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ANNO DOMINI 1578

Queene Elizabeth carefull for the Netherlanders. | The English goe over into the Netherlands. | They fight manfully. | An Embassie for the Netherland Peace frustrated. | Egremond Ratcliffe and his fellow put to death. | The death of Don Juan of Austria. | The Duke of Anjou prosecuteth his marriage with Queene Elizabeth. | The death of the Countesse of Lenox. | Scottish matters. | Morton the Regent removed from his place. | The King sendeth an Embassadour into England. | The effect of his Embassy. | The Queenes answer. | The demands of the English. | Morton resumeth the government. | The nobility rise against him. | A designe to invade England. | Thomas Stukely undertaketh Warre against his Country. | He dyeth in the battaile of Africa. | Sir William Drury Lord Deputy of Ireland. | Sir Henry Sidney biddeth Ireland farewell.

LTHOUGH he Spaniard were not very well pleased to heare the matters which Wilkes propounded, and disssembled the matter (as I sayd a little before), yet Queene Elizabeth seriously pittying the Netherlanders, whose Provinces by the great commodiousnes of the scituation, and mutuall friendship, had adhered unto England many Ages, and therefore not induring that the French by undertaking their protection should gripe them into his possession, sent the same Wilkes at his returne out of Spain to Don John of Austria, to give him secret warning that the Duke of Anjou (for so he was now called, who was before Duke of Alencon) was invited by the Estates with an army of Frenchmen, and therefore it was his latest course to contract a truce, least he exposed the Provinces to present hazard. But he being of a fierie and martial spirit, and puffed up with pride for a successefull battaile fought against the Estates at Gemblours, answered in one word, that he neither minded a truce, nor feared the French. Neverthelesse Queene Elizabeth being attentive to her owne good, and the good of the Netherlands, sent Sir Edward Stafford into France, to espie whether there was any stirring in the borders of France towards the Netherlands, and what leavies there were of men.
2. Out of England were now gone over the Seas John North, the Lord North’s eldest Son, John Norris the Lord Norris his second Son, Henry Cavendish, and Thomas Morgan Colonels with very many Voluntaries, to lay the first foundations of military discipline. Casimier also the Elector Palatines Son, drew downe an army of German horse and foot into the Netherlands, at the great charges of the Queene. Don John burning in desire to charge upon the Estates Campe at Rimenant, or to provoke them to battell before all their succors were come together out of France and Germany, posted thither sooner then was expected, and when the horsmen that stood centinell presently gave backe, he pursued them with an hot and furious charge, as if he were assured of the victory. But they soone resumed their courage and repulsed Don Johns men. Who, turning aside, indeavoured to breake through certaine Hedges and coverts, where the English and Scottish voluntaries were quartered, but could not, being most manfully received by the English and the Scots, who, throwing off theyr cloathes by reason of the great heat, fought in their shirts trussed up between their thighes. Norris the Generall of the English, fighting very valiantly had 3 horses slain under him, and got great commendation in this battell by his martiall valor, as did also Stuart a Scottishman, Bingham, Lieutenant to Cavendish, and William Markham.
3. To comfort and relieve these Netherland Provinces afflicted with civill warres, there came thither from the Emperor the Count Swartzenberg, from the French King Monsieur Pompon de Bellieure, and from Queene Elizabeth the Lord Cobham and Sir Francis Walsingham, to procure means of peace. But they returned every one without effecting any thing, for that Don John would by no means admit of the reformed religion, and the Prince of Aurange flatly refused to returne into Holland.
4. About that time Edgremond Ratcliffe, Son to Henry Earle of Sussex by his second wife, a man of a turbulent spirit, and one of the chiefe in the rebellion of the North, who served under Don John, was accused by the English Fugitives as if he had beene sent over privily to murther Don John, and was taken in the Camp at Namur, with one Grey an Englishman as accessary to the plot, and both of them executed. The Spaniards give out that Ratcliffe at his death confessed volontarily that he was delivered out of the Tower of London, and excyted by Walsingham with great promises to commit the fact. The English that were present, deny that he made any such confession, though the fugitives did what they could to extort such a confession from him. But mindes differing in religion doe too too much obscure the light of honesty and truth on both sides, and who knoweth not that fugitives doe devise many things out of hatred, and a desire to slander and backbite?
5. At that very instant, Don John in the flowre of his age, resigned his fond ambition, together with his life, by force of the Pestilence, or as some say, of griefe because he was neglected by the King his brother after he had gaped first after the Kingdome of Tunis, whereby Guleta or Coletta in Africa was lost, and then after the Kingdome of England; and had secredly made a Confederacie with the Guises, without the privity of the French King and the Spaniard, for the defense of both Crowns.
6. The Duke of Anjou in the meane time, though his mind were bent upon the Netherland warre, yet to shew that he could attend both Martiall and love matters both at once, prosecuteth his marriage with Queene Elizabeth, which he had begun to sue for whilst he was Duke of Alencon. At first Bacherville, being sent for this cause, came to the Queene in her progresse at Melford, Cordall’s house in Suffolke; shortly after came Rambolette from the French King; and lastly, after a moneth came Simier from Anjou, a most choyce Courtier, exquisitely skilled in love toyes, pleasant conceipts, and Court-dalliances, accompanied with many of the Nobility of France, whom the Queene entertained at Richmond so kindly that Leicester now chafed, being quite frustrate of his long hope of marriage. And indeed a little before when Astley one of the Queenes bed-chamber covertly commended Leicester unto her for an Husband, she being in a chafe said, Dost thou thinke me so unlike my selfe, and unmindfull of my royall Majestie that I would prefer my servant, whom I my selfe have raised, before the greatest Princes of Christendome, in the honor of an Husband?
7. Almost at the same time, Margaret Douglasse Countesse of Lenox, neece to King Henry the 8th by his eldest sister, and widow of Mathew Earle of Lenox, and Grandmother to James King of Great Britaine, having over-lived eight children which she had borne, passed into her Heavenly Country in her Climatericall yeare, and was buried at Westminster with a stately Funerall at the Queenes charges. A Matron of singular piety, patience, and modesty, who was thrice cast into the Tower (as I have heard her say her selfe) not for any crime of treason, but for love matters. First, when Thomas Howard Son of Thomas Howard the first Duke of Norfolke of that name, falling in love with her, dyed in the Tower of London; then for the love of Henry Lord Darly, her Son, to Mary Queen of Scots; and lastly, for the Love of Charles her younger Son, to Elizabeth Candish Mother to the Lady Arbella, with whom the Queene of Scots was accused to have procured the Marriage, as I have said already.
8. Now to give a touch of Scottish matters. About the beginning of this yeare Thomas Randolph was sent by Queene Elizabeth into Scotland to espye in what state the affaires of Scotland stood, to congratulate to the King his Progresse in learning (which by reason of this singular towardnesse, and most excellent memory, was certainely very great even above his age), and to winne his mind unto the English, by laying open the Queenes kindnesses towards him, and the motherly affection she bare him; and to deale with Argile that the Hebridian or wilde Scots might not ayde the Rebels in Ireland; and also to perswade Morton the Regent to give over with all speed his enmities begun with Argile, Athole, and others, least he procured the hatred of the Nobility against him, and quite alienated the Queenes mind from him. He was now privily accused to have stained the commendations of his wisedome and fortitude with the foule blot of avarice; and in short time grew into such generall hatred, that by joynt consent of the Estates the government was translated from him to the King, though in respect of his age not so capable thereof (for he was then scarce twelve yeares old), and twelve of the chiefe Nobilty, to bee assistant by course to the King with their counsaile, every three moneths three of them; and amongst them Morton himselfe, that they might seeme to leade him downe, not to throw him downe.
9. The King having taken upon him the government, forthwith by Dunfermelyn acknowledged with most gratefull remembrance the benefits of Queene Elizabeth towards him, as proceediang not so much from neerenesse of bloud, as from their common profession of the true Religion. The confederacie of Edinburg made between both Kingdomes in the yeare 1559, he prayed might be ratified, the better to restraine the robberies of the borderers, and prevent the practises of the adversaries of the true Religion, that true Justice might be ministred indifferently betweene the people of both Kingdomes, that full restitution might bee made of goods taken by piracy, and that his ancient Patrimony in England (to wit the Lands and possessions granted to Mathew and Margaret his Grandfather and Grandmother), might be delivered into his hands as next Heyre, for now the revenewes of the Kingdome of Scotland being much diminished, he had need of mony to provide for his houshold, and maintaine a gaurd answerable to his royall dignity.
10. These former matters the Queene readily promised; but for this concerning his Patrimonie she shewed her selfe more hard to be intreated. And yet she would not harken to those which affirmed that the Lady Arbella Daughter to Charles the Kings uncle, and borne in England, was next heyre to the lands in England; neither yet would she heare the Embassador, who out of the credit of hystories shewed that the Kings of Scottes borne in Scotland had in ancient time succeeded without question by right of inheritance to lands in England, in the County of Huntingdon, and earnestly besought her that she would not deny to a Prince her neerest Kinsman the priviledge of Citizens, which she had often granted to forreigners unknown. But the rents of those lands she commanded to be sequestered by the Lord Burghly Master of the Wards; and admonished the Embassador that the King should satisfie his Grandmothers creditors out of the Earl of Lenox his lands in Scotland. For she took it unkindly that the King after the death of Charles, had revoked an infoefment of the Earledome of Lenox, made to Charles his unckle and his heyres, and that in prejudice (as was suggested) of the Lady Arbella, though by the priviledge of the Kings of Scots, it is alwayes lawfull for them to revoke all grants and donations hurtfull to the realme, and made in their minoritie.
11. The Councell of England were of opinion that the confederacie of Edinburgh needed not to bee confirmed, as that which stood already firme and sure. They required the Embassadour to propound somewhat which might in some part recompence the Queenes benefits towards the King (which had not spared the Englishmens bloud in his defence) and might strengthen the amitie betwixt them. Hereupon hee out of his instructions propounded that a League might be made, not of Offense, but of Defense and mutuall ayde against the Byshop of Rome and his Confederates, upon certaine conditions against the invadors of both Kingdomes, and against the Rebels in regard of Religion. Over and above this, the English thought it reasonable, that seeing the Queene neyther had omitted, nor would omit any thing for the Kings defence, and for that cause had incurred great displeasure among many, the Estates of the Realme of Scotland should give her security that the King should not during his minority make or renew any confederacy with any other, contract marriage, or be sent over out of Scotland without the privity of the Queene. But these things, as being matters of great importance, were by the Scots put off to another time to be exactly and circumspectly considered of.
12. In the meane while Morton, presuming upon his own wit (which certainely was very sharpe), and upon his long experience and number of adherents, while hee thought nothing to be well done which hee did not himselfe, and could not endure not to be the same as he was, resumed unto himselfe the government, neglecting his Colleages, and sleighting the prescribed manner of government; the King he deteined in his own power within the Castle of Sterlyn, and at his own pleasure, either excluded or admitted whom he listed. Wherewith the Nobility being incensed, set up the Earle of Athole for their head, and made proclamation in the Kings name that as many as were above fourteene yeares of age and under threescore should meet together with their weapons and victuals for fifteene dayes, to set the King at liberty. And meete they did in great number, and marched with banners displayed to Fawkirk, where Morton with his forces opoposed himselfe against them. But Sir Robert Bowes, the English Embassadour, by his mediation and propounding of reasonable conditions stayed them from fighting. And Morton soone after, as if he were weary of imployments, withdrew himselfe to his owne house; and not long after, dyed the Earle of Athole, not without suspition of poyson. Which some incensed minds against Morton layed hold on amongst other things, as a matter to draw him into hatred, and ceased not to persecute him (as we will shew), till they had quite overthrowne him.
13. In Ireland there occurred this yeare no memorable matter. But for invading of Ireland and England both at once, and deposing of Queene Elizabeth who was the strongest Bulwarke of the reformed Religion, both the Spaniard, and Gregory the 13th Byshop of Rome had their secrets and designes, serving their owne private respects under the vizard of restoring Religion: the Pope that hee might get the Kingdome of Ireland for his Son James Boncompagnion, whom he had made Marquesse of Vineola; the Spaniard, that he might privily under-hand relieve the Irish Rebels, as Queene Elizabeth had succoured the Netherlanders, whilest amity in words was kept on both sides, as also that he might (if it were possible) by the Popes authority possesse himselfe of the Kingdom of England, and thereby the easier reduce the Netherland confederates into order; whereof he despaired unlesse hee were master of the Sea; and this he saw could not bee unlesse hee were first Master of England. And there is no doubt but as hee oweth the Kingdomes of Naples, Sicily, and Navarre to the bounty of the Pope, so would he also very gladly have holden England of him as an homager.
14. These two, who knew that the greatest strength of England consisted in the royall Navy, and the Marchant ships, which were both built and furnished for Sea-fight, thought it good that the Italian and Low-Country Marchants should by one colour or another hire the most part of these Marchant Ships for long voyages, and while they were farre off, the royall Navy should be surprized and vanquished by a greater Fleet, and that at the same time Thomas Stukely an English Fugitive, of whom I have spoken before in the yeare 1570, should with a power of men joyne with the Rebels in Ireland. He, being a subtle old foxe, had by his magnificall ostentations of himselfe, and by promising the Kingdome of Ireland to the Popes base Sonne wound himselfe into such favour with the ambitious old man, that he honoured him with the titles of Marquesse of Leinster, Earle of Wexford and Caterlaugh, Viscount Morough, and Baron of Rosse (places these are of good reckoning in Ireland), and gave him the command of 800 Italians leavyed at the Spaniards charge and pay for the Irish Warre. With whom hee putting to Sea from Civita Vechia, arrived at length in Portugall, at the mouth of the River Teio; where the more potent power of the divine Counsaile frustrated these designes against England and Ireland.
15. For Sebastian King of Portugall, to whom was committed the principall command and managing of this expedition into England (for that he swelling with youthly heate and ambition, had not long before promised his whole helpe and assistance to the Bishop of Rome against the Mahometans, and the Protestants), was with great promises allured to the warre of Africa by Mahomet the Sonne of Abdalla King of Fesse, and dealt with Stukely to accompany him, first with those Italians into Mauritania. Stukely was easily perswaded (for that the Spaniard disdaining that the Popes Sonne should be designated King of Ireland, was not unwilling to it), and went with Don Sebastian into Mauritania, and in that memorable battaile, wherein three Kings, Sebastian aforesaid, Mahomet, and Abdal-Melech were slaine, finished the enterlude of a loose life with an honest Catastrophe or conclusion.
16. Had not this fatall end of Don Sebastian diverted the Spaniards mind from the Invasion of England to the hope of the Kingdome of Portugall, the greatest storme of the warre (if any credite may bee given to the English fugitives) had light upon England. For they write that those huge forces with the Spaniard had now begun to leavy in Italy to be powred forth upon England were stayed for the winning of Portugall. Neither could he be perswaded (being wholly bent upon the Conquest of Portugall) so much as once to think of England, though the English fugitives most importunately urged him thereunto, and the Bishop of Rome promised him an hallowed Banner or Crosse for this as for a Sacred warre. But when it was knowne by certaine intelligence that Stukely and his Italians were slaine in Mauritania, and that the Spaniard set his mind upon nothing but Portugall, the English Fleet which waited for Stukeley and his Italians upon the Coast of Ireland was called home; and Sir Henry Sidney resigned his charge to Sir William Drury President of Munster, when he now at severall times beene Lord Deputy eleven yeares; and when he was ready to take shipping, hee bade Ireland farewell with that verse out of the Psalmes, When Israell departed out of Egypt, and the house of Jacob from amongst the barbarous people. A singular good man he was, and one of the most commendablke Deputies of Ireland, to whose wisdome and fortitude Ireland cannot but acknowledge it selfe very much indebted, though for the most part it complaineth of the Deputies. 

ANNO DOMINI 1579

Casimir cometh into England. | His army dissolved. | Queene Elizabeth relieveth the Estates with money. | Simier promoteth the Duke of Anjou’s marriage. | Anjou commeth into England. | The dangers by his Marriage. | <The advantages by his Marriage.> | The discommodities if neglected. | Esmee Suart d’Aubigny commeth into Scotland. | Aubigny whence so named. | He is raised to honours. | Suspected of the Protestants. | The Hamiltons dejected. | Proscribed. | Relieved by Queene Elizabeth. | The Turkye company of Marchants. | Hamonts impiety. | The death of Sir Nicholas Bacon Lord Keeper. | Thomas Bromley succeedeth him. | Greshams death. | His College at London. | James Fitz-Moris his rebellion in Ireland. | Reaised by the Pope and the Spaniard. | Desmund favoreth it. | Davill slaine in his bed. | Sanders approveth the murther. | A conflict with the Gentlemen a Burgh. | Fitz-Morris slaine. | William a Burgh Baron. | He dieth for joy. | Desmund dissembleth loyaltie. | John Desmund defeateth the English. | Nicholas Malbey President of Munster. | He defeateth the Rebels. | Desmund openly rebelleth. | The death of Drury Lord Deputy. | The rebels encouraged thereby. | Sir William Pelham made Justicer of Ireland. | Hee warneth Desmund of his duty. | He proclaimeth him a traitour. | Ormond pursueth the Rebels.

OHN Casimir Sonne to Frederick the third Elector Palatine, who had the last yeare some what too late, ledde a strong army of Germanes into the Netherlands, to the great charges of the Estates and Queene Elizabeth, and had performed nothing, beiing drawne by the mutinous Ganthois into theyr partie, came into England in the moneth of January in a sharpe and snowy Winter, to excuse himself of the frustrating of his expedition, laying the blame upon the French. Where hee was most Honourably received, and conducted with great pompe into London with Torch-light by the Lord Maior, the Aldermen and people of the Citie, and to the Court by the chiefe of the Nobilitie, where hee was delighted with Tilting, Barriers, and sumptuous banquets, honoured with the Order of Saint George, the Queene her selfe buckling on the garter about his leg, and after the gift of a yearly pention, and very many rich presents, he returned in the midst of February into the Netherlands, being carried in one of the Queenes shippes, where he found that mercenary army dissolved. For when Alexander Farnese Prince of Parma, who was appointed by the Spaniard to the government of the Netherlands, was ready to fall upon the Germans, and they lacked their pay, after a small skirmish and losse of men them demanded money of him to depart out of the Netherlands; of whom when he againe demanded imperiously but pleasantly money that they might depart with their lives, they were content with their pasport, and made hast home, not without dishonor to themselves and greater damage to the Estates. Queene Elizabeth notwithstanding failed not the Estates, but furnished them with a great summe of money; for which William Davison (who was sent a little before to compound the Commotions of the Ganthois, who raged against Churches and Churchmen), brought into England the antient jewels and rich plate of the house of Burgundye, mortgaged by Matthias of Austria and the Estates.
2. In the meane while Simier ceased not amorously to wooe Queene Elizabeth, and though she stiffly refused the marriage a long time, yet he drew her to that passe that Leicester (who from his heart opposed the marriage) and others spred rumours abroad that by amorous potions and unlawfull arts hee had crept into the Queenes mind and intised her to the love of Anjou. And Simier on the other side left no meanes unassayed to remove Leicester out of place and grace with the Queene, revealing unto her his marriage with Essex his widow; whereat the Queene grew into such a chafe that she commanded Leicester to keepe himselfe within the Tower of Greenwich, and thought to have committed him to the Tower of London, which his enemies much desired. But Sussex, though his greatest and heaviest adversary, who wholly bent himselfe to set forward the marriage with Anjou, disswaded her, whilest out of a sound judgement and the innated generousnesse of his noble mind hee held opinion that no man was to bee molested for lawfull Marriage, which amongst all men hath ever been honest and honoured. Yet glad he was that by this marriage he was now out of all hope of marying with the Queene. Neverthelesse, Leicester was so incensed herewith that he bent himselfe to revenge the wrong he had received. And there wanted not some which accused him as if hee had suborned one Teuder of the Queenes guard, an hackster [assassin], to take away Simier’s life. Certainely the Queene commanded by publique Proclamation that no man should wrong Simier, his companions or servants, in word or deed. At which time it happened that while the Queene for her pleasure was rowed in her Barge upon the Thames neere Greenwhich,with Simier, the Earle of Lincolne, and Hatton her Vice-chamberlaine, a young man discharged a Piece out of a Boat, and shot one of the Bargemen in the Queenes barge through both his armes; who was soone apprehended, and led to the gallowes for a terrour to him; but whereas hee religiously affirmed that he did it unwittingly, and thought no harme, hee was discharged. Neither would the Queene beleeve that which some buzzed in her eares that he was purposely suborned against her or Semier. So farre was she from giving way to suspicion against her people, that shee was many times wont to say, That shee could believe nothing of her people, which Parents would not beleeve of their Children.
3. Some few dayes after, the Duke of Anjou himselfe came privily into England with one or two in his company, and came unto the Queene at unawares in her Court at Greenwhich, where they had their close counsailes together, all standers by being removed, which I list not to search into (for the secrets of Princes are an inextricable labyrinth), and so hee returned being seene but of a few. But after a moneth or two shee commanded that Burghley Lord Treasurer, Sussex, Leicester, Hatton, and Walsingham, after serious consideration of the dangers and commodities which might arise from her Marriage with him, should consult with Simier about the writings of marriage. The dangers seemed to be, least he should attempt any thing against the received Religion; least hee should invade the possession of the Kingdome either for himselfe by the Popes donation, or betray it into the hands of the Queene of Scots, and marry her after the Queene were dead; or else after his Brothers death returne into France, and impose a Vice-roy upon England, which the English would by no meanes indure. Moreover, least he should ingage the English in foraigne warres; least the Scots, presuming upon the auncient League with the French, should take greater courage against the English; least the Spaniard should oppose himselfe against so great a power; and lastly, least the people being burdened with payments for the maintainance of his greatnesse and state should raise rebellions. The commodities seemed to be these, that a firme Confederacie would bee established with the French; that the rebellions of the Papists (if any should be) would be the sooner suppressed; that all hope would be cut off from the Queene of Scots, and from all those which sought to her for Mariage, and which favoured her; that the Spaniard would be brought to compound the matter of the Netherlands, and confirme the League of Burgundy; and England might at length injoy a sound and joyfull securitie by meanes of the Queenes Children so often wished for. But if this Mariage should be neglected, they feared least the French would be incensed, the Scots alienated, Anjou would contract marriage with the Spaniards Daughter, with whom hee might receive the Netherland Provinces in dowry, the French King and the Spaniard would ayd the Queene of Scots, draw the King of Scots to their partie, procure him a wife for their owne turne, and utterly abolish the Reformed Religion; and the English, when they saw no hope of children by the Queene, would adore the Sunne-rising. Wherewith she could not but bee tormented with anguish of mind, and languish even to death.
4. As in these dayes some English feared an alteration of Religion by meanes of the Duke of Anjou, so also did the Scots by the meanes of another Frenchman, Amate, or Esmee Stuart d’Aubigny, who was come at this time into Scotland to visit the King his cousin. (For he was sonne to John Stuart brother to Mathew Earle of Lenox the Kings Grandfather, and was surnamed d’Aubigny, of Aubigny in Berry, which Charles the 7th King of France gave in times past to John Stuart of the house of Lenox, who, being Constable of an army of Scots in France, defeated the English at Beauge, and was afterward slain them in the battaile Des Harrands; and ever since it hath belonged to the younger brothers of that house). This D’Aubigny the King embracing with singular kindnesse, gave him goodly lands and possessions, used him in his inwardest counsailes, made him Chamberlaine of Scotland, Captaine of the Castle of Dunbritton, and (after hee had in an assembly of the Estates, duly revoked the Letters patents, whereby he had in his pupillage created Robert Byshop of Cathnesse, his Grandfathers third brother, Earle of Lenox, and recompenced the said Robert with the Earledome of March) created him first Earle, and then Duke of Lenox. This most flourishing favour of his with the King procured him envy amongst many, who muttered that hee being a man most devoted to the Guises, and to the Romish Religion, was sent in to Scotland to subvert the true Religion. This increased the suspition that he applied himselfe to Mortons adversaries, and made intercession for calling home Thomas Carre of Fernihurst, a man of all others most addicted to the Queene of Scots, while Morton in vaine opposed to the contrary, whose power now plainly declined (though he seemed to deserve passing well, having defeated the Hamiltons, and taken the Castle of Hamilton, and Duffrane). Some there were which at this time wrought the Hamiltons into great hatred with the King, laying their name before him as a scar-crow, and molesting them in such sort, that for their owne necessary defence they maintained those Castles against the King; but they were forced to surrender them, and were convict by Parliament of the murther of the Regents as well Murrey as Lenox, and proscribed. Of these Hamiltons some fled into England, for whom Queen Elizabeth made earnest intercession by Erington, as well out of honor, as regard of Justice, forasmuch as shee in the yeare 1573, for establishing of peace, had given her word that they should not be called in question for these causes but with her consent.
5. About this time also through her intercession in another part of the world, Amurath Cham, or the Turkish Sultan, by meanes of William Harbourn an Englishman and Mustapha Beg a Turkish Bashaw, granted that the English Marchants might freely traffique throughout his whole Empire, in like sort as did the French, the Venetians, the Polonians, the King of the Germans, and other neighbour Nations. Whereupon they by the Queenes authority grew into a Societie or Company, which being called the Turky Company, have ever since had a very gainfull trading, at Constantinople, Angoria, Chio, Petrazzo, Alexandria, Egypt, Cyprus, and elsewhere in Asia, for Spices, Cottons, raw Silke, Tapestries, Indian dye, grapes of Corinth or Currants, Sope, etc.
6. There execrable impiety of Matthew Hamont, which at this time openly raged in Norwich against God and his Christ, and is (I hope) extinct with his burning alive, is rather to buried in oblivion, then to be remembered. And for my part I am of not of their mind, which thinke it expedient for the public good that all vices, poysonings, and impieties should be openly told abroad; for little better is he that relateth such things then he that teacheth them.
7. This was the last yeare of Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper of the great Seale of England, under which title he exercised and injoyed by decree of Parliament, the honor and authority of Chancellor of England. A man exceeding grosse-bodyed, sharpe witted, of singular wisedome, passing eloquence, excellent memory, and one of the pillars of the Privy councell. In whose roome was substituted Thomas Bromley with the title of Lord Chancellor of England.
8. After Bacon followed Sir Thomas Gresham Knight, Citizen of London, the Queenes Marchant, son of Sir Richard Gresham Knight; who for an ornament to his Country and use of Marchants, built a very goodly walking place at London, named by Queen Elizabeth The Royall Exchange, and dedicated a very faire house he had in the Citie, to the profession of Learning, constituting therein lectures of Divinitie, Civill Law, Phisike, Astronomy, Geometry, and Rhetoricke, with reasonable stipends.
9. In Munster a Province of Ireland, James Fitz-Moris kindled a new flame of Rebellion; the same James which before, falling downe upon his knees before Perot President of Munster, had with lamentable howling and humble prayer begged his pardon, and most religiously vowed his fidelitie and obedience to the Queene. This man I say (who had no rest but in troubles) had withdrawne himselfe into France, promising the King that if he would ayde him, he would joyne all Ireland to the Scepter of France, and restore the Romish Religion in the Isle. But being wearied with delayes, and in the end derided, hee went out of France into Spaine, and made the same promises to the King Catholike. The King sent him over to the Bishop of Rome, from whom having (by the earnest sollicitation of Sanders an English Priest, and Allen an Irish, both of them Doctors of Divinitie) gotten a little money, Legative authority committed to Sanders, an hallowed Banner, and letters of commendations to the Spaniard, he returned into Spaine, and from thence arrived about the first day of July, with those two Divines, and three ships, and a small power of men, at St. Mary Wick (with the Irish contractedly call Smerwick) in Kerry a Chersonesse or byland [peninsula] of Ireland, where in a place solemnly consecrated by the Priests hee erected a fort, and drew up his ships close under it; which ships Thomas Courtney an English Gentleman who lay by chance at anchor in a ship of warre in a rode hard by, soone after set upon, tooke and carried away, and shut out the Spaniards from the benefit of the sea. John and James brethren to the Earle of Desmund, gathering together a few Irish, joyne themselves forthwith with their cousin Fitz-Moris. But the Earle himselfe, who highly favoured the cause, gathered his men together under colour as if he meant to resist them, having cunningly shifted off the Earle of Clancary, who was comming unto him with a choyce power of men against the enemies and rebels.
10. As soone as the Lord Deputy had certaine intelligence that the Enemies were landed, he commanded the Earle of Desmund and his brethren joyntly by Henry Davill, an English Gentleman and a stought souldier and with the Desmunds very familiar, that they should forthwith assault the forte. Which when they by shifting off the matter refused to doe, as being full of danger, Davill departed, and John Desmund followed after him. At Trally a small towne he overtooke him lying in a Inne, and in the dead of the night, having corrupted the host, brake into his chamber with certaine murderers with swords drawne, where Davill slept securely with Arthur Carter Lieutenant to the Marshall of Munster, a most stout old Soldier; but being awakened with the noise, when hee saw John Desmund in the Chamber with his sword drawne, he raised himselfe up saying, What is the matter, my son? (for so he was wont to call him familiarly). I will be no longer thy son (said he) nor thou my father. Thou shalt die. And withall they slew both him and Carter that slept with him, stabbing them in many places, after that Davils lacky boy by interposing his naked body, had done the best he couild for a while to defend his master, and had received some wounds. Then he slew all Davils servants one after another, who were lodged here and there in severall chambers; and so returning all begoared with bloud, he vaunted among the Spaniards of the murther; and Let this (said he) be a pledge unto you of my faithfulnesse towards you and this cause. This fact Sanders commended as a sweet sacrifice in the sight of God. James Fitz-Morris misliked the manner of the murder, and wished rather it had been done by the way then in his bed. The Earle, when he heard it, condemned the fact, detesting it with all his heart.
11. The Spaniards, when they saw a small number of Irish joyn with them, and those unarmed and silly fellowes, contrary to that Fitz-Morris had promised, began to misdoubt themselves and cry out that they were undone, and to bewaile their fortune, for they saw no way to escape neither by Sea nor land. Fitz-Morris exhorteth them to awaite patiently, assureth them that there are great forces comming to their ayde, and colourably undertaketh a journey to Saint Crois of Tipperary under pretence of paying a vow he had made in Spaine, but indeed to gather together seditious fellowes out of Conache and Ulster.
12. Whilest he with a few horsemen, and twelve on foot, tooke his journey through the Lands of William a Burgh his Kinsman (who in the former rebellion conspired with him), and his Horses tyring, tooke some out of the Ploughes neere the High-way, the ploughmen making an outcry, call together the neighbour people to recover their horses, amongst whom the sons of William a Burgh, being young men of courage, took horse, and pursued him so hard that they overtooke him. Fitz-Morris espying Theobald a Burgh and his Brethren, who not long before had bin rebels with him, spake to them friendly. Cousins (saith he) let us not strive for a jade or two. I doubt not when ye understand the cause why I am returned into Ireland, ye will joyne your selves in company with us. Theobald answered, Of our former rebellion my selfe, my father, and mine, doe greatly repent us. Our fidelitie and obedience wee have sworne to our most gracious Princesse, who hath pardoned us ouir lives; and to her will we keepe our allegeance. Therefore restore us our horses, or I will make you restore them. And withall charging his Launce he ranne at him. They fought a while, and Theobald and one of his brethren with some of his were slaine; and withall, Fitz-Morris himselfe fell downe dead, being runne through with a Launce and shot into the head with a leaden bullet, and most of his men slain. His head was cut from his body, his body quartered, his quarters set upon Poles at the Gates of Kilmarick, where had formerly (as I said before) with great obtestations sworne alleageance to his Prince, in the Church before Perot. The Queene by her letters most full of sorrow and love comforted William a Burgh for the losse of Sonnes, honoured him with the title of Baron of Castle Conell, and gave him a yearely pension; whereby the old man beeing replenished with suddaine joy, dyeth shortly after.
13. Now was Drury Lord Deputie come neere to Kilmarock, and sent for the Earle of Desmond, who came before him, promised his fidelitie and obedience to his Princesse, and bound himselfe by oath to serve both himselfe in person and his, against the Rebels. Whereupon he was dismissed to gather together his men and returne to the Lord Deputie. John Desmund the Earles Brother, who was substituted to Fitz-Morris his roome among the Rebels, by ambush surprized and slew Herbert and Prise, two English Captaines, and their companies which they led, and was hurt himselfe in the face. But the Companies were made up with sixe hundred men out of Devonshire, and Perot was sent out of England with sixe ships of Warre to defend the Coast.
14. At which time the Lord Deputie, being every day more vehemently afflicted with sicknesse, was faine to retire to Waterford for the recoverie of his health, and commited both the managing of the warre and the Presidentship of Munster to Nicholas Malbey, Governor of Conacht, a worthy old Souldier. As he was departing, Desmunds wife fell upon her knees and offered him here onely Sonne and heyre in hostage for his Father. For after he was departed from Kilmarock he appeared no more, though Malbey now and then by letters put him in mind of his duty and promise; who supposing it not good to delay any time, marcheth into Conilo, a wilde or wood Country, against the Rebels; where John Desmond encountred him in a pitch’d field, with the hallowed Banner of the Byshop of Rome displayed, and most sharpely they fought on both sides. At length, when fortune favoured the valour of the English, John first betook him selfe to flight, and left his men to the slaughter, amongst whom was found Allen that Divine, who had incouraged them to the battaile, promising them victory.
15. That night the Earle of Desmund, who had stood a spectator from an hill hard by, dissembling by his Letter congratulated the victory to the President, and under colour of friendship counsailed him to remove his campe. Malbey, sending backe the messenger, commanded the Earle by his Letter come and joyne his forces with his; whom when he had in vaine expected the space of foure dayes, he marched forward to Rekel a small Towne of Desmund. Now Desmund, who had so long in countenance and words egregiously played the dissembler, giveth over that part, and openly putteth on a rebellious mind; and the same thing the Rebels charge Malbey’s campe by darke, which notwithstanding they found so strongly fortified that they retired without effecting any thing. The President, forasmuch as the place seemed commodious to separate the rebel forces, put a Garrison therein, and marched from thence towards Asketten, a Castle of the Earles upon a Rocke compassed about with the River Asketten, and strengthned with a power of men. Yet before he would assault the same, he wrote againe to Desmund and exhorted him not to undergoe the blot of Rebellion, but to returne to his duty, laying before him the Queenes bounty, the ancient Dignity of the house of Desmund, the glory of his Ancestors, and his owne infamy amongst posterity. He on the contrary both hardeneth his mind with obstinacy and strengtheneth his campe on every side both with the newe come Spaniards and with the Irish. At which time in the beginning of October, Drury Lord Deputy dyed at Waterford, a man certainly of approved vertue, and bred up in the warres even from his youth in France, Scotland, and Ireland.
16. The Lord Deputy being dead, Malbey’s authoritie in Minster dyed also, who placing his soldiers in garison townes, retired into Conacht, his own government. But the Lord Deputies death the rebels take courage, and consult how to free themselves from the command of the English. The best course (they thought) was, to beset the garisons round on all sides, and to famish them. James Desmund therefore besieged Adar, where William Stanley and George Carew had their station; but the garison souldiers, fearing hunger the extreameth of all evils, wearied the besiegers with so often sallyings forth, that they brake up the siege and left the besieged liberty to gather booty in the Countrey adjoyning; which they lustily and stoutly performed, wounding James himselfe.
17. In the meane time the Councell of Ireland chose Sir William Pelham for Justicer of Ireland, with the authority of Lord Deputy, till a Lord Deputy should be created. And the Earle of Ormond they made President of Munster, who sent the Earle of Desmund’s sonne, whom he had in hostage, to Dublin to be kept. Pelham Lord Justicer went into Munster, and sent for the Earle of Desmund; but hee sending letters by his wife, excused himselfe. Ormond therefore was sent to warne him to deliver Saunders the divine, the forreine souldiers, and the Castells of Carigo, Foyle, and Asketten into the Lord Justicers hands, to submit himselfe absolutely, and turne his forces against his bretheren the rest of the rebels; which if he did, he might obtaine pardon of his rebellion, otherwise he should be proclaimed traytor and enemy to his Countrey. When he by shifting avoided to do it, he was in the beginning of November proclaimed traytor and guilty of high treason, for that he had dealt with forraigne Princes for the conquest of his country, had relieved Saunders and James Fitz-Morris Rebels, had harboured the Spaniards which had escaped out of the Fort at Smerwick, had hanged the faithfull Subjects, displayed the Popes banner against the Queene, and had brought forreigners into the Realme. This being proclaimed, the Lord Justicer committed the prosecution of the warre to Ormond. Desmund turned himselfe against another part of Munster, surprised and sacked Yoghall a Coast towne strongy fortified, while no man resisted him. Ormond layeth all wast far and wide all over Conilo, being the Rebels onely harbour, driveth way their Cattell, and giveth them for bootie to his men. The Major of Yoghall he commanded to be hanged before his doore, for that he had refused to receive an English garison, and manneth the towne with a garison. Then he prepareth to besiege the Spaniards in Strangicallia; but they had before withdrawne themselves from the danger. Yet the English pursuing them put every man to the Sword, and most grievously afflicted the Rebels all over Munster. But Desmund and his brethren, though lurking and hiding their heads, signified to the Lord Justicer in a long letter that they had undertaken the protection of the Catholike faith in Ireland, and that by the authority of the Byshop of Rome and the direction of the King Catholike; and therefore they doe kindly advise him to joyne with them in so pious and meritorious a cause for the salvation of his owne Soule.

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