COMMENTARY NOTES

Ad lectorem Cf. the discussion in the Introduction of the interpretational difficulty posed by the word hornus.
Doctori Comber Dr. Thomas Comber, Dean of Carlisle and Master of Trinity College since 1631.
4 Oxford Latin Dictionary, nux def. 1 (D), “ a symbol of something worthless.”
6 Students’ mnemonics for various moves in Logic. In the following line I assume edictum means the proposition being defended.
10 An allusion to John Seton [d. 1567], author of the Dialecta, the standard logic textbook of the day (a reprinting had been issued at Cambridge as recently as 1631).
19f. The lamps of his study. As an undergraduate, Cowley was not especially studying Divinity, but the university was so dominated by the Anglican Church that any student could make this claim.
Ignoramum The title figure in George Ruggle’s comedy Ignoramus, acted at Trinity College in 1615, is a lawyer who speaks wretched Latin. Cowley also wrote about this play in his youthful satire A Poeticall Revenge, in which he rails against the unlettered popinjays of the Inns of Court, and concludes:

Grant this you Gods, that favour Poetry,
That so at last these ceaselesse tongues may be
Brought into reformation, and not dare
To quarrell with a threadbare black, but spare
Them who bear Schollers’ names, lest some one take
Spleene, and another
Ignoramus make.

Granta Another name for the river Cam.
Dramatis Personae Several of the characters of this play have transparently significant names: Gnomicus is related to the Greek word for “aphorism” (perhaps with “comic” lurking in the background), Gelasimus to the Greek word for “laugh,” Morion to the Greek word “moron,” and Polyporus means “very wealthy.”
Prologue 2 For sophista iunior = “second-year undergraduate” cf. the discussion in the Introduction .
Prologue 8 Note that, although there is no corroborative evidence for Cowley as an actor, this statement tends to establish that he performed a role in the present play. Trinity College undergraduates wore purple gowns (Nethercot, Muses’ Hannibal p. 40).
Prologue 14 In classical Latin, crepusculum designates the semi-darkness of dusk; from the context, Cowley clearly uses the word to describe the similar half-light of early morning.
I.i This scene is set on a street in front of the inn diversorium in which the travelers will stay (119). A second “house” is used to represent Bombardomachides’ house (stage direction on 455).
I.ii As was the custom in academic drama of the time, the five Acts are subdivided into numbered scenes. Each of these, prefaced by a list of speaking parts in it, is precipitated either by the entrance of new characters or when the stage is momentarily cleared. As such, these scene-divisions often serve as a rather imperfect means of indicating entrances and exits, and no discontinuity of time or place is necessarily implied. Here, Cowley adheres to the convention, as all speaking parts in the scene are listed at its beginning (i. e., Dinon’s name is included, to show that he is still onstage). But sometimes he departs from it by only noting the names of entering characters.
19 To a landsman, all the ropes on a ship could appear very dangerous. There also may be an implication that the crewmen are good candidates for a hanging (perhaps, too, the previous remark about pitch on their hands means that their hands have become, so to speak, sticky).
26 Soleas is used ellipitically, with some such word as adire.
28 Cf. Plautus, Pseudolus 572, dum concenturio in corde sycophantias, and Terence, Heauton Timorumenos 673, crucior bolum tantum mi ereptum tam desubito e faucibus.
31 For this type of imagery cf. Plautus, Pseudolus 140, ut mavelis lupos apud ovis linquere, and Terence, Eunuchus 832, scelesta, ovem lupo commisisti.
32 Iambic meter personified. Ut magnifice infert sese comes from Pseudolus 911.
34 In point of fact, this phrase only occurs once in classical Latin literature (Livy XXVI.xviii.2).
35 Aeneid I.172 (egressi optata potiuntur Troes harena ).
37 Cf. Plautus, Aulularia 57, digitum transvorsum aut unguem latum excesseris.
46 Terence, Andria 28.
55f. This is the sort of pretext under which one could be condemned on a charge of maiestas under Tiberius or one of the other more tyrannical Roman emperors. Morion shows his foolishness in imagining such a fate could befall him in modern times.
56 Cf. Plautus, Miles Gloriosus 331, mihi ego sapio.
58 Cf. Plautus, Persa 729, Dictum sapienti sat est.
60 Aeneid II.488, XI.832. In the stage direction intus does not mean within either of the two visible “houses” (why should the sailors be in the inn or in Bombardomachides’ house?), but more vaguely “offstage”.
76 Cf. Aeneid I.485, tum vero ingentem gemitum dat pectore ab imo.
81f. Aeneid II.7f.
84 I cannot identify the quotation.
90 Post nubem Phoebus is not a classical quotation. Dulcia…amara is a dactylic hexameter, but I do not recognize the source. Difficilia quae pulchra (which translates the Greek χαλεπὰ τὰ καλά) is a maxim also found at John Owen, Epigrams I.140
92f. Aeneid I.204f.
97 Ovid, Tristia I.ii.20.
100 Cf. Plautus, Mostellaria 508f.:

Guttam haud habeo sanguinis,
vivom me accersunt Acheruntem mortui.

102 The Latin marble (marmor) is also used for the sea’s smooth surface.
108 Aeneid I.202f.
110 Cf. Plautus, Aulularia 803, iam esse ín vado salutis res videtur (also Rudens 170 and Terence, Andria 845).
120 For the phrase eximo lassitudinem cf. Plautus, Mercator 127.
132 Horace, Epistles I.xix.7f. (Ennius was an early Roman poet).
135 Cf. ib. I.v.19, fecundi calices quem non fecere disertum (?)
140 The phrase peregrinandi artem perhaps deserves to be glossed with the observation that in the Renaissance travel guides for the benefit of those taking The Tour already began to be written, such as Justus Lipsius’ Epistola de Peregrinatione Italica, translated into English in 1592 by John Stradling under the title A Direction for Travailers.
143 Cf. Aeneid III.354, implentur veteris Bacchi pinguisque ferinae.
150 For rara avis cf. Horace, Satires II.ii.26, Juvenal vi.165, and Persius i.46.
151 This joke is based on the fact that the Cynics took their name from the Greek word for “dog.”
156 A joke alluding to suicide by hanging, in which the neck is stretched, taken from Plautus, Aulularia 77f.:

quam ex me ut unam faciam litteram
longam, <meum> laqueo collum quando obstrinxero.

161 “Go to the crows” is an Aristophanic phrase for “go to perdition” (but it is never used by Plautus or Terence). Cf. Plautus, Aulularia 181, nunc domum properare propero.
162 Cf. Terence, Heauton Timorumenos 513, intendenda in senemst fallacia.
167 For emungo = “swindle” cf. Plautus, Bacchides 701 and Terence, Phormio 682.
169 Cf. Bacchides 333f.:

Tantas divitias habet,
nescit quid faciat auro.

170 For servum graphicum cf. Plautus, Epidicus 410.
171 Cf. Terence, Heauton Timorumenos 57, quod ego in propinqua parte amicitiae puto.
175 For specimen specitur cf. Plautus, Bacchides 399 and Casina 516. For the idiom fabricam facio cf. Epidicus 690.
176 For omnes uno ore cf. Terence, Andria 96 and Phormio 625.
177 The idiom amo perdite comes from Terence, Heauton Timorumenos 97.
178 For Valuistin’ usque cf. Plautus, Amphitruo 679 and Stichus 467.
182 Quasi non norimus nos inter nos comes from Terence, Adelphoe 271.
183 For the idiom os sublinere cf. Plautus, Mercator 485, 631, Miles Gloriosus 110, 153, 467, and Trinummus 558.
188 This vivid phrase comes from Plautus, Bacchides 242.
190 For depinxit probe cf. Plautus, Poenulus 1114 and Terence, Phormio 268.
196 Bias of Priene, one of the Seven Sages. Cf. Valerius Maximus VIII.ii.3, Bias autem, cum patriam eius Prienen hostes invasissent, omnibus, quos modo saevitia belli incolumes abire passa fuerat, pretiosarum rerum pondere onustis fugientibus interrogatus quid ita nihil ex bonis suis secum ferret “ego vero” inquit “bona <omnia> mea mecum porto”: pectore enim illa gestabat, non humeris, nec oculis visenda, sed aestimanda animo.
205 Cf. Plautus, Mostellaria 173, Virtute formae id evenit, te ut deceat quidquid habeas.
221 For ludo ludere cf. Mostellaria 1158.
224 For homo perpaucorum hominum cf. Terence, Eunuchus 409.
228f. Aemylio is obliged to borrow money to buy a rope if he wants to hang himself. The humor is suggested by Plautus, Pseudolus 85ff.:

CAL. Actum est de me hodie. sed potes nunc mutuam
drachumam dare unam mihi, quam cras reddam tibi?
PS. Vix hercle, opinor, si me opponam pignori.
sed quid ea drachuma facere vis? CAL. Restim volo
mihi emere. PS. Quam ob rem? CAL. Qui me faciam pensilem.

230 For the idiom tragulam iniicere cf. Plautus, Epidicus 690 and Pseudolus 407.
232 For consutis dolis cf. Plautus, Amphitruo 367 and Pseudolus 540.
233 This statement is important, because, until Bombardomachides himself returns, Aemylio and Dinon can use his house for their swindles.
238 Cf. Pseudolus 170, ne quisquam pertundat cruminam cautiost.
242 For auspicio liquido cf. Plautus, Epidicus 182 and Pseudolus 762. Mercury was, among other things, patron god of theives.
249 Cf. Pseudolus 393, tibi moram dictis creas.
251 For the idiom iniicio ungulas cf. Pseudolus 643.
252 Cf. Terence, Phormio 566, dicam in itinere. Cf. also Plautus, Menaechmi 709, flagitium hominis, cum istoc ornatu?
253 Cf. Potine ut quiescas at Plautus, Menaechmi 466. Cf. also Plautus, Persa 462, Euge, euge, exornatu’s basilice, and Poenulus 577, basilice exornatus incedit et fabre ad fallaciam.
256 Cicero’s definition of a true friend at de Amicitia lxxx.7.
257f. Orestes and Pylades were inseparable friends in Greek mythology and tragedy.
261 For the idiom male moratus cf. Plautus, Mostellaria 290.
264f. Cf. Plautus, Menaechmi 137 O mea Commoditas, o mea Opportunitas.
267 Plautus, Menaechmi 152.
268 Cf. Horace, Odes IV.v.29, condit quisque diem collibus in suis.
269 Cf. Aeneid I.374 = VIII.280, ante diem clauso componet Vesper Olympo.
280 Cf. Plautus, Pseudolus 1251 (of wine), pedes captat primum, luctator dolosust.
292 Macto infortunio is a rather frequent Plautine expression (Amphitruo 1034, Bacchides 364, etc.).
293 An allusion to a contemporary Cambridge public house of that name (Charles Johnson evidently assumed corona three lines above was another public house called The Crown, but corona might also mean “the assembled party”). February 2 (a day mentioned several times in the play) is the date of Naufragium Ioculare’s performance.
297ff. Ovid, Metamorphoses I.84ff.
303f. The first list of wines are vintages praised by Horace and other ancient writers. Despite what Gnomicus says about the second list, Pliny the Elder writes approvingly of the Spanish Lalentan (or Laeetan) wine at Natural History XIV.lxxi.
319 A Roman idiom = “you put your finger on it.”
323 Cicero, De Oratore II.cccli.7 says that the Greek poet Simonides invented the art of memory.
334 For antiquum obtines cf. Terence, Andria 817, Hecyra 858 and 860.
341 Lucan, Bellum Civile I.1.
345 A line from a lost tragedy by Ennius, quoted at Cicero, De Amicitia lxiv.8.
356 For quasi per nebulam cf. Plautus,Captivi 1024 and Pseudolus 463.
361 Munera Bacchi is a phrase not infrequently used by the Roman poets (Vergil, Georgics III.526f., Tibullus III.vi.17f., etc.).
363 It would be absurd to think that our three drinkers were actually sitting on the rooftop, and evidently Gnomicus only uses this phrase because it is a tag from Vergil (Aeneid II.695). The “house” representing the inn has two storeys, and evidently the upper storey can be opened in such a way as to allow an interior scene. The Boy is being told to fetch wine and bring it upstairs.
Due to the paucity of Cowley’s stage directions, the way in which he wanted this scene to be staged is very hard to understand, and it seems impossible to track the movements of all the characters. Morion, at any rate, is still upstairs a bit further along in the scene (stage direction on 391). But all three drinkers seem to be at ground level a little later, when Dinon empties water on them from above (450), then shoves Gnomicus and Gelasimus (but not Morion, who is in an alcoholic coma) into a room in Bombardomachides’ house, which they imagine to be their ship’s hold (455). To do so, Dinon must shepherd them across the stage to the other “house,” although the text indicates no such movement. So a good deal of horseplay in “dumb show” must occur at this point, and very likely elsewhere in the scene.
365 “Quicker than asparagus is cooked” was a favorite saying of the emperor Augustus (Suetonius, Augustus lxxxvii.2)
366 Vergil, Georgis III.43f.
370 One doubts they are on couches as if at a Roman triclinium. More likely a summo means “from the head of the table.”
372 Cf. Horace, Odes III.xix.18, insanire iuvat.
379 Not a typographical error: the drunken Morion gets the name wrong.
380 He is so drunk that he is seeing at least double.
382 Aeneid I.1f.
384 Aeneid I.16f.
387 Aeneid I.3f.
392 Cf. Plautus, Pseudolus 414, nunc huc concedam, unde horum sermonem legam.
394 For hilarem sumemus diem cf. Terence, Adelphoe 854.
411 Not a comic quote, although colaphus is a comic word (Plautus, Captivi 88, 657f., Persa 294, 846, etc.).
416 Aeneid I.87.
419 For mortales graphicos cf. Plautus, Pseudolus 519, 700, and Stichus 570.
428 Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses XI.530, decimae ruit impetus undae.
437 Aeneid I.94ff.
446 For the point of the joke cf. the note on 1972.
452 Terence, Adelphoe 761f.
455 The subject of detrudit in the stage direction is unclear: does Aemylio push them both into the room, or does Gelasimus give Gnomicus a push and then follow himself?
466 No doubt they lift up Morion for the purpose of placing him in the room where Gnomicus and Gelasimus now are.
II.i Act II is set at the house of Bombardomachides.
471 For sublatus animus cf. Terence, Hecyra 507.
473 Cf., perhaps, Plautus, Rudens 710, pugnum in os impinge.
475 For nihili bestias cf. Plautus, Miles Gloriosus 180 and 285.
477 See the note on 182.
481 Cf. nugivendis at Plautus, Aulularia 525.
487 For this threat cf. Plautus, Menaechmi 304, Mostellaria 266, and Terence, Eunuchus 803.
491 Pelagi monstra comes from Lucan V.207. Cf. also grex Nereidum at Seneca, Phaedra 336.
492 For solita virtute cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses IX.163.
498 I. e., except when extremely afraid, Bombardomachides speaks in the iambic senarii of Senecan tragedy.
499 Cf. Plautus, Pseudolus 762, avi sinistra, auspicio liquido atque ex <mea> sententia.
501 Cf. Pseudolus 988f., Oh, Polymachaeroplagides / purus putus est ipsus.
509 Ovid, Tristia III.v.43. The stage direction intus would normally indicate that the voices of Gnomicus and Gelasimus are heard by the audience from offstage, but the ensuing dialogue seems too extensive to be interpreted in this way. More likely the door of Bombardomachides’ house opens, and these characters begin to emerge before the point that their entry is textually indicated.
510 For these reputedly fierce tigers cf. Aeneid IV.367, Lucan I.328, Martial, Spectacula xviii.2, Statius, Thebais IX.15 and XII.170.
517 Plautus, Captivi 202.
II.ii The three former drunkards come out of the room in Bombardomachides’ house. Aemylio’s name is not included because he is already onstage.
523 The Delphic slogan.
532 Vergil, Eclogue i.11.
539 The allusion is to a poetic fragment quoted by Apuleius, Apologia lxxxv.25, est ille poetae uersus non ignotus: “odi puerulos praecoqui sapientia.”
542 Ovid, Tristia III.iii.74.
545 Aeneid I.595.
552 Cf. Aeneid I.589, os umerosque deo similis.
556 Cf. Seneca, Thyestes 200, flecti non potest, frangi potest.
557 Aeneid I.327f., with miles humorously substituted for virgo in the first line.
567 Horace, Odes I.1f.
571 This odd bit of lore (found at Ovid, Metamorphoses XV.409f.) was taken seriously in antiquity: Pliny, Natural History VIII.cv.1.
574 Longum sile appears to be a parody of longum vale.
578 For ambages mittito cf. Plautus, Cistellaria 747.
588 Cf. Aeneid II.10ff:

sed si tantus amor casus cognoscere nostros
et breviter Troiae supremum audire laborem,
quamquam animus meminisse horret luctuque refugit,
incipiam.

606 Vates was used to designate both a poet and a prophet. The Greek quote is Iliad I.5.
610 For Absumptus sum cf. Plautus, Epidicus 82 and Miles Gloriosus 409.
614 For res subitaria’st cf. Miles Gloriosus 225.
621 Cf. Terence, Phormio 184, tum temporis mihi punctum ad hanc rem est.
622 For in fermento totus cf. Plautus, Casina 325 and Mercator 959. For the idiom loquitur lapides cf. Plautus, Aulularia 152.
623 Traditional punishments for Roman slaves. If Bombardomachides doesn’t mention these things, then he will be thinking of killing them.
635 Cf. Plautus, Miles Gloriosus 290, SCEL. Profecto vidi. PAL. Tutin? SCEL. Egomet duobus his oculis meis.
638 The first four lines of this speech = Seneca, Hercules Furens 1138ff.
644 Imago fallax comes from Statius, Silvae I.iii.18.
649 Cf. Seneca, Hercules Furens 623f.:

teneone in auras editum an vana fruor
deceptus umbra?

670 This line translated Eurpides, Hippolytus 612 (frequently ridiculed by Aristophanes).
675 Cf. coram in os te laudare at Terence, Adelphoe 269.
685ff. These three lines = Seneca, Thyestes 623ff.
688 For occisa res est cf. Plautus, Captivi 539, Menaechmi 511, and Pseudolus 423. Cf. also Epidicus 20, valet pugilice atque athletice.
690 This line = Seneca, Thyestes 473.
698 For sermones caedimus cf. Terence, Heauton Timorumenos 242.
705 For Satin’ oblitus fui cf. Plautus, Mercator 481.
727 This line = Seneca, Medea 670.
728 Cf. Thyestes 261f.:

rapior et quo nescio,
sed rapior.

730 Cf. Thyestes 1079ff.:

Tu, summe caeli rector, aetheriae potens
dominator aulae, nubibus totum horridis
convolue mundum.

732 These lines = Thyestes 776f.
735ff. Bombardomachides is reduced to sputtering out incoherent phrases. Sero occidisti comes from Thyestes 778.
740ff. Save for Timeon’ ego? this speech = Seneca, Thyestes 476ff.
759 Cf. Plautus, Menaechmi 1089, neque aqua aquae nec lacte est lactis, crede mi, usquam similius.
774 Cf. Menaechmi 703, immersit aliquo sese, credo, in ganeum.
786 Cf. Seneca Troades 15f., En alta muri decora congestis iacent / tectis.
788ff. These lines = Troades 1ff., with domus substituted for Troia.
794 Nunquam vidi melius consilium dari comes from Terence, Eunuchus 376.
821 Cf. Plautus, Mostellaria 536, Nunc pol ego perii plane in perpetuom modum.
829 Cf. Terence, Adelphoe 166, indignis quom egomet sim acceptus modis. A Roman idiom for “his head has become swollen.” The Oxford Latin Dictionary cites as an example Juvenal iv.69f., et tamen illi / surgebant cristae.
833 For Quid stas, lapis? cf. Terence, Heauton Timorumenos 831.
834 Silicernium comes from Terence, Adelphoe 587.
840 From the stage direction we learn that Bombardomachides’ “house” also has two storeys.
846 Aeneid VII.312.
854 For maximam malam crucem cf. Plautus, Captivi 469, Casina 611, Menaechmi 66, 328, Persa 352, Rudens 518, and Triunummus 598.
855 For oculos effodiam cf. Plautus, Aulularia 189 and Captivi 464.
856ff. A senseless but impressive-sounding farrago if Iliad III.320, III.278, and III.280.
870 Cf. Plautus, Menaechmi 830, ut oculi scintillant, vide.
III.i Act III requires one “house” to represent the house of Bombardomachides in III.ii and a second one to represent the School. A third one may have been used to represent the house of Calliphanes Senior in III.iv (cf. 1068, Sequere me sis intro), but it is perhaps not entirely clear that Calliphanes’ house is visible to the audience. The only other point at the play where Calliphanes’ house plays a role is in his invitation to the rest of the characters to come in for a celebratory dinner at the end of the play (2108), and here, too, his house perhaps does not need to be a visible scenic feature.
942ff. These lines = Seneca, Agamemnon 1ff.
955ff. These lines = Seneca, Medea 754ff. with Quis evocavit for Et evocavi.
960f. Cf. Plautus, Mostellaria 60, orationis operam comopendi face. Aemylio goes on with the continuation of the Medea passage.
962 Since he is listed among the non-speaking parts in the initial roster of Dramatis Personae, one presumes this exorcist is visible to the audience, and that some bit of comic dumb-show occurs at 968f. But once more the lack of an adequate stage direction keeps us from understanding Cowley’s intention.
965 For istarum operarum cf. Plautus, Mercator 815.
971 Cf. cardo strepit at Seneca, Medea 177.
976ff. See the note on 740ff.
982 Cf. Terence, Phormio 325, ne istaec fortitudo in nervom erumpat denique.
995 For Manta modo cf. Plautus, Pseudolus 283. For istuc ibam cf. Terence, Adelphoe 821.
1000 I. e., out of sight of the people searching for them.
1001 For praesenti pecunia cf. Plautus, Captivi 258 and Menaechmi 1159.
1021 With the exception of Caesar (I do not understand the reason for its inclusion on this list), these are terms with which every student would be familiar from the study of logic and disputation. These are all terms which had generated jokes with Cowley was familiar, or at least which he imagined could be employed to produce humor. Porphyry was a philosopher of the third century A. D. In medieval textbooks, the “Porphyrian Tree” illustrated his logical classification of substance. Cowley also alluded to this “tree” in the first stanza of his poem “Tree of Knowledge”:

            The Phoenix Truth did on it rest,
            And built his perfumed nest.
The right Porphyrian tree which did true logic shew,
            Each leaf did learned notions give,
            And th’ apples were demonstrative.
            So clear their color and divine,
The very shade they cast did other lights out-shine.

1026 Names of authors of textbooks and other works university men would read. Peter Ramus [Pierre de la Ramée, 1515 - 1572], Humanist, education reformer and logician; the philosopher-theologian Duns Scotus (d. 1308); “Faber” is perhaps Heinrich Faber, author of Compendium Musicae pro Incipientibus (1594); Alonso Tostatus [Alonso Tostado, b. 1455], a biblical commentator; Franciscus Suaresius [Francisco Suarez, 1548 - 1617], Jesuit theologian and philosopher (whose 1612 de Legibus would have been read by Cambridge students interested in international law; the poet Ovid, the historians Caius Suetonius and Cornelius Tacitus. One imagines that this is merely a list of names which Cowley knew or imagined would lend themselves to punning jokes: cf. the Cornelius Tacitus joke at Ruggle’s Ignoramus 785ff. as an illustration of what I think he had in mind (likewise Ovid’s name Naso could lead to nose jokes, and so forth).
1040 For effectum dabo cf. Terence, Eunuchus 212.
1043 Cf. Terence, Phormio 427, itan es paratu’ facere me advorsum omnia.
1045 For liberali facie cf. Terence, Eunuchus 473 and 682.
1050 For patrisso cf. Plautus, Mostellaria 639, Pseudolus 442, and Terence, Adelphoe 564.
1154 Vergil, Eclogue iv.3.
1057 Cf. Terence, Andria 366, num videntur convenire haec nuptiis?
1074 Cf. Plautus, Miles Gloriosus 952, non posteriores feram.
1084 Cf. Plautus, Trinummus 66, atque aufer ridicularia.
1086 For regillam induculam cf. Plautus, Epidicus 223.
1088 Erro quam insistas viam comes from Plautus, Miles Gloriosus 793.
1090 For admutilor cf. Plautus, Captivi 269, Miles Gloriosus 768, and Persa 829.
1099 Cf. Plautus, Trinummus 807, properatost opus.
1102 For inescare homines cf. Terence, Adelphoe 220.
1104 For quiescas coetera cf. Plautus, Miles Gloriosus 927.
1112 Cowley (or at least Gnomicus) was mistaken. This word appears only once in Cicero’s works, at De Natura Deorum I.lix.1. Gnomicus alludes to Cicero’s statement at De Oratore II.ccxvi.5, Suavis autem est et vehementer saepe utilis iocus et facetiae; quae, etiam si alia omnia tradi arte possunt, naturae sunt propria certe neque ullam artem desiderant. The allusion to Book II of De Oratore, however, is not without its significance: this is the only extended discussion of the nature of humor by any ancient writer, and so would naturally provide a theoretical basis for the new science Gnomic and his friends propose to teach.
1117 Is this a hit at Cambridge’s current University Orator?
1120 This professorial chair is the principal scenic feature of the School. Characters climb up onto it (into it?) twhen they deliver lectures or make speeches in disputation.
1121 A phrase first used by Cicero himself to describe Isocrates: De Oratore II.x.5.
1126 Evidently another bit of contemporary Cambridge humor.
1135 Tullianum can mean “pertaining to Cicero,” but it was also the name of the underground execution chamber of the jail at Rome.
1142 In mundo = “in good order.”
1151 For insanum bene cf. Plautus, Miles Gloriosus 242 and Mostellaria 761.
1160 For prospectus sterilis cf. Miles Gloriosus 609.
1162 The phrase scelestus dies does not appear in Plautus or Terence.
1164 Cf. Plautus, Persa 658, dabit haec tibi grandis bolos. Ita supercilium salit comes from Pseudolus 107 (the Romans regarded a twitching eyebrow as an auspicious omen).
1166 The woman who allegedly disguised herself as a man and ruled as Pope for two years in the ninth century.
1167 Presumably her brother was one of the Elect, i. e., a Puritan.
1168 The papal tiara.
1171 Robert Cardinal Bellarmine [1542 - 1621\ an antagonist of James I and hence a frequent target of English satire.
1172 Erasmus, Adages 3.10.76.
1177 Probably a reference to some contemporary preacher.
1192 Cf. the note on 545.
1236 For some reason this dish exerted some sort of attraction for Cowley: cf. The Guardian I.i., where Dogrel says I’ll bespeak Cakes and Ale o’ th’ purpose there; and thou shalt eat stew’d Prunes, little Tabytha.
1286 Aeneid I.460.
1289 Ovid, Tristia IV.i.66.
1293ff. Cf. Seneca, Medea 401ff:

dum terra caelum media libratum feret
nitidusque certas mundus evolvet vices
numerusque harenis derit

1299f. Aeneid I.607ff.
1324 Juvenal xv.164.
1327 The mention of a meal may be a hint that at this point the performance was interrupted for a banquet: see the note on George Ruggle’s Ignoramus 1706. In accordance with this interpretation, this speech is spoken directly to the audience, “the beast of many heads.”
1329 I cannot identify the source of this line.
IV.i The first three scenes of this Act are probably set before Bombardomachides’ house.
1339 Cf. Terence, Andria 300, verbum unum cave de nuptiis.
1340 Cf. Plautus, Pseudolus 696, me quid vis facere, fac sciam.
1345 For in pauca confero cf. Plautus, Asinaria 88, Casina 647, Persa 661, Poenulus 1224, and Pseudolus 278.
1349 Cf. verbo expedi at Terence, Phormio 197.
1351 For Intemperiae hominem tenent cf. Plautus, Aulularia 71, Epidicus 475, and Miles Gloriosus 434.
1358 Cf. Publilius Syrus, Sententiae A 22, Amare et sapere vix deo conceditur.
1376 Furtum (“theft”) does not seem the mot juste here, and one cannot help wondering if the printer did not misread some other word in the manuscript supplied him.
1387 Cf. Plautus, Bacchides 1028, ego ius iurandum verbis conceptis dedi (cf. also Mercator 790).
1395 For Deus sum cf. Plautus, Curculio 167.
1397 For rem tibi authorem dabo cf. Plautus, Trinummus 107.
1400 For supersede istis verbis cf. Plautus, Poenulus 414.
1402 Cf. Plautus, Miles Gloriosus 873, lepide hoc succedit sub manus negotium (cf. also ib. 1143).
1409 For Dii vortant bene cf. Terence, Eunuchus 390 and Hecyra 196.
1412 For nihil prolixius cf. Eunuchus 1082.
1415 Cf. Plautus, Cistellaria 781, Praevorti hoc certumst rebus aliis omnibus.
1416 Cf. Plautus, Stichus 68, si offirmabit pater adversum nos? Academic lingo has a way of creeping into this play (cf. the way that Psecas repeatedly uses disputo, when she only means “have conversation”). In this case, pone (“assume that”) was used for stating hypotheticals.
1424 For festivum facinus cf. Plautus, Poenulus 308 and 1086.
1429 Cf. Terence, Eunuchus 876, in eam partem accipioque.
1431 For this linkage of factio (social class) and opes (wealth), cf. Plautus, Cistellaria 493f.:

neque nos factione tanta quanta tu sumus
neque opes nostrae tam sunt validae quam tuae.

For servitutem servire cf. Plautus, Captivi 391, Persa 7, and Trinummus 304.
1434 For linguam comprime cf. Plautus, Miles Gloriosus 571.
1437 For inepte stulta cf. Plautus, Mostellaria 495.
1438 For mali consulo cf. Plautus, Persa 844.
1445 Cf. Terence, Andria 194, non: Davo’ sum, non Oedipus (Oedipus could solve riddles).
1446 Cf. Terence, Heauton Timorumenos 776, vah tardus es. Cf. also Plautus, Trinummus 362, id nunc facis haud consuetudine.
1452 For ineptus es cf. Terence, Adelphoe 63.
1453 Cf. Plautus, Persa 547, Sat edepol concinnast facie.
1454 For statura commoda cf. Plautus, Asinaria 401. For aetate integra cf. Terence, Andria 72 and Eunuchus 473.
1455 See the note on 177.
1458 Cf. Terence, Andria 378, priu’ quam tuom ut sese habeat animum ad nuptias perspexerit. Cf. also ib. 303, ut animus in spe atque in timore usque ant(e)hac attentus fuit.
1462 See the note on 1349.
1469 For Prae laetitia cf. Plautus, Stichus 466.
1471 For Beasti cf. Terence, Andria 106. For reddidisti animum cf. ib. 333.
1476 Cf. ib. 212, nequam faciam in nuptiis fallaciam.
1485 Cf. ib. 102, hic nuptiis dictust dies.
1488 Cf. Plautus, Mostellaria 391, hinc propere amolimini.
1489 For Nullum vidi melius cf. Plautus, Mercator 392.
IV.iv The remainder of Act IV takes place at the school.
1492 Aeneid X.361, with titubat for haeret.
1498 For aequi bonique cf. Plautus, Curculio 65, Terence, Heauton Timorumenos 788, and Phormio 637.
1500 Cf. Plautus, Bacchides 626a, Casina 813, and Pseudolus 315, Di melius faciant, Mercator 285, Di melius faxint, and Terence, Phormio 1005, Di melius duint.
1528 For Dii tibi dent quae velis cf. Plautus, Epidicus 6, Persa 483, Poenulus 1055, Stichus 469, and Trinummus 1152.
1529 Cf. Trinummus 963, Pax, te tribus verbis volo.
1531 Cf. Plautus, Epidicus 634, Satin ego oculis utilitatem optineo sincere an parum?
1535 For pectus sapit cf. Plautus, Miles Gloriosus 786 and Trinummus 90. Cf. also Plautus, Heauton Timorumenos 402, diu etiam duras dabit.
1536 For aliud cura cf. Plautus, Casina 613 and Terence, Phormio 235. For magnifice tracto cf. Heauton Timorumenos 556f.
1543 For pro cibo cf. Plautus, Asinaria 628, Casina 802, and Mercator 744.
1546 For Videre vellem nimio cf. Terence, Eunuchus 597.
1547 For the idiom habeo despicatui cf. Plautus, Menaechmi 693.
1548f. Aeneid I.595f. (Gnomicus makes the following remark because he has already used this line twice before, at lines 545 and 1192).
1564f. Gnomicus appears to be attempting to compose poetry (with a little help, it seems, from Statius, Thebais X.145, pluraque laxato ceciderunt sidera caelo).
1573 For atra bili percitu’st? cf. Plautus, Amphitruo 727.
1577 Cf. Cicero, Philippics XII.ii, cuiusvis hominis est errare, the evident origin of the Latin proverb.
1578 The sixth century philosopher Simplicius says this in his In Aristotelis Quattuor Libros de Caelo Commentaria vol. 7, p. 397, In Aristotelis Categorias Commentarium, VIII.38, and perhaps elsewhere.
1589 Juvenal xiv.35 (referring to Prometheus’ creation of mankind).
1590 Cf. Plautus, Miles Gloriosus 63f.:

ergo mecastor pulcher est’ inquit mihi
et liberalis.

1597 See the note on 1493.
1608 See the note on 177.
1622 For discrucior animi cf. Plautus, Aulularia 105 and Terence, Adelphoe 610.
1625 He quotes Terence, Adelphoe 854.
1631 Martial X.xxxiii.l10.
1638 Hilary is one of the three terms when the University of Oxford and the Inns of Court are in session.
1644 Is this a quotation from some comic Epilogue?
1658 Ovid, Metamorphoses XIII.824.
1669 Cf. Terence, Phormio 687f.:

ut te quidem omnes di deaeque — superi inferi —
malis exemplis perdant!

1671 For recte instas viam cf. Plautus, Asinaria 54.
1673 Cf. Terence, Adelphoe 958, suo sibi gladio hunc iugulo.
1685f. This untranslatable humor is based on the two meanings of ingeniosus, “witty” and “noble.”
1692 For onero maledictis cf. Plautus, Pseudolus 357.
1723 Vergil, Eclogue iii.109.
1725 Vergil, Eclogue vii.4.
1727 Cf. Plautus, Amphitruo 463, Bene prospere hoc hodie operis processit mihi.
1728 See the note on 1528.
1730 Vergil, Eclogue iii.79.
1732 For sola soli cf. Plautus, Cistellaria 308 and Terence, Hecyra 350.
1737 Cf. Plautus, Persa 405, iam ego domum me recipiam.
1738 Vergil, Eclogue x.77.
V.i The setting is in front of Bombardomachides’ house.
1739 For pro certo habeo cf. Plautus, Mercator 655.
1745 For largus lachrymarum cf. Plautus, Asinaria 533.
1747f. Cf. Terence, Phormio 867ff.:

suspenso gradu placide ire perrexi accessi astiti,
animam compressi, aurem admovi: ita animum coepi attendere,
hoc modo sermonem captans.

1755 For O Fors Fortuna cf. Terence, Phormio 841.
V.ii The setting is the school.
1759 Cf. Terence, Phormio 908, nam omnis posthabui mihi res.
1763 See the note on 1431.
1769 Mt. Parnassus was sometimes called biceps or bicornis because it had two peaks. For saepicule cf. Plautus, Casina 703.
1783 For contemptim conteras cf. Plautus, Poenulus 537.
1797 For contollo gradum cf. Plautus, Aulularia 813 and Bacchides 535. For oculi virent cf. Plautus, Menaechmi 828.
1801 Cf. Terence, Adelphoe 589, ego iam prospiciam mihi.
1819 See the note on 110.
1821 See the note on 1099. See also Terence, Andria 227, ne de hac re pater inprudentem opprimat.
V.iii We are back at Bombardomachides’ house, the setting of scenes iii - v.
1825 Cf. Plautus, Stichus 309, fores facite ut pateant.
1826 For arte duellica cf. Plautus, Epidicus 450.
1836 For oculis obviam cf. Plautus, Pseudolus 592.
1837 Cf. Plautus, Asinaria 388, Pol haud periclum est, cardines ne foribus effringantur.
1841 Cf. Plautus, Amphitruo 1021, Quis ad fores est?
1853 For deliramenta cf. Amphitruo 696, Captivi 598, and Menaechmi 919-20. See also the note on 1573.
1855 Another meaningless farrago of Iliad 23.116 and Nonnos, Dionysiaca I.18.
1857 For aliquid monstri cf. Terence, Andria 250.
1858 Cf., perhaps, Plautus, Aulularia 407, date viam qua fugere liceat. Cf. also the note on 1088.
1862 Cf. Plautus, Curculio 465, cum istoc mihi negoti nihil est (cf. also Menaechmi 458).
1867 For iniustitia mea cf. Terence, Heauton Timorumenos 137.
1877 A Homeric formula used at Iliad I.34, etc.
1880 For acta res est cf. Plautus, rudens 683, Terence, Heauton Timorumenos 564 and 851a.
1882 Cf. Seneca, Thyestes 1080, committe et omni parte violentum intona.
1883 These lines = Thyestes 1086f.
1886 For delectamento cf. Terence, Hauton Timorumenos 952.
1890 For compos animi cf. Terence, Adelphoe 310.
1897 Cf. (e. g.) Plautus, Captivi 196, decet id pati animo aequo.
1898 Cf., perhaps, Plautus, Mostellaria 1151, optumas frustrationes dederis in comoediis.
1903 For Quae te mala crux agitat cf. Plautus, Aulularia 632 and Bacchides 584.
1914 Cf. Plautus, Epidicus 690, Tragulam in te inicere adornat, nescio quam fabricam facit.
1915 For Articulatim concidit cf. Epidicus 488.
1921 For scapularum confidentia cf. Plautus, Asinaria 547.
1924 Cf. Terence, Phormio 246, quidquid praeter spem eveniat, omne id deputare esse in lucro.
1927 For statuae verbereae cf. Plautus, Captivi 951 and Pseudolus 911.
1929 Cf. the note on 1536.
1938 Cf. Plautus, Amphitruo 328, Onerandus est pugnis probe.
1943 Cf. Terence, Adelphoe 171, ne mora sit, si innuerim, quin pugnu’ continuo in mala haereat.
1954 Cf. Plautus, Epidicus 494, qui me emunxisti mucidum.
1972 Fish are called mute at Horace, Odes IV.iii.19, and evidently the Romans had a proverb “as mute as a fish.”
1973 See the note on 1409.
1975 This line and the first half of the following = Seneca, Thyestes 637f.
1977f. These lines = Seneca, Phaedra 939f.
1982 Cf. Terence, Adelphoe 326, alienus est ab nostra familia.
1984 For olfacio used in this way cf. Plautus, Miles Gloriosus 1255.
1985 For noxiis vacuus cf. Plautus, Mercator 983a.
1989 For quatietur foras cf. Terence, Eunuchus 358.
1990 For precator cf. Plautus, Asinaria 415, Pseudolus 606, Terence Heauton Timorumenos 976, 1002, and Phormio 140.
1996 See the note on 1431.
2000 For Quid lacrymas cf. Terence, Adelphoe 679.
2001 For ridigo in memoriam cf. Terence, Phormio 383.
2013 For flagitium hominis cf. Plautus, Asinaria 473, Casina 151, 549, 554, Menaechmi 489, and 709. Trivenefica is found at Aulularia 86.
2014 For istius obsaturabere cf. Terence, Heauton Timorumenos 869.
2015 Cf. Terence, Adelphoe 312, ut ego iram hanc in eos evomam omnem.
2018 Cf. Terence, Phormio 323, atque in me omnem iram derivem senis?
2027 Cf. Terence, Eunuchus 551f.:

nunc est profecto interfici quom perpeti me possum,
ne hoc gaudium contaminet vita aegritudine aliqua.

2029 Cf. Plautus, Pseudolus 926, pulchre ego hanc explicatam tibi rem dabo. Cf. also Menaechmi 1132, o salve, insperate multis annis post quem conspicor (also Poenulus 1259, Rudens 1175).
2030 Cf. Plautus, Stichus 279, abundat pectus laetitia meum.
2034 For Lacrymo gaudio cf. Terence, Adelphoe 409.
2039 For Iterum mihi natus videor cf. Plautus, Captivi 891 and Poenulus 1077.
2041 For suo mihi hic sermone arrexit aurescf. Plautus, Rudens 1293.
2042 For misere deperis cf. Plautus, Cistellaria 131.
2044 For vapulandum est mihi cf. Plautus, Poenulus 855. Cf. also Aulularia 199f., est quod te volo / de communi re appellare mea et tua.
2046 Cf. Plautus, Captivi 415, merito tibi ea evenerunt a me.
2048 For suppedito sumptibus cf. Terence, Heauton Timorumenos 930.
V.vi Gelasimus and Psecas come out of the school. Scenes vi - viii focus on that “house.”
2079 See the note on 183.
2084 For recipio animam cf. Terence, Adelphoe 324.
2087 See the note on 1898.
2107 Cf. Plautus, Captivi 22, di nos quasi pilas homines habent.
2108 For Calliphanes’ invitation see the note on III.i.
2111 Terence, Eunuchus 1094, Heauton Timorumenos 1067, Phormio 1055.
2112 Vergil, Eclogue iii.111.
2113 Martial IX.xcvii.12.
2117 The allusion is to line 110. See the note ad loc.