacer4.39 Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses VII.141, terrigenae pereunt per mutua vulnera fratres.

spacer4.41 For nigro veneno cf. ib. I.444 and Aeneid IV.514.

spacer4.43 For insula ponto cf. Aeneid III.104, Ovid, Fasti IV.303, and Lucan VIII.118.

spacer4.45 The idea of Britain being so separated from the rest of Europe that it is virtually a different world goes back as far as Vergil, Eclobue i.66, et penitus toto divisos orbe Britannos.

spacer4.46 See the note on 1.48.

spacer4.49 For discordibus animis cf. Aeneid IX.688.

spacer4.54f. He of course means the Tudor rose, combining the Lancastrian red and the Yorkist white. A rampant lion was the Scottish royal emblem.

spacer4.59ff. A sidenote to the first printed edition explains that this passage refers to the defeat of the Armada in 1588. For this quid memorem question, cf. Aeneid VI.123, VI.601, VIII.482, and Horace, Sermones I.viii.40.

spacer4.62 A sea-nymph, and mother to Achilles. For vitreis undis cf. Aeneid VII.759 and Ovid, Metamorphoses V.48.

spacer4.64 For tempestas horrida cf. Horace, Epodes xiii.1.

spacer4.68 For infesti Iovis cf. Ovid, Tristia I.iv.26 and Ibis 469.

spacer4.69f. Minerva’s aegis bore the image of the Gorgon’s head. Cf. Aeneid II.614f.:

Iam summas arces Tritonia, respice, Pallas
Insedit nimbo effulgens et Gorgone saeva.

spacer4.76 For ardentem rogum cf. Tibullus II.iv.46.

spacer4.78 Cf. fumantem piceo et candente favilla at Aeneid III.573.

spacer4.80 Cf. Lucan X.502, quam solet aetherio lampas decurrere sulco.

spacer4.85 Cf. Aeneid IV.415, ne quid inexpertum frustra moritura relinquat.

spacer4.89 For bile tumuerunt cf. Horace, Odes I.xiii.4 and Persius ii.14.

spacer4.90 For antro Tartareo cf. Lucan VI.712.

spacer4.93 Cf. Propertius III.v.43, tribus infernum custodit faucibus antrum (said of Cerberus).

spacer4.94 Although the story of Hercules strangling two snakes while in his cradle is well known, I do not recall any myth in which Hercules enchains a serpent or dragon (save for those he overcomes while still an infant in his cradle). On the other hand, speaking of Hercules’ invasion of the Underworld, Seneca writes at Hercules Furens 1105ff.:

Vastisque ferox qui colla gerit
spacerspacerspacervincta catenis
Imo latitans Cerberus antro.

In fact, this whole passage is strange. It begins with a mention of an evidently non-existent mythological Underworld-guarding snake, one that barks like a dog and is possessed of a row of arms (something snakes conspicuously lack). This partially doggish snake, in other words, is given all the attributes of Cerberus, and this is reinforced by echoes of several passages of Classical poetry dealing with Cerberus.

spacer4.97 Cf. Aeneid VI.400f.:

spacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerlicet ingens ianitor antro
Aeternum latrans exsanguis terreat umbras,

spacer4.95f. Cf. Ovid, Fasti III.308, pugnando vincula temptant / rumpere. The adjective trifauci is applied to Cerberus at Aeneid VI.417.

spacer4.100 For laxavit iter cf. Lucan IV.116.

spacer4.102 For the question quo feror? cf. Aeneid X.670, Ovid, Ars Amatoria III.667, Fasti IV.573, V.147, Metamorphoses IX.509, and Lucan I.678.

spacer4.104 Cf., perhaps, dis aequa potestas at Juvenal iv.71.

spacer4.113 Cf. Aeneid IX.137, ferro sceleratam exscindere gentem.

spacer4.116 For gloria rebus at line-end see Aeneid IV.49 and IX,278.

spacer4.117 For semina belli cf. Lucan I.159 and III.150.

spacer4.121 For civilibus armis cf. ib. I.325, II.224, III.313 etc.

spacer4.123 The fourteen bishops of Scotland.

spacer4.127 A gold-bearing river of Asia Minor. See also the note on 1.86.

spacer4.132 Cf. per tela, per hostis at Aeneid II.358 and 527, and per tela, per ignis at II.664.

spacer4.135 For amplexusque avidos cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses VII.143. For oscula iungunt cf. Ovid, Amores II.v.23, Heroides ii.94, xviii.101 etc.

spacer4.138 See the note on 4.41.

spacer4.141 Cyta = Colchis (the home of Medea). For nocturna Cytaeis cf. Propertius II.iv.7.

spacer4.142 For the hounds of Hecate cf. ib. I.ii.54. For spriantibus hydris cf. Aeneid VII.753.

spacer4.144 Cf. ib. VII.337 (addressed to the demon Allecto), tibi nomina mille, / mille nocendi artes. Fecundum concute pectus.

spacer4.147 For ingentibus excita monstris cf. ib. VII.376.

spacer4.149 Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses VII.451, consonat adsensu populi precibusque faventum / regia.

spacer4.150ff. Cf. ib. I.245f., Dicta Iovis pars voce probant stimulosque frementi / adiciunt. Cf. also Aeneid V.817f., spumantiaque addit / frena feris.

spacer4.152 Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses IV.718, per inane volatu.

spacer4.155 For Livor edax cf. Ovid, Amores I.xv.1, Remedia Amoris 389, and Lucan I.288.

spacer4.156 For lasciva Licentia cf. Horace, Odes I.xix.3.

spacer4.159 For vocat agmina saeva sororum see Aeneid VI.572.

spacer4.162 Cf. rapido firmius igne Iovis at Ovid, Tristia IV.viii.46.

spacer4.166 Cf. Vergil, Georgics I.33af., et mortalia corda / per gentes humilis stravit pavor.

spacer4.167 For pavida formidine cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses II.66.

spacer4.169 Mt. Lycaeon was situated in Arcadia: see the note on 3.2. For Lycaonias arctos cf. Vergil, Georgics I.138 and Ovid, Fasti III.793.

spacer4.170 Cf. Vergil, ib. I.361, cum medio celeres revolant ex aequore mergi.

spacer4.171 I. e., the constellation Corona Borealis, which stands in the northern sky.

spacer4.173 For pelago spumante cf. Lucan IX.1003.

spacer4.175 For pernicibus alis cf. Aeneid IV.180 (also at line-end).

spacer4.177 This line = Ovid, Metamorphoses IV.501.

spacer4.179 Forbes is thinking of the Bishops’ Wars, or at least to the tensions leading up to them.

spacer4.181 For servant castra cf. Aeneid IX.43.

spacer4.182 Cf. Lucan I.272,. utque ducem varias volventem pectore curas.

spacer4.197 For semina belli see the note on line 117. For socialis belli cf. Juvenal v.31.

spacer4.202 Forbes may have been thinking of Aeneid VI.833, neu patriae validas in viscera vertite viris.

spacer4.203 This line = Aeneid III.344.

spacer4.2o4 Cf. Vergil, Georgics IV.333f., At mater sonitum thalamo sub fluminis alti / sensit.

spacer4.205 For bibit aure cf. Horace, Odes II.xiii.32.

spacer4.206 Cf. Horace, Sermones I.vi.95f., longum / carpentes iter.

spacer4.208 For ignotis undis cf. Aeneid X.48.

spacer4.210 For placido prior edidit ore cf. Aeneid VII.194.

spacer4.211f. Haemonia = Thessaly (a traditional breeding-ground for witches). Cf. Ovid, Remedia Amoris 249, Haemoniae siquis mala pabula terrae. Cf. also Vergil, Eclogue viii.70, carminibus Circe socios mutavit Ulixi.

spacer4.213 Cf. Propertius II.v.11f.:

Non ita Carpathiae variant Aquilonibus undae,
spacerNec dubio nubes vertitur atra Noto.

And also ib. II.ix(a).33, non sic incerto mutantur flamine Syrtes.

spacer4.214 Sandbanks off the coast of North Africa.

spacer4.215 For foedere dextras cf. Aeneid VIII.169 (also at line-end).

spacer4.218 Cf. effusas habenas at Tibullus III.vii.92.

spacer4.222 Cf. Ovid, Heroides iv.113, ad nos iniuria venit ab illo (also at line-end).

spacer4.223 Cf. arma impia sumpsi at Aeneid XII.31 (also at line-end).

spacer4.225 For foeera regni cf. Lucan I.86 (also at line-end).

spacer4.227 For lege with metrically appropriate forms of teneo at line-end, cf. Aeneid XII.819 and Ovid, Metamorphoses X.203.

spacer4.231 For vultus convertere cf. Ovid, Tristia IV.iii.9.

spacer4.233ff. See the note on 3.20. Spain rather than Italy was sometimes called Hesperia because of its western position. Ausonia = Italy.

spacer4.236f. See the note on 3.57.

spacer4.238 For the idiom pulso humum used in this way cf. Ovid, Tristia IV.ii.6.

spacer4.239 For talibus officiis cf. Horace, Epistulae II.ii.21.

spacer4.240 For vertice coelum at line-end cf. Lucan VI.644.

spacer4.243 For madefactaque sanguine cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses IV.126, 481, V.76, VI.529, VIII.401, and XII.301 (all at the same position in the hexameter line).

spacer4.248 For libertatis amor cf. Lucan VIII.340.

spacer4.251 For arva coloni at line-end, cf. Vergil, Georgics I.125, 507, Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto II.ix.20, Metamorphoses XI.33, Lucan II.445, and the Vergilian Aetna 260.

spacer4.256f. For agmina densa cf. Lucretius VI.100, Aeneid II.450, V.834f., IX.788 etc.

spacer4.258 Cf. fulminis iram at Ovid, Metamorphoses XV.811 (also at line-end).

spacer4.259 See Hector Boece’s history of Scotland I.14:

Sunt qui scribunt id hominum genus Hunnorum reliquias, qui Cimbria pulsi quaerentes sedes in Britanniam venere, ubi Humbro rege amisso a clade, qua Locrinus et Camber Bruti illius, qui Britannicum condidit regnum, filii profugam gentem afflixerant, fuga sese eripuere. Horum placeret sententia, modo temporum supputatio pateretur.

[“Some write that they are the remains of the Huns, who, driven out of Cimbria, came to Britain in search of a home; here they lost their King Humber in a battle waged by Locrinus and Camber, sons of that Brutus who founded the kingdom of the Britons, who afflicted this refugee race, so that they resorted to flight. I would approve this view, if only the chronology allowed.”]

spacer4.260 For Martigenam cf. Ovid, Amores III.iv.39 and Fasti I.199.

spacer4.267 The Greek goddess of justice.

spacer4.264 Cf. tangeris invidia at Lucan IX.1052.

spacer4.272 See the note on line 54.

spacer4.273 For aspera fata cf. Aeneid VI.882.

spacer4.277 Cf. Seneca, Thyestes 679f.:

spacerspacerspacerspacerspacerhinc orantibus
responsa dantur certa.

spacer4.278 Cf. Aeneid IV.666, bacchatur Fama per urbem.

spacer4.279 Cf. turrigeras...carinas at Lucan IV.226 (also relevant to line 301 below).

spacer4.281 The double-headed black eagle was the emblem of the Holy Roman Empire.

spacer4.283 See the note on 3.100.

spacer4.287 For vindice flamma cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses I.230 (also at line-end).

spacer4.293 Two mythological ship-destroying monsters who stand guard at the Straits of Messene dividing Sicily from Italy.

spacer4.294 For colligo vires cf. Ovid, Ars Amatoria II.339 and 456.

spacer4.295 Cf. immitit habenas at Aeneid VI.1 (also at line-end).

spacer4.296 See the note on line 62.

spacer4.300 Cf. dedit oscula rostro at Ovid, Metamorphoses XI.738.

spacer4.303 A rampant lion was the emblem of the Dutch Republic (but a loyal Scotsman would be obliged to believe it to be a beast inferior to the similar emblem of his own king). For iubas concutiens cf. Ovid, Amores II.xvi,50 and Seneca, Oedipus 920.

spacer4.304 For undas verberat cf. Lucan II.407 and IV.426.

spacer4.306 Cf. perhorruit aequor at Ovid, Metamorphoses VI.704 (also at line-end).

spacer4.307 For vela cadunt at the beginning of the line cf. Aeneid III.207 and Ovid, Fasti III.585.

spacer4.309 Admiral Antonio de Oquendo, commander of the Spanish fleet. The Batavi are the Dutch, and Bellona was the Roman goddess of war.

spacer4.310 For vada caerula cf. Aeneid VII.198.

spacer4.312 Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses VII.148, dumque vigil Phrygios servat custodia muros.

spacer4.314 For languida lumina cf. ib. I.714. Cf. also the Vergilian Culex 93, iucundoque liget languentia corpora somno.

spacer4.316 For iamque dies aderat cf. Horace, Sermones I.v.20.

spacer4.317 Cf. Aeneid V.65, Aurora extulerit radiisque retexerit orbem.

spacer4.322 For purpureas fores cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses III.552.

spacer4.323 For angustas cellas cf. Horace, Sermones I.viii.8.

spacer4.324 For fugit omnis inertia somni cf. Ovid, Heroides xiv.75.

spacer4.325 The Roman goddess of the dawn.

spacer4.326 For stabulis relictis cf. Ovid, Fasti II.799.

spacer4.327 Cf. rorata mane pruina at ib. III.357.

spacer4.332ff. In an elaborate epic simile Forbes describes the activities of various craftsmen, in terms distinctly imitative of a similar one in King James’ The Lepanto 428 - 443):

Then, as into a spacious towne,
spacerAt breaking of the day,
The busie worke-men doe prepare
spacerTheir Worklumes every way.
The Wright doth sharpe his hacking Axe,
spacerThe Smith his grinding File,
Glasse-makers beets their fire that burnes
spacerContinuall, not a while:
The Paynter mixes colours vive,
spacerThe Printer Letters sets,
The Mason clinks on Marble stones,
spacerWhich hardly drest he gets.

Even so, so soone this Warrour world
spacerWith earnest eyes did see
Yon signe of warre, they all preparde
spacerTo winne or else to dye.

Here Forbes is describing the operations of a tapestry-weaver, who first creates a vague shape and then completes it with embroidery using gold thread.

spacer4.333 Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses VI.68f.:

Illic et lentum filis inmittitur aurum
Et vetus in tela deducitur argumentum.

spacer4.334f. This site advises knitters on how to dye wool with distilled water previously used to soak copper pennies. Amyclae = Sparta (which only minted copper coins). Cf. Aeneid IV.262, Tyrioque ardebat murice laena , and also Ovid, Remedia Amoris 707f.:

Confer Amyclaeis medicatum vellus arni murice cum Tyrio; turpius illud erit

spacer4.336 Cf. Aeneid VI.849f., caelique meatus / describent radio.

spacer4.339 See the note on 1.76.

spacer4.341 Cf. Aeneid VIII.620, terribilem cristis galeam flammasque vomentem.

spacer4.343 The nutrimenta is the tinder the glassmaker uses to start up his oven (as at Aeneid I.175), and at the same time he uttered a prayer to Vesta, goddess of ovens.

spacer4.345f. Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses VII.633, sperabam tamen atque animo mea vota fovebam.

spacer4.349 Cf. Tibullus III.vii.99, Adversisque parent acies concurrere signis

spacer4.352 For veliferis malis cf. Lucan I.500.

spacer4.354 The legendary helmsman of the Argo. Cf. Ovid, Heroides xiii.101, remoque move veloque carinam.

spacer4.355 Cf. Lucan, Bellum Civile III.558, signifera rate.

spacer4.356 Cf. lunata classe at ib. III.533. For cornua lunae at line-end cf. Ovid, Amores II.i.23, Metamorphoses III.682, VIII.11, X.479, XII.264, and Lucan, ib. III.595.

spacer4.359ff. Cf. the simile at Aeneid V.273ff.:

Qualis saepe viae deprensus in aggere serpens,
Aerea quem obliquum rota transiit aut gravis ictu
Seminecem liquit saxo lacerumque viator;
Nequiquam longos fugiens dat corpore tortus
Parte ferox ardensque oculis et sibila colla
Arduus attollens; pars uulnere clauda retentat
Nexantem nodis seque in sua membra plicantem:
Tali remigio vauis se tarda movebat

spacer4.ff. Cf. James’ The Lepanto 480ff.:

When this was done the Spanish Prince
spacerDid row about them all,
And on the names of speciall men
spacerWith loving speach did call,
Remembring them how righteous was
spacerTheir quarell, and how good
Immortall praise and infinit gaines
spacerTo conquer with their blood,
And that the glorie of god in earth
spacerInto their manhead stands.

spacer4.368 For virtutis amore cf. Horace, Epistulae I.xvi.52 (also at line-end).

spacer4.369 For caeptis audacibus cf. Vergil, Georgics I.40, Aeneid IX.624, and Lucan III.144.

spacer4.370 For excitat iras cf. Aeneid II.594. For talibus infit cf. ib. X.860.

spacer4.371 Cf. expendite causam at Ovid, Metamorphoses XIII.150.

spacer4.372 Cf. Aeneid IX.93, torquet qui sidera mundi. For sidera mundi at line-end cf. also Lucretius I.788, II.328, V.433, 514, , and Lucan VI.816.

spacer4.373 Cf. qui temperat orbem at Ovid, Metamorphoses I.770 (also at line-end).

spacer4.374 Cf. lupus insidiatus ovili at Aeneid IX.59 (also at line-end).

spacer4.377 Cf. coelo manifesta sereno at Ovid, Metamorphoses I.168.

spacer4.381 For exarsit in iras cf. Aeneid VII.445 (also at line-end).

spacer4.389 Cf. saevumque tridentem at ib. I.138 (also at line-end).

spacer4.390 Cf. obrue puppis at ib. I.69. For spumosa aequora cf. Lucan II.627.

spacer4.391 Cf. ad nos iniuria venit ab illo at Ovid, Heroides iv.113.

spacer4.401 For lento vimine cf. Vergil, Aenied VI.137, Georgics IV.34, Ovid, Fasti IV.435 and VI.262.

spacer4.404 Cf. solusque pudor non vincere bello at Lucan I.145.

spacer4.406 For famam extendo cf. Aeneid X.468.

spacer4.407 For rostra secant cf. Lucan VIII.198f. and Seneca, Phaedra 88.

spacer4.409 Cf. volcanus ad astra favilllam at Aeneid IX.76.

spacer4.410 For turbatis undis cf. Lucan VI.68. Cf. more generally James’ The Lepanto 556ff.:

The glistering cleare of shining Sunne
spacerMade both the Hosts to glance,
As fishes eies did reel to see
spacerSuch hewes on Seas to dance.

spacer4.411 For pura luce cf. Aeneid II.590.

spacer4.412 For aere renidescit cf. Lucretius II.326 (also aere renidenti at Vergil, Georgics II.282, both at the beginning of the hexameter line).

spacer4.413 Cf. caeli fulgentis imago at Ovid, Metamorphoses II.17.

spacer4.420 For vitreo ponto cf. Horace, Odes IV.ii.3f.

spacer4.425 Cf. Lucan VI.431f.:

Vix primum levior propellere lintea ventus
Incipit exiguumque tument

spacer4.426 Cf. contorsit spicula at Aeneid XI.676 (also spicula contorquent at ib. VII.165).

spacer4.428 For omen triumphi cf. Juvenal iv.125.

spacer4.429 For mundi fabricator cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses I.57.

spacer4.430 For omnia lustrat at line-end cf. Lucretius VI.737, Aeneid IV.607 and 887.

spacer4.432 Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses I.243f.:

spacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerDent ocius omnes,
quas meruere pati, (sic stat sententia) poenas.

spacer4.439 For discrimine vitae cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses X.612 (also at line-end).

spacer4.442 For nutu tremefecit Olympum cf. Vergil, Aeneid IX.106 and X.115 (both at line-end).

spacer4.443 For fundamina terrae cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses V.361 (also at line-end).

spacer4.446ff. Cf. James’ The Lepanto 580ff.:

But what? Me thinke I doe intend
spacerThis battaile to recite,
And what by Martiall force was done
spacerMy pen presumes to write,
As if I had young bloodie God
spacerAnd all his power seene,
Yea to descrive the Gods of Hosts
spacerMy pen had able beene.
No, no, no man that witnes was
spacerCan set it out aright.
Then how can I by heare-say do
spacerWhich none could do by fight?
But since I rashlie tooke in hand,
spacerI must assay it now,
With hope that this my good intent
spacerYe Readers will allow.

spacer4.450 Cf. flammasque vomentem at Aeneid VIII.620.

spacer4.453 Cf. ib. V.662f.:

spacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerfurit immissis Volcanus habenis
transtra per et remos et pictas abiete puppis.

spacer4.457 See the Introduction.

spacer4.461 For mutaque plectra cf. Ovid, Heroides xv. 198.

spacer4.462 For divine poeta cf. Vergil, Eclogues v.45 and x.17 (both at line-end).

spacer4.463 For patrios triumphos c.f Propertius II.vii.13.

spacer4.464 Cf. duri certamina Martis at Aeneid XII.73.

spacer4.467 This line = Aeneid V.115. Cf. James’ The Lepanto 666ff.:

And first the sixe aforesaid Ships
spacerThat were so large and fair,
And placed were in their former ranks
spacerDid first of all persew
With Bullets, Raisers, Chaines, and nailes,
spacerThat from their peeces flew.

spacer4.469 For ferro iaculisve cf. Lucan VII.489.

spacer4.471ff. Cf. The Lepanto 617ff.:

The Azur Skie was dim’d with Smoke,
spacerThe dinne that did abound,
Like thunder rearding rumbling rane,
spacerWith roares the highest Heaven.

spacer4.472f. Cf. Aeneid XII.284, tempestas telorum ac ferreus ingruit imber.

spacer4.474 Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses XIII.601, nigrique volumina fumi.

spacer4.475 Tartessus (modern El Rocadillo, near S. Roque) was an ancient maritime town of Spain. “Tartessian” as a poetic equivalent of “Spanish” is also used by Claudian, In Rufinum II.101.
spacer For involvunt caligine cf. Aeneid VIII.253.

spacer4.476 For noctisque imago cf. Ovid, Heroides xix.193.

spacer4.478f. For vocalis tubae cf. Seneca, Thyestes 659.

spacer4.481 Cf. Aeneid II.301, clarescunt sonitus armorumque ingruit horror.

spacer4.482 For repentinos tumultus cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses V.5.

spacer4.483 Cf. Aeneid IV.667, lamentis gemituque et femineo ululatu. Cf. The Lepanto 624ff.:

The piteous plaints, the hideous howles,
spacerThe greevous cries and moones
Of millions wounded sundrie waies,
spacerBut dying all at ones,
Conjoynd with former horrible sound
spacerDistemperd all the aire,
And made the Seas for terrour shake
spacerWith braying every where.

spacer4.484 Cf. ib. XII.409df.:

spacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerIt tristis ad aethera clamor
bellantum iuvenum et duro sub Marte cadentum.

spacer4.486 For sanguine perfundit cf. Aeneid X.520, Ovid, Metamorphoses V.156, VII.245 and 396. For praelia miscens etc. at line-end, cf. Lucretius IV.1013, V.442, Vergil, Georgics III.220, Aeneid X.23, XII.628, Ovid, Heroides xix.141, and Metamorphoses V.156.

spacer4.488 For facies belli cf. Lucan III.76. For Martis imago cf. Aeneid VIII.557 and Ovid, Tristia V.vii.17.

spacer4.491f. For Ascra see the note on 1.24f. Permessis was a river flowing from Mt. Helicon. For tristia funera cf. Vergil, Georgics IV.256, Ovid, Amores II.vi.41, and Horace, Epistulae II.ii.74.

spacer4.498 Absent any such thing as a Neo-Latin lexicon, I cannot ascertain the meaning of boarda (the reading of both printed texts), although “shot” would fit the context satisfactorily. (Note that the meter excludes the possibility that this is a printing error for bombarda.)

spacer4.501 For liquidum aere cf. Vergil, Georgixs I.404, Aeneid VI.202, Ovid, Amores II.vi.11, Metamorphoses I.23, IV.667, XI.194, and Tibullus III.vii.209.

spacer4.502 For dat magnam stragem cf. Lucan I.156f.

spacer4.503 Rupitque diem is a phrase taken from Lucan I.153.

spacer4.504 For noctamque profundam cf. Aeneid IV.26 and VI.462 (both at line-end).

spacer4.505 For littora curva cf. Aeneid III.16, 223, 239, 643 etc.

spacer4.506f. For spicula contorquere cf. ib. VII.165. Cf. also fulgura flammae at Lucretius VI.182 (also at line-end.

spacer4.508 For facies lethi cf. Lucan III.653 and Seneca, Oedipus 180.

spacer4.513f. Cf. James’ The Lepanto 616f.:

The Fishes were astonisht all
spacerTo heare such hideous sound.

spacer4.515 Cf. Lucan, ib. III.573, et obducti concreto sanguine fluctus.

spacer4.516 For luctantesque animascf. Aeneid IV.696, Lucan, ib. III.578, and Seneca, Phoenissae 141.

spacer5.518 For exterrita tellus cf. Aeneid III.673 (also at line-end).

spacer4.519 Beginning here, Forbes repeatedly refers to the Spanish as the “Morini.” In antiquity the Morini were a Celtic tribe dwelling in the coastal parts of the present Pas-de-Calais in northernmost France. Presumably this is his shorthand for “the Spanish nationals inhabiting the former territory of the Morini,” and no reference to their Belgian subjects is intended. It is worth noting that in his 1639 poem Auriacus Triumphans the Dutch Humanist Caspar Barlaeus also calls them Morini, and in his subsequent oration on the battle he repeatedly says that the enemy fleet belongs to the Belgae

spacer4.520 For tumidos fastus cf. Ovid, Ars Amatoria I.715.

spacer4.522 For Instanurantque acies cf. Aeneid X.543.

spacer4.531 For horribili sonitu cf. Lucretius V.1253 (also at the beginning of the lin

spacer4.532 For tigna trabesque cf. ib. II.192, 196, and VI.241.

spacer4.533 Cf. nivei tondent dumenta iuvenci at Vergil, Georgics I.15.

spacer4.535 Cf. Aeneid X.486, ille rapit calidum frustra de vulnere telum.

spacer4.536 For patrio arvo cf. Ovid, Ibis 501.

spacer4.537 Cf. Aeneid V.413, sanguine cernis adhuc sparsoque infecta cerebro.

spacer4.541 For sanguineaque manu cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses I.143 and Seneca, Medea 63.

spacer4.542 For rapido turbine cf. Lucretius I.273 and Ovid, Heroides vii.66ff.

spacer4.544 Cf. Lucretius VI.427f., quam freta circum / fervescunt graviter spirantibus incita flabris.

spacer4.545 Cf. Lucan V.603f.:

Sed Scythici vicit rabies Aquilonis et undas
Torsit et abstrusas penitus vada fecit harenas.

spacer4.548ff. A compressed imitation of Ovid, Tristia I.ii. 19 - 26:

Me miserum, quanti montes volvuntur aquarum!
spacerIam iam tacturos sidera summa putes.
Quantae diducto subsidunt aequore valles!
spacerIam iam tacturas Tartara nigra putes.
Quocumque aspicio, nihil est, nisi pontus et aer,
spacerFluctibus hic tumidus, nubibus ille minax.
Inter utrumque fremunt immani murmure venti.
spacer Nescit, cui domino pareat, unda maris.

spacer4.557 For sanguinei rores cf. Aeneid XII.339f. and Lucan VII.837 (cf. also ib. VIII.645, XI.8, and Lucan IX.698).

spacer4.558f. Lucan, ib. III.565, likewise describes ships grappling together for a fight:

Ast alias manicaeque ligant teretesque catenae,
Seque tenent remis: tecto stetit aequore bellum.

spacer4.562f. Cf. James’ The Lepanto 672ff.:

The hideous noise so deaf’d them all,
spacerIncreasing ever still,
That readie Soldats could not heare
spacerTheir wise commanders will.

spacer4.563 For the idiom aure bibit cf. Horace, Odes II.xiii.32.

spacer4.564ff. An embroidery on Aeneid X.361, concurrunt, haeret pede pes densusque viro vir.

spacer4.570 For grandine with forms of nimbus at line-end, cf. Aeneid IV.120, 161, V.458, IX.669, X.803, and Ovid, Metamorphoses XIV.543.

spacer4.572 For dat sonitum cf. Aeneid VII.567 (also at the beginning of the hexameter line).

spacer4.574 For densantur funera cf. Horace, Odes I.xxviii.19.

spacer4.576 For spumantibus amnis cf. Aeneid II.496, VII.465, XII.524, and Lucan X.322.

spacer4.577f. Cf. ib. II.103f.:

Stat cruor in templis multaque rubentia caede
Lubrica saxa madent.

spacer4.579 This line = ib. II.102, with revocatur for revocatum.

spacer4.577 For stat cruor cf. Lucan II.103 (also at the beginning of the line).

spacer4.582 For via lubrica cf. Propertius IV.iv.49.

spacer4.585 Cf. Lucan III.19, lassant rumpentis stamina Parcas.

spacer4.588 For sanguine caesorum cf. ib. VI.584.

spacer4.598 For belli amorem cf. Aeneid VII.461, VIII.327, Lucan I.21 and II.325.

spacer4.600 For amplexus avidos cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses VII.143.

spacer4.601 Cf. sub Tartara tristia misit at Aeneid IV.243.

spacer4.604 Cf. Aeneid I.100f.:

spacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacerUbi tot Simois correpta sub undis
Scuta virum galeasque et fortia corpora volvit!

spacer4.605 Cf. Ovid, Heroides iii.86, quid lacerat Danaas inpiger Hector opes?

spacer4.610 Cf. James’ The Lepanto 693f.:

No skaping place is in the Seas
spacerThough men would MARS refuse.

spacer4.618 Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses V.204, sonuit tinnitibus ensis acutis.

spacer4.619 Cf. planctus et gemitus at Seneca, Troades 902.

spacer4.620 For furor arma ministrat cf. Aeneid I.150.

spacer4.622 For robustis viribus cf. Lucretius III.449.

spacer4.628 For lymphato metu cf. Lucan VII.186.

spacer4.630 For irarum stimuli cf. ib. II.324.

spacer4.634 For flammarumque globos cf. Vergil, Georgics I.473 (cf. also Aeneid III.574). Cf. also Lucan VIII.752, ardente favilla (also at line-end).

spacer4.635 Cf. Aeneid III.576f.:

Erigit eructans, liquefactaque saxa sub auras
Cum gemitu glomerat fundoque exaestuat imo.

spacer4.638 Cacus was a mythological giant who lived on human flesh and dwelt in a cave on the Aventine. Vergil tells how Hercules killed him for having stolen some of Geryon’s cattle from himself as he was driving them past the ogre’s lair (Aeneid VIII.190ff.).

spacer4.640 Cf. Lucan III.374f.:

Non aliter quam cum summis circumlita taedis
Admotas rapiunt vivacia sulphura flammas.

spacer4.647 Cf. Aeneid I.118, apparent rari nantes in gurgite vasto.

spacer4.649ff. Cf. Lucan III.690ff.:

spacerspacerspacerspacerspacerspacernec cessat naufraga virtus:
Tela legunt deiecta mari ratibusque ministrant
Incertasque manus ictu languente per undas
Exercent.

spacer4.650 Cf. trepidante dextra at ib. IV.564.

spacer4.654 For laceramque carinam cf. ib. VIII.755.

spacer4.655 Cf. ib. III.688, hi, ne mergantur, tabulis ardentibus haerent.

spacer4.658 Cf. ib. III.689, mille modos inter leti mors una timori est.

spacer4.662f. Cf. Lucan VII.477f.:

Tunc ausae dare signa tubae, tunc aethera tendit
Extremique fragor conuexa inrumpit Olympi.

spacer4.665 Cf. Aeneid IV.668, resonat magnis plangoribus aether (cf. also ib. V.228, Ovid, Ars Amatoria III.375, and Metamorphoses III.231).

spacer4.666 See the note on line 293.

spacer4.667 Cf. mulcere fluctus at Aeneid I.66.

spacer4.669 Cf. ib. XI.78f.:

Multaque praeterea Laurentis praemia pugnae
Aggerat et longo praedam iubet ordine duci