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ANNO DOMINI 1572
The Duke of Norfolke beheaded. | His Peeres. | The order of the arraignment. | The points of his accusation. | He craveth an Advocate. | The 1. article of his accusation. | The 2. article of his accusation. | The Tower of London. | A forreiners testimony not to be admitted. | The 3. article of his accusation. | The testimony of a Forrainer. | The fourth poynt of his accusation. | The fift poynt. | The Peeres consult together. | Sentence of death pronounced. | Barney and Mather executed. | Earles created. | An act for not attempting to deliver prisoners. | The Duke of Norfolke beheaded. | Judgements of him. | Hieronimio Catena his relation touching this matter. | Pius 5. his machinations against Queene Elizabeth. | The Duke of Alva opposeth it. | For what causes. | The successe frustrate. | The sorrow of the Pope and the Spaniard therefore. | An expostulation with the Queen of Scots. | Her answere. | Seditions in Scotland. | The French King and Queene Elizabeth labor to compound them. | Different opinions betwixt them. | Causes why the French King favoured the Queene of Scots. | A debating of Queene Elizabeth with the French. | The French Kings and the Queene of Englands groweth cold towards the Queene of Scots. | The Confederate Netherlanders excluded out of England. | They take the Briel. | The Duke of Alvas oversight. | The English goe to the warre in the Netherlands. | The French Kings dissimulation. | The Confederacy of Bloys. | The Articles thereof. | The Confirmation. | Montmorency chosen into the Order of Saint George. | Hee mediateth about compounding of Scottish matters. | The answer. | He solliciteth also the marriage with Anjou. | The Massacre at Paris. | A marriage propounded to Queene Elizabeth with the Duke of Alencon. | The Earle of Northumberland beheaded. | The Death of the Marquesse of Winchester. | Cecil made Treasurer. | The death of the Earle of Darby. | And of Sir William Peter. | The Queene sicke of the small pox. | She taketh care for the commonwealth. | She restraineth the number of Retainers. | And Concealers. | Rebellions in Ireland. | The O-Moores. | A Colony transported into Ireland. | A new Star. | Theodor Beza his prophecie.
HE beginning of the new Yeare presented to the Londoners a new and sad spectacle in Westminster Hall. For a Timber Scaffold was erected there from the Gate through the middest of the Hall to the upper end, where there was a Tribunall or Judgement seate, with Benches on both sides, such as they had not seene in full eighteene yeares. Unto this Judgement seate was Thomas Howard Duke of Norfolk brought the sixteenth day of January, betweene Sir Owen Hopton Lieutenant of the Tower, and Sir Peter Carew Knights, the Axe of Death being borne before him, with the Edge from him. Uppon the Judgement seate sate George Talbot Earle of Shrewbury, Lord high Steward of England constituted for that day. And on both sides of him sate the Noble-men which were appointed to be his Tryers, whom we call Peeres, namely,
Reignald Grey Earle of Kent
Thomas Ratcliffe Earle of Sussex
Henry Hastings Earle of Huntingdon
Francis Russell Earle of Bedford
Henry Herbert Earle of Penbrooke
Edward Seimore, or of Saint Maur, Earle of Hertford
Ambrose Dudley Earle of Warwicke
Robert Dudley Earle of Leicester
Walter DEvereux Viscount Hereford
Edward Lord Clinton, Lord Admirall
William Lord Howard of Effingham, Lord Chamberlaine
William Cecyl Lord Burghley, Secretary
Arthur Lord Grey of Wilton
James Blunt Lord Montjoy
William Lord Sands
Thomas Lord Wentworth
William Lord Burroughs
Lewis Lord Bordant
John Powlet Lord St. John of Basing
Robert Lord Rich
Roger Lord North
Edmund Bruges Lord Chandos
Olivar Lord St. John of Bletnesho
Thomas Sackville Lord Buckhurst, and
William West Lord De La-Warre.
2. After silence proclaymed, the Commission was read, wherein the authority was granted to the Lord Steward; then was there a white staffe delivered into his hands by Garter king of Armes, which he soone after reaches to his Gentleman Usher, who standing by him held it upgright all the time of the arraygnment. Then were the Earles and Barons called by their names, and every one answered to his name. Silence being againe proclaymed, the Lieutenant of the Tower was commanded to deliver his writ, and to bring the Duke to the Barre. The Duke was presently brought. On the one side of him was the Lieutenant of the Tower, on the other side Sir Peter Carew, and next unto him stood the Axe-bearer, with the edge turned from the Duke. Then after silence once againe proclaymend, the Clerke of the Crowne spake to the Duke in his manner: Thomas Duke of Norfolke, late of Kenninghale in the County of Norfolke, holde up thy hand. When hee had holden up his hand, the Clerke read with a lowd voyce the crimes whereof he was arraigned, to wit: That in the eleventh yeere of Queene Elizabeth and afterwards, the Duke had trayterously consulted about deposing her from her Throne and making her away, and by raysing warre, and bringing in a forreine power to invade the kingdome. That whereas he knew for certaine that Mary late Queene of Scottes had arrogated the Diadem of England, with the title and armes thereof, he notwithstanding had practised about contracting marriage with her (without acquainting the Queene), and had lent her a great summe of money, contrary to that he had promised under his hand. That whereas it was knowne unto him that the Earles of Northumberland Westmorland, Markenfield, and others had raysed a rebellion against the Queene, and were driven into Scotland, hee notwithstanding had relived them with money. That in the yeere of the reigne of Queene Elizabeth the thirteenth, he had by his letters craved auxiliary forces of Pius Quintus Bishop of Rome, the Queenes professed enemy, the Spaniard, and the Duke of Alva, to deliver the Queene of Scots, and to restore the Popish religion in England. Lastly, that he had relieved Herys a Scot, and other the Queenes enemies in Scotland. These articles being read, the Clerke asked the Duke, whether he were guilty, or not guilty.
3. The Duke craved that if the Law would permit it, hee might have an Advocate assigned him to defend his cause. Catelin Lord Chiefe Justice answered that it could not be allowed by Law. It is meet (sayd the Duke) that I should submit my selfe to the sentence of the Judges; but in this cause there are very many doubts, and I understood not till within these foureteene howres, that I should come to my tryall. I have bin unprovided of bookes. I see now I must fight for my life without weapons. Yet I have heard that in the reygne of Henry the 7th Sir Humphrey Stafford had an advocate assigned him in a cause of high treason.Dier Lord Chief Justice in the Common Pleas answered that an advocate was assigned to Stafford concerning the priviledge of sanctuary, from whence he was drawne by force; but for the matter of high treason hee pleaded his owne cause without an Advocate. I must then (sayd the Duke) plead this day for my selfe, my estate, my children, and (which is as much as all of them) for my honesty (as for my honour, let it goe). If I dye an innocent, God will not let it escape unrevenged. Yet let me aske this one question: Whether that reckoning up of my crimes be to bee holden for true in every part, and to which part I must answere. Catelin said, Seeing the causes are true, that reckoning up is also to be holden for true. I desire (said the Duke) to be enformed, if every one of those crimes be high treason. For I have heard say that in a cause of the Lord Scroopes in the reygne of Henry the 4th - As he was about to say more, the Clerke interrupted him, crying,Thomas Duke of Norfolke, art thou guilty of the crimes, or no? Hee answered, To God and these Peeres I commend my cause. The heynousnesse of these crimes daunteth mee, but the Royall bounty of the Queene comfortheth me againe, from whom I could expect no more. But you my Lord Steward I earnestly beseech that I may be dealt withall according to right, and that my menory which is very short, may not be overcharged with such confused variety of matter. In that I have you for my Peeres and Judges I acknowledge my selfe happy, to most of whose integrities I would very willingly and gladly commend my life. I have relyed upon mine owne innocency, and not shifted for my selfe by flight. Yet I can not but freely confesse I have fayled of my duty towards the Queene, howbeit in matters which import not high treason. I beseech you that those lighter crimes may not be intermingled with crimes of high treason.
4. Now Barham, the Queenes Sergeant at Law, sayd, The crimes of high treason wherewith you are charged, be these. You have practised to despoile the Queene of her kingdome and life, you intended to marry with the Queene of Scottes, you called forreine forces into the Kingdome, you maintained the rebels, and you relieved the Scottes, the Queenes enemies. Barham (sayd the Duke) doe not, I pray you, exasperate the matter by words, objecting that marriage, and other matters which are not amongst crimes of high treason. Barkham turning to the Peeres, urged the point. He (saith he) which will take that woman to wife which claymeth the kingdome, the same man affecteth the kingdome. But this the Duke beganne to doe, when he was one of the Commissioners at Yorke to heare the Queene of Scottes cause; what time hee was bound by oath to weigh indifferently the accusations and defences on both sides. That cause (sayd the Duke) hath sundry parts, which are without the crimes of high treason. The Lord Steward of England commanded the Duke not to stray from the matter with digressions; who when Barham clamarously inisted upon it, acknowledged that the Queene of Scots had claymed the kingdome of England, but had long agone abstayned from her claime. Barham shewed to the contrary that shee had not given it over, because shee would not yet renounce the title which shee pretended; and grieviously he accused the Duke that hee instructed the Queene of Scots Delegates what they should answere, and this out of the Bishop of Rosse his confession. The Duke confessed that Liddington had mentioned the marriage unto him, but yet hee refused it, and instructions he gave none; and prayed that Rosse might bee brought face to face against him
5. Then Barham prosecuted at large many things already touched concerning the marriage to prove that the Duke had affected the Crowne, and urged with often repetition of this question: What else could the Duke propound unto himselfe, while hee resolved, without acquainting the Queene, to take the Queene of Scots to wife, a woman without wealth, without a kingdome (her sonne being now established in the kingdome of Scotland), but that he might by her enjoy the kingdome of England, and consequently deprive the Queene of her Crowne and life? These things (sayd the Duke) are farre fetcht, to convince mee to have intended the deposing and destruction of the Queene. To come (sayd Barham) a little neerer, it is not unknowne that you plotted to seyze the Tower of London into your hands, which is at it were the strength of the kingdome of England; so as it must needs bee that you then attempted the destruction of the Queene, forasmuch as a kingdome cannot brooke a consort. The Duke denyed not but that one Hopton had suggested unto him a project to take the Tower, but he rejected it. Why then (sayd Barham) did you consult with the Earle of Penbroke about the same matter, who disswaded you from it?
6. Barham proceeded, and urged that when the Queene required to have the young King of Scots, and certaine Castels and English Rebels delivered into her hands out of Scotland, the Duke gave secret warning to the Scots that they should not assent thereunto. He accused him also that hee had attempted to conveigh the Queene of Scottes out of custody, and that, after hee had religiously promised under his hand that hee would have nothing to doe with her.
7. Now as Candish produced as a witnesse that the Duke with a setled resolution intended the marriage, and had asked him whether if Queene Elizabeth should dye, he would draw his Unckle to his party. These things the Duke utterly denyed, and rejected his testimony, as a man in want and a beggerly witnesse. Moreoever it was proved that the Duke had privily sent his servant to the Earles of Northumberland and Westmorland to warne them not to rayse rebellion, for that it would bee very dangerous. There were produced also the Queene of Scottes letters to the Duke, wherein she grieved that Northumberland was taken, before such time as hee had taken Armes for rebellion. (For so it has beene reported unto her, whether of set purpose or not, I cannot say.)
8. To these things the Duke answered, That it could not by these reasons bee probably concluded that hee had sought the destruction of the Queene, and that nothing was yet produced was of any moment against him, save onley the Bishop of Rosse his testimony; and that (by the authority of Bracton a man most learned in our Common-Lawes) was not to be admitted, because he was a forrainer. That he never made such reckoning of the Earles of Northumberland and Westmorland, that he would commit his life into their hands. That his owne innocency had beene such a safe bulwarke unto him, that hee never had thought of flying.
9. It is most apparent (sayd Gerard the Queenes Atturney) that the Duke did premediately resolve of marriage with the Queene of Scottes to the destruction of the Queene. And that hee deliberately also consulted about invading the Realme is manifest by his letters to the Bishop of Rome, the Spaniard, and the Duke of Alva. What dealings hee had with Ridolpho is now knowne by obscure notes in Cipher, hid under the tiles in Howards house, and also by letters (which he had commanded to bee burnt) found under the Mat in the portall of his Chamber. All which things may easily be prooved by the examinations of such men as have been neyther terrified by torments, nor convict of Treason. Hereunto the Duke answered, Of those consultations with the Pope and the Spaniard, I was neither Author nor favorer; nay I alwayes misliked them. They which have commited the fault, let them beare the blame, and not lay it upon me to excuse themselves.
10. Gerard further accused the Duke that hee had treated with Ridolpho about ten thousand men out of Flanders to be landed at Harwitch a port Towne of Essex, and this out of Barkers examination; that letters also were written by Ridolpho, to the Spaniard and the Duke of Alva, wherunto though the Duke subscribed not, yet by Rosse his Counsaile he sent Barker his Secretary to the Spanish Embassadour to assure him that the letters were his. My memory (sayd the Duke) faileth me, and cannot comprehend such manifold variety of matters. Yee Lawyers have your breefe notes; I must answere ex tempore. Certainely it is unlikely that I have dealt with the Bishop of Rome, which have alwayes beene averse from the Romish Religion. I had rather be drawne in peeces with Horses then revolt from the Religion which I professe. The very situation of Harwitch may easily cleere me of this accusation. Who seeth not how hard a matter it is to leade an Army through that Country, which is wholly inclosed with hedges, and most cumbersome by reason of the narrow waies? If I had intended Warre against my Prince, I would certainely have provided my selfe of Weapons; but this full teen yeares I have gotten me no more but eight Corslets, and not any Powder at all. Such letters I should never have commited to Barkers trust, but rather to Banisters, who was to me as good as many Barkers.
11. Now were produced the Bishop of Rosse his letters to the Queene of Scots from the Tower, which were intercepted, by which the things afore sayd were confirmed. The Duke required hee might see those Letters, for hee seemed to doubt they were Counterfeite. Doubt them not (sayd the Lord Steward of England), they are written with Rosse his owne hand. There was also produced another short Letter, written with Oker, from the Duke to his man, wherein hee commaunded him to burne a packet of Letters hidden in a certaine place, and to lay the blame upon Rosse, who by the priviledge of an Embassadour would easily avoyde the Law. To these things he answered, Being advertised that it was commonly published abroad that I had accused many, I answered it by that short Letter, and whereas I saw all things to be curiously searched and rigged, I commaunded that Packet to be burnt, that I might save some from danger.
12. Bromley the Queenes Sollictor or second Atturney, exhibited Ridolphos Letters, wherein hee signified that the Duke of Alva approoved the plot; he exhibited also the Bishop of Romes letters to the Duke dated the fourth day before the Nones of May. Then Wilbraham made an Eloquent speech concerning the credite of the testimonies of the Bishop of Rosse and the Dukes servants. Whereunto the Duke answered, To refute so set and polished an Oration is not in my faculty. Howbeit that Orator (sayd he) how great soever hee be, hath in the meane time omitted how great the force of feare is, which often remooveth a setled minde from his place and state. And here againe hee commended and urged Bracton against the credite of forraine witnesses. Catelin Lord Chiefe Justice answered that in such causes as this, the testimonies of Forrainers are of force, and it is in the Peeres to attribute unto, or to derogate from, such testimonies.
13. Now it was come to be prooved that the Duke had relieved the Rebels that were fled. And this appeared by the Countesse of Northumberlands letters, wherein she thanked the Duke for the money supplyed to her husband and her. That which was last of all objected concerning the releeving of the Scots the Queenes enemies, was prooved by the Dukes letters to Banister, and Banisters confession, and by the money delivered to Browne of Shrewsbury. Heere the Duke asked the Judges, Whether the Subjects of another Prince Confederate with the Queene, were to bee holden for the Queenes Enemies? Catelin answered they were, and that the Queene of England might make Warre with any Duke of France, and yet in the meane time hold peace with the French King.
14. When now it grew towards evening, the Lord Steward asked the Duke, if hee had anything more to say for himselfe. The Duke answered, I put my trust in the equity of the Lawes. The Lord Steward commaunded the Lieutenant of the Tower to withdraw the Duke from the Barre. And after silence proclaymed, he turned to the Peeres, and sayde, Yee have heard how Thomas Duke of Norfolke, being charged with high Treason, and not confessing himselfe guilty, hath submitted his cause to God and you. It is your part therefore to consider among your selves, whether hee is to bee found guilty, and to give your Verdict according to your Conscience and Honour. And withall hee willed them to withdraw themselves and consult together. After a short space they returned to their Seates againe. Then the Lord Steward beginning at the Nether-most sayd, My Lord De-La-Ware, is Thomas Duke of Norfolke guilty of the high Treason wherof hee is Arraigned? Hee rising up, and laying his hand uppon his Breast, answered Guilty. And in like manner answered also every one of them being asked in order. Then was the Duke brought agayne to the Barre, to whom the Lord Steward spake in this manner: Thomas Duke of Norfolke, thou hast beene arraigned uppon divers crimes of high Treason, and has submitted thy selfe to God and these Peeres, who have every of them found thee guilty. Hast thou any thing to say why judgement should not be given against thee? The Duke answered, Gods will be done who will judge betweene me and my false Accusers.
15. While now all kept silence, the edge of the Axe was turned towards him. When presently Barham required the Lord Steward in the Queenes name to give judgement, which he with teares bursting foorth, proncoucned according to the usuall forme, in these wordes: Forasmuch as thou, Thomas Duke of Norfolke, hast beene charged with high Treason, and hast denied thy selfe to be guilty, and hast submitted thy selfe to the triall of thy Peeres, who have found thee guilty, this Bench judgeth thee to be led backe from hence to the :Tower, then to be layd uppon an Hurdle, and drawne through the middest of the City to the Gallowes, there to be hanged, and being halfe dead to bee taken downe, Bowelled, and after thy Head is cut off, to be quartered into foure parts, thy Head and Body to be done with according to the Queenes pleasure. And God have mercy on thy soule. The Duke, having heard this judgement, answered with a bold courage, Sentence is given against me as against a Traytor. I trust in God and the Queene; and I hope being excluded from your society, I shall enjoy the Heavenly Company. I will make my selfe ready to dye. This one thing onely I crave that the Queene would be good to my Children and Servants, and procure my debts to be payd. These things which I heard with mine owne eares, I have the more exactly layd downe, for that in great and weighty matters it may concerne Posterity, that even the least poyntes bee mentioned.
16. Some few dayes after, Barney and Mather were executed, who had conspired with one Herle a lewde Companion of theirs, to make away certaine Counsailors and deliver the Duke. But Herle soone revealed the matter, to whom Barney (when he saw him produced as his accuser), smiling sayd, Herle, thou hast prevent me one houre, else I had stood in thy place as thy Accuser, and thou hadst stood here in mine as guilty, and to be hanged. This Conspiracy, and sundry other practices to deliver the Prisoners, were cause that a Parliament was holden. Against which the Queene invested Walter Devereux Vicount Hereford with the honour of Earle of Essex, for that by his Great Grand-mother hee drew his Descent fron the Bourchiers Earles of Essex. And Edward Lord Clinton, who had rich revenewes in the County of Lincolne, with the Honour of Earle of Lincolne. And John Powlet of Basing, the Marquesse of Winchesters sonne, Henry Compton, Herny Cheiney, and Henry Norris, shee called by Summons as Barons to the Parliament. At which time the Estates of the Realme by Acte of Parliament ordained, That those which should take, raze, or burne any of the Queenes Fortes should bee guilty of Felony. And that those which should detaine the same by force against the Queene, burne her Ships, or barre her Havens should be guilty of high Treason. Also, that if any man should practise to deliver any man imprisoned by the Queenes expresse commaundement, for treason, or suspition of treason, before his inditement, should forefeite his Lands during life, and bee imprisoned at the Queenes pleasure. If indicted, he should incurre the paine of Death, and if condemned, the pain of high treason. The severity of these Lawes, as it was needfull for the time, so it seemed good to the Estates that it should be but temporary; namely, during the Queenes life. But such often practices as these were layd hold on as causes to hasten the Dukes death. Which notwithstanding was differred about the space of foure moneths. And sooner then that, could neyther the lower House in Parliament, nor the Counsailours of the Court, nor the importunate Preachers, by laying before Her the greatnesse of the dangers, overcome her Mercy.
17. But the second of June, by eight of the clocke in the morning, the Duke was brought to a Scaffold erected upon Tower-hill, and when hee was gotten up, and Alexander Nowell Deane of Paules, who was there to comfort him, had prayed the Multitude that stood about to keep silence, he sayd, For men to suffer Death in this place is no new thing, though since the beginning of our most gracious Queenes Reigne I am the first, and God grant I may bee the last. The people cryed, Amen. Then (to tell briefly what I heard him speake at large), I acknowledge (sayd hee) that my Peeres have justly judged me worthy of Death, neyther is it my meaning to excuse my selfe. That I have treated with the the Queene of Scots I freely confesse, and that in matters of great moment, without acquainting my Soveraigne, which I ought not to have done; for which I was cast into the Towre. Two Letters from the Bishop of Rome I saw, to which I assented not; nor yet to the Rebellion in the North. I have not beene Popish from the time that I had any taste of Religion, but have alwayes bin averse from the Popish doctrine, and embraced the true Religion of Jesus Christ, and have put my whole trust in the blood of Christ my Redeemer and blessed Saviour. Yet can I not deny but I have had amongst my servants and familiars some that have been addicted to the Popish Religion. If I have thereby offended God, the Church, or the Protestants, I beseech God and them to forgive me. Then after the rehearsall of one or two Psalmes, hee said with a lowder voyce, Into thy hands, Lord, I commend my spirit. Then embracing Sir Henry Leigh, he whispered some few things in his eare, as he did also to Deane Nowell, who turning to the people said,The Duke prayeth you that you will all with one voyce pray to God to have mercy on him, and withall keep silence, lest his mind be troubled. The Executioner asked him forgivenesse, which hee granted. And when one reached him an handkercheife to cover his eyes, hee refused it, saying, I feare not death. And so falling upon his knees, and fixing his mind upon God, he lay downe, and with him Deane Nowell prayed. Then stretching forth his necke upon the blocke, in an instant his head was cut off at one stroake, and was shewed by the Executioner as a dolefull spectactle to the sorrowing and weeping people.
18. Incredible it is how deerly the people loved him; which hee had purchased through his bounty and singular curtesie, not unbeseeming so great a Prince. The wiser sort were diversely affected. Some were terrified with the greatnesse of the danger, which while he lived seemed to threaten by meanes of him and his faction. Others were moved with pitty towards him, as a man of high Nobility, singular goodnesse of nature, goodly personage, and manly countenance, who might have beene both a great strength and ornament to his Countrey, had not the cunning practices of his malicious adversaries, and slippery hopes under colour of the publique good, diverted him from his first course of life.
19. Here it will not be amisse to adde briefly what Hieronimo Catena hath left in writing concerning this matter, in the life of Pius Quintus Bishop of Rome, an author for his faithfulnesse made free of the City of Rome, and Secretary to Cardinall Alexandrino, Pius Quintus his Nephew, that we may see out of what Shop it came, and by what persons this conspiracy was plotted. When (saith hee) Pius Quintus was inflamed with Zeale to restore the Romish Religion in England, and withall to remoove Queene Elizabeth from her kingdome, and could not have an Apostolicall Nuncio or any publique person to negotiate these matters, he procured Robert Ridolpho, a Gentleman of Florence (who lived in England under colour of trading by Marchandies) to excite mens mindes to the destruction of Queene Elizabeth. Which he lustily performed, not onely amongst the Catholikes, but also with some Protestants, who in this conspired together, some out of private hatred against those which aspired to the Crowne, and some in affectation of innovations. Whilest these things were done privily, there fell a controverse betwixt the Spaniard and Queene Elizabeth about money that was intercepted. From hence the Pope taking occasion, perwaded the Spaniard to ayd the conspirators in England against Queene Elizabeth, to the end hee might the more securely prosecute his affaires in the Netherlands, and the Romish Religion might be restored in Britaine. The French King also he perswaded to doe the like, as if hee ought the same to his kinswoman the Queene of Scots, and to the Scottishmens desert, who had by their incursions drawne back the English forces from ayding the Protestants of France, as also to the merit of the Noblemen conspirators in England, which had by their cunning practises kept backe the Queene of England from yeelding open reliefe to the Protestants of France. In which regard also the French King had promised them ayd to deliver the Queene of Scots, and deluded them. In the meane time Ridolpho so handled the matter that the conspirators drew the Duke of Norfolke into their society, and made him the head of their party, to whom they promised marriage with the Queene of Scots, she also consenting thereunto. The Pope, to set forward the matter, published a Bul, deposed the Queene from her Scepter and absolved her subjects from all oath and obedience, sending printed copies thereof to Ridolpho to bee dispersed all over England. Hereupon the Earles of Northumberland and Westmorland tooke armes against their Prince; who soone after, for lacke of money, withdrew themselves into Scotland. Norfolke and others were committed to custody, amongst whom was Ridolpho, whom the Pope had commanded to furnish the conspirators with an hundreth and fifty thousand crownes, which for that he was detained in prison, he couild not doe. But forasmuch as the Queene could not sound the depth of the conspiracy, he with the rest was let out of prison, and distributed those crownes amongst the conspirators, who sent him to the Pope to signifie unto him that all things were prepared and in a readinesse at home against Queene Elizabeth, and to intreat the Spaniard to joyne his ayd forthwith out of the Low-Countries. The Pope commanded the enterprise through the Duke of Alva <who>, when Ridolpho in his journey imparted matter unto him, liked it not, as a matter most full of difficulty. The same Ridolpho he sent to the Spaniard under another colour, and to the Portugall with instructions; and at the same time by letters he promised ayd to Norfolke. The Spaniard hee urged to ayd the conspirators, and the more strongly to urge him, hee promised to goe himselfe to their succour, and if neede were, to morgage all the goods of the Apostolike Sea, Chalices, Crosses, and holy Vestments. As for difficulty there was none, if hee would send Chapine Vitelly out of the Netherlands with an armed power into England. Which the Spaniard commanded with most ready alacrity to be done; and the Pope himselfe provided money in a readinesse in the Netherlands. These things pleased not the Duke of Alva, as well for that hee envyed the glory to Vitelly, and would have had his sonne preferred before him, as also that he feared some hostile force out of France. And hee propounded to bee considered, whether England being conquered would fall to the Spaniard, whether the French King would not withstand it, and whether the Bishop of Rome could supply sufficient ayd for so great an enterprise. The Spaniard neverthelesse commanded expressely that he should make an attempt against England, sending backe Ridolpho himselfe with money into the Netherlands. Howbeit by Gods permission the whole plot was revealed to Queene Elizabeth through the discovery of one without the Realme, and Norfolke was taken and put to death. Which the Pope tooke heavily, and the Spaniard sorrowed for it, who sayd in presence of Cardinall Alexandrino the Popes Nephew, that never any conspiracy was more advisedly entred into, nor with greater consent of mindes and constancy concealed, which in so long a time was never revealed by any of the conspirators; and that forces might in foure and twenty houres speace have easily beene sent over out of the Netherlands, which might at unawares have surprised the Queene and the City of London, restored Religion, and established the Queene of Scots in the Throne; especially considering that Thomas Stukely, an English fugitive had taken upon him at the same time, with 3000 Spaniards to reduce all Ireland under the subjection of the Spaniard, and with one or two pinnaces to free the English Fleet. All this hath that Hieronimo Catena written, whereof some things were unknowne to the English before such time as hee divulged them in his Booke printed at Rome with the priviledge of Sixtus Quintus, in the yeere one thousand five hundred eighty and eight. Now to the purpose, if this be beside it.
20. Scarce were tenne dayes come and gone after the Dukes execution, when William Lord De La Warre, Sir Ralph Sadlier, Thomas Wilson, Doctor of Law, and Thomas Bromley the Queeness Majesties Sollicitor or second Atturney, were sent to the Queene of Scottes, who was then dejected into mourning and lamentations to expostulate with her by way of accusation that shee had usurped the title and armes of the kingdome of England, and had not renounced the same, as was agreed in the league of Edenburgh; that for the more full possessing thereof, she had sought to marry with the Duke of Norfolke without the Queenes privity; for the consummating whereof with armed power, and for the delivery of the Duke out of the Tower, shee had left no meanes unassayed by her Ministers; that shee raysed a rebellion in the North parts, relieved those rebels in Scotland and the Netherlands, after they were put to flight; craved forraine ayd from the Bishop of Rome, the Spaniard, and others by Ridolpho an Italian, and conspired with certaine Englishmen to take her forcibly out of custody, and proclayme her Queene of England; that shee had received letters from the Bishop of Rome, wherein hee promised to cherish her as the henne cherisheth her chickens, and that those which stood for <her> hee would account as children of the Church. Lastly, that shee had procured the Popes Bull agains the Queene, and had suffered herselfe to bee publickely named Queene of England by her favourers in forraine Countreyes.
21. To these things shee (after protestation first made that shee was a free Queene, and subject to none) answered with a setled minde and countenance, That shee had not usurped the title and armes of the kingdome of England, but the King of France and her husband had imposed them upon her being young and under the power of an husband; and therefore shee was not to be blamed for it. Neither had shee borne them since her husbands death, nor would challenge them as long as Queene Elizabeth or her children lived. As for marriage with the Duke of Norfolke, shee never intended it to the hurt of <the> Queene, for shee was perswaded it would bee for the good of the Common-wealth; but shee had not renounced it , for that she had plighted her troth unto him. Shee had advised the Duke to free himselfe out of prison and perill, as by the love a wife shee was bound to doe. Rebellion shee had raysed none, nor was accessary thereto, who was ever most ready to reveale any attempts agains the Queene, if she would vouchsafe to heare her in her owne presence. The English Rebels she had never relieved, onely shee had by her letters commended the Countesse of Northumberland to the Duke of Alva. Ridopho, whom shee had knowne to bee in great favour with the Pope, shee had used in money matters, yet had shee received no letters from. him. Shee had excited none to set her at liberty. Shee had willingly heard them which had offered their service therein, and in that behalfe shee had imparted to Rolston and Hall a privy cypher. From the Bishop of Rome she had received letters now and then, most full of piety and comfort, wherein there were no such manner of speaches. She had procured no Bull, onely she saw a printed copy thereof, which as soone as she had read she cast into the fire. If any in forreine Countries doe write or name her otherwise then they ought, let them beare the blame. She never by letters craved ayd of the Bishop of Rome and the Spaniard, to invade Enland; but she had implored their helpe, that shee might be restored to her kingdome, and that with the Queenes privity. And if question be made of those letters, or of concluding the marriage with armed hand, she prayeth (seeing she is borne of the blood Royall of England) she may answere the matter openly in the next Parliament of England.
22. Scotland in the meane time laboured, and was most miserably afflicted with civill dissentions, while on the one side those which bare affection to the Queene, presuming upon the favour of the French, and on the other side such as stood for the King, relying upon the ayde of the English, bare mortall hatred and made deadly warres one against another. Neverthelesse the English and the French, sending ther Embassadours into Scotland, pretended an exceeding great desire to compound the variance. The French, supposing that there was no meanes more commodious, propounded that some indifferent men might bee chosen, which might governe the Kingdome of Scotland for the time, neither in the Kings nor Queenes name. For the French would not acknowledge the King of Scots for King, because he had no other Title to the Crowne then from his Mother, and his mother they could not be justly deposed by her own Subjects. She was therefore (sayd they) justly to be acknowledged for Queene, and the auntient League betwixt her and the French King to be observed. The English to the contrary maintained by strong arguments that such a Governement would bee a plaine Anarchy, that a Commonwealth cannot be governed by the command of many, that in the election of such Governours the Scots, which had ever beene under the command of a King, would never consent together; that the Estates of the Realme had deposed the Queene, had duely constituted and Inaugurated the King; and that the auntient league was contracted not betwixt the persons, but betwixt the Kingdomes of France and Scotland. Yea that the most Christian King was by condition of the League bound to defend the King of Scots. For it was provided in expresse words that if at any time the Succession in the Kingdome of Scotland should be controverted, the Kings of France should defend him to whome the Estates of Scotland should adjudge the Kingdome. And as for the causes of the deposing the Queene, the Scotts which had deposed her were to be consulted.
23. Neverthelesse the French King openly favoured the Queene of Scots party, and made earnest intercession to Queene Elizabeth for her deliverie, least (as his Embassadours ingenuously professed) that he should seeme to neglect her which had been wife to the King his Brother, and was now Dowager of France, to breake the auntient League that was made betwixt the French King and the King of Scots, to make slight reckoning of the House of the Guise, which was nowe very powerfull in Fraunce, or to approve a dangerous example of deposing Kinges; and (which was the chiefest thing of all) least she, being neglected by the French in her adversity, should adhere unto the Spaniard, and so at length the most potent Kingdomes of England, Scotland, and Ireland might by her bee joyned in League of amity with Spaine, to the endangering of France.
24. To these things Queene Elizabeth gently answered, Let the French King be well advised what reckoning hee maketh of the Queene of Scots; though she have been Queene of France, and be now Dowager, yet she held secret Counsailes with the Spaniard to breake off the marriage with the Duke of Anjou. Let him consider whether hee doe not breake that ancient League, if hee defend not the young King. Let him consider how much France is beholden to the House of Guise, by whose Counsailes both France hath beene embroyled in a most mortall Warre, Scotland alienated from the French, and the Queene of Scots herselfe brought into these straightes. Certainely dangerous is the example of deposing Princes, and to be condemned beneath the pit of hell; but for this matter let the Scots answere. For my part I do unwillingly mention these things, which from my heart I mislike. Yet whether the French have heretofore misliked them I know not, when Pepin deprived Childeric, and Hugh Capet despoiled Charles of Loraine of their ancestors Kingdome, translating the Scepter to new families; and when Philip Le Bon the Burgundian stripped Jaquetta out of Heinault and Holland; or the Danes, when they threw Christian the second and his Daughters out of the Kingdome; or the Spaniards, when they excluded Queeen Vraca out of her Kingdome, and imprisoned her. That the sonnes should be admitted to the government ,their mothers being excluded, is no new thing. So were Henry the second, King of England, Alphonsus the sonne of Vraca King of Castile, and within our owne fresh memory Charles the fifth King of Spaine and Sicily, admitted to their Scepters during the lives of their mothers. That Queenes also have bin imprisoned, every age is full of examples, and France may aboundantly testifie as much, which hath seene the Wives of three Kings on a row, Lewis Huttin, Philip le Long, and Charles the faire, imprisoned, to say nothing more grievous. To speake the truth, I for my part do detaine the Queene of Scots in honourable custody for the safegard of England and mine own security, and that by the example of the French, which shut up Chilferic in a Monastery, Charles of Loraine in a deepe dungeon, and Lodovic Sforze of Millain,] into an yron Grate, to secure their owne estates. Other such like matters shee repeated out of the Spanish History, as she was passing well seene in the Histories of all Nations. Finally, she concluded, That such great examples as these doe alwayes draw with them some kind of injustice. But she wished that the French King would according as hee was bound by the League, defend the young King of Scots, who was lawfully inaugurate. For this would turne to greater glory of the French Nation, then did the unfortunate expeditions of the French in the cause of that infamous Joane of Naples.
25. But in very truth when it was found that the Queene of Scots at that very time did practise a secred Confederacy with the Spaniard by meanes of the Lord Seaton, who arriving Essex, had returned through England into Scotland in the counterfeite habite of a Sayler, and from the Duke of Alva had promised auxiliary forces to the Scots, which were of the Queenes party, both she was kept in straighter custody, and the affection of the French King by little and little waxed cold towards her. Certainely the Duke of Alva omitted nothing that he might cunningly powre forth his secret hatred against Queene Elizabeth. And she with no lesse diligence used all meanes to repell the same, and disappoint his attempts. In the first Moneths therefore of this yeare, when he complayned by the mouth of the Spanish Embassadour in England that the Rebels of the Netherlands procured warlike munition out of England, and were harbored every where in the English porte Townes, shee presently by a straight Proclamation commaunded the Netherlanders uppon whom fell any suspition of Rebellion to depart the Land, and their Ships of Warre to be stayed in the Havens. Which turned mainly to the damage of the Duke of Alva. For by this meanes William Count Vander-Marke, free Heire to Lumey, and other Netherlanders, being eyther terrified with this Edict, or secretly fore-warned, withdrew themselves out of England, as it were forced by despaire, and seised upon Briell at the mouth of the Mais, and soone after drewe Vlushing and other Townes to revolt (thrusting out the Spaniards when they were now about to builde Castles and Fortes there, the very Fetters of their freedome), and in short space excluded in a manner the Duke of Alva from the Sea. Whereby they, through the opportunity of the Sea, have cumbered and exercised the Spaniard with so long a Warre, not without a notable over-sight in the Duke (as martiall men have thought), and unworthy so great a Captayne, who had grosly neglected the Sea Coasts of the Netherlands the space of full foure yeares.
26. Now after a very gallant shew of Armes, and skirmishing before the Queene at Greenewich, Martiall men, which spent their time at home in idlenesse, beganne to flocke into the Low-Countries out of England, some (according as they stood affected to the parties) to the Duke of Alva, and some (which were indeede the far greater number) to the Prince of Aurange, who in respect of Religion and freedome opposed himselfe against Alva. The first of all that went was Thomas Morgan, who carryed over three hundreth men to Vlushing; the report of whose comming is thought to have stayed the Duke of Alva when he was in a readiness to recover Vlushing. Afterwards, through the procurement of Morgan, arrived there nine Companies of English under Sir Humphrey Gilbert, who with the French their Associates, first attempted Sluise and Bruges, and then gave an assault to Ter-goes in Suith-Bevelandt. But for that their Ladders were too short, and that the French and English agreed not well together, and that Mondragon came to the reliefe of the besieged, they retired to Vlushing, now without losse of men, which both the French and the English cunningly went about to possesse themselves of, but beeing divided by grudges and heartburnings one agaynst the other, kindled betweene them through the cunning practises of the Prince of Aurange, they could not effect it.
27. In France at this time the Protestants had flattering faire Weather, and King Charles his minde was wholly bent (as he pretended) uppon the Low-Country Warre, as the onely remedy for civill Warre at home, and under this colour he dissembled that hee would enter into Confederacy with the Princes of Germany and the Queene of England, in testimony of his kinde inclination towards the Protestants, whom notwithstanding hee had privily appointed to the slaughter. Which Confederacy was concluded at Bloys the eleventh day of Aprill, betweene him (who doubted both the Protestants of France, and the Spaniard) and Queene Elizabeth (who feared privy practices at home, and the cunning plots of the Duke of Alva), by the mediation of Francis Duke of Montmerency, Renat Birague, Sebastian Laubespine, the Bishop of LImoges, and Paul Foix, on the behalfe of the King. And Sir Thomas Smith, and Sir Francis Walsingham Commissioners, in the Queenes name. The Articles of which Confederacy are under-written, set down Compendiously, almost in the very Wordes of the Originall.
28. The Articles in this League shall not bee a going backe from the former treaties betwixt the afore-sayd Princes, and their Predecessors, so far forth as they are not contrary to this present League. This League shalbe a Confederacy, Band, and Union betwixt the sayd Princes, for mutuall Defence against all men of what degree soever they be, which under any color, or for any cause whatsoever, none excepted, shall invade, or goe about to invade the persons, or Territories by them possessed. This League shall continue firme, not onely betwixt the sayd Princes while they live, but also betwixt their Successors, if the Successors doe signifie to the Prince that surviveth within a yeare, by Embassadors and Letters, that he accepteth the same conditions; otherwise the Survivor shalbe understood to be freed from all observance of this League. This League shall take place against all men, even those which shalbee joyned in affinity to either King or Prince, and against all Leagues contracted, and to be contracted. The Queene of England shalbe bound upon request made by Letters signed with the hand of the French King requiring ayde, to send over into France within two moneths sixe thousand foote armed, or else 500 horse, at his choyce, to bee entred under his pay from the time they shall arme in France. For Sea-fight and defence of Shipping, the Queene of England shall send eight Shippes of reasonable burthen, wherein shee shall put put twelve hundred Souldiers with all necessaries. The Saylers and Souldiers shalbe English-men onely; hee shall give them their pay, and find them all necessaries, and shall provide them Victualls from the time that they beginne to serve him. Neverthtlesse they shall obey the Admirall of France. The Queene of England shall victuall her ships for two moneths; for which the French King shall pay her within two moneths. The French King after letters received and signed with the Queene of Englands hand she being assailed by Warre, shalbe bound to send over into England or Ireland within two moneths, sixe thousand foot, or if she had rather, five hundred launces, which shall make up the number of 1500 horse and 3000 foote, with strong Horses, and Armes after the French fashion, which shalbee entred into her pay from the time that they come into her Dominions. For Sea-Fight, he shall furnish eight Ships, manned with twelve hundred souldiers, in manner as afore-sayd. They shall serve as long as the Prince invaded shalbe pleased to keep them. The forme of the succors and pay shalbe contained in a Schedule underneath. The one shalbee bound to sell unto the other that is invaded, both Armes and other necessaries. They shall innovate nothing in Scotland, but shall defend it against Forrainers, and not suffer strangers to enter, nor cherish the Scottish factions; but it shall be lawfull for the Queene of England to prosecute by Armes those Scots which shall cherish or harbour the English Rebels now being in Scotland. This League shall have that understanding which alone the force and propriety of the Words beareth. Both Princes shall confirme every of these Articles by their Letters Patents, and shall Bona fide, really, and with effect, deliver them to the Embassadors on both sides within three moneths.
29. For the ratifying of this League by the French King, Edward Clinton Earle of Lincolne, Lord Admirall of the Sea, was sent into France with a great company of Noble-men, amongst whom were the Lord Dacres, the Lord Rich, the Lord Talbot, the Lord Sands, and others. The French King in like manner sent into England the Duke of Montmorency and Paul Foix, very gallantly provided that before them, and Bertrand Salignac Mota Fenelon, his Ordinary Embassadour, the Queene should likewise confirme it by Oath. Which was done at Westminster the 15th day of May. The next day after, Queene Elizabeth by permission of the French King chose Montmorency into the society of the order of Saint George, in thankfull remembrance of the kindnesse of his Father Annas Constable of France, towards her. Which honor King Henry the eighth vouchsafed to the sayd Annas, in token of his love to that Family, which beareth the title of first Christian of France, and is accompted the most noble Family in all France.
30. Montmorency, whilest he stayed in England, sollicited in few words in the French Kings name that as much favour as could bee without danger, might be shewed to the Queene of Scots, that there might be a cessation of Armes in Scotland, and a concord confirmed there by Parliament. And if a Parliament could not conveniently be holden, that certaine men chosen on both sides by the Scots, might meete at London for compounding of matters, together with the French Kings and the Queene of Englands Commissioners. But it was answered that greater favour had bin shewed already, and for the French Kings sake should be shewed to the Queene of Scots then she had deserved; although the Estates of the Realme, which were then assembled, were of opinion that the Queene could have no security without some severity towards her. As for a Concord and cessation of Armes, the Queene had earnestly laboured it already, and for that purpose had very lately sent Drury, Marshall of Barwicke, into Scotland, with Croc the French Embassadour; but they could by no meanes draw Grange and the Garrison of the Castle of Edenburgh to a peace, they being fed with hope of succours out of France and the Netherlands, though Huntley and Hamilton of Arbroth had for the Duke his Father bound themselves in Writing under their hands to Queene Elizabeth to imbrace peace, and the rest on the Queenes party had likewise given their faith so to do.
31. Then Montmorency earnestly sollicited againe the marriage with the Duke of Anjou; but for that they could not agree about the exercise of Religion, hee returned into France, leaving the matter desperate, whilest a marriage was prepared with great solemnity between Henry of Navarre and Madam Margaret the French Kings sister. To this Marriage were allured by flattering promises, and credulous hope of a perpetuall peace and renewing of love, but with notable dissimulation, the Queene of Navarre, and all the choycest of the Protestants. There were also invited out of England, under colour of doing them honour, Leicester and Burghley; and out of Germany the Palatine Electors sonnes, that being brought into the Net, both they and with them them Evangelicall Reliigon, might with one stroake, if not have their throates cut, yet at least wise receive a mortall wound. For no sooner was the Marriage solemnized, but a bloody Tempest presently dispersed the faire Weather that was hoped for, even that Massacre of Paris, and the bloody butcherings of the Protestants, which with execrable hand were committed throughout the Cities of France upon men of all estates. Yet was there some colour of right, yea of piety layd upon it, and by Edicts a fair Cloake sought to cover that impious fraud, as if there had beene some wicked Conspiracy plotted by the Protestants against the King, the Queene mother, the Kings brethren, the King of Navarre, and the Princes of the blood. For there was Coyne stamped in memory of the matter, in the fore-part whereof, together with the Kings Picture, was this inscription, VIRTUS IN REBELLES, that is, VERTUE AGAINST REBELS. And on the other side, PIETAS EXCITAVIT IUSTITIAM, that is, PIETY HATH EXCITED JUSTICE.
32. A little before, the Queene Mother of France, which egregiously dissembled a shew of kindnesse towards the Protestants, a Woman somewhat curious to inquire into the time to come, and prone to beleeve the predictions of Astrologers, who by the position of the fixed regall Starres in the houres of their Nativities had fore-told Kingdomes to every one of her Sonnes, had commanded Mota-Fenelon to propound to Queene Elizabeth a Marriage with her youngest Sonne Francis Duke of Alencon, that if she could possibly, shee might procure unto him the Title of King, or at least wise by this Office of kindnesse, stay her from ayding the Protestants of France. This marriage Mota-Fenelon propounded at Kenelworth two dayes before the Massacre at Paris. But Queene Elizabeth modestly excused herself by their difference of Religion, and inequality of Age. For hee was scarce come to the seaventeenth yeare of his age, and she was now past thirty eight. Yet shee promised to consider of it. Neyther did Alencon cease to follow the matter seriously by the mediation of Flery.
33. The same moneth Thomas Percy Earle of Northumberland, who being a Rebell had fled into Scotland, was for a summe of money agreed upon, delivered into the hands of the Lord Hunsdon Governor of Barwicke, by Morton, who had beene very much bound unto him while he lived an exile in England (but who hath ever beene found thankfull to men in calamity?) and was shortly after beheaded at Yorke.
34. As Norfolke and Northumberland were cut off this yeare by the stroke of the deadly Axe in their flourishing Age, so a quiet death tooke away two others of the chiefe of the Nobility, both of them of the Privy Councell, in their extreame age, namely, William Powlet, Lord High Treasurer of England, Marquesse of Winchester, Earle of Wiltshire, and Baron Saint John of Basing (one that had passed through very great honors), after hee had lived 97 yeeres, and had seene the issue of this body to the number of one hundred and three persons. (After whom was substituted in the Office of Lord High Treasurer, William Cecil Lord Burghley); and Edward Earle of Darby, Lord Stanley, and Strange of Knocking, with whom the glory of Hospitality hath in a manner beene layd asleepe.
35. This Yeare also departed his life Sir William Peter Knight, one of the Privy Councell, and Secretary to Henry thh eight, Edward the sixth, Queene Mary, and Queene Elizabeth, and Chancellour of the Order of the Garter, having performed many Embassies with commendations. Who being borne of honest Parentage at Excester, after he had by his wisdome and learning gathered great wealth, did for the advancement of Learning, by the favour of Queene Mary, very bountifully englarge the revenewes of Excester Colledge in the University of Oxford, wherein he was educated and brought up.
36. The Queene also herselfe, which hitherto had enjoyed very perfect health (for shee never eate meate but when her Appetite served her, nor dranke Wine without alaying), fell sicke of the small poxe at Hampton Court. But shee recovered againe before it was heard abroad that she was sicke; and attending the cares of the Realme, commanded Portesmouth to be fortified by new Workes, her Navey to be increased with Shippes of Warre, Musters to be kept in every County at set times, and the youths to be trayned and exercised in the use of their Weapons; and that, even when she had most perfect peace with all men. The money also which she had borrowed of her Subjects, she payd againe thankfully and willingly. And hereby shee purchased no less love amongst her people, then by two wholesome Proclamations Published in the beginning of the yeare. By one of which she commaunded Noble-men and Gentle-men to be proceeded against by the ancient Lawes, which had more Followers or Retainers then they ought. For these Retainers, being in this sort intertayned, exempted themselves from the publicke Offices of the Common-wealth, maintayned Factions, and offended many wayes against the Lawes, presuming uppon the power of the Noble-men to whom they Retayned. By the other she restrayned a most ravenous sort of men, whom they call Concealers, by revoking their Commission, and forcing them to restore the things they had taken. For these Concealers being ordayned to inquire if any Land belonging to the Crowne were concealed by private men, had begunne with sacrilegous Avarice to seize uppon Lands given in times past by our devout fore Fathers to Parish Churches and Hospitalls, and also uppon Bells and leaden Roofes of Churches. But in very trueth these maladies, though they have beene now and then suppressed, yet have they now and then sprung up againe.
37. In Ireland there brake forth some commotions through the rigorous government of Sir Edward Fitton Governour of Connacht. Which when the first borne sonnes of Richard Earle of Clan-Richard by divers Wives, taking libery to doe what they list, couild not brooke, they raysed presently a Rebellion, and passing over the River of Sene, or Sinone, practised insolent robberies and cruelties upon the Inhabitants all over West Meth. Their Father, beeing descended from an ancient English stocke named De Burghe, a man with a reverend grey head, and of a temperate disposition, went unto the Lord Deputy, purged himselfe of the crime of Rebellion, and asked advise of the Councell of Ireland by what meanes he might restrayne his dissolute children. But the Queene, to the end to provide for the publique tranquillity, thought meet that Fitton should be removed by little and little out of Connacht, and made him Treasurer of Ireland. And not long after, the Earles sonnes, being pursued by the Garrison Souldiers, humbly submitted themselves to the Lord Deputy.
38. In Leinster also the O-Moores, a seditious kinde of people, made an insurrection, who being presently proclaymed Rebels, returned into order by the perswasion of the Earle of Kildare. At which time Sir Thomas Smith Secretary to the Queene, a wise and learned man, taking pitty on Ireland that had beene neglected, obtained of the Queene that a Colony might be transported into a Chersonese of Ireland, which they call Ardes, in the East coast of Ulster, under the conduct of his base sonne, the only sonne he had, to teach those halfe barbarous people some civility. His hope was that the place might easily be defended by Garrisons placed in the straight necke of the land, by which it is joyned unto the rest of the Island. To every footeman hee granted an hundreth and twenty acres, and to every horseman two hundreth and forty, which are as much as five hundredth English Acres; for which they were to pay yeerely for every acre a penny. But it failed of the wished successe. For his sonne Thomas, when he had carried over the Colony, was intercepted and slayne through the treachery of Neal Brian Artho. But Malbey an Englishman, which was Governour of Lecale hard by, supposing that no injust death could bee inflicted upon a treacherous villaine, slew him presently, leaving him to be devoured of wolves.
39. I know not whether it bee worth the labour to mention that which all Historiographers of our time have recorded, to wit, that in the moneth of November, a new Starre, or if you will, a Phaenomenon, was seene in the Constellation of Cassiopeia, which (as I my selfe observed) in brightnesse excelled Jupiter in the Perigee or neerest point of the Eccentric and Epicycle; and in the same place it continued full sixteene moneths, being carried about with the daily motion of the heaven. Thomas Digsey and John Dey, Gentlemen and Mathematicians amongst us, have learnedly proved by Paralactic Doctrine that it was in the celestiall, not the Elementary Region; and they were of opinion that it vanished by little and little in ascending. Certainely after the eighth moneth all men perceived it to grow lesse and lesse. Theodor Beza wittily applied [compared] it to that Starre which shone at the birth of Christ, and to the murdering of the Infants under Herod, and warned Charles the ninth, King of France, who had confessed himselfe to be the author of the Massacre of Paris, to beware, in this verse:
Tu vero Herodis sanguinolente, time.
And looke thou bloody Herod to thy selfe.
And certainely he was not altogether deceived in his beliefe. For the fifth month after the vanishing of this starre, the sayd Charles, after long and grievous paynes, dyed of excessive bleeding.
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