THE YEAR 1620

January 1 Viscount Doncaster, returned from his embassy to Germany, has an audience with the King and informs him of the condition of the King-elect of Bohemia and of the Emperor.
The Marquess of Buckingham is given a coronet by the Chancellor as a New Year’s gift.
A book by the King about royal inauguration has been published.
5 Lionel Cranfield has been taken onto the Privy Council.
6 Baron von Donau, ambasaddor from the King-elect of Bohemia, has a private audience with the King.
Consultation about monetary matters, concerning reducing gold and silver coinage to equivalent value, not without incurring the King’s grave displeasure, who was even more distressed because Johnson and Doubleday were not punctually present with their accounts.
8 I received a letter from Dudley Carleton, Ambassador to the United Provinces, about ambitious contention between our military men in Holland, about which matter I consulted with the Earl of Arundel.
11 Though the weather was snowy, the King has set out from London, after a marriage was contracted, as it is reported, between the Marquess of Buckingham and the daughter of Francis Earl of Rutland and Frances Knyvett, the widow of *** Beville of Cornwall.
18 Mary Seymour, widow of ***, wife of Peyton (now involved in the Venetian war), sister of Edward Earl of Hertfordshire, was buried at night in the Collegiate Church at Westminster, with a great throng of noblemen in attendance.
Anne, daughter of Thomas Dennis of the County of Devonshire died, buried at the Savoy.
New commissioners have been appointed for the office of the Treasurer, George Calvert as Secretary and Lionel Cranfield, the Master of the Rolls having been removed.
The King is furious at the Earl of Suffolk, the ex-Treasurer, since it was found out that he had signed over all his goods to his father-in-law the Earl of Salisbury and to his brother William Howard.
William Bingley is removed from his position as Remembrancer to the Treasurer, and in his place is substituted Robert Pye, servant of the Countess of Buckingham.
22 Francis Bacon, the Chancellor of England, is celebrating his 59th birthday.
The Earl of Worchester, who recently handed the King a document about glass-making, is bidden to sit in the Court of Requests with the Masters of Requests, as if it were unbecoming that such a magistrate not have a place in the judiciary, as he had recently said to Northampton.
28 In the Star Chamber Thomas Lake read out an acknowledgement of the slanders by which he had done damage to the Countess of Exeter. This acknowledgment or act of submission was devised by the Chancellor, Chief Justices, and Attorney General, and read out in public by Thomas Lake. In this, for the defense and support of Lady Roos his daughter, he acknowledged that the sentence handed down against him on the preceding February 13th, was just, because his fault was disgraceful, hateful, and scandalous to the said Countess. But he was misled by his great credulilty, indulgence, and ignorance. Furthermore he acknowledged that he had erred in incarcerating Luke Hutton and George Williams out of self-interest, and professed that it grieved him to his heart to have defended such a disgraceful, hateful, and scandalous case. Begging the Countess’ forgiveness, he sincerely petitioned the Lords to intercede with the King for favor and mercy.
The Earl of Suffolk is received into some degree of favor with the King, and with his son.
February 1 Sir Robert Krt of Ancre killed Charles Maxewell, a young hothead, in single combat at Newmarket. The quarrel arose over the Princes’ favorites Luines and Buckingham.
The sun shone bright on the Feast of Mary’s Purification, and bitter cold followed.
The King is demanding that an inquest be held concerning the assets, possessions, and debts of the Earl of Suffolk, that he may see whether he is able to pay his fine.
The children of the Earl of Suffolk are taken into the royal favor.
The King commands his Privy Councellors to deliberate how to raise money to clear his debts.
7 The Earl of Worcester, Keeper of the Privy Seal, is sitting in the Court of Requests.
10 James, firstborn son of Baron Walden, is baptized at Audley End; his godparents are the King (the Duke of Lennox serving as proxy), Suffolk himself, and the Countess of Salisbury.
15 Suffolk and his wife return to London.
Bitter cold and snow.
21 Thomas Holcroft perished from a headlong fall.
22 Peacock of Cambridge, who had claimed he had employed magical tricks to sway the King’s mind from sound judgement in the case of Thomas Lake, is put to torture in the Tower of London. Some pronounced him a madman, others an impostor.
29 The King returned to Westminster.
March 1The Bishop of Winchester preached a sermon before the King.
4 I saw Waldon functioning as Master of Noble Pensioners.
George Coppin died, who was succeeded as Crown Clerk by Thomas Edmonds, Treasurer of the Royal Household.
The Prince exercises himself with jousting.
Marquess Hamilton is admitted as a Gentleman of the Bedchamber.
5 Baron Roos, the sole son of the Earl of Rutland, dies, buried at night at Westminster.
The Prince invites the Peers to a banquet and a play at Somerset House.
On the same day the Count de Gondomar, Ambassador of the Catholic King, lands at Dover.
6 He is entertained by the Lord Mayor of Canterbury, and then by the Earl of Dorset.
8 He lands at the Tower of London and is escorted through the city to Ely House.
10 Beating a drum through the streats, Andrew Grey recruits soldiers for defence of the Palatine Elector.
The Heralds convened in the presence of the Delegates about the Prince’s joust and the boldness of Charleton and Compton Holland.
*** The King returned to Westminster.
Mistress Lake is freed from the Tower because of her ill health, under the condition that at the beginning of term she be returned unless she has made her submission.
12 Martin Fotherby, Bishop of Salisbury, died, who had been consecrated on April 19, 1618.
While the Count de Gondomar, the Spanish Ambassador, was paying his visit to the King at Whitehall, the railings next to the door of the Great Hall broke under the weight of the multitude, and collapsed together with the Earl of Arundel, Baron Grey, and Baron Gerard, but they were unharmed. The Ambassador himself was steadied by a guard standing nearby, and avoided danger.
13 He visited the King again, and after a lengthy conversation, visited the Prince.
14 The King went to Hampton Court.
15 I was called as a witness in the case between the Fenwicks and *** Foster.
24 Jousting in honor of the anniversary of King James’ accession, in which Prince Charles won every honor by running twelve courses. I, befeathered and laden down with white, blue, and green scarves so that I could not recognize myself, led the way. The parade included very handsome troops of musketeers and halbardiers, the Justices, the Earl of Leicester, Viscount Doncaster, Baron North, Henry Carey the Comproller, and Fulke Greville.
26 With great pomp the King went in procession from Westminster Palace to St. Paul, together with the Bishops and the Peers of the realm. At Temple Bar the Lord Mayor of London and Aldermen received him. Robert Heath the Recorder congratulated him on his entry into the City. Then on the north side, kept within rails the Guilds of the citizens stood in order with their banners all the way to St. Paul’s Cathedral, courtiers hanging out of windows.
Neither the younger sons of Earls, nor the Knights of the Privy Council took part in the procession, because they could not agree about precedence. The King was bareheaded.
On the West side, where there is an ancient polished brass column, was placed a chair and cushion, and when he had kneeled before this and risen up, the Dean preached a sermon. Next he went in procession through the middle island of the Cathedral, beneath a canopy, through the choir to the apse next to the tomb of Nicholas Bacon. Whence, after short prayers and hymns, he went to the place which John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, had set up for the hearing of sermons. The Bishop of London preached a sermon about the need for restoring Paul’s. The King returned in the order in which he had come.
April 3 The Duke of Lennox, the Earl of Pembroke, and the Earl of Arundel met at the College of Arms and proposed in what order the Duke of Lennox might make his progress to hold the Court de Vierge, and they agreed that Somerset Herald should not keep his wife in the College of Arms.
5 The King at Hampton Court remitted £1800 owed by the Earl of Nottingham to Queen Elizabeth and himself.
6 The Duke of Lennox, Seneschal of the Royal Household, held the Court de Vierge in Westminster Hall.
6 and 7 It is hailing, intense cold as Saturn passes through the twenth-seventh degree of Gemini, where is the eccentric perigee.
14 On the Day of Our Lord’s Passion the Earl of Oxford and Henry Parker, wasted by excess, invaded Powell’s house at St. Giles in the deep of night, where Lady roos was staying, to rape her, but they were apprehended by the watch and severely fined.
Newell is installed as Prebend in place of Cuthbert Bellot.
18 The Prince and the Marquesses of Buckingham and Hamilton jousted at Westminster, and the Prince bore off the palm by running twelve courses, in the judgement of the crowd and of the Earl of Arundel, the Viscount of Doncaster, Baron Sheffield, and Henry Carey the Comptroller, who sat as umpires.
19. The Earl of Pembroke’s son is baptized at Baynard’s Castle, with the godparents being the absent king (per the Earl of Montgomery), Marquess Hamilton, and the little boy’s grandmother.
Prince Charles assigned annual pensions of £100 to eighteen of his servants, of whom no more than *** were English. Dallington was neglected at this time.
22 News of Marshal Fels, the King of Bohemia’s Master of the Camp, being routed and killed by the Poles under Boiscot.
A letter was sent by the Electors of the Church, Saxony, Bavaria, and Landgraf *** to Frederick King of Bohemia, that he should resign his new kingdom, lest he be compelled to do so in a short time, since Bohemia is a feudal possession of the Empire, whose recognition pertains to the College of Electors, without whose assent Frederick accepted that kingdom. The Orders of Bohemia deny these things, and recognize nothing from the Empire beyond feudal investiture.
The King of Spain appointed the Duke of Parma his general in Flanders.
Spinola is going to make some attack against Jülich.
Meanwhile the King of Spain is striving to prolong the truce with the United Provinces through the intercesion of our King and the King of France.
26 St. George’s Day is observed at Greenwich.
27 The King has imposed a ban of silence on 130 ministers of the Word in Scotland, who refuse to submit themselves to the authority of Bishops, but afterwards he received back them into his favor in the month of June.
May 1 The King entertained the Prince and the others who participated in the jousting at a banquet at Whitehall.
2 The King has given Secretary Calvert an annual pension of 1000£ out of Customs revenue (he was made Secretary on February 15, 1619). This was my birthday, but I was quite ill and unable to go to Court, even though I was summoned in connection with the dispute between the younger sons of Earls and the Knights on the Privy Council. I was wholly at liberty for God and divine meditations.
Clarus inoffenso procedit lumine Titan.
[The clear son proceeded with its light unimpaired.]
15 Proclamation about recalling Roger North, who set sail with royal authority for establishing a colony near the Amazon River.
Thomas Lake kisses the royal hand. His wife is remanded to the Tower, because she stubbornly refuses to make her submission.
16 The Marquess of Buckingham marries Catherine, daughter and heir of Francis, Earl of Rutland, in a private ceremony at Lumley House.
Lady Carleton arrives in England from Holland.
The servant Treswell informs me of the Heralds’ petition against York and himself, as if they are making mischief of everything.
17 Frederick Henry is declared his father’s successor in the kingdom of Bohemia.
It thrice thundered and flashed lightning.
20 The Ambassador of the united Princes of Germany appointed today as the time the King must reply what he will do on behalf of his son-in-law the King of Bohemia.
Baron North is clapped in the Fleet, because he was responsible for his brother Roger’s over-hasty voyage to the Amazon River.
News is conformed of the interception of four Englishs ships by the Dutch in East India, together with a large amount of wares and many Englishmen slain.
Dennis O’Righan died, and confessed that he had falsely accused John Perrot, Viceroy of Ireland, having been bribed by others.
Henry of Nassau, Governor of Frisia, dies without issue of apoplexy at Leeuwarden.
26 I set out for London, where at Court I was present at the dispute between Dudley Diggs and Sir John Manwood. But he was consigned to prison by the Duke of Lennox, the Chamberlain, and the Earl of Arundel because he had drunkenly said that Dudley did not dare fight, but afterwards he was let loose.
On the same diay died Lady Harington, daugher of *** Kelway, widow of John Baron Harington, who died in 1613 in Germany.
27 I dictated a submission to be exhibited to the Delegates on behalf of the Marshal’s office in the case between him and Dudley Diggs.
The King appointed the Marquess of Buckingham Lieutenant of Kent after the resignation of Baron Wotton, and with the King’s consent he soon transferred this office to the Duke of Lennox.
Viscount Purbeck, his wife, and his sister Lady Fielding have gone off to Spa, perhaps to conceal the lunacy of their arrogance.
Hunt, Prebend of Canterbury, was made Dean of Durham, with Adam Newton tending his resignation for a fee.
June *** Overleaping a wall at Theobalds, the Prince’s foot slipped and he seriously injured his forehead and nose, not without risk to his life.
4 The King observed Pentacost at Greenwich, and participated in the Eucharist, with the Bishop of Winchester administering the Sacrament and preaching the first sermon, and with the Bishop of Lincoln in the royal presence. Court was quite empty. Esmé [Stuart] of Aubigny, whom the King had lately created Earl of March and endowed with much money, was in a snit because the King had not repaid his expenses (I shall not say that he began to repay favor with hatred).
5 The Earl of Pembroke’s son, born March 10, died.
William Maynard, Baronet, *** Bentley, *** Foliot, and *** Gorges procured their creation as Irish Barons.[Maynard Baron Wicklow, Gorges Baron Dundalk, Harvey Baron Roos], perhaps out of an ambition that they might take precedence over the elder sons of Viscounts and the younger sons of Earls.
10 *** Aluered, once the scribe of Lord Ever, the Governor of Wales, showed the Marquess of Buckingham a well-written tract against the marriage of Prince Charles with the Infanta of Spain, for which reason the indignant King clapped him in prison.
The Duke of Lennox, Marquess Hamilton, Marquess Buckingham, his wife, and mother, the Countess of Arundel, and Thomas Compton dined at the home of the elder Lord Walsingham at Chesilhurst.
11 After Evensong on Trinity Sunday the King betook himself to Westminster.
Dominus Goodwin, Dean of Christ Church, Oxford, and Dominus Budden, Regius Professor of Law there, have died.
*** Corbet Doctor of Theology is elected Dean of Christ Church.
Horatio Vere is designated General of the army to be sent to the Palatinate, with Edward Cecil, who had previously been designated, being shunted aside.
By the sound of the drum, volunteers are being collected throughout the city for the Bohemian war, under the ensigns of the Earls of Oxford and Essex, John Wentworth, etc. For Edward Sackville and the Lord de l’Isle have forsworn this campaign out of I know not what dissension.
19 The King celebrates his birthday at Windsor, and comes to Wansted.
Mars, Saturn, Venus, and Luna. Clouds at noon.
23 The Bishop-elect of Salisbury, certain courtiers, Lady Smith, and Lady Walsingham dine at my house.
26 The King visited Thomas Watson at Hawstead with the intention of hunting, but the day was quite rainy. He hunted nevertheless. He had in his company the Prince, the Duke of Lennox, Viscount Fenton, Baron Dacre, and others.
29 On St. Peter’s Day the King heard for the last time the cause about praerogative honor or precedence between the younger sons of Earls and Knights on the Privy Council, and ruled in favor of the younger sons of Earls.
The Attorney General is suspended from office.
July *** Whitlock was made Sergeant at Law and Justice of Chester, Chamberlain having been made Justice on the Royal Bench.
I participated in the election at Westminster.
Thomas Marbury died.
9 Robert Tolston is consecrated Bishop of Salisbury at Lambeth. The Bishops of Lincoln, Rochester, and Chester laid on hands. Dominus Davenant preached the sermon.
10 Horatio Vere went to Theobalds to bid the King farewell, as now he is on the point of sailing to Germany with four thousand infantry to defend the Palatinate.
15 St. Swithin’s day is without rain, with the Ass and the Stall rising in the heaven, but it is cloudy and rather chilly, Saturn being in Gemini in the eccentric perigee.
17 Proclamation about putting up buildings within a mile of London.
18 The King begins his progress.
The fine imposed on Suffolk is reduced to 7000£, to be paid to Haddington, and Thomas Monson kisses the King’s hand.
20 Lightning and thunder at night.
The Archibishop of Canterbury departs towards Canterbury.
Bad news brought about the losses inflicted on the English by the Dutch in East India, with Jordan, the head merchant, killed, and Sir Thomas Gates dead.
22 General Vere, the Earls of Oxford and Essex, and others set sail from Gravesend.
The Delegates for the restoring of St. Paul’s Cathedral have decreed that the buildings to its east and west are to be pulled down before August 1.
August *** Catherine Countess of Huntingdon, widow of Henry Earl of Hundingdon, daughter of John Duke of Northumberland, died without issue in the middle of August. She is buried at night at Chelsea, next to her grandmother.
Robert Mansell set sail from the Port of London with royal ships and *** Londoners against the Mohammedan pirates who are wonderously infesting the Mediterannean.
9 A boy was born to Edward Bointell.
12 Gusty winds and rain squalls. I dined with the Bishop of Rochester, Richard Mith, at Brumley.
13 It did not rain at the morning setting of the Dolphin, so see if it rains at Arcturus’ rising on September 12.
15 Five pounds for the certification of Savage’s arms, which are to be sent to Spain. St. Bartholomew’s day was rainy.
28 News that Spinola has settled in the Palatinate with his army, and decided that the war will be fought in that area.
29 The Archbishop of Canterbury is entertained at Dover by Lord Zouch, the Governor of the harbor, with festive joy, salvoes of artillery, and skyrockets.
Lewis Stukley, who betrayed Ralegh, has in some manner died mad.
September 2 A south by southwest wind rages, with hail, nor can Robert Mansell set sail from the Thames mouth with his fleet.
4 He set sail and is stopping at the Downs.
5 He dined with Dudley Digges, and on the 6th hastened to Court, possibly because he is inadequately outfitted with sailors and supplies.
The King is furious at the Earl of Worchester, discovering that his daughter has been sent to Brussels to become a nun.
Tilenus, a great theologian, arrives in England and publishes a book against the Scots zealots of the Genevan sect.
Hotman’s son comes with him into England.
News that Spinola has captured Openheim, Christac, and Aslac in the Palatinate, and has thrown up fortifications next to Mainz.
14 Chapman’s funeral.
Robert, son of Robert Digby, has been made Lord Geashill.
The sailors and soldiers are loudly complaining that the victuals of the Fleet have grown rotten.
Richard Boyle, Baron Boyle of Youghal in Ireland, is created Earl of Cork and Viscount Dungarvon, with marriages arranged between his son and the daughter of Edward Villiers, and between Boyle’s daughter with Villier’s son and heir.
27 Symon’s funeral.
Lech, Baron Carew’s secretary, committed suicide.
Henry Radcliff, firstborn son of Robert Earl of Sussex, who married the daughter of Michael Stanhope, died without issue.
Thomas Lake breakes his arm, struck by a vehicle.
On the last day of the month the King came to Westminster, inspected the new fabric, and after dinner hastened to Theobalds.
October *** A proposal was made that each Earl contribute 1000£, each Baron 400£, each Baronet ***, and each Knight *** towards the defence of the Palatinate against Spinola, the Emperor’s General in those parts.
5 Torrential rain with hail.
8 News that Spinola has siezed Bagrac, Bing, and Clut. When the Spanish Ambassador is somewhat reproached before the King for having intimated that Spinola had no designs on the Palatinate with his army, in a letter sent the Ambassador the Marquess of Buckingham acknowledged that neither the Ambassador nor the King of Spaine nor Archduke had dissimulated with the King in this matter, but each one had professed that he was going to wage war in the Palatinate.
It is requested of the officials in the Chancellery and Exchequer, of the judges and of Professors of the law, and other wealthy men, that they contribute subsidy money in aid of the Palaltine Elector.
A little while while later the King declares in another letter to him [the Spanish Ambassador] that in no way does he approve of the Emperor’s abdication and the Bohemians’ election of the Palatine Elector, when he considers his conscience, his honor, and how dangerous an example this should set for all sovereigns, and in particular for the King of the Danes.
25 The Palatine Elector is defeated, and Prague captured.
News is brought of Dampierre being killed by the Hungarians.
Henriy Carville of St. Mary’s is summoned, accused that he contributed money to give assistance against the Elector of the Rhine. Hence the Spanish Ambassador is lodging a complaint with Secretary Naunton.
The King arrives late at Westminster on All Saints’ Day, and so does not attend Evensong.
November 1 On All Saints’ Day he attends morning service, makes offering, and touches the scrofulous. But no sermon is preached.
5 He observes the anniversary of the Gunpowder Plot at Theobalds, and Viscounts are named.
7 It is announced that Parliament is to open on January 16.
8 The Attorney is finally brought to the Star Chamber, and his advocates and he himself acknowledge that he has erred out of ignorance, negligence, and ready gullibility, not out of corruption or malicious intent.
9 William Cavendish, son of Charles Cavendish, created Viscount Mansfield by the presentation of letters patent, with no investiture.
10 [The Attorney] is punished with a fine of four thousand, removal from office, and incarceration in the Tower of London at the King’s pleasure.
The Earl of Essex, the Earl of Oxford, Baron Gerard, Edward Sackville, Treasurer Heydon, and the English army return to England.
16 Dudley Digges and Morris Abbot are sent to Holland to recover goods of the English intercepted in East India. Rowland Wood, who bade me farewell today, is appointed their secretary.
Funeral of William Sebright.
Misty night.
When Mistress Lake was to be brought to the Star Chamber to acknowledge her offence against the Countess of Essex, she wrote a letter to her derogatory to the kingdom’s justice, and, quoting verses from Psalm 136, summoned the Countess to Divine Judgement, and hence is committed to the Tower.
21 The Earl of Bridgewater, to purify his chapel at the Barbican at London, which had been polluted by the saying of Masses, decided it ought to be consecrated de novo, and obtained permission of the ailing Bishop of London that the Bishop of Llandaff be delegated to consecrate it, which was done according to the rite. John Williams, Dean of Westminster, preached a sermon, and the choristers of Westminster were present.
A book appears entitled Vox Populi.
It has been proposed by the Privy Councellors that the nobles who have contributed money to defending the Palatinate should not be oppressed with a new contribution, and that each man be asked to contribute towards its subsidy just as much as he is able to ply. But these proposals were scarcely pleasing to the King.
29 News is brought that the Palatine Elector was routed and driven into Silesia. Prague has been captured by the Duke of Bavaria and Bucquoy, and the Elector’s supporters driven from the city.
These things from letters of the Duke of Bavaria and the Elector of Maintz, printed at Brussels.
Gainsford is imprisoned for the book Vox Populi.
Randolph MacSurley, who has already been made Viscount Dunluce (namely in 1617) is now created Earl Antrim.
Oliver St. John the Viceroy [of Ireland] is designated Viscount Grandison.
December 3 Henry Montagu, Chief Justice of the Royal Bench, becomes Treasurer of England, the staff handed over at Newmarket.
Icy.
The King, who provided their wealth, writes to the Councellors of the people of Scotland that they treat with the more wealthy Scots about contributing money to the defence of the Palatinate.
4 The rabble riots against the Spanish Ambassador’s servants because of some words that slipped from the Spanish King about the rout of the King of Bohemia, so much so that the Chancellor ordered 300 men to stand guard around the Ambassador’s house, under command of Lewis Lewkenor and Henry Spiller.
It is reported that Father Masters (?), who lately quit England for Rome, had conference with the Countess of Arundel at Padua, and went with her to Rome, and so the King is said to be annoyed.
The King confers on the Treasurer the titles and honors of Baron Kimbolton and Viscount Mandeville, perhaps because Kimbolton was once the family seat of the Mandeville from Normandy.
It is reported that in the fearful flight of the King of Bohemia towards Bratislava, his waggons were overtaken by the pursuing enemy, and in these were discovered the crown of the King of Bohemia and other regalia, and that he now intends to go to Presburg to confer with Bethlen Gabor.
13 I wrote to Peter Puteanus.
14 The new Treasurer came to the Exchequer, accompanied by Fulke Greville the Vice-Chancellor, where in the presence of the Chancellor he took his oath to administer the office of Treasurer faithfully. The Chancellor admonished him to make Treasurer Burghley and Nicholas Bacon, Keeper of the Great Seal, his examples.
The Attorney General, even if imprisoned, is elected a citizen of the town of Northampton by its Puritan citizenry.
The King granted permission to the United Provinces for the transport of 100 pieces of artillery with accompanying equipment, and the same number to the Spanish Ambassador, not without muttering of the multitude.
20,000£ is asked of the Londoners. They cheerfully pay 10,000£, to be collected from among the guilds.
It is announced that Robert Mansfield has unsuccessfully fought against the Turkish pirates.
Mistress Lake is freed from prison, under I know not what conditions.
23 The King came to Westminster. He did not attend Chapel, being hindered by gout.
On Christmas the Peers partaken of the Eucharist in the Chapel, and he himself and the Prince in the Private Chapel. Meanhile the Dean of the Chapel preached a sermon there.
The Scots Dean of Ross died.
Edward Villiers is designated Ambaasador to Bohemia. He departed January 2.
Cadenet, Marshall of France, brother of the Duc du Luines the favorite, arrived at London with a huge retinue of noblemen, received on the river at Somerset House. At his advent the workshops at Westminster are removed. On Sunday, being driven through the streets with his people in carriages, he came to the Upper House of Parliament. Afterwards he held private converse with the King.
Paddocks is created, Viscount Fielding and Baron of Newnham, Henry Clay Viscount Falkland and Baron ***. Likewise Grey of Northumberland Viscount *** in Scotland is appointed Constable of Flamborough. In Ireland, too, *** Fitzwilliams was created Baron of Lifford, *** Wilmott Viscount ***, and Caulfield Baron Charlemont.
Roger North, receiving from the Dutch the message that the King had recalled him by a published proclamation, voluntarily returned and is committed to the Tower of London.

THE YEAR 1621

January 1 The King did not attend Chapel, but the Prince and Peers did. After dinner the French Ambassador visited him.
The Duke of Lennox lavishly entertained the Ambassador at Hampton Court with hunting and hawking.
4 The King entertained the Ambassador and the Frenchmen with an elegant banquet in the Upper Hall of Parliament.
They sat in this order: the King at mid-table, the Ambassador at his left, the Ambassador Ordinary at the table’s head. The Duc d’Auvergne was not present, being uninvited to the King’s table. The Prince did not attend the banquet.
On Epiphany Sunday the King attended Chapel, held up with difficulty. He offered gold, incense, and myrrh, and touched eighty victims of scrofula.
A son has been born to the Earl of Salisbury.
7 The Lord Chancellor summoned Norroy King of Arms and myself, and very early in the morning discussed the accoutrements needful for the honor of a Viscount. For the King has decided to invest him with the title of Viscount St. Albans in solemn ceremony.
8 Viscount Doncaster entertained the French Ambassador and his suite with an elegant banquet at Essex House, which the King attended with the Prince, the Chancellor, the Treasurer, etc.
In a shepherds’ masque the Scots and English took the palm from the French, as in jousting and running at the ring. A squabble over this performance broke out between Ailosse and the Comptroller of the Royal Household, but a more serious one between Baron Digby and George Goring, who challenged him to a duel because he had displaced his wife from the seat in which the Duke of Lennox, Seneschal of the Household, had placed her, but the King affected a reconciliation. The Ambassador bade farewell to the King.
13 A Council of War is established, to which are summoned the Earls of Oxford, Essex, Leicester, Viscount Wilmot, Baron Davers, Edward Cecil, Horace Vere, and *** Bingham. Certain questions are proposed to them about the recovery of the Palatinate.
Montgomery, Bishop of Meath and Claghern, died. Doctor Usher is succeeding him.
Parliament is prorogued to the last day of the month.
Twice the King made ready to for his journey to Theobalds but, impeded by the gout, abandoned the attempt.
14 Baron Norris and *** Wray treated with me about the titles of the Earl of Gloucester or Bristol and Viscount Abington, and about writing over the title of Baron Rycot or Tame to Edward Wray and ***, sole daughter of Baron Norris.
The King left for Theobalds, on the day he railed at Secretary Naunton and suspended him from the Secretary’s office, because (as is said) he had treated with the French Ambassador about the marriage of Henrietta, sister of the King of France, without consulting the King.
Immediately after dinner I caught a fever, and suffered severely all night.
Dominus Buck, Prebend of Westminster and almost a nonagenarian, died.
The Bishop of Hereford visited me.
Baron Norris informs me that the King has granted the titles of Earl of Berkshire and Viscount Tame.
Thomas Coventry, who had been King’s Sollicitor, is made the Attorney General. Robert Heath, who was Recorder, is made the Sollicitor. Robert Shaw, Recorder of London, died February 6.
Viscount Haddington becomes Earl of Holderness and Baron of Kingston, with the additional honor that he carries the sword before the King on August 5, i. e., the anniverary of the Gowrie Plot.
27 By plenary investiture the Chancellor was created Viscount St. Albans. Baron Carew carried the robe in in front of him, Baron Wentworth carred the coronet, Marquess Buckingham <and> *** supported him. He gave a sevenfold thanks to the King, because he made him, first, Sollicitor; 2. Attorney General; 3. Privy Councellor; 4. Keeper of the Seal; 5. Chancellor; 6. Baron of Verulam; and 7. Viscount of St. Alban.
29 James Lee, Attorney of the Court of Wards, is appointed Chief Justice of the Royal Bench, is replaced as Attorney of the Court of Wards by Walter Pye.
30 On the next-to-last day of the month, with the weather snowy and cold, the King came on horseback, under a canopy, to the Abbey, with the Peers in fair array. Lancelot Andrews, Bishop of Winchester, delivered a sermon. The Earl of Cumberland bore the sword before the King, and Arundel the Marshal’s wand. The Bishop of Winchester preached his sermon on a text out of Psalm 82, God stands in the congregation of kings.
February 2 On the Feast of Purification the sun shone bright all day. See if intense cold will follow.
4 Thomas Richardson is admitted as Speaker of the Lower House, and presented to the King. Who arrived in a private carriage, and returned home before 6 o’ clock.
6 It was sharply debated in the Lower House about free speech against Recusants; against Papist pictures, that they be removed from the city; about those who gathered at the Spanish Ambassador’s house to hear Mass; about the conferral of the subsidy. It was also proposed that every member of the Lower House partake of the Holy Eucharist, so that James Usher Bishop of Meath might preach the sermon, with the Dean of Westminster as it were thrust asode.
Bitter cold.
That day Edward Coke conducted himself as an excellent patriot, as he explained that every proclamation against Parliament has no force.
In the Upper House proposals were made about the artillery, about revoking the Act of Edward III about appointing certain men to hear complaints about injustices in Chancery and other courts, and about the Act of Reassumption.
10 The cold spell is broken.
Sheppard, who rather freely attaced the Puritans, is ejected from Parliament, and Flud, who asserted that the Palatine Elector has no claime on the kingdom of Bohemia, is branded.
In the Lower House some Members complained about the sending of artillery to Spain, and this is related to the King, who answers that two years ago he gave the Spanish Ambassador leave to send them, as he did to the United Provinces and the Duke of Bruswick, and he is unable not to keep his word.
16 The Earl of Berkshire stood in the narrow entrance to the Chamber, conversing with his servants. Baron Scroope passed him by and, when he scraped by in the narrow place because Berkshire did not make much way, he followed after him, rather irate, and rather rudely gave him a shove in the presence of the Prince and the entire House. Hence he is committed to the Fleet for close custody.
On the same day the Houses jointly offered two subsidies and demanded that the laws against Papists be put into effect, and that they be confined to their houses and disarmed.
18 The Lower House partook of the Eucharist at St. Margaret’s, Westminster. Dominus Usher, Bishop of Meath, preached a sermon on 1 Corinthians 10:7, For we are of one bread and one body, etc.
19 But on the 19th Edward Sackville, and on the 20th William Airmin took Communion apart in the Collegiate Church of Wesminster, and afterwards William Airmin.
21 By means of the Prince, several of the Earls and Barons petitioned the King that the new Scottish and Irish Viscounts should not have precedence in England before the Barons of England. The King took this amiss, and grew irate at Baron Dispencer.
On the same day a discussion about oppressions was opened in the Lower House, and *** Drake of Devonshire showed that Giles Mompesson had acted unfairly against inkeepers and brewers by means of his agents, and the servants of the Treasurer and the Chancellor, Dixon and Almond.
Before these days, the King made answer to five articles against Recusants, and hoped that the severity of the law would be visited on them, provided however that Catholic princes would not be provoked against worshippers of the Reformed Religion. He would treat with the Ambassadors of the Kings of Spain and France that they would not admit Englishmen to their Masses. He also informed them that the King of France was now intending a siege of La Rochelle and the Prince of Savoy one of Geneva, and that the King of Spain had recovered the Veltlin as his possession.
Sebastian Harvey, that wealthy man, died.
23 Sir Francis Mitchell, lately knighted, is ignominiously sent to the Tower of London by the Lower House, being marched through the city, because of his heavy actions against brewers and innkeepers.
Edward Somerset, younger son of the Earl of Worchester, died of dropsy.
24 Army review in Middlesex, at Toothiill.
Baron Digby set sail from London.
Henry Potman, who married the Earl of Derby’s daughter, died.
The Barons of England, who ill suffered the Viscounts of Ireland to have preferment over themselves, are ordered to come to the King and kiss his hand. Few were admitted, and they rebuked.
From Italy comes neews that Pope Paul V has died, and substituted in his place *** de Louis, Bishop of Boulogne, and that he has taken the name of Gregory XV. In these days the King of Spain proposed to the United Provinces a general peace under these conditions: 1. if they should acknowledge him as their Protector; 2. if they should sail no more to the East and West Indies; 3. if they should permit Catholics to practice their religion and have their own churches; 4. if they should open navigation between Antwerp and Zeeland.
March 3 Giles Mompesson, after being called before the Lower House, guiltily fled. Soon a proclamation for his arrest was published. Buckingham, on whom he had pinned his faith, abandoned him.
9 The Lower House complained that the jurisconsults who they employed to bear messages to the Peers had acted in bad faith and were liars.
10 The King heard the Lower House about this lie, and afterwards amused himself at hawking.
Albert Morton returns from Germany, and the King did not admit him today.
14 There was a squabble between the Marquess of Buckingham, Southampton, and Sheffield, who interrupted him since he frequently talked on the same subject, and that contrary to the accepted order in Parliament, but the Prince effected a reconciliation.
Robert Bowyer, Parliamentiary Clerk, died.
Sir John Cotton of Kent died.
At Hampton Court the Bishops of Winchester and Lincoln showed the King a concession of subsidies made by the clergy of the County of Kent, in the name of the rest of them. The Chancellor, accused of extortion, announced that he would resign office, as if tired of the honor, since he was wounded by the calumnies of many men.
18 The Vaivod of Sindomerski’s son, Ambassador from the King of Poland, paid a call on the King at Westminster, and indicated in Latin how much treat of war menaced the Christian world from their common enemy, the Turk, and about the disturbances that had arisen in Germany.
Funeral of Sebastian Harvey.
The Chancellor sends letters to the Lords of Parliament by Buckingham, and prays that they not condemn him innocent and unheard by the false innuendoes of certain men.
23 When the Prince entered the anniversary joust, a sleety rain poured down, and soon a most welcome serenity broke forth. And he took the palm from the others by running twelce courses.
27 The King came to Parliament and pronounced sentence on Giles Mompesson, his wife’s dignity undisturbed.
28 Parliament is prorogued to April 18th.
29 John King, Bishop of London, died of the stone.
30 Proclamation of the proscription of Giles Mompesson, and another about the revocation of patents of inns and taverns, and also of patents for gold and silver thread, and another one about conformities.
April 5 It is announced that Philip III King of Spain has died peacefully, and that his son Philip, 17 years of age, has succeeded him.
Edward Villiers returns home.
Certain apprentices who handled the Spanish Ambassador shamefully are whipped through the city.
Edward Earl of Hertfordshire dies.
16 The King comes to London City Hall and most seriously rebukes the magistrates for the common people’s insolence towards Ambassadors and noblemen in the City of London and adjacent parts, threatening to restrain them with armed bands, and an proclamation about this matter is issued April 8th.
10 John Bennet, judge in the Court of Prerogatives, is very seriously accused of exactions and corruption, and so he is first committed to the Earls of London, and then swiftly to prison.
The sentence is pronounced by gowned Peers.
May 1 I went to Sanderhurst, and vainly sought for the camp of the Emperor Alexander Severus, who was killed in Britain in the town of Sisila. Some believe that he was killed at this place, but by guesswork and no sure proof.
2 My birthday, on which I was wholly at leisure for good studies and pious meditations.
The Great Seal and Chancellor’s authority are taken way from Viscount St. Albans on May 3, and handed to the Treasurer, the Chamberlain, the Duke of Lennox, and the Earl of Arundel.
The Chancellor is imprisoned at the King’s pleasure. He is fined 40,000£ and debarred from any place in Parliament or the judiciary, and forbidden to approch Court closer than twelve miles.
Sentence is pronounced in the Lower House against Flud, who has scurrously slandered the Palatine Prince and his wife, but this is revoked by the King, who desires to be informed whether any judicial authority resides in the Lower House.
5 Francis Michell is brought before the bar and judged, so that he be degraded from his knightly rank without prudice to his wife and children, that he hold no office, be fined 1000£, and be imprisoned that the King’s will in Finsbury Field, in the prison that he himself had founded.
Among the Peers there was dissention whether to bring ex-Attorney Yelverton to trial. The Barons thought that both sides ought to be heard, Arundel opposed. Baron Spencer, who, when Arundel cast in his teeth his rustic life, answered, “The King, who transformed me from a commoner to a noble, likewise ennobled your common self.” He was attanted, but Prince Charles restored him to his erstwhile favor.
Arundel is sent to the Tower.
Yelverton the ex-Attorney is fined.
Clement Coke, younger son of Edward the ex-Justice is clapped in the Tower for his insolent slander of Morrison.
8 After noon it thunders.
15 Robert Tonson, Bishop of Salisbury, died destitute at Westminster, and was buried there. He left behind fifteen children and his widowed wife.
Flud, who scurrously mocked the Palatine Elector and his consort, is ridden through the city backwards on a horse, exhibited as a spectacle in the stocks, whipped, has a K branded on his forehead, fined, and condemned to life imprisonment.
Countess Kelly, Norris’ daughter, died.
The ex-Chancellor is delivered to the Tower, but freed after two days.
The King hunts at Chesilhurst on the last day of May.
June *** Dominus Davenant is chosen as successor in place of Tonson in the bishopric of Salisbury, and the King advises him not to marry.
Melbourn of Meath is translated to the See of Carlisle.
Mountain of Lincoln to the Cathedral of London.
Williams, Dean of Westminster, is named to Lincoln and appinted Keeper of the Great Seel.
The Master of St. John’s College, Cambridge, is to be transfered to the See of Meath, and Senhouse put in his place.
Curly is chosen as a replacement for Tooker as Dean of Lichfield.
16 The Earl of Southampton is handed over to the Dean of Westminster for close custody.
Likewise John Seldon and Edwin Sandys are handed over to a London Sheriff
On the last day of term after 3 p. m., Sir Francis Michell is brought by the Sheriffs of London to Westminster Hall. Soon appeared Commissioners for the office of the Earl Marshall, namely the Keeper of the Privy Seal, the Duke of Lennox, the Marquess of Buckingham, the Eurl of Arundel, and a number of Barons as spectators. In their presence Francis Michell is brought to the bar. Then Parliament’s sentence against him is read aloud in a loud voice by Philpot the Pursuivant at Arms. His spurs are cut off and cast aside by servants of the Earl Marshal. Then he is relieved of his sword (which was silver when it was supposed to have been gilded), which is broken over his head and cast aside. Finally it is pronounced that he is no longer a gilded knight, but rather a knave, as once was Andrew de Herclay when he was degraded by Anthony Lucy.
Garter, Clarenceux, and Norroy Kings of Arms sat at the feet of the Commissioners.
Thomas Harriot, a distinguished mathematician, is dead. He bequeathed his gods to Viscount de l’Isle and Thomas Ailsbury.
The Duke of Lennox married the widow of the Earl of Hertfordshire.
I participated in the election at Westminster, and remained their four days. On Wednesday I returned to Chesilhurst.
July *** The King reconcilied Edward Coke and his wife.
Essex betook himself and some few others to Holland.
15 John Williams, Dean of Westminster, was made Keeper of the Great Seal, and attended Evensong, with Mainwairing carrying the Seal before him, and Sutton acting as usher.
The Bishop of Bangor is examined, and committed ot the Fleet, but freed a little later.
Edward Montagu is created Baron Montagu of Boughton.
Fulke Greville is created Baron Brook, and Thomas Baron Darcy de Chich is created the Viscount of Colcester, for himself and the heirs of Thomas Savage.
Henry Baron Hundsdon is created Viscount Rochford, Lionel Cranfield is created Baron Cranfield of Cranfield in the County of Bedfordshire. He married the daughter of James Brett. An proclamation is made about parliamentary affairs.
The Earl of Oxford is placed in custody because of his garrulousness. Likewise Sir George Leeds and Sutcliffe, Dean of Exeter, Sir Christopher Neville, and Brise, a minister.
Marquess Hamilton is dispatched to Scotland for the holding of a Parliament, and the Viscount of Doncaster to France as Ambassador Extraordinary.
Edward Herbert is recalled from France because he had irreverently delt with Constable Luine.
Edward Sackville is chosen in his place.
George Mountaigne is translated from the See of Lincoln to London.
St. Swithin’s day is clear, with the Ass and the Stall rising in the heaven.
Bosseville returns to France with a bundle of letters for Puteanus.
18 The Earl of Northumberland is released from the custody in which he had been kept for fifteen full years, with a peal of artillery fire.
At the same time the Earl of Southampton is freed. Likewise Edwin Sandys and John Selden.
Dominus Wilson retired as Master of the Westminster School in exchange for a cash payment and annual pension.
Henry Spellman visited me.
Albert, Archduke of Austria, died at Brussels, age 62. While the Archbishop of Canterbury was hunting in Baron Zouch’s Burnhill Park close to Hertford Brdge, by chance he killed a game warden with his harquebus. It is asked if by this involuntary homicide he has incurred a charge of irregularity or a suspension from office.
That warlike man Bucquoy is killed at Neuheusel by the Hungarians, caught in an ambush.
Proclamation that the secret business of State and the King’s affairs should not be discussed with excessive liberty.
August 5 A halo around the sun about 4 p. m. William Lord St. John, Marquess Winton’s firstborn son, has died.
Holms, the Precentor of Westminster, has died.
Baron Chandos has died at Spa.
Doctor Hackwell, the Prince’s chaplain, has written a tract against his marriage with the Infanta of Spain, which he gave to the Prince without the King’s knowledge. Hence the King, rather angry, placed in custody the Prince’s secretary Thomas Murray, the Doctor, his brother, and all the other guilty men.
The Countess of Bedford returned from Holland, whither she had gone to visit the Queen of Bohemia.
William Cotton, Bishop of Exter, died.
While by means of Baron Digby the King is interceding with the Emperor and the King of Spain that the ex-King of Bohemia be restored to his ancestral honor of the Palatinate, he himself, following the banners of the United Provinces, is fighting against them, and so the King, irritated, is railing against him.
Wiliam du Vaire, Vice-Chancellor of France and Bishop of Lisieux, died at age 64.
Last day of August I frequently coughed up clotted blood.
September *** Edward Villiers, sent to Germany to see the Palatine Count, returned at the end of the month.
A chasm was seen in the heaven.
The ship called the Great James returned from East India, laden with pepper and precious wares.
George Chaworth is sent to the Archduchess to condole her on the death of Archduke Albert.
The Earl of Arundel is made absolute Earl Marshal of England with an annual pension of £2000.
Funeral of George Boul (?), Alderman of London.
Robert Maunsell, Commodore of the English fleet against the Turks, returned from the Mediterranean, having accomplished nothing distinguished.
Fulke Greville Baron Brook, made a Gentleman of the King’s Bedchamber, resigned from the office of Chancellor of the Exchequer in favor of Richard Weston.
*** Sucking was made a member of the Privy Council.
Octrober Cottington, agent in Spain, was designated the Prince’s Secretary in place of Thomas Murray.
9 The Keeper of the Seal visited Westminster Hall without ceremony. Algerian Pirates plunder about 35 English and Scottish ships in revenge for the war waged by Robert Mansell.
It is reported that the King of Poland is afflicted by a great slaughter at the hands of the Turks, and that his son has been taken captive by them.
15 The suit was heard whether York is a Herald, and Noyes offered proof that he is not. On the contrary, Whitfield the Chief Baron of the Exchequer particularly favors York.
Funeral of Sir William Reade.
On St. Luke’s Day Westminster Hall is flooded.
Arsenne arrives from the United Provinces to treat of East Indian affairs.
November *** The Archbishop of Canterbury is declared by the Delegates not to have incurred any irregularity, nor to have inflicted any scandal on the Church.
11 Lord Williams, Keeper of the Great Seal and Dean of Westminster, is created Bishop of Lincoln in the Collegiate Church of St. Peter. Lincoln, Worcester, Ely, Oxford, and Llandaff laid on hands, delegated by special royal authority.
18 Dominus Davenant has been consecrated Bishop of Salisbury, Valentine Carey Bishop of Exeter, and William Laud bishop of Meith, in the Chapel of the Bishop of London’s palace.The Bishops of London, Worchester, Oxford, Ely, and Llandaff laid on hands. Wearing gowns, the Viscount of Colchester, the Viscount of Rochford, Baron Brook, and Baron Montagu are introduced into the House of Lords, and, documents of the Keeper of the Seal having been handed them, and then handed back, they are installed in their seats.
There is an upheaval in the Lower House over the incarceration of Edwin Sandys, until Secretary Calvert protested that he had not been imprisoned over a Parliamentary cause.
A great storm is stirred up in the Lower House against Recusants, and it is voted that they must pay a double subsidy because they are foreign-born, since they have shown themselves foreign to the received religion and devotees of the Pope.
On the same day a third subsidy is granted.
Bad news from the Palatinate is announced, namely that Heidelberg is taken, and Horace Vere and the English routed, but this proves false.
22 The King forgives the Archbishop of Canterbury all irregularity, if he has chanced to incur any.
December 4 Peter Heymore and another are sent to Edwin Sandys to determine whether he was placed in custody for Parliamentary reasons.
The subsidy granted is to be paid in February.
On the following day the King in a letter heavily rebukes the Lower House because it had sent to Edwin Sandys. He bids them not become involved in secret State affairs, nor deal with his son’s marriage. They must not speak injuriously of his dearest brother the King of Spain, and so forth. The session came close to being dismissed.
Ferdinand, son and heir of Baron Dudley died, having left behind a little daughter.
14 The Lower House sent some of its Members to apologize to the King for meddling in secret affairs of State, when they treated of the marriage with the Infanta of Spain. They informed him of their reasons for so doing. They explained the impending evils, and the remedies to be applied: war should be declared on the Pope and the King of Spain, the Papists in England should be repressed by severer laws, and the Protestants abroad supported by greater helps.
York and Somerset Heralds are brought to the bar for contemptuous words uttered against the Earl Marshal in the presence of the President of the Council, the Duke of Lennox, Marquess Hamilton, the Earl of Worcester, Baron Digby, and the Earl Marshal himself, and by unanimous consent they are sentenced to the Marshalsea.
Brograve’s manor in Hertfordshire burnt down.
21 There is no good agreement between the King and the Lower House, and hence a protestation is made about the preservation of liberty. Parliament is prorogued to February ***, and in a certain sense dissolved.
On the following night several structures in Chancery Lane accidentally caught on fire, and many archives consumed in the flames.
On Christmas Eve the King attended Evensong, and likewise on the day itself he attended both morning service and Evensong.
The King bids Wright, Clerk of the Lower House, to hand over to the members of the Privy Council the diary of the Lower House, so that he might more clearly understand the oppressions of the nation.
17 The King takes up the Treasurer’s daughter from the holy font. The other godparents are the Marquess of Buckingham and his wife.
On the same day Edward Coke is sent to the Tower of London. On the next day he is examined.
Robert Cotton and Thomas Wilson are sent to search Edward Coke’s writings.
On the Eve of Circumcision the King did not attend Evensong.

THE YEAR 1622

January 1 On the Day of Circumcision the King attends morning service, comes down, makes offering, goes back up, and hears the remainder of the prayers.
The Earl of Worchester bore the sword.
Likewise on Epiphany Sunday, when Doctor Ratcliffe, Warden of Brasenose College, Oxford, preached the sermon.
Tobie Matthew, summoned, comes to England that the King may employ his assistance in several matters.
6 Parliament is dissolved by proclamation.
The King with the Prince went to his lodge at Theobalds. On the journey he came close to being drowning, being thrown from his horse at the third milestone from Theobalds.
Dominus Sheldon, Oxford’s Regius Professor of Law, visited me.
Proclamation for indemnifying those who suffered losses in the fire in Chancery Lane.
The Marquess of Buckingham, his wife and mother, receive Confirmation from the Bishop of London according to the rite. On this day when he entered his Cathedral and ascended the choir, some men wittily said that they were ill-washed.
Robert Philips, who had opposed the marriage with the Infanta of Spain, is locked in the Tower of London. Likewise *** Mallory from the County of York.
The Earl of Somerset is freed from his lengthy incarceration in the Tower of London, and commanded to keep himself at Viscount Wallingford’s and the surrounding vicinity.
Edward Coke is accused of having acted in bad faith in the case of the Earl of Somerset by conceailing certain true confessions, and substituting false ones.
Thomas Howard, second son of Thomas Earl of Suffolk is created Viscount Andover and Baron of Charleton. He married the daughter of William Cecil, younger son of Baron Burghley.
28 The Earl of Oxford and Francis Steward are sent with certain armed ships to intercept ships of the United Provinces returned from East India, but these made their escape to Zeeland.
Francis Earl of Berkshire committed suicide at this time, leaving behind an unwed daughter and a natural son, to whom he bequeathed an income of a thousand pounds.
In a published book the King gave reasons why he dissolved Parliament.
February 2 On the Feast of Purification the sun shone bright.
The Earl of Oxford was sent out to intercept Indian ships of the United Provinces, but they escaped thanks to favoring winds.
*** Hubbard, son of Henry Hubbard, Justice of the Common Pleas, took to wife Earl of Bridgewater’s second daughter. He had previously been married to the daughter of the Earl of Leicester.
20 Sir Henry Saville, who has deserved excellently of the University of Oxford and the entire republic of letters, bequeathed a great longing for the literary nation at age 69. He was buried at Eton in a night-time funeral. He is succeeded by the Scotsman Thomas Murray, and by Brent in Merton College.
Antonius de Dominus, Bishop of Spalato, wearied of the King’s charity, is preparing himself to journey to Rome, out of some hope of convoking a General Council to settle the religious argument. He came to England in December 1616.
Rainuto, second Duke of Parma, died on March ***. He left a son who is a deaf-mute. Eduardo, his second son, is chosen to succeed him.
I leased out my house at Siward for an annual rent of 4 sugar loaves.
By [the Archbishop of Spalato’s] resignation, Balancquall the Scotsman procured the headship of the Savoy, and Baron Digby is readying himself for a journey to the King of Spain.
A book appeared entitled The Spanish Chancery.
The joust is postponed for a week, because the weather is rainy.
A Dutch ship returned from East India is captured by Vice-admiral Merwin and Porter (Endymion’s brother), with a great cargo of goods.
Richard Weston, Chancellor of the Exchequer, is sent to the Archduchess.
Count Gondomar is planning his return to Spain, and Viscount Doncaster prepares himself for a journey to France.
March 20 The Marquise of Buckingham gives birth to a firstborn daughter. She is immediately attacked by the measles (?), and escapes with difficulty.
John Suckling is made one of the Principal Secretaries.
Viscount Doncaster is sent to France.
April *** Viscount Swartzenberg comes as Ambassador from the Emperor Ferdinand.
From Gravesend Viscount Pembroke escorted him upriver to Somerset House.
The Queen of France has had a miscarriage.
On the same day it is announced that the King of Bohemia has crossed over from Holland to Denmark with a small number of followers, to fan new fires of war there, which our King dislikes.
7 Prince Charles’ Chaplain Winniffe falls out of his favor, because in an inelegant speech he compared Frederick, ex-King of Bohemia, to a lamb, and Spinola to a bloodthirsty wolf, which the King disliked.
8 The Emperor’s Ambassador is admitted to the King with his retinue on a Sunday in the Upper House of Parliament, with great *** congratulations.
He exercises himself with jousting.
Likewise he is entertained with an elegant banquet at Parliament, and bids farewell to the King.
15 Swartzenbrrg has honored me with a great compliment, as by Lewis Lewknor I have discovered, by speaking of and quoting much from my writings.
18 Swartzenberg set sail, and with him Richard Weston, Chancellor of the Exchequer. In another ship was the Archbishop of Spalato, seasick to the point of vomiting.
The Earl of Oxford is cast in the Tower of London because of rash words uttered against our King and the King of Spain.
A rumor is circulating that the commanders whom Baron Vaulx sent to Flanders were intercepted by the Dutchmen and cast in the sea. The soldiers who volunteered to fight for the United Provinces were sent to Holland, the rest were set on shore in England.
27 Marcantonio [actually Carlos] Coloma, Governor of Cambrai, has come from the King of Spain as Ambassador in place of Count Gondomar, and greeted me by name.
May *** Richard Weston, Chancellor of the Exchequer (whose son has been taken by madness) departs for Brussels.
2 On my birthday, clarus inoffenso processit lumine Titan.
The younger William Beecher is sent to Germany with Baron Chichester and also the younger Hotman.
Foscarini, who was the Ambassador of the Venetian Republic in England, is wretchedly strangled in prision, among other reasons because he had imparted certain secrets to the Countess of Arundel.
At Court I searched in vain for the Lord Treasurer, having been summoned by him, I know not why.
Bad news has been brought from the Palatinate, that Tilly, general of the Bavarian army and Gonsalvo the Spaniard have crushed Mansfeldt’s men and torn up his camp. Meanwhile the United Provinces are widely ranging through Brabant.
Oliver St. John, Viceroy of Ireland, returned to England.
June *** Soubise, a member of Rohan’s family, came to England as a refugee.
Soubise the archrebel came to England to beg help against his king, but he is given a deaf ear and ignored.
An elegant book has appeared promoting a marriage between Prince Charles and Mary of Spain.
Viscount Grandison and *** Conway are taken onto the Privy Council.
Baron Says, even if he contributed a huge sum of money for the war in the Palatinate, is nonetheless given into custody because he had zleft the matter to the individual choice of his neighbors.
The Pope will in no wise consent (nor will his delegates) that a marriage be contracted between the Prince and the Infanta.
St. Swithin’s day quite serene.
The younger Morris (?) has been creating a great deal of trouble for John Doderige and myself over the prebendary at Isarcomb, with John Packer being favorable.
Great riots at Constantinople.
In Virginia three hundred Englishmen are slaughtered by the barbarians.
Rumor has it that Count Gondomar, returned to Spain, was put in custody because he had so strenuously championed the marriage, and it is also written from Italy that the Infanta is destined to be joined in wedlock with the Duke of Florence.
A ship from East India returned to London.
August *** The Earl Marshal, as he was leaping down from a vehicle, was dragged by unbridled horses and scarcely avoided the peril of death.
The wife of Secretary Calvert, a most modest woman, is dead.
Doctor Perin, of the Requests, is dead.
Proclamation forbidding importation of exotic goods save in English bottoms.
September ***
October *** Arthur Chichester, Baron Belfast, returned from the Emperor.
Roland Searchfield, Bishop of Bristol, died.
Kevercher is striving to gain his See.
December *** John Bennet, Doctor of Laws, fined £20,000 for corruption in the Court of Prerogatives (on the last day of November), is now henceforth debarred from all the judicature, and ordered to make retitution of what he has unjustly peculated.
The King came to Westminster, but did not attend Evensong on the Eve of the Nativity. On the day he took Communion in the Holy Eucharist.
Proclamation that noblemen should remain at home and exercise their hospitality among their own kinsmen, under pain of a great fine.
On the last day of December Arthur Chichester, Baron Belfast, was sworn in to the Privy Council of England.

THE YEAR 1623

January *** Coppinger, a servant of the Earl of Somerset, hurled himself into troubles, uttering some things about Prince Henry, as if he had been removed by poison.
The King received Horace Vere, returned from Germany, so warmly that he forgot himelf and bared his head.
February *** The Viscount of Grandison is made Master of the Court of Wards, the Treasurer taking this very badly.
In the course of a natural day the Thames flowed and flowed back four times, to the astonishment of many.
The sun shone on the Feast of Mary’s purification. An intense cold followed, with much snow and hail.
6 A marriage is celebrated between Viscount Manville, son and heir of ***, and *** Hill, related on her father’s side to the Marquess of Buckingham, in Whitehall.
Rumors are flying about that Spinola has captured Stade, and that the marriage between Prince Charles and the Infanta has been consummated, with the Count of Olivares standing proxy becaused Digby refused to attend Mass, and she refused to have the marriage celebrated without one.
7 Thomas Cecil, Earl of Exeter, died at about the age of eighty. His firstborn son William succeeded him.
Prince Charles, the Marquess of Buckingham, and a few others cross over into France.
Henry Rich, Captain of the Guard, is created Baron Rich of Kensington and sent to Prince Charles in Spain.
March *** Dominus Right, Rector of Sonning, is consecrated Bishop of Bristol at Lambeth.
April 12 Bonfires are lit throughout the city because of Prince Charles’ prosperous successes in Spain.
Thomas Murray, Master of Eton College, dies without issue of being cut for the stone.
The King designates William Beecher his successor.
May 2 My birthday. Clarus inoffenso splendebat lumine Titan. I was wholly at liberty for theological meditations.
The Earl of Ormond, the King’s most powerful subject in Ireland, died.
Theobald, having been created Viscount Tully, married the daughter and sole heir of the Earl of Ormond. She remarried Sir Thomas Somerset, the Earl of Worcester’s younger son.
Elizabeth, the relict of Moyle Finch, Knight and Baronet, daughter and sole heir of Thomas Heneage, is created Viscountess Finch of Maidstone in Kent, for herself and her heirs masculne.
The Marquess of St. Jermayne, Spanish Ambassador Ordinary, and the King swore to several articles which Secretary Calvert had read aloud.
On the Feast of St. Swithin’s Translation it rained at night.
On the same day three feathers, the insignia of the Prince of Wales, were cast down by lightning, which not a a few interpreted as an ill omen. But may God avert it!
The Earl of Bath died.
August 18 While I was sitting in my chair, plunged in thought, neither my fot nor my hand performed their office. I fell to the floor, but without injury, and soon got up again.
Everywhere in England Prince Charles, returned from Spain, is congratulated with bonfires.
81 spectators are killed by the collapse of the theater at Blackfriars.

ADDENDA

1603

[Jun. 4] Sir Thomas Parry had Audience concerning the Duc de Bouillon
The French Ambassador complains of depredations
Commission about the same to Sir Thomas Parry.
Octobris 16. Bufalo the Cardinal and Papal Nuncio in France deliver’d certain Articles to Sir Thomas Parry, promising much to the King; yea, whatever he shoild think fit, to preserve his state from any trouble or attempt of the Catholicks. A Project then, that some of the quietest sort of Priests should be made Governors of those Seminaries at the King’s nomination.
The Pope seem’d to be jealous of the Kings powers and people united.
The 4th advertised that Pere Cotton, coming to the President Thou, fell into discourse of Sir Anthony Standen, and the affairs of England, affirm’d, that there was no hope of the King. He was obstinate; but for the Queen they were assur’d she wish’d better to the Catholicks than the Protestants. That She did ever separate her self from them, she being a Lutheran.
Martii 5. Sir James Hay, Ambassador from England, arrived at Paris.
June.A copy of the Nuncio’s receipt of Reliques.
October. Cardinal Bufalo, Nuncio in France, departed toward Rome.
December Barbarini Clerico de Camera, a Florentine, succeeded.
The Constable of Castil was appointed to plot 5 main points: 1. To gain some Favourite in the Court. 2. To place some mask’d Catholicks about the Prince. 3. To withdraw the privy mainteance and relief of the disunited Priests, till they were regain’d. 4. To make overture for correspondency and intelligence with the principal Heads of the Catholick Faction, and to draw in the Malecontents to the Ligue. Lastly, to spare no promises for confirming all their hopes.

1604

December The Duke of Lennox in France.
The French King complains to him of the English Ambassadour at Venice, for injurious speeches against him.
The Lord Theophilus Howard in France.
Thomas Morgan in great danger, for intermedling with the Count of Auverne.
The Marquiss Vernueil committed.
The Lord Admiral repareth for Spain in March, for a confirmation of the Treaty.
Exceptions against English cloth.
The Duke of Bouillon labour’d to be declar’d Prince of the Empire.
A Son born to the Count of Soissons.
Cardinal of Bufalo, the Pope’s Nuncio, in France.
Parsons laboureth for an excommunication against the King at Rome.
Sir Thomas Parry, in June, continueth in France.
Arrest of English Cloth at Rome, in November.
Spinola in his passage through France conferreth with the King.
Duke of Bouillon excuseth himself of imputations made to the King of England by the French King.

1605

Martii 11. Duke of Lenox came into France Ambassadour; had access to the King Martii 18. Mediated for his Cousin the Marquess Vernueil. After his departure, the King sent him a Bever hat, with diamonds and stones valued at £4000.
May, Petro de Medices, Brother to the Grand Duke of Florence, died in Spain.
The Early of Hume, and the Earl of Arundell permitted to carry Troops to the Arch-Dukes aid.
Amphitheatrum honoris prohibited at Paris.
Questions propos’d to a possessed Woman, about the King and the State, by Father Cotton.
June. Spaniards at Dover.
September. Sir George Carew appointed Ambassadour for France.

Finis