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ANNO DOMINI 1580
The Lord Iusticer and Ormond prosecute the rebels. | James Desmond taken and put to death. | Desmund distressed with miseries. | Arthur Lord Grey Deputy of Ireland. | He marcheth against the Rebels. | The English slaine. | Italians and Spaniards arrive in Ireland. | They raise a Fort. | They are besiedged. | They yeeld themselves. | They are cruelly handled. | Excesse of apparel restrained. | And new buildings in the Suburbs of London. | Mechlyn taken.| The English sacrilegious. | Earthquakes. | The beginning of the Papists affliction. | The beginning of the English Seminaries. | With what intent Seminary Priests were sent into England. | The Jesuites creepe into England. | A Proclamation against Seminaries and Jesuits. | Persons and Campian Jesuits come into England. | A faculty granted to Papists. | Persons and Campian described. | The fugitives excite forrainers against their Country. | An Edict against them. | Sectaries out of Holland. | The Family of Love. | A Proclamation against them. | Francis Drake. | His Originall. | His Education. | His first voyage into America. | Oxehnam saileth into America. | Insula Margaritifera, or Isla de Perlas. | Drakes second voyage. | He putteth Dougherty to death. | The passeth the straight of Magellan. | He observeth an Eclipse of the Moone. | And the South Starres. | And Megellans cloudes. | John Winter the first that ever returned through the straight. | Drake taketh booty by sea and Land. | He lighteth upon riches by chance. | He taketh the Cacofoga. | He casteth to returne. | He discovereth New Albyon. | He commeth to the Moluckaes. | He is in danger. | He passeth the Cape of Good Hope. | He returneth into England. | His ship is at were consecrated. | He is Knight created. | The Spaniard demandeth the goods taken away. | He is answered. | What propriety the Spaniard hath in America. | Some money repaid to the Spaniard. | A voyage by Sea to seeke East-India. | The Death of the Earle of Arundel, who first brought the use of Conches into England. | The Lord Grey suppresseth the rebels in Ireland. | And crusheth a Conspiracy. | Innocency a sure comfort. | The Rebels suppressed. | The Scots envy the Duke of Lenox. | They accuse him in England. | Consultation against him. | He is traduced with rumors. | Sir Robert Bowes sent to accuse him, not admitted. | The Scots excuse themselves. | Their Embassador not admitted. | Burghleys admonitions to him. | Morton imprisoned.
HE Justicer pleasantly jeasting hereat, returned into Munster, assembled the Gentlemen, and wisely stayed them with him, not suffering them to depart but upon hostages given, and promise made to doe their best service with him and Ormond against the Rebels. Who soone after, dividing their companies, hunt after the Rebels; the Baron of Linnaw they force to yield himselfe, besiege the Castle of Carigofoile, which Julio an Italian with a few Spaniards defended, and having made a breach in the wals with force of their great Ordnance, they brake in, and put the garison either to the Sword or the Gallowes, and with them Julio himselfe. Then was the Castle of Ballilough fired and abandoned by the garison when they saw the English come; as was also Asketten, the charge whereof was commited to Sir Peter Carew and George his brother, with a new garrison of Englishmen. The territory of Mac-Auley was spoyled; and from thence the Lord Justicer entered into Kerry over the boggy Hill of Slewlougher, drove away a great number of cattell, and slew very many of the Rebels. James Desmund the Earles brother having spoyled the little Country of Muskeroy, belonging to Cormac Mac-Teg (whom the Lord Justicer had let go upon condition he should doe his Country good service against the Rebels), lighted upon Donell, Cormacks brother, who putting many of his men to the Sword, recovered the bootie, took James who was mortally wounded, and delivered him to Warham Saint Leiger, Marescall of Munster, and to Walter Raughley (who then first had the leading of a company). They called him to his tryall, and being found guiltie of high treason put him to the usuall death of traitors, setting up his head for a spectacle upon Cork gate. Desmund himselfe being most distressed with all kind of miseries, and in no place safe, shifted from place to place, sent his wife, to the Lord Justicer to beg his pardon, and by his friends earnestly dealt with Winter (who then waited for the Spaniards upon that Coast with a fleet well appointed) that he might be carried over into England to crave the Queenes mercy.
2. The Lord Justicer being now advertised that Arthur Lord Grey, appointed to be Lord Deputie of Ireland, was arrived in Ireland, committed the Army of Munster to George Bourchier Son to John the Second Earle of Bath, and returned himselfe by easie journeyes to Dublin, to deliver up his charge to his successor. No sooner was the Lord Grey arrived, but before he had received the Sword and Ensigne of his command, hearing that certaine Rebels under the command of Fitz-Eustace and Pheog Mac-Hugh, the head of the powerfull family of the O-Brines, did exercise thefts and robberies, and had the refuge of Glandilough, 25 miles from Dublin Southward, that he might follow the report of his comming at the hard heeles, and by his sharpe beginnings strike a terror into them, he commanded the Captaines of Companies, which came from all places to salute him, to gather their forces together, and to march with him against the Rebels, who presently retyred into Glandilough. This Glandilough is a grasse valley, meet for grasing of Cattell, and a great part of it somewhat wet, beset round about with craggy rockes and a steepe downefall, and with trees and thickets of wood, the paths scarce knowne to the dwellers thereabouts. When they were come to the place, Cosbey Captaine of the Irish light footmen (whom they call Kernes) who knew the places perfectly well, warned the rest how dangerous it was to enter into the Valley, being most commodious for ambushes; yet he perswaded them to venture couragiously, and hee himselfe, being about threescore yeres of age, led they way before them, and the rest followed after. As soone as they were descended into the valley they were overlayed with small shot, as if it were with a showre of haile, from the rebels which were placed round about, whom they saw not. For the greatest part of them by farre were slaine, the rest with much adoe climbing up the Rockes through most cumbersome wayes escaped to the Lord Deputie, who upon an hill attended the event with the Earle of Kildare and Jaques Wingfield master of the muntion, who being not ignorant of the danger, stayed George Carew, one of his Nephewes with him against his will, being reserved for greater honour. There were slaine Pater Carew the younger, George Moore, Audley, and Cosbey himselfe, men flourishing in martiall glory.
3. Within short time after arrived at Smerwick in Kerry about seaven hundred Italians and Spaniards under the command of San-Josepho an Italian, sent from the Bishop of Rome and the Spaniard under colour of restoring the Romish religion, but indeed to distract Queene Elizabeths forces, and to draw her minde from the affaires in the Low-Countries. They landed without resistance; for Winter which had stayed for them a good while upon that coast was returned into England, the Autumnall Equinoctiall being now past. The Enemies strengthen the place with fortifications, and named it the Fort Del Or. But as soone as newes was brought them that Ormond President of Munster approached, they abandoned the Fort by perswasion of the Irish, and withdrew themselves into the valley of Glanigelli invironed with steepe Hils and Woods. Some of them the President tooke, who being asked of their number and intent, confessed that they came 700 strong but brought armes sufficient for five thousand, and that more men were expected daily out of Spaine. That the Pope and the Spaniard had decreed to drive the English out of Ireland, and to that purpose had sent a great summe of mony, which they had delivered into the hands of Sanders the Popes Nuncio, the Earle of Desmund, and John his brother. The same night the Italians and Spaniards, not knowing which wayes to turne them (for lurke in wilde holes they could not), returned by darke to the Fort, and hard by encamped the Earle of Ormond. But for that hee was destitute of Ordnance and other necessaries for an assault, he stayed for the Lord Deputies comming. Who came shortly after accompanied with Zouch, Raghley, Deny, Mac-worth, Aschin, and other Captaines. And at the same time was Winter returned out of England with the ships of warre not without a checke [rebuke].
4. The Lord Deputie sent a Trumpet to the Fort to demand who they were, what they had to doe in Ireland, who had sent them, and why they had built a Fort in Queene Elizabeths Kingdome; and withall, to command them with all speed to depart. They answered that they were sent, some from the most holy Father the Pope, and some from the Catholike King of Spaine, to whom the Pope had given Ireland, for that Queen Elizabeth had justly forfeited her title to Ireland for Heresie. They would therefore hold that they had gotten, and get more also if they could. When the Lord Deputie and Winter had consulted together about the manner of the siege, the Sailers in a still night drew certaine Culverins out of the ships, and having raised a Mount neere the shore, drew them up the next day and planted them. The Souldiers in like manner on the other side levell their great pieces for batterie, and all at once thunder for foure dayes together against the Fort. Of the English not one man was slaine, save onely John Cheeke, a goodly and couragious young Gentleman, Sonne to Sir John Cheeke, a most learned Knight.
5. San-Josepho, who had the Command of the Fort, being a faint-hearted man and terrified with the continuall playing of the Ordnance, began presently to thinke of yeilding the place; and when Hercules Pisanus and other Captaines earnesty disswaded him from it, as dishonourable to martiall men, and pressed him that they might prepare themselves for the defence, least they did by their cowardice discourage the Irish who were now ready to releeve them, he by his espyals, such was his faint heart, felt the mind of the Souldiers, and wrought them to assent to a surrender, seditiously offering violence to their Leaders. Whereupon when they saw no succour come, neither out of Spain, nor from Desmund, they hung out a white flag the first day and craved parley. Which was denied them, because they had joyned themselves with the Rebels, with whom it was not lawfull to have any parley. Then they craved that they might depart with bag and baggage, but neyther was this granted. Afterwards it was demanded that this might be permitted to theyr Generall and to certaine principall men amongst them; neyther was this allowed them though they sued for it very earnestly. And the Lord Deputy (inveighing very bitterly against the Byshop of Rome) commanded them to yeeld without any condition. And when they could obtaine no other, they set up their white flag againe and cryed, Miserecordia, miserecordia, and absolutely submitted themselves to the Lord Deputies mercy; who presently took Councell with his what should bee done with them. But forasmuch as those which yeilded equalled the English in number, and some danger threatened from the Rebels, who were above fifteene hundred strong, and the English were so destitute of victuals and apparell that they ready to mutiny unlesse they were relieved out of the Fort by the spoyles of the Enemy, and there lacked shipping to carry away the Enemies, it was concluded against the minde of the Lord Deputie, who shed teares, that the Captaines should be saved, and the rest promiscuously put to the sword for a terror, and that the Irish should be hanged; which was presently performed. Yet the Queene wished rather it had beene left undone, detesting from her heart the cruelty though necessary, against those that had yeelded themselves, and hardly did she allow of the reasons of the slaughter committed. Thus much of matters in Ireland, which I have joyned together, that the order of the story might not be interrupted, though other things occurred in the meane while which in respect of time should have been mentioned first.
6. In England in the beginning of this yeare, the necke attyre, which we calle ruffes, being above measure large, and with huge white settes, and cloakes reaching downe almost to the anckles, no lesse uncomely then of great expence, were restrained by Proclamation. Swords also were reduced to the length of three foot, daggers to twelve inches without the handle, and the pikes of Bucklers bosses to two inches. In like manner, whereas a great multitude of people resorted from all parts to London, wherby the Citty and Suburbs were now too much increased with buildings (while the rest of the Cities and townes of England decayed), so as unlesse it were timely prevented, neither the ordinary Magistrates wouild suffice to governe the multitude nor the Countries round about to feede them, and the contagion of the Pestilence, if any should happen, would creepe farther and more grievously by meanes of the houses standing so thicke together, and pestered with number of inhabitants, the Queene by Proclamation prohibited any new dwelling houses to be built within three miles of the Gates of the City, upon paine of imprisonment and losse of the stuffe brought for the building, and that no more but one family should dwell in one house.
7. In the Netherlands, Sir John Norris Generall of the English forces, and Oliver Temple with some Companies of Netherlanders, scaled Mechlin a rich Citty of Brabant, betimes in a morning, and with great slaughter of Townes-men and Religious people tooke it, with some commendation indeed for their valour, but blemished with the foule blot of ravening and Sacriledge; for they not onely rifeled the Citizens goods with all insolency of pillaging, but raged also even against the Churches, holy things, and tombes, offering violence to the dead. For we saw (which I am ashamed to speake) many tombe-stones sent over from thence into England and openly set to sale, as arguments of their impiety.
8. Let it not seeme strange to mention the Earth-quakes which happened in those dayes, seeing they chance very rarely in England, and those that doe are rather to be called Earth tremblings. The sixth day of Aprill at 6 of the clocke in the evening, the ayre being cleere and calme, England on this side Yorke, and the the Netherlands almost as high as Coloine, as it were in a moment trembled in such sort that in some places stones fell downe from buildings, the Bels in steeples strooke against the clappers, and the very Sea, being then most calme, was vehemently shaken up and downe. The next night following, the earth in Kent trembled once, and againe the second time; as also againe the first of May, in the dead time of the night. Whether this happened by force of winds gotten into the hollow places of the earth, or of waters flowing under the earth, or from any other cause, let the naturall Phylosophers looke. But immediately upon it there ensued some trouble against the Papists in England; yet no other then such as was raised by themselves upon these occasions following.
9. The English Priests which had fled into the Netherlands assembled themselves at Doway in the yeere 1568, by the procurement of William Allen an Oxford man, the most learned amongst them al, and after the manner of a Colledge applied themselves to a common discipline, to whome the Byshop of Rome assigned a yearely pension. Afterwards, the Netherlands being turmoiled with tumults and the English fugitives banished the Netherlands by commandement of Don Lewis de Requesens, another Seminary was instituted at Rheims by the Guises the Queene of Scots kinsmen, and another at Rome by Gregory the thirteenth. Which, as time consumed the Popish Priests in England, might alwayes supply new, to scatter the seeds of the Romish religion in England. Whereupon they were called Seminaries, and those that were bred up in them, were commonly called Seminary Priests.
10. In these Colledges, or Seminares, whilest among other things Disputation was held concerning the Ecclesticall and temporall powers, zeale to the Pope their founder, hatred against the Queene, and hope of restoring the Romish Religion by the Queene of Scottes, carryed some of them headlong so farre that they verily perswaded themselves, and defined that the Byshop of Rome hath by the Law of God fulnesse of power over the whole world, as well in Ecclesiasticall as Temporall matters; and that he out of his fulnesse of power may excommunicate Kings, and being excommunicate, unthrone them, absolving their Subjects from their oath of Alleagance. Hereupon was that Bull declaratory of Pius Quintus published in the yeare 1569, and from that Bull flamed forth the Rebellion in the North part of England, this in Ireland whereof I spake a little before, and many abstained from the received services of God, which before they frequented without scruple. Hanse, Nelson, and Maine, Priests, and Sherwood obstinately taught that the Queene was a Schismaticke and an Heretike, and therefore to be deposed; for which they suffered punishment of death.
11. Out of these Seminaries, first a few young men, and then more, as they grew up, entring over-hastily into holy orders, and being instructed in such principles of Doctrine as these, were sent forth into divers parts of England and Ireland to administer (as they pretended) the Sacraments of the Romish Religion, and to preach. But the Queene and her Councell found that they were sent under-hand to withdraw the Subjects from their alleageance and obedience due to their Prince, to binde them by Reconciliation, to performe the Popes commandements, to raise intestine rebellions under The Seale of Confession, and flatly to execute the sentence of Pius Quintus agains the Queene, to the end that way mnight be made for the Pope and the Spaniard, who had of late intended the conquest of England.
12. To these Seminaries, forasmuch as there were sent daily out of England from the Papists, in contempt of the authority of the Lawes, very many boyes and young men of all sorts, and admitted into the same, making a vow to returne; and others from thence crept secretly into England, and more were expected daily with the Jesuits, who at this time first entred into England, there came forth a Proclamation in the month of June that whosoever had children, pupils, kinsmen, or others in the parts beyond the seas should after 10 dayes deliver their names to the Ordinary, and within 4 months call them home again, and being returned, should forthwith signify the same to the Ordinarie; that to those which returned not should not directly or indirectly supply any mony; that no man should entertaine in his House, or lodge Priests sent forth of the Seminaries, and Jesuites, or cherish and relieve them; and that whosoever did the contrary should be accompted a favourer of the Rebels and seditious people, and bee proceeded against by the Lawes of the Land.
13. Before such time as this was proclaimed, the Papists dissembled that they found too late the inconveniences of the said Bull, and that they tooke it very heavily that ever it came forth. The defence of the same written by Nicholas Sanders they cunningly suppressed (as the events shewed) and prohibited the questions to be argued in Disputations concerning the power of the Byshop of Rome in excommunicating and deposing of Princes; which notwithstanding (such is the nature of man), by striving against that which is forbidden, burst forth every day hotter and hotter amongs them. Robert Persons also and Edmund Campion, Englishmen of the Societie of Jesus, being now readie to come over to advance the Romish affaires in England, obtained a facultie from Gregory the 13th Byshop of Rome for moderating of that sharpe Bull, and in these words: Let there be craved of our most holy Lord an explication of the Bull declaratory, set forth by Pius Quintus against Elizabeth and her adhaerents. Which Bull the Catholikes do desire to be understood in this manner, that it may alwayes bind her and the Heretikes, but in no way the Catholikes as matters now stand, but hereafter when publike execution of the same Bull may be had. These graces aforesaid the highest Byshop hath granted to Father Robert Persons, and Edmund Campian, who are now to take their journey into England the foureteenth day of Aprill, 1580, in the presence of Father Oliver Manark assistant.
14. This Persons was a Somersetshire man, vehement, fierce of Nature, and of rude behaviour; Campian was of London, a sweet natured and most courteous man; both of them by education Oxford men whom I my selfe knew, being their equall in the University in those dayes. Campian, being of Saint Johns Colledge, bare the office of Proctor of the Universitie in the yeare 1568, and being made Deacon, dissembled the Protestants Religion, untill hee withdrew himselfe out of England. Persons was of Baliol Colledge, wherein hee openly professed the Protestants Religion untill he was for his dishonesty expelled with disgrace, and fled to the Papists. These two, entring privily into England, travailed up and downe secretly over the Country and to popish Gentlemens houses in disguised habit, sometimes of Souldiers, sometimes of Gentlemen, sometimes of Ministers of the Word, and sometimes of Apparitors, lustily performing what they had in charge both by word and writing. Persons who was a constituted Superior, being a man of a seditious and turbulent spirit and armed with audacious boldnesse, brake forth so farre with the Papists about deposing the Queene ,that some of them (I speake upon their owne credit) thought to have delivered him to the Magistrates hands. Campian, though more modest, yet by a writing set forth challenged the Ministers of the English Church to a disputation, and published a pretty fine booke in Latine of Ten Reasons for maintainance of the Doctrine of the Church of Rome; and Persons another virulent booke in English against Charke, who had written soberly against Campians challenge. But to Campians reasons Whitaker answered soundly, and hee was taken a yeare after, and put to the Racke. And afterwares being brought forth to dispute, hardly maintained the expectation raised.
15. Neither wanted there others also of the Popish faction (for Religion was growne into faction) which laboured tooth and nayle at Rome, and elsewhere in Princes courts, to raise warre against their Countrey; yea, and they had published also in print that the Byshop of Rome and the Spaniard had conspired together to conquer England and expose it for a prey; and this of purpose to give courage to theyr party, and terrifie the rest from theyr alleageance to their Prince and Countrey. The Queene, being now openly assailed by these both armes and cunning practises of the Byshop of Rome and the Spaniard, set forth a writing wherein (after acknowledgement of the goodnesse of God towards her) shee declareth, That shee had attempted nothing against any Prince but for preservation of her own Kingdome, nor had invaded the Provinces of any other, though shee had sundry times beene therunto both provoked by injuries, and invited by opportunities. If any Prince doe assaile her, shee doubteth not but to bee able (by the favour of God) to defend her people; and to that purpose shee had mustered her Forces both by Sea and Land, and had now made them ready against hostile invasions. Her faithfull Subjects shee exhorteth to continue immoveable in their Alleageance and duty towards God and their Prince the Minister of God. The rest which had shaken off their love to their Countrey and their Obedience to their Prince, shee commandeth to carry themselves modestly, and not provoke the severity of Justice; for shee would no longer offend in such sort, that by sparing the bad shee should be cruell against her selfe and her good Subjects.
16. And not onely these perfidious Subjects, but also forrainers comming out of Holland (a Countrey fruitfull of Heretikes) began at that time to trouble the peace of the Church and Common-wealth of England, who under a shew of singular integrety and sanctity insinuated themselves itno the ignorant vulgar people, and then distilled into their mindes damnable Heresies manifestly repugnant to the Christian faith, by a portenous and strange kind of speaking, most contrary to the Christian profession, which men might rather admire then understand. These named themselves of the Family of Love, or House of Charity. They perswaded their followers that those onely were elected and to bee saved which were admitted into that Family, and all the rest Reprobates and to be damned; and that it was lawfull for them to deny upon their oath before a Magistrate whatsoever they list, or before any other which was not of theyr Family. Of this fanaticall vanity they dispersed Bookes amongst their followers, translated out of the Dutch tongue into English, which they intituled The Gospell of the Kingdome, Documentall sentences, The prophecy of the spirit of Love, The publishing of Peace upon earth, the Author H. N. The authors name they could be no meanes be perswaded to reveale; yet was it found afterward to be Henry Nicolai of Leiden, who with blasphemous mouth gave out, That hee did partake of God, and God of his humanity. For the timely suppressing of these by Law, the Queen, considering that Religion ought to be the chiefest care of Princes, commanded by Proclamation that the Civill Magistrate should be assistant to the Ecclesiasticall, and that the said Bookes should be burnt.
. 17. About that time returned into England Francis Drake, flowing with great wealth, and flourishing with greater glory, having prosperously sayled round about the world, being, if not the first of all which may challenge this glory, yet surely the first next after Magellan, whom death cut off in the middest of his voyage. This Drake (to relate no more than what I have heard from himselfe) was borne of meane parentage in Devonshire, and had Francis Russell (afterwards Earle of Bedford) to his Godfather, who according to custome gave him his Christen name. Whilest hee was yet a child, his Father imbracing the Protestants Doctrine, was called in question by the law of the Sixe Articles made by King Henry the 8th against the Protestants, fled his Country, and withdrew himselfe into Kent. After the death of King Henry hee got a place among the Saylors in the Kings fleet, to reade prayers unto them; and soone after was ordained Deacon, and made Vicar of the Church of Upnore upon the River Medway (where they fleet lyeth at anchor). But by reason of his poverty hee put his Sonne to the master of a Barke his neighbour, who in his Barke wherein he coasted that Country, and sometimes carried Marchandies into Zealand and France, brought him up hardly to the trade of a Saylor. The youth, being painfull and diligent, so pleased the old man by his industry, as hee ,being a Bacheler, at his death bequeathed the Barke unto him by his testament. Wherewith when hee had gathered a little money, and heard that Sir John Hawkins rigged certaine Ships at Plimouth, and purposed a voyage to America, which they called The new World, hee sold his Barke, and going thither out of Kent with certaine other stout Saylors, in the yeare 1567 imployed both his paines and wealth unprosperously in that voyage under Hawkins. For the English (as I have said) being vanquished in the haven of St. John de Ullua by the Spaniards, he hardly escaped with the losse of his goods. Five years after, to weet in the yeare 1572, when he had gotten reasonable store of money by playing the Saylor and the Pirate, hee to make himselfe whole of the damage hee had received of the Spaniards (which a Divine belonging to the Fleet had easily perswaded him to bee lawfull), sayled againe with a Ship of warre, which he named the Dragon, and two Pinaces into America, acquainting his companions onely with his purpose. Nombre de Dios, a Towne in the Isthmus of Dariena, he tooke, and soone after lost it againe. Afterwards being advertised by certaine fugitive Negres (Cimarons they call them) that there was a great quantity of Gold and Silver to be brought by the Muleters from Panama, he robbed them by the way, brought the gold to his Ships, and the silver, for that he could not well carry it over the Mountaines, he left behind, and some he hid under ground. Then he fired a rich receptacle or Store-house of Marchandies upon the river Chirage (The Crosse it is called). And whilest hee roved for a time up and downe the places adjoyning, he espied from the Mountaines the South Sea. Hereupon the man, being inflamed with affectation of glory and wealth, burnt with so vehement a desire to navigate that Sea, that falling downe there upon his knees, he craved the assistance of God, that hee might one day navigate and surveigh the same, and hereunto hee bound himselfe by a vow. From this time his mind was continually pricked forward night and day to pay his vow.
18. Whilest he, being now growne abundantly rich, busied himselfe silently with these cares, John Oxenham, who in his former voyages had served under him as a Souldier, a Saylor, and a Cooke, having obtained amongst the saylors for his fortitude and wealth which hee had privily gotten, the name of Captaine, to the end to prevent [anticipate] Drake both in robbing the Muletters and navigating the South sea, made a voyage to the same parts in the yeare 1575 with one onely Ship and 70 saylors; and imparting the matter with the Negres, when he understood that the Muletters now brought their riches from Panama with a convoy of souldiers, hee drew up his Ship to land in a by-corner and woody, and covered twith green boughes which he cut downe, his great Ordnance and victuals he buried under ground, and with all his men, and sixe Negres for guides, went forward to a River which runneth into the South sea; there he cut downe Trees, and building a Galliot, crossed over to an Iland in the South sea, called Isla de Perlas not farre from land. In which Isle having tarryed tenne dayes awaiting the comming of ships from Peru, he tooke one with sixty pound weight of Gold, and another with an hundred pound weight of Silver, and returned to the River with the ships he had taken. The matter being now noised abroad by the Spaniards whom he had let goe, John Ortega a Spaniard with an hundred men pursued after him; and whereas the River had three mouthes or out-lets, he made a stay, being in doubt which of them to follow,until the feathers of the fowles which the Englishmen had eaten came swimming downe the streame and shewed them the way; which way the Spaniards taking, found the Gold amongst the thickets, and the Englishmen at a variance among themselves about dividing their prey; who notwithstanding, joyning together for their common safetie, made head against the Spaniards, though farre moe in number then they. But very many of them were slaine, and the rest taken, and amongst them Oxenham himselfe; who being carried to Lima, and demanded whether he had by the Queenes authorite entred into the King of Spains Dominions, when hee could shew no authority, was put to death as a Pirate and common enemy of mankind, together with the Master of the ship and others, and so fayled of a great and memorable adventure.
19. Drake, being ignorant what Oxenham had done, set sayle from Plimouth the the 13th day of December in the yeare 1577 to Navigate that South Sea, which still ran in his mind, and to cast the Dice of fortune, with five ships and 163 saylers, of whom scarce one or two knew what was to be done, which in all expeditions is the safest. The 25th day he came against Cantin, a Cape of Barbary; and from thence he refreshed himselfe in the Ilse of May, being a pleasant Isle and most fruitfull of the sweetest grapes. At Santo Iacomo he tooke a Portugall ship laden with Wine, and letting the saylers go, carried it away with Nonny de Silva the Pylot, who might be of use unto him for the harbours and watering places on the Coast of Brasill, which he knew passing well. From thence hee sayled by the Isle of Fogo that casteth forth sulphury flames, and Brava, under which the Marriners doe report the Sea to be very deepe. And now comming neere the Aequator, Drake being very carefull of his mens health, let every one of them bloud with his owne hands, and there finding a great calme with much thunder and lightning, in almost three weekes he got little or nothing forward, and in full five and fifty dayes saw no Land, till Brasill presented itself to his view.
20. The 26th of Aprill, entring into the mouth of the River of Plate, he saw an infinite company of Sea-Calves. From thence sayling into the Haven of Saint Julians, he found a Gybbet set up (as is thought) by Magellan when he punished certaine mutiners. In this very place, John Dougherty an industrious and stout man, and the next unto himselfe, was called to his tryall for raising a sedition in the Fleet, found guilty by twelve men after the manner of the English, and condemned to death, which he suffered undantedly, being beheaded, after he had received the Holy Communion with Drake. And indeed, the most indifferent in the Fleet judged that he had dealt seditiously, and that Drake cut him off as an emulator of his glory, whilest he regarded, not so much whom hee excelled in glorie for Sea-matters, as who might equall him. Yet wanted there not some which, thinking themselves to bee men of a deeper reach, gave out that Drake has a charge from Leicester that hee should make away Dougbhtey by any colour whatsoever, for that hee had reported abroad that the Earle of Essex was made away by the cunning practises of Leicester.
21. The twentieth day of Augus, he came with three ships (for the two lesser he had before left to the waves, shipping the men and munition into the rest) to the Straight of Magellan (as they call it), being a Sea think beset with Islands, and inclosed with high cliffes or Mountaines, the skye being extreame cold with snow and frost. The 6th of September having past the Straight, he entred into the open South Sea (which they call Pacificke or calme), but found it rough and troublous above measure; and an hideous tempest carried the Fleet about 100 Leagues Westward, and parted them. What time hee observed an Eclipse of the Moone the 15th of September at 6 of the clocke after noone (which I note for the Mathematicians sake). He observed also, contrary to that which some had written, that that part of the Heaven next to the South Pole was set with but few starres, and those of small bignesse, and that there were but three onely of any special bignesse to bee seene in that Hemisphere, which England hath not seene. But two small cloudes he observed, of the same colour with Via Lactea, not farre distant from the Pole, which our men called Magellans Cloudes.
22. Of the ships that were carried away with the tempest, one (whereof John Winter was Captaine) came backe through the straight and returned safe into England, and was the first that ever came backe through the said straight. Drake himselfe having now cast with one ship alone to the 55th degree of the South latitude, having with much adoe gotten up the latitude of the straight, coasted along the shore, and found those Coasts to give backe with a great retyrning into the East, otherwise then they are set downe in the Mappes.
23. The last day of September he came to Mouch, an Island neere the shore, where one or two of his Sailers whom he had sent for fresh water were intercepted one after another by the people of the Country. Setting saile fro hence, he lighted upon a Barbarian fishing in a small boate who, supposing our men to be Spaniards, gave them notice that there rode a great Spanish ship at anchor laden at Villa Parizo, and directed them thither. The Spanish Marriners seeing the Englishmen comming, and supposing them to be their owne Countrymen, rung a Bell, drew wine of Chily, and drunke to them full cups. But they, clapping the ship aboord, thrust the Spaniards presently under hatches, sacked the Towne of Saint Iago hard by together with the Chappell, the booty whereof fell to Fletcher Minister of the word in the Fleet. The Spaniards being set on Land (which were not above eight with two Negres), he carried away with him the Master being by Nation a Graecian, and the ships wherein was 400 pound weight of gold of Baldivium, so called of the place, which was most fine and pure.
24. Then went he on Land to Taurapasa, where he found a Spaniard sleeping securely upon the shore, and by him thirteene barres and wedges of silver to the value of foure hundreth thousand Duckets; which hee commanded to bee carried away, not so much as once waking the man. Afterwards entring into the haven of Arica, hee found there three shippes without Sailers, and in them, besides other Marchandies, 57 wedges of silver, whereof every one was of twenty pound weight. From hence he sayled to Lima, where hee found twelve shippes riding at anchor, theyr muntion being drawne up on land, and in them good store of silkes, and a Chest full of mony ready stamped, but not so much as a boy aboord, so great security was there in that Coast that they stood in no feare at all of Pirates by reason of the most remotenesse of the places and the unknowne Sea. And certainely, after Magellan, never any man before Drake had Navigated that Sea save onely the Spaniards, who built there all the shipes they had in that Coast. Having committed these ships to the Ocean, he chaced with all the sailes he could make the Cacofoga a most rich ship, which hee understood had set sayle from thence towards Panama. By the way he met a small Brigantine unarmed, out of which he tooke fourescore pound weight of gold, a golden Crucifixe, some Emeralds of a fingers length, and some munition. The first of March he overtooke the Cacofoga, and having shot downe the foremast with the shot of a great piece of Ordnance, hee set upon her and soone tooke her, and in her besides pearles and pretious stones, fourescore pound weight of gold, thirteene Chests full of silver stamped, and so great a quantitie of silver as would suffice to ballast a ship. Which when he had laden into his owne ship, he let the Cacofoga goe. The master whereof is reported to have bidden him thus merrily farewell, saying, We resigne the name of your ship to yours. Yours now may bee the Cacafoga, that is, Ignicaca, and ours Cacoplata, that is Argenticaca. After this time he met with no rich bootie. His China dishes with an Eagle of gold and a faire Negresse, given unto him for a present by a Spaniard whose ship he had spared, and the sacking of Aquatulco a small towne, I purposely omit.
25. And now thinking himselfe aboundantly enriched, and suffficiently recompensed for the private injury done unto him by the Spaniards at the Haven of Saint John de Ullua, he began to thinke upon his returne. To returne by the straight of Magellan seemed most dangerous, both for the often Tempests and uncertaine shelfes and shallowes, and also least the Spaniardus should there lay waite for him against his comming back. And indeed Don Francisco de Toledo, Viceroy of Peru, had sent thither Peter Sarmiento with two ships to intercept him as he returned, and fortifie the narrow places of the straight if any were. He held his course there Northward to the latitude of 42 Degrees, to discover if there were any straight on that side by which he might returne the next way home. But when he saw nothing but thick Cloudes, sharpe cold, open shores, and covered with snow, he discended to 38 degrees, and meeting with a commodious harbour, stayed there a while. The people inhabiting there were naked and most pleasant, dancing every day in rings, offering sacrifices, and which seemed by their signes to choose Drake with a long oration to be their King; neither could hee conjecture that the Spaniards had ever touched so farre. This Country being a fruitefull soyle, and very full of Deere and Connyes, it pleased him to name New Albion, setting up an inscription upon a post, which noted the yeare of Lord, the name of Queene Elizabeth, and their arrivall there, fastening underneath some of Queen Elizabeths Coine.
26. From this Coast he set sayle, and came in the moneth of November to the Isles of the Moluckaes, being kindly entertained by the King of the Ilse of Ternate. From thence sayling in that Sea thicke bespread with Isles and Rockes, the 9th of January his ship strooke upon a Rocke which was hid under water, and there stucke the space of seaven and twenty houres, being holden of them all for lost; who now fell devoutly to their prayers as if they should assuredly be cast away, and all their wealth gotten with so great labour. But when they had layed their hands to worke and cast forth eight great Pieces and some Marchandies into the Sea, there came a bearing gale of winde on the one side, as it were sent by God, and cleared the ship of the Rocke. Afterwards he arrived at Java Major, which was then grievously afflicted with the French disease, which they cure by sitting against the warme Sunne to dry up that malignant humour; where having received great curtesie at the hands of that petty King, he held on his course to the Cape of Good Hope, which as a place seene a great way off, the English Marriners which had now the first sight thereof, did much honour. On the West side thereof hee landed for fresh water, but found no spring; and now he had beene distressed for lacke of fresh water had hee not providently kept raine water, which he received in vessels. But this defect he supplyed at length at Rio Grande. From whence hee returned with a prosperous gale into England the third of November in the yeare 1580, to the Haven of Plimmouth from whence he had set forth, having sayled round about the world in the space of three yeares or thereabouts, to the great admiration of all men; and without any crime layde to his charge by his adversaries, other than this, that he had put Doughtey to death, that he had left a Portugall whom he had taken upon the Coast of Africa to the cruelty of the Spaniards at Aquatulco, and had inhumainely set that Negresse Maid on shore in an Island, after she was gotten with child in his Ship.
27. The Queene received him graciously, and layed up his wealth by way of sequestration, that it might be forth comming if the Spaniard should demand it. His Ship she caused to be drawne up into a little creeke neere Depford upon the Thames for a monument of his so lucky sayling round about the world (where the carkasse thereof is yet to bee seene). And in it being consecrated for a memoriall with great ceremony, shee was banquetted, and honoured Drake with the dignity of Knighthood. At which time a Bridge of planks by which they came aboord the Ship, sunke under the presse of people, and fell downe with an hundred men upon it, who notwithstanding had none of them any harme. So as that Ship may seeme to have beene built under a lucky Plantet. In praise of Drake these verses, amongst others, were set up the same day upon the maine Mast, written by the Schollers of Winchester Schoole:
On Hercules Pillars, Drake, thou maist
Plus ultra write full well,
And say, I will in greatnesse that
Great Hercules excell.
Sir Drake, whom well the worlds end knowes
Which thou didst compasse round,
And whom both Poles of Heaven once saw,
Which North and South doe bound,
The Starres above will make thee knowne
If men here silent were.
The Sunne himselfe cannot forget
Amongst the radiant Starres to stand
Thy Ship well worthy were;
Well worthy on the highest top
Of Heaven a place to beare.
28. But these things may seem childish and drawne from an idle braine, and not worthy of the gravity of an Hystorie. Drake being now returned, nothing troubled him more then that some principall men at the Court rejected the gold which he offered them, as being gotten by Pyracie. Neverthelesse the vulgar sort of people honoured him with admiration and praises, who thought it no lesse honorable to have enlarged the bounds of the English glory, then of their Empire.
29. Don Bernardin de Mendoza the Spaniards Embassadour in England, storming hereat, very earnestly redemanded the goods of the Queene, complaining that the Indian Ocean was sailed by the English. He received this answer, That the Spaniards by their hard dealing against the English, whom they had prohibited Commerce contrary to the Law of Nations, had drawne these mischiefs upon themselves. That Drake should be forthcomming to answer in Law and right, if he might be convict by any certaine evidence and testimonies, to have committed any thing against Law and right. That those goods were layed up to that purpose that satisfaction might be made to the Spaniard, though the Queene had spent a greater summe of mony then Drake had brought in, against the Rebels whom the Spaniard had excited in Ireland and England. Moreover, shee understood not why hers and other Princes subjects should be barred from the Indies, which she could not perswade her selfe the Spaniard had any rightfull title to by the Byshop of Romes donation, in whom she acknowledged no prerogative, much lesse authority, in such causes, that he should bind Princes which owe him no obedience, or infoeffe as it were the Spaniard in that new World, and invest him with the possession thereof; nor yet by any other title then that the Spaniards had arrived here and there, built Cottages, and given names to a River or a Cape; which things cannot purchase any proprietie. So as this donation of that which is anothers, which in right is nothing worth, and this imaginary propriety, cannot let [hinder] but that other Princes may trade in those Countries, and without breach of the Law of Nations transport Colonies thither, where the Spaniards inhabite not, forasmuch as prescription without possession is little worth; and may also freely navigate that vast Ocean, seeing the use of the Sea and Ayre is common to all. Neither can any title to the Ocean belong to any people or private man, forasmuch as neither Nature nor regard for the publike use permitteth any possession thereof.
30. For all this, a great summe of money was afterwards payed to Pedro Sebura a Spaniard (who bare himself as procurator for recovering the gold and silver, although he had no letters of proxie or Commission so to doe); which he repaid not to the owners (as was found too late), but imployed it against the Queene, and converted it to the use of the Spaniards that served in the Netherlands.
31. Whilest Drake sayled thus prosperously round about the world, Jackman and Pett, two famous Pilots, being sent forth by the Londoners with two shippes, sought as unprosperously to discover a neere way to East-India by the Cronian or Frozen sea. For having passed a few leagues beyond the Isles called Weigats, they met with such uncertaine tydes, so many shelfes, and such heapes of Ice piled together, that they could get no farther forward, and very much adoe they had to returne.
32. About the beginning of this yeare Henry Fitz-Allen Earle of Arundell rendered his soule to God, in whom the sirname of this most noble family was extinct, which had flourished with this honour three hundred yeares and more, from the time of Richard Fitz-Allen, who being discended from the Albaneys ancient Earles of Arundell and Sussex, had received the title of Earle in the reigne of Edward the first, in regard of the possession of the Castle and Lordship of Arundell, without any creation. This Henry, being full of honours, was of the Privy Councell to all the Kings under whom he lived, and held the highest offices. Under Henry the 8th he was Governour of Calis [Calais], Marshall of the Army at the siege of Boloigne, and Lord Chamberlaine. Under King Edward the 6th he was Steward of England at his Coronation. To Queene Mary likewise at her Coronation hee was Constable, and afterward Steward of the Queenes houshold, and President of the Queenes Councell. Againe to Queene Elizabeth he was Steward of her houshold, with whom he sued to marry in his declining yeares, and was in lesse grace after that he had intermedled in the Duke of Norfolkes matters, and now openly opposed against her marriage with the Duke of Anjou. For he being an open-harted man, professed flatly that the French liked him not, saying many times that he had been taught by his Father, who was borne in Sussex neighbouring upon France, not to trust the French. By his wife Catharine, daughter to Thomas Grey Marquesse Dorset, hee begate three children, and over-lived them all, Henry who being a young man of excellent hope, dyed at Bruxells, Joane wife to the Lord Lumly, and Mary who being maried to Thomas Duke of Norfolke, bare Philip Earle of Arundel, of whom in his proper place.
33. Arthur Lord Grey, Lord Deputy of Ireland, marching against the O-Conors, who attempted to raise Commotions in Ophale, put O-Moloy a seditious man to death by Law, pacified that Countrey, as also the Country of the Magohigans, and of O-Carol, and suppressed a very dangerous conspiracy in the very bud. For some of noble families in Leinster, and most of them descended of the English blood, partly out of affection to the Romish Religion, and partly out of hatred against the new-come English (who many times contrary to the meaning of the law had excluded them, as meere Irish, from offices of government and Magistracie) had begun to conspire together to surprize the Lord Deputy with his houshold, to take the Castle of Dublin at unawares (where all the provision for warre lay), and to put all the English in Ireland every man to the sword; and so close they were in covering their conspiracie that they never conferred hereof but barely two and two together. But amongst so many that were accessary it came to light, and was with the execution of a few extinguished; of whom the most remarkable was John Nogent Baron of the Exchequer, a man of worthy life and fame, being circumvented (as the Irish do report) by the cunning of his adversaries. Who relying upon the conscience of his owne innocency, when the Lord deputy faithfully promised him his life if he would confesse himselfe guilty, chose rather being guiltlesse to undergoe an infamous death then by betraying his owne innocencie to lead an infamous life. Howsoever the truth were in this matter, certainly the Lord Grey incurred great displeasure with the Queen for putting these men to death, which displeasure was kindled against him by Sussex his heavy adversary (for love is rare among great Captaines), as if by his cruelty of late towards the Spaniards which had yeelded themselves, and now to her owne Subjects, he had both eclipsed his Princes glory and increased the number of her enemies. Nevertheless the Lord Deputy by the terror hereof drew Turlogh Leinigh to conditions of peace, who had begun to raise commotions in Ulster. By which meanes also the O-Brines, the O-Moores, and Cavenaghs, rebels in Leinster, in all humility craved peace, offering hostages. These Irish matters, though in time somewhat disjoyned, I have thought good to joyne together that they might the better bee remembered.
34. In Scotland, when some Ministers of Gods word and certaine noblemen observed that the Duke of Lenox above mentioned was in very great grace with the King, they first excyted against him as an emulator James Stuart of the house of Ochiltrey, Captaine of the Guard and Earle of Arran (for whis title he had usurped by I wote not what resignation of James Hamilton Earle of Arran, to whom being Lunatike he was appointed Guardian). But the Queen soone reconciled them again. When this succeeded not, they both wrought him what hatred they could at home, and in very grievous words accused him also to the Queene of England, as sent under hand by the Guises to subvert Religion, procure the captive Queenes liberty, and dissolve the amitie betwixt the Kingdomes of England and Scotland. These men were easily credited, and a serious Consultation was holden in England about the matter, though he purged himselfe by his Letters to the Queene and made open Profession of the Protestants Religion.
35. For the Councell of England feared least hee should oppress the Scots that were most friendly to the English, foster the excursions in the borders, and allure the King of Scots to mariage in France or elsewhere, unknowne to the English. Upon the which mariage the young King relying, might put England to trouble, and comming to riper yeares, might assume to him the title of the Kingdome of England, as his Mother had done already. Which if it should come to passe, greater danger threatned then from his Mother, forasmuch as being borne to assured hope of both Kingdomes, hee would procure many favorers, and the Scotts, being bred up in the warres at home and in the Netherlands, were now trained up to the practise of the warres. Hereupon it was resolved to abate by any meanes whatsoever Lenox his favor and authority with the King, or to drive him out of Scotland, and that without all delay, forasmuch as rumors were carryed abroad that hee, to suppresse Morton, had sent for Balfour out of France (who had gotten I know not what writing under Mortons hand, whereby it was hoped that Morton might be convinced of the murder of the Kings Father), and also had obtained the government of the Castle of Dunbritton to no other intent then to let in forreine forces into Brittaine, or else to conveigh the King of Scottes into France. It was reported also that hee had perswaded the King to resigne the kingdome to his Mother, as if she had been unjustly, and with a very bad example, deposed by her subjects, upon faith given by her that hee should immediately receive it backe againe from her by a lawfull resignation; whereby hee should most strongly confirme the kingdome unto him, and should be acknowledged of all men for lawfull King, all factions being extinguished.
36. Hereupon was Sir Robert Bowes, Treasurer of the garison of Barwick, sent into Scotland, to charge Lenox with these matters before the King and his Councell, and to put the King in mind of the mischiefes hanging over him. As soone as he had audience, he prayed that Lenox might for a time bee removed from the place. This the Councell flatly denied, for that it was a strange thing and unheard of that a Councellor of the Kings should be removed from the Councell without cause shewen. They doubted whether he had any such expresse charge from the Queene and willed him to shew his instructions for the more credit. Hee refused to exhibite them but to the King, and to one or two others. Wherupon he was soone after called home againe unheard, and tooke leave of the King who little thought of it, complayning that the wholsome admonitions of the Queene, who had well deserved of him, were rejected.
37. Shortly after was sent out of Scotland Alexander Humes to excuse these matters, and to learne what those mischiefes were which threatened; but he was not admitted to the Queenes presence, but remitted to Burghley Lord Treasurer, who in a grave and short speach signified unto him, That it was not the Queenes pleasure to admit him to her presence, not that she neglected him, whom shee had found to be very well affected to the true Religion, his Prince and Country, and to the peace of both Kingdomes, but out of just griefe that her Majesty was neglected and the credit of her Embassador contempuously used, who had contained himselfe within the prescribed limits of of his Embassage, and yet (which was a matter unexampled) was commanded to exhibite the instructions of his Embassage. Hee layed all the blame upon the new Counsailers and such as were ill advised, excused the King by his age not yet taught by experience, and wished that hee would hearken to the sound and wholsome counsailes of the Queene, who bare a true Motherly affection towards him, and not neglect her in respect of his French cousin, a Subject of the French King, and intangled in marriage with a Frenchwoman, a man addicted to the Popish Religion, and who haply aspired (the Hamiltons being now banished) to bee designed Heire apparent next after the King. Let the King remember (saith hee) that there is no affection more hote then Ambition; and let the Scots remember what troubles the French had raised in Scotland, had not the Queene by her wisedome and power prevented him.
38. Thus was Humes sent backe into Scotland, and all these things of purpose to strike a terror into the King, and to make him beleeve that Lenox had undertaken dangerous designes against the King and realme. Nevertheless not long after, Morton, a man most addicted to the English, was accused by Arran of treason, and cast in prison.
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