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ANNO DOMINI 1597
The battaile at Turnholt. | A new voyage agains the Spaniard. | With what designe, and instructions. | The Fleet driven backe by tempest. | Staled by contrary winds. | The Fleet putteth to sea againe. | And parted againe. | Raleigh left behind. | He landeth in Fayall. | Taketh the Towne. | Essex offended. | Raleigh defendeth himselfe. | Hee is received in favour. | Gratiosa and Flores yeeld to Essex. | Villa Franca taken. | A caraque burnt. | The English Fleet returneth. | Grudges increase betwixt Essex and Raleigh. | And betwixt Essex and Cecil. | Essex taketh heavily the title of Earle given to the Admirall. | He is made Earle Marshall of England. | An Embassadour from the Polonian. | His Oration to the Queen. | Her answer. | The answer of the Councell. | The Merchant Adventurers forbidden to traffique in Germany. | And the Hanse townes in England. | George Carews Embassie to the Polonians. | What he performed with the Polonian. | And at Elbing. | An Embassie from the King of Denmark. | The French King craveth ayd of Queen Elizabeth. | Hee recovereth Amiens. | The Spaniard inclineth to peace. | A Parliament. | The Lord LaWare restored to his ancient place. | Thomas Lord Howard of Walden. | The death of the Lord Cobham. | And of the Marquesse of Winchester. | The Lord Borough Lord Deputy of Ireland. | The death of Norris. | The Lord Deputy winneth the Fort at Blackwater. | The death of the Earle of Kildare. | The Rebels beseige the Fort. | The death of the Lord Deputy. | Justicers of Ireland. | Tir-Oen presenteth his grievances to Ormond.
HAT 1. What great commendations for their valour Sir Robert Sidney and Sir Francis Vere, with the English auxiliary forces, gained in the beginning of this yeere, in the battaile at Turnholt in Brabant, under the happy conduct of Grave Maurice of Nassaw, having slaine 2000 Neapolitans with the Count Varaxi their Leader, let the Low-Country writers relate; for my part I hasten to greater matters.
2. The Queene being advertised in the beginning of the Spring that the Spaniard out of the remainders of the former wracke, and other shippes in Gallicia, prepared for a new and dangerous warre against Ireland; to divert or stoppe the same, shee rigged a new Fleet of tenne of her Royall shippes, and as many of the Low-Countries.
3. But whereas this number seemed very small, more shippes were added, 5000 men leavied, besides 1000 old Souldiers which Vere had brought out of the Netherlands, so as in this Fleete were numbred 120 shippes, whereof 17 of the Queenes, 43 lesser shippes of warre, the rest were victuallers. They were divided into three squadrons. The first the Earle of Essex led, to whom the charge of the whole expedition was committed; the second the Lord Thomas Howard; the third Sir Walter Raleigh. Under Essex, Charles Blunt Lord Montjoy commanded the Land Forces, Sir Francis Vere was made Marshall, Sir George Carew Lieutenant of the Ordnance, and Sir Christopher Blunt Chiefe Colonell.
4. To this voyage the Earles of Rutland and Southampton, the Lords Grey, Cromwell,and Rich, with many Knights, and others of speciall note and quality, gave their names. These men with their Feathers waving, and glittering in their gay cloths (a peculiar vanity of the English when they goe to the warres), set saile from Plimmouth the 9th of July; after two dayes instructions signed were delivered to every shippe, whither their course was to be directed: to wit, to Farol, and the Groyne, to surprize the Spanish Fleet in their roads, and intercept the Indian Fleet at the Azores. This after mature deliberation seemed the best course.So should England be secured; the Fleets of both Indies, being unguarded, might the more easily be taken; the Iles of Azores wonne, at which the most rich Fleets in their returne from both Indies doe arrive for fresh water; the Queene should have the absolute command of the Ocean, and the Spaniard, being despoiled of his Fleet, would the sooner be drawne to reasonable conditions of peace, or renew the warre to his owne damage. For Essex was resolved (as he pretended and openly gave out), Either to defeat the Spanish fleet, which all this yeere threatned England, or to sacrifice himselfe to his Country. Scarce were they carried 40 leagues from Plimmouth, when a hideous tempest from the Northwest furiously assailed them and beat most violently against their sayles, a thick mist took away their prospect every way, the Skye with horrible thunder, and the most troubled Sea with dreadfull noyse wrought so fearefully the space of foure dayes that the Mariners themselves were abashed, the Souldiers affrighted, and the Fleet being parted this way and that way, hardly, and not without very great perils, recovered Plimmouth and the harbours on that coast. The Admirall [flagship] of the Fleet was so shaken that it was scarce serviceable, and some of the more delicate men were growne so feeble with vomiting, and were so afraid of the checks of the furious winde, that they secretly withdrew themselves home.
5. The Fleet being refreshed, though decayed in number and strength, set sayle againe divers times afterward, but found the winds presently so contrary that they could not in a whole moneth get out of the havens, as if the heaven seemed to be angry at their enterprise. At which time their victuals were much spent, which could not in short time be supplied but out of the East parts of England, and that in no short time. It was thought good therefore to discharge all the Land Forces, except the thousand old Souldiers, and to dismisse many of the lesser shippes, and neither to goe to Farol nor the Groyne. Then fell it into deliberation whether they should undertake the voyage to the Azores. All were of opinion to undertake it, except Vere, who said, it would neither be for the Queenes profit nor honour; that with so few ships and so small Forces nothing could bee effected which would satisfie mens expectation; and England in the meane time, the choycest Commanders, and part of the Queenes Navy being absent, might the more easily be invaded by the Spaniards. Hereupon Essex and Raleigh ride poast to the Queene to consult what was to be done. Essex, out of his high magnanimity of mind, propounded many and great matters, if he might be permitted with the one halfe of the Fleet and Army to goe to I wot not what place. Which when the Queene denied, he undertooke to vanquish the Spanish Fleet in the harbour of Farol, if he might with the Queenes leave hazard the one thousand old Souldiers and those two huge shippes taken from the Spaniard, named the Saint Andrew and Saint Matthew, with some others, leaving the rest of the Fleet without the harbour, whilest he with some selected shippes tryed the chance of warre. Neither was this permitted but with certaine cautions. At the length, the whole matter was left to their owne choice; yet so, as they should take all opportunities to fire the shippes in Farol haven, or to intercept the Indian Fleet, and should fit their designes according to new accidents.
6. Being returned to Plimmouth, having with much adoe gotten the seventeenth of August out of the haven with a side winde, they put to Sea. But before they came in sight of Spaine they were sundred againe with another fierce storme, whereby that huge shipe of Saint Matthew, having spent her crosse-yards and maine Mast, was split upon a rocke; and that of Saint Andrew was parted from the rest. The rest of the Fleet, being shortly after recollected, set sayle in sight of Asturia and Gallicia, with small advisement as the wiser sort thought, considering that such vaine ostentations were hurtfull both to Drake in his last two voyages to America, and to Norrys in the Portugall voyage. For the enemy forewarned, is for resistance armed. Neere the Promontory Nervis, or the Lands end, a crosse-yard in Raleighs ship being broken wtih force of a storme, fell downe; which whilest hee stayed to mend, he was left behind of the rest, and being falsely advertised that the Spanish Fleet had set saile from Farol towards the Azores, he sent forth a pinnace to signifie so much to Essex, but in vaine. Whilst Raleigh was expected, it was resolved by the joynt opinion of all to desist from the designe of firing the shippes in the haven, as a thing impossible, for that they had beene descried from the shoare, and to saile directly to the Azores; and to every squadron was her quarter assigned to ride in: to Essex at Fayall, to Howard and Vere at Gratiosa; and to Raleigh at Pico, who had now directed his course for the Azores. He, straying farre out of his way, at length found the Fleet at the Ile of Flores, having beene in the meane time taxed by some, who finding Essex already incensed against him, had exaspered him more, as if hee had purposely seperated himselfe from the Fleet. Essex neverthelesse joyfully welcomed him, and excused himselfe that by letters sent into England he had falsely accused him as a forsaker of the Fleet. Heere Raleigh, being distressed by lacke of water, landed without leave; scarce had he begunne to take in fresh water, when presently he was commanded to follow Essex to Fayall. Whither being come, and not finding Essex there, he observed the haven, perceived that the inhabitants packed up their goods, and that the garison souldiers drew a trench. Taking counsaile therefore upon the present occasion, the Captaines thought good to assayle the place, and the Saylers earnestly urged it, lest so great a prey should be plucked as it were out of their jawes. But Sir Gilly Metric, one of Essex his followers, perswaded them earnestly to attempt nothing in Essex his absence; whom when they had in vaine expected the space of foure dayes, Raleigh out of necessity of taking in fresh water, the opportunity of the time, and desire of a little glory, landed foure miles from the haven in a steepe place, and a very rough Sea, with these select voluntaries, William Brake, William Harvey, Arthur Gorges, John Scot, Thomas Ridgeway, Sidney, Henry Thinn, Charles Morgan, Walter Chute, Bret, Berry, and other Captaines. The Spaniards, making haste thither, charged upon them, but were put to flight. Raleigh, having gotten a land, after hee had watered, marched on with his men thorow a dangerous passage to the Towne, and finding it empty, seized on it.
7. The next day Essex, who had been searching the Spanish Fleet in that vast sea, came to Fayall. Sir Gilly Merric informed him what Raleigh had done, and persuaded him that Raleigh had seyzed upon the Town to no other end, but to prevent Essex of the glory; which he, who was greedy of glory, out of a desire bred in magnanimous spirits, and knew wel Raleighs amitious minde and ill affection toward him, soone beleeved. Others perswaded him to cal Raleigh to a military trial before a Councell of warre, and cassiere him; others, to put him to death, for that he had landed without acquainting the chiefe Commander, suggesting unto him that he should do wel to take this opportunity of removing his adversary out of the way, the losing whereof happily [ = haply, i. e. perhaps] he might afterwards repent. Hereupon Sidney, Bret, Berry, and others which accompanied Raleigh, were cassiered, and committed to custody; Raleigh being sent for, was entertained with a sower looke of all men. Essex heavily accused and checked him, that in contempt of his authority, hee had broken the discipline of warre, and contrary to that which had beene established upon paine of death, had landed his companies without the Generals commands. He answered that the Captaines, Pilots, and the rest, were bound by that Law, but not the three chiefe Governours; that he was of necessity to take in water; and longer he would have expected him, had not the Ilanders prohibited him the taking in of water, and provoked him to fight. The Lord Thomas Howard mediated for Raleigh that he might not be sharply proceeded against, and perswaded him to acknowledge his fault; which hee did, and withall he and the cassiered Captaines were received into favour. For Essex, being a man of a most milde nature, slow to take offence, and apt to lay downe displeasures, forgave old enmities, which were now wearing out, for the Common-wealths sake; which notwithstanding on both sides were rather layd asleepe, then quite taken away.
8. Whilest these things are in doing, the Fort neere the Towne was abandoned by the Spanish Garison, and in it were found two Englishmen with their throats cut. Some being sent out to search the Iland, after they had pillaged some part thereof, returned as they went. After few dayes, the Towne was reduced to ashes, the Ordnance being carried away.
9. From hence they sailed to the Ile of Gratiosa; whose inhabitants, as also those at Flores, craved the Earles mercy, and obtained it. At Gratiosa he determined to land, and to view that pleasant Iland, and there to wait for the Indian Fleet. But Grave a Pilot unluckily disswading him, as if it were an incommodious rode for shippes, he set saile from thence with his whole Fleet to Saint Michaels Ile, and commanded Vere and Sir Nicholas Parker to watch with their shippes betwixt Saint Georges Ile and Gratiosa, and the Earle of Southampton and Sir William Monson with their shippes on the West side of Gratiosa, and others else-where. But behold, not past an houre or two after the English, by unhappy misfortune, and against their wils, departed from Gratiosa, the America Fleet (wherein were forty shippes, and seven of them laden with treasure) arrived in the same place, and understanding that the English were at hand, shaped their course directly to Tercera. At midnight they lighted upon Monson, hee gave notice thereof by discharging many Peeces of Ordnance. These were heard a farre off, and entertained with a most joyfull shout of the Mariners; every man buckled himselfe to the fight. Monson, Southampton, and Vere, who were neerest, followed them, yet slowly and a farre off, staying for more ayd. In the meane time that Fleet recovered the haven of Tercera, keeping their ranks; onely three rich shippes, which strayed from the rest, were taken. Southampton and Vere attempted with great Boats to enter the haven by night, and to cut the Cables of the neerest shippes that they might be driven to Sea by the winde blowing from the land; but, the Spaniards keeping diligent watch, they lost their labour. They sent therefore a Pinnace presently to signifie all this to Essex at Saint Michaels, and undertook to keepe the enemy from issuing forth. He came after a day or two, having gathered his Fleet together; and at his comming asked the opinion of the Captaines. Some Colonels and Captaines desired that they might venture the assayling of the Towne and the shippes, and judged it easie to be done, and with them concurred Essex; the Sea-men were of a contrary opinion, yet did they readily offer their service by Sea and Land. But after Essex himselfe, Montjoy, and others, having viewed the place more neerely, saw that the shippes were drawne up farther under the Forts, the haven most strongly fortified with workes, naturall situation, and a strong Garison, great Ordnance mounted every where, and that the winde was so contrary that their balles of wilde-fire could doe them no service, they which before were the forwardest of their tongues refused to adventure the danger.
10. He returned therefore to Saint Michaels, after he had knighted the Earles of Rutland and Southampton, William Evers, William Brodon, and Henry Docrway; and rode at anchor before the chiefe City called Cividada; which pleasing the eyes with the sight thereof, allured the souldiers to pillage. And hee himselfe, forgetting the Office of a Generall, descended into a Boat to observe where hee might commodiously land, but the huge billowes rolling aloft, and the shoare being full of Souldiers, hee thought it not safe to land his Forces there. Raleigh was commanded to ride there still at anchor with his shippes and busie the enemies minds with expectation of his landing, whilst Essex himselfe should land somewhere else; who arriving six miles off, at Villa Franca a neare Towne, rich in Merchandies, Wine, Oad [oats], and Wheat, tooke the same, no man almost making resistance. Where hee stayed six dayes, and the common Souldiers found rich pillage, Raleigh in the meane time expecting in vaine his returne to Saint Michaels. At which time there was descried on the sea a caraque comming from East-India under saile, not farre from Saint Michaels; which when shee perceived by the discharging of a Peece of Ordnance out of a Netherland shippe that the enemies were at hand, and many shippes on all sides were ready to charge her, ranne her selfe violently on ground under the Towne, where her very rich Merchandies being landed in hast, shee was set on fire, and burnt almost two daies. So the English in all this warre found fortune adverse unto them, so as shee might seeme to have mocked them. And though sudden chances are no where more common then at sea, yet their errors may seeme to have beene voluntary and wilfull, and their disappointings wrought by some out of emulation, to prevent others of a little glory. Against the ninth of October, in which month that sea and skye are altogether tempestuous, Essex commanded that upon a signe given, all the shippes should weigh anchor, and accompany him towards England.
11. But the third day after, there arose a foule tempest from the North, and scattered the shippes all the sea over; and withall dispersed the Spanish Fleet, which was sent forth in the meane time from Farol with great provision against England; insomuch, as neither the English had once sight of the Spanish Fleet, nor the Spaniards of the English. Of the English Fleet not a shippe was cast away; of the Spanish many perished as the report goeth, and one being carried to and fro by force of the tempest was at length driven into Dartmouth, the Souldiers and Saylers almost famished. These men related that the Spaniards designe was to seize upon some Port of Cornwall, which was most commodious (for situation next to the mouth of the British Sea) both to receive succours out of Spaine, and to cumber the English with warre from thence, and restraine their voyages into West-India and Spaine. Thus Almighty God, the Umpier of Warres, separated the two Nations running to the slaughter of one another, and their hopes on both sides at this time were disappointed. At the length, about the end of October Essex returned home into England in safety, with no small booty; but his ships leaky and weather-beaten.
12. Concerning this voyage, many and divers were the judgements of men, one the one side out of love towards Essex, on the other side out of hatred against Raleigh. For the Queenes favour, wherewith both of them flourished, procured with marvailous effect hatred among the people to Raleigh, which was increased by a sinister suspition of his impiety, and to Essex love, kindled more and more by his courtesie and a singular opinion of his vertue. Certainely, in neither of them could a man finde any lacke either of fortitude in perils, or industry in businesse, or wisedome in counsailes; but happinesse, which is from God alone, no man can worke of himselfe. Yet these two began 7now to prosecute more open enmities one against the other, while the one layd the adverse successes upon the other. Essex also tooke it unkindly that Sir Robert Cecyl, whom the Queene had taken the last yeere to be her Secretary when hee laboured against, was now in his absence made Chancellour of the Dutchy of Lancaster, against whom hee had opposed himselfe, as one that emulated him for his wisedome, and was a fast friend of Raleighs. Hee tooke it also most impatiently that Charles Howard Lord Admirall was in his absence advanced to the honour of Earle of Nottingham, with this commendation in the Charter or Letters Patents of Creation, That hee by the victory gotten in the yeere 1588 had secured the Kingdome of England from all invasion of Spaine and suspition of danger; and also joyntly with our most deare Cousin Robert Earle of Essex, had valiantly and honourably taken by open force the Isle and City of Gadiz, strongly fortified, in the further Spaine; and had totally defeated and destroyed another whole Fleet of the King of Spaines, prepared in that port against our Kingdome. These things Essex (who challenged that glory wholly to himselfe) tooke as done in disgrace of him; and also he interpreted it to be to his prejudice that the Admirall, who whilest he was a Baron was inferior to him in honour, now being created an Earle, hee went before him in the prerogative of honour. For it was enacted in the raigne of Henry the 8th that the Lord Great Chamberlaine of England, the Lord High Constable, the Earle Marshall, the Admirall, the Steward of the Queenes House-hold, and the Lord Chamberlaine, should have place before all men of the same degree with them. But the Queene, who alwaies was both a Favourer and an Amplifier of Essex his honour, to pacifie his displeasure, and withall provide for his honour, and that hee might have the precedency of the Admirall now an Earle, honoured him with the title of Earle Marshall of England, which from the death of the Earle of Shrewsbury had in a manner layen dead.
13. This yeere came into England Paul Dizialine, sent Embassadour from Sigismund King of Poland, a man (according to the nature of that Nation) of prompt boldnesse; to whom when the Queene had given audience, expecting that hee should give her thankes that shee had obtained a peace for the Polonians from Amurath the Turkish Emperour, who threatened to warre upon them, hee, after hee had delivered his Letters to the Queene (who sate in her Chaire of State with a great number of Lords about her), while shee read the letters, went backward after an unwonted manner in England, to the lower end of the Roome, with his face still toward the Queene. There hee complaiend with a loud voyce, in a Latin Oration, that not onely the ancient Priviledges of the Prussians and Polonians which traded in England were infringed, but also (to the breach of the law of Nations) commerce with the Spaniards was prohibited by the Queene, under colour that the Polonians goods were confiscate. These things the Polonian could not neglect, as well for the damages done to his subjects, as also for the affinity which was was betwixt him and the Spaniard, and house of Austria. Hee required therefore restitution to bee made of the goods taken away, and free traffique to be permitted from thence into Spaine. If not, he denounced that the Polonian would enter into a course whereby he would provide for his and his Subjects affaires, and make those repent it which were the authors of the injury.
14. The Queene ex tempore checked the mans boldnesse with modest eloquence, in these words: How have we beene deceived! Wee looked for an Embassadour, and behold, an Herald. In all our life time we have never heard such an Oration. Your boldnesse and rashnesse we cannot sufficiently admire. But if the King your Master have given you any such thing in charge (whereof we greatly doubt), we thinke it is because, being a y oung man, and lately advanced to the Crowne, not by ordinary succession of blood, but by election, hee understandeth not yet the courses of such businesses, nor the things which have passed betwixt us and his Precedessors. For your part, your seeme to us to have read indeed many bookes, but yet to have little understanding of the things belonging to matters of Policy. For whereas you so often in your Oration stirre up the Law of Nations, you must know that in the time of warre betwixt Kings, it is lawfull for the one party to intercept the ayds and succours sent to the other, and to provide that no damage may grow thereby to himselfe. This, we say, is agreeable to Nature, and to the Law of Nations, and hath beene often practised, not by us alone, but also by the Kings of Poland and Sweden, in the warres which they have made with the Muscovites. Whereas you boast of the King your Masters new affinity with the house of Austria, and make so great account of it, you ought to remember that some of that house would have prevented your King, and taken the kingdome of Poland out of his hands. Concerning other matters, you shall understand by our Councell what our pleasure his. Having spoken this, she withdrew her selfe into her Privy Chamber.
15. Dizialin in the conferences which he had with some of the Councell, to excuse himselfe, exhibited his Oration aforesaid in writing, delivered to him, as he said, by Thelcizy the Chancellor of Sweden, and drawne by others in the absence and without the knowledge of Zamosky. The Queene commanded these things to be advertised by Burghley Lord Treasurer, the Lord Admirall, Robert Cecyl, and Sir John Fortescu, all of them of her inwardest Counsaille: That the priviledges of the Prussian Cities and the rest of the Hansa Townes were in the reigne of Edward the sixth, lawfully ajudged from them; yet had the Queene permitted them to conduct commercein an equall right with the English; that they should bee in a better right shee could never admit, unlesse as a dishonest Mother she should thereby cherish the issue of another, neglecting her owne. That to intercept ayd sent to the enemy was not against the Law of Nations, seeing it to be ordained by nature that every one should defend himselfe; and this is not a written Law, but so borne and bred in us. That it was also a thing forbidden that those Townes should relieve the enemes of the kingdome of England with Provisions, in these expresse words in the Priviledge: It shall be lawfull for the Marchants aforesaid to carry, and cause to be carried, their Merchandies whither soever they will, as well within our kingdome and power, as without, except to the hands of our open and notiorious enemies. Moreover, that in fresh memory the Kings of Poland and Sweden have confiscated the shippes and Merchandies of the English, out of a suspicion that they had ayded th Muscovite with provisions. Being demanded what he could answere hereunto, he said hee was not commanded to answere, but to lay open the things given him in charge, and to bring back an answere. And afterwards hee was graciously dismissed.
16. But those of the Hanse Townes prevailed so by their importunate suites to the Emperour that by publique Proclamation the English Merchants of the Company, which we call Adventurers, were forbidden all traffique in Germany, for that they exercised Merchandies in the Empire by their owne Lawes, and not the Lawes of the Empire. When the Queene had sollicited the Emperour by Sir John Wroth, and the Prince of the Empire by Stephen Lesure, that the Edict might be suspended, and the matter compounded, but could not prevaile, the same day that the English were commanded to depart out of Germany, she published a Proclamation in London prohibiting those of the Hanse Townes both to traffique and bee in the kingdome of England, and commanded the Lord Maior of London to put those of the Hanse Townes out of possession of the houses they had in the City, called the Stiliard. Hereupon, they called an Assembly of the Hanse Townes at Lubeck, to enter into a League for the interrupting by all means possible the commerce of the English in Germany and Poland. Which that it might not be effected, George Carew, a Master of the Chancery, was sent into Prussia to informe the King and the Estates of Poland, and the Cities of Prussia, what answers had beene given to Dzialin. And withall, that the Queene of her Grace would permit them freely to send over Wheat and all kinde of Merchandies into Spaine, except munition and provision for warre, though by the Law of Nations, and the Civil Law it was lawfull to intercept goods sent to the enemy. And that those of the Hanse Townes should enjoy their ancient priviledges in England, so as they would require them as priviledges granted by the favour of Princes, and not to exact them by rigor of Law, as contracts. For priviledges granted by favour of Princes to Subjects, and much rather to strangers, may lawfully be suspended, and also revoked and disanulled, according to the respect of times, the good of the Common-wealth, and other causes. That the Hanse Townes had experience of this in Denmark and Sweden, and in England, in the reignes of Edward the sixth and King Philip and Queene Mary. That the case of kingdomes is one thing, and the case of Cities another. That it concerneth Kings to patronize their Royall dignity, rajther then the avarice of Merchants, lest they should grow too insolent against Kings.
17. Carew handled the matter so with those of Danizick that they would not send their Commissioners to the assembly at Lubeck, nor joyne with the Hanse Townes of Germany. From thence hee crossed over into Sweden, where he met with the Polonian King being brought into straights at Steckburg by his uncle Charles; but hee effected nothing with him, for that it was provided (as the King himselfe graciously answered) by the Lawes of Poland that the King should not contract or agree upon any thing with forreiners of himselfe alone. This answere he received by Letters Patents. Other letters which the Vice-Chancellor delivered into his hands sealed up, hee refused to receive, for that the title of the Queen in the superscription was not in al points fully perfect, lest he might seeme to neglect the honour of his Queene, which above all things is to be maintained by an Embassadour even in the least matters. From thence he came backe to Elbing, which oweth a great part of her elegancy and frequent restort of people to the commerce of the English; where, in a manner, he compounded the differences betwixt the Citizens and the English Factors. But these things were done in the next yeere following. Yet have I thought good to joyne them here, lest by leaping from one matter to another I might distract the Readers minde.
18. This yeere came from Christian the fourth King of Denmark, Arnold Whitfeld Chancellor of the Realme, with Christian Bernic, who restoring the Garter of the Order of Saint George, wherewith the Queene had honoured Frederick the Kings father, prayed that the ancient Leagues betwixt England and Denmark might bee renewed, and that the Danes goods might not be intercepted at Sea. He pretended that the fishing of Norway and Ireland were used by the English against the Leagues; and offered the Kings helpe to make a peace betwixt England and the Spaniard. She entertained the Embassadours very graciously, promised, upon certaine conditions, that the Leagues should be renewed, the goods, if any were intercepted, restored, and from thenceforth none should be intercepted, and that the fishing should be lawfully used according to ancient Leagues. But to broake [act as a broker] for peace at the Spaniards hands, who had first broken the same, shee thought it neither stood with the dignity of her kingdome nor of her selfe (who being strengthened, as she said, with the fidelity and fortitude of her Subjects, feared no man hiterto), and least of all would she seeke it as this time, when he infested the French King her confederate with most cruell warre.
19. For the Spaniards under the leading of Ferdinando Teglio, a man of very low stature, but of remarkeable valour and industry, had now by a military stratagem taken Amiens, the greatest and strongest City of Picardy, by overthrowing a a Cart in the gate, and thereby had driven the King to demand ayd againe of 4000 men. And shee denied him not, so as he would pay them, forasmuch as her Fleet now sent to the Ilands, and her army in Ireland, had exhausted her treasure. Hee protested that he was not able to pay them; and that hee might the sooner speed, advertised her by Reaux that a most commodious peace had beene offered unto him by the Popes Nuncio, with an an absolute restitution of all places in France, except Calis [Calais] and Ardes, if hee would separate himselfe from the Queene; and that the people of France in generall did earnestly desire peace. She answered that she could not beleeve that so great a Prince, knit unto her in so fast a band of amity, and beholden to her for many benefits, which hee had alwayes acknowledged, and now newly bound by oath, would suffer himselfe under any colour whatsoever to goe back from the League and his vowes divers times made, for that in so many dangers and troubles of England she could not satisfie him in all things. And these things Sir Anthony Mildmay her Embassadour Legier earnestly, and not without offence, expostulated with the King, an open-hearted and true Englishman, who now and then taxed the French Kings Councellors of shifting and unstayed lightnesse in theire answers, as if they mocked England. But whereas some beleeved that the ayme of the Spaniards designes was to dissolve the conjunction betweene the French King and the Queene, that so he might the more easily assaile England from Calis, the Queene thought good to send ayds and pay them, so as he would undertake the warre either in Picardy or Britaine, thereby to remove the enemy farther off, joyne unto them greater Forces, and assigne unto the English a place of retreyt. For otherwise, to thrust forth the English to the slaughter for the benefit of the French, shee in her motherly love of her Subjects utterly refused. Yet did shee lend him a great summe of money. For which, and the rest of his debts, he fairely offered Calis for a pledge, if the Queene could recover it within a set time, at her owne costs and with her owne Forces; and that shee might the better recover it, hee propounded Bulloign for a place of retreit and a store-house, supposing that Amiens would the more easily be assailed if the enemies Forces were distracted. But whilest these things were in arguing, he happily recovered Amiens by surrender after a difficult siege. For which hee willingly acknowledged by his letters dated in September that hee did owe much to Baskervill (who died in the time of the siege) and to Sir Arthur Savage, most stout leaders, and to the valour of the English. And for an increase of his happinesse, age and necessity growing upon the Spaniard excited him to a desire of peace. For when he saw that his State stood more upon fame then force; that his wealth was not sufficient to represse the assailings of the English, prosecute the Low-Country warre, and withall to defend the places which hee had wonne in France; and that himselfe was farre growne in yeeres, and of desperate health; his Sonne not yet come to strength of age, and of small experience, and the French King a very famous Warriour, he thought a wiser course to treat of a peace with the French King (at that time also being very desirous of peace), the Bishop of Rome being Arbitrator betwixt them, then to leave his Sonne a troubled State amongst so many and so great enemies. And certainly a peace afterward grew betwixt them, most to welcome to them both, as in proper place we will declare.
20. As soone as ever the Queene had any suspicion of this peace begun, she, suspecting that it would be <to> the prejudice of her and England, resolved to fortifie her selfe against it with the love of her people, and with money. Having therefore assembled the Estates of the Realme at Westminster, shee made lawes most acceptable to the people for restoring of depopulated Farmes in the Country, and punishing the depopulators; concerning arable land and tillage not to be turned into pasture; for not imbezeling of lands and goods bequeathed to the use of the poore (and that not without a foule blot to this age); concerning the erection of Hospitals, so as they were not endowed with above 200 pounds yeerely; for preventing of frauds of the Queenes Tellers, Receivers etc.; for the relieving of Souldiers and Saylers; for building of Houses of correction in every County for punishing of Rogues and Vagabonds; for restraining of Usurers, and Ravishers of virgins; concerning the deposing of the Popish Bishops in the first yeeres of the Queene, namely, that the same was and should be lawfull against the Bishops deposed; and that the Bishops substituted in their roomes were lawfull Bishops, and for such to be holden. For these lawes, and the true Religion restored, the Common-wealth most happily governed, the Country delivered from the fury of the enemy, Ireland defended, the French King and the Netherlanders relieved, the Estates congratulate her. And to the end that treasure might be in a readinesse for the defence and safety of the Realme, the Cleargy granted three voluntary Subsidies, and the Laity prayed the Queene that shee would vouchsafe to accept of them three entire Subsidies, and 6 fifteenes and tenths, beseeching her withall (as in the yeere 1593) that so great and extraordinary a contribution might not be drawne into example, unlesse it were upon such an urgent necessity.
21. To this Parliament Thomas Lord LaWare being called after the death of William his father, exhibited a petition to the Queene that hee might bee restored to the ancient place of his Fore-fathers, Lords LaWare. For his father, because hee had prepared poyson for his Unkle the Lord LaWare, whose inheritance hee gaped after, was by sentence of Parliament, in the raigne of King Edward the sixt, excluded out of all inheritance and honour which might come unto him by his Unkle. The same William in the raigne of Queene Mary was condemned, and afterward restored entirely, as if hee had not beene condemned. But whereas by reason of the former sentence hee might not enjoy the honour of his Ancestors, hee was by the Queenes speciall favour created Lord LaWare anew by Letters Patents, and whilest he lived tooke place according to the time of his creation. The Queene referred the matter to the Lords in Parliament; who when they found that the former sentence was personall against William, and that his children were not bound by the same, and that the proscription in the raigne of Queene Mary was no impediment, forasmuch as hee at that time could not loose the dignity which hee had not, and was soone after fully restored, and that the ancient dignity was not extinct by the new creation, but during his life time lay as it were asleepe, for that it was not in him at the time of his creation, they gave unto him by judgement the place of his Ancestors, betwixt the Lord Willoughby of Eresby and the Lord Barkley, wherein hee was solemnly placed.
22. Thomas Howard also, the second sonne of Thomas Duke of Norfolke, who was lately chosen into the Order of the Garter, was called by writ to this Parliament with the title of Baron Howard of Waldon; and for that hee was then sicke, the Lord Scroope was led in his stead into the higher House betwixt two Barons in his Parliament Roabes, he carrying the writ, and the principall King of Armes going before hm. Which writ when the Lord Keeper of the Seale had openly read, hee was placed beneath all the rest of the Barons, though else-where the younger sonnes of Dukes have place above Vicounts, for that (as by the Roles of Parliament appeared) in the sixt yeere of Henry the 8th, when Thomas Howard Earle of Surrey, being called to the Parliament, challenged the place of sitting and going before Earles, because hee was a Dukes eldest sonne, it was judged that in Parliaments he should sit in the order of his creation, saving the prerogative of honour and dignity which is due unto a Dukes eldest sonne out of Parliament.
23. This yeere departed this life William Brooke Lord Cobham, of the Order of Saint George, Lord Chamberlaine to the Queene, Constable of Dover Castle, Lord Warden of the Cinque-Ports; whose heire was Henry his sonne by Francis Newton. Also William Powlet the third Marquesse of Winchester, famous for the largenesse of his honour and the riches of his Ancestors, rather then for anything else, leaving one onely legitimate sonne, William, by Anne Howard of Effingham.
24. When the State of Ireland was now very turbulent (for all Ulster beyond Dundalk, except seven Garison Castles, namely Newry, Knock-fergus, Carlingford, Greene-Castle, Armack, Dondran, and Olderfleet, and almost all Connacht were revolted), Russell was called home; and in his place was substituted Lord Deputy Thomas Lord Borough, a sharpe man and full of courage, but of little skill in the warres; and this beyond the opinion of all men, and altogether against the expectation of Norris, who in respect of his deserts and skill in military matters had promised to himselfe this place. But when hee saw that through the potency of his adversaries in Court, and his friends forsaking him, his Eumulator, whom in his owne opinion hee in a manner equalled in nobility of birth, and in glory of martiall exploits farre surmounted, was preferred before him; and (which hee tooke more heavily) hee was charged to continue under his command in his Presidentship of Munster; and grieved that Tir-Oen had by his dissembling so often deluded him, hee, being a man famous for so many victories, and now overcome with griefe of minde, fell sicke, and shortly after dyed. Certainly a great man, and to be honoured amongst the greatest Captaines of this Nation in courage. Who being the second sonne of Henry Lord Norris by the the daughter and one of the heires of the Lord Williams of Tame, laied the first grounds of his military practice in the Civill warre of the French under the Admirall Coligny; being a young man, he had the leading of a Company in Ireland under Walter Earle of Essex; hee was Colonell generall of the English under the Estates in the Low-Countries, Marshall of the Estates Army under Grave Hollock, President of Munster 12 yeeres, though hee were much absent, Generall of the English Forces in little Britanny; and having discharged the rest of the offices in the warres which I have spoken of, he deserved by his vertue to ascend by all degrees to the height of Military praise.
25. Tir-Oen, when he saw Norris in hope dejected, and hee himselfe in minde was more dejected, yet being craftily intentive to his owne advantage, he by letters humbly desired of the new Lord Deputy a truce (which the Irish call a cessation of Armes). And certainely it seemed behoveull for the Common-wealth to grant it for a month, though the Lord Deputy judged Cessations and Protections to be pernicious to the State. The month being expired, the Lord Deputy gathering his Forces together, which in the first beginning of his government seemed to make for his profit and fame, set his Army in order against the Rebels, and being received with a doubtfull conflict amongst the straight passages, hee opened a way by valour, and most manfully forced the Fort at Black-water new strengthened, by which was the passage into the County of Tir-Oen, and which was the onely fast hold of the Rebels except the Woods and Bogs; and shewed plainely that if any one would insist and presse upon them, the Rebels might easily be vanquished. The very same day, whilest the Lord Deputy with his Army was giving thankes to God for the Victory, an Alarme was suddenly given, the enemy shewing himselfe from a hill hard by; against whom Henry Earle of Kildare presently sped him with a troupe of Horse and some of the better sort of the Gentlemen Voluntiers, and put them to flight. Yet were there slaine of the English Francis Vaghan, who was the Lord Deputies wives brother; Robert Turner Sargeant Major, a man of approved fortitude; two foster brothers of the Earle of Kildare, whose death hee tooke so heavily that hee died of griefe within a few daies after (for the love of foster brothers in Ireland far surpasseth all the loves of all men). Many were hurt, amongst which was Sir Thomas Waller, a man much renowned for his valour in the warres. As soone as the Lord Deputy had repaired the Fort with new workes and brought backe his Army, the Rebels wavering betweene hope, feare, and shame, thought it the best course to presse the same with a straight siege. For it was a place most commodious to infest them, and Tir-Oen thought his fame and fortune were quite overthrowne unlesse he recovered it. Hee beleaguered it therefore round with a strong power. The Lord Deputy with as much speed as hee could marched toward it againe, being assured to pierce father into Ulster.
26. But as hee was marching with full course to victories, the force of an untimely sickenesse tooke away his life, leaving a great misse of him to the good, and security to the Rebels; as one who, if hee had lived, would in the judgement of wise men have broken the hope of the enemy, and the maine State had not come to so great hazzard. The Rebels, hearing of the Lord Deputies death grew fierce, and with great clamor and force assaulted now and then the Fort, but were alwaies repulsed with greater slaughter; they which scaled the wals with ladders were throwne downe and troden under feet by the Garrison sallying forth, so as now mistrusting their strength, they changed their purpose, resolving to make delaies, perswaded themselves that they had few daies victuals left, and there was hope of wavering fidelity and treason of the Garison through want. But through the singular valour of Thomas Williams the Captaine, and the Garison Souldiers, the place was manfully defended, who having suffered hunger, the sword, and all extremities, their horses consumed, and feeding upon herbes growing upon the Bullwarke, endured all manner of misery. Now as the Army in the Ireland by the Queenes authority out of England committed to the Earle of Ormond, with the title of Lieutenant Generall of the Army; and the chiefe command in civill matters to Adam Losthose Archbishop of Dublin, Chancellour, and Sir Robert Gardiner, with the title of Justicers of Ireland, after that Sir Thimas Norris had exercise the place of Justicer the space of a month. Tir-Oen in a large letter to this new Lieutenant exaggerateth all his grievances which I have before spoken of, both old and new, not omitting the least insolency either of the Souldiers or of the Sheriefes; the breach of his contracts with Norris hee coldly excuseth; especially, he complaineth that Feagh Mac-Hugh one of his dearest friends was hunted even to death; and, in briefe, that his letters to the Queene were intercepted in England and suppressed, as also that intollerable Impositions and Compositions were laid upon the Noblemen and Common people. Hee added that hee foresaw that all the Territories of the Lords of Ireland were even now to be shared betwixt the English Councellors, Lawyers, Souldiers, and Scribes; and withall he ministred ayd to the sonnes of Feagh Mac-Hugh to raise a new combustion of warre in Leinster. And at the same time he fainedly exhibited a writing to the Lord Lieutenant, and most humbly besought him that hee might be received into favour, making large promises, though it were now well knowne to all men that this rebellion was undertaken to no other purpose (whatsoever was pretended) then to drive the English quite out of Ireland.
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