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ANNO DOMINI 1565
The Lord Darley goeth into Scotland. | The Queene of Scots falleth in love with him. | She craveth Queene Elizabeths assent to her marriage.| A consultation about these matters. | Throckmorton sent to hinder the marriage. | The Queene of Scots answer. | Lenox and Darly called home out of Scotland. | They make their excuse. | The Queene of Scots marrieth the Lord Darly. | Murray and others fret at it. | The Queene of England beareth it moderately. | Some of the Scots take Armes. | They are put to flight. | And harboured in England. | Queene Elizabeth perswaded to marry. | The Emperour commendeth his brother. | Hence grow quarels in the Court. | Which Queene Elizabeth compoundeth. | The English Ambassadour neglected in Scotland. | Cecily of Swetheland commeth into England. | The creation of the Earle of Glencarne. | Irish matters. | Lieutenants and Justicers of Ireland. | Discord betwixt the Earles of Desmond and Ormond. | The first President of Munster. | The death of Sir Thomas Chaloner.
HE Lord Darly in the meanetime, by the earnest and humble intercession of his mother to Queene Elizabeth, with much adoe obtained leave to goe into Scotland and there to stay three moneths, making his pretence that he might be partener of his fathers restitution. And in that most sharp Winter, when the Thames was frozen over that men might goe upon it, he came to Edenburgh in the moneth of February, a young Gentleman of a beauty most worthy of a Crowne, of very goodly personage, a most milde disposition, and sweetest manners. The Queene of Scots no sooner saw him but presently shee fell in love with him; and to conceale her love shee conferreth ever and anon with Randolph the English Ambassadour in Scotland of her marriage with Leicester; and withall sueth for a dispensation from Rome, for that the Lord Darley and she were so neere of kinne that by the Canon Law there must needes be a dispensation. When these things came to light, she sent Lidington to Queene Elizabeth, that her marriage with the Lord Darley might be contracted with her consent, and that she might no longer be kept from marriage in vaine expectation.
2. Queene Elizabeth propoundeth the matter to her inwardest Councellours, who through the secret suggestions of Murray easily beleeved that the Queene of Scots designe by this marriage tended to strengthen her right and Title to the Crowne of England,and to lay claime to it againe, and withall to rebring backe the Romish Religion; and that some would adhere unto her for the certainty of succession by her children by this marriage, and others out of their affection to the Romish Religion, forasmuch as they knew for certaine that the farre greater part of the Justicers of peace throughout England were devoted to the Romish Religion. For the preventing of these matters they thought it most necessary, first, to make suite to the Queene to marry some man out of hand, that the welfare and hope of the English might depend upon the certainety of succession by her and her issue, and not upon any other. (For they feared lest if the Queene of Scots should marry first and have issue, more would incline towards her for the certainty and assurance of succession.) Secondly, that the profession of the Romish Religion should be infringed as much as might be thorowout all England, and the profession of the reformed Religion carefully advanced and established; this later [latter], by dealing more moderately with some over-hot Protestants about indifferent things; that other, by the new commitment of the Popish Bishops to custody, that had beene displaced, and were dispersed abroad in the Couintry during the heate of the pestilence, by graunting unto the Bishops more ample authority to exercise the Ecclesiasticall Lawes against that Scare-crow of the Praemunire which the Lawyers cast in their way, by suppressing of bookes sent out of the Netherlands into England by Harding and other fugitive Divines, by removing certaine Scottish Priests that lurked in England, by depriving the English fugitives of their Ecclesiasticall beneficies which hiterto they enjoyed, and by compelling the Judges of the Land (which were almost all of them Papists) to acknowledge the Queenes Supremacy by oath. But for the breaking off of the marriage with the Lord Darly, it was thought good that for a terror Souldiers should be be leavied all over the borders towards Scotland, and that Barwicke should be manned with a stronger Garrison; that the Countesse of Lenox the Lord Darly’s mother and her sonne Charle, should be committed to custody; that the Earle of Lenox and his sonne the Lord Darly should be called home out of Scotland into England upon paine of losse of goods and lands, before such time as any confederacy should be made with the French King or the Spaniard; that the Scots which opposed the marriage should be supported; and that the Lady Catharine Grey with the Earle of Hertford should be received into some grace, of whom alone the Queene of Scots was thought to stand in carefull feare, as a competitour in the succession of the Crowne. And there was not any one thing which in their judgement could more delay and hinder the said marriage.
3. Hereupon was sent unto the Queene of Scots Sir Nicholas Throckmorton to put her in mind that it was long time to be deliberated of, which was but once to be resolved on; that an hasty marriage was ever-more attended with repentance; and to commend againe and againe the marriage with Leicester; that the other match with her aunts sonne was flatly repugnant to the Popes lawes. For Queene Elizabeth much desired that by her some man of the English blood might succeed in both Kingdomes; although there wanted not some which thought it would make for the safety of Religion and of both Kingdomes if she might dye without issue. She answered that the matter could not now bee recalled; neither was there cause why Queene Elizabeth should be offended, considering by her advice she had chosen, not a forrainer, but an Englishman, and one that was descended of the blood Royall of both Kingdomes, and the Noblest man of all Britaine. Lidington, all this while being in England, at sundry times colourably propounded to Leicester the marriage of the Queene of Scots; and also to the Duke of Norfolke, as one farre more worthy of that Royall match, who at that time put it off with a modest refusall.
4. The Queene of England, that she might interpose some impediment to this hasted marriage, recalleth home Lenox and the Lord Darly his sonne, as her subjects, according to the forme of the licence graunted. The father most modestly excuseth himselfe by Letters; the sonne beseecheth her that she will not be against his honour, signifieth that it may be he may be of use to England his most deare Country, and openly professeth himselfe to be a most devoted lover and honourer of the Queene of Scots above all others. Who, to requite his love, soone after honoured him with the dignity of Knighthood, and with the Titles of Baron of Ardmanock, Earle of Rosse, and Duke of Rothsey; and the fifth moneth after he was come into Scotland, tooke him to her husband, with the assent of very many of the Nobility, and proclaimed him King; while Murray, who plotted a part to serve his owne ambition, and under the glorious pretext of Religion had drawne to his party the Duke of Chastel-herault, a very good man, fretted at it, and others rose in commotion, disputing these questions: Whether a Papist might be admitted to be King? Whether the Queene of Scotland might choose her a husband at her owne pleasure? Whether the States of the Realme might impose one upon her by their owne authority?
5. The Queene of England, who had knowne the most milde nature and disposition of the Lord Darly, and the honest and open heart of his father, pittying the young man her kinsman, and the young Queene (who had to doe with most turbulent men, which having been loosed now above twenty yeeres from the command of a King, knew not know to brooke Kings), tooke the matter more quietly. And now she feared nothing from them, when she saw that the power of the Queene her emulator was nothing augumented by so meane a match, and the Lord Darly’s mother in her owne power, and foresaw that commotions would arise hereby in Scotland; which were not long before they were raised. For some of the Noblemen of Scotland, especially Hamilton and Murray, disdaining this marriage, Murray for that it was contracted without the consent of the Queene of England, and Hamilton in emulation of the house of Lenox, but both of them under colour of preserving Religion, advanced their Ensignes to breake off the marriage; insomuch as the Queen was faine to leavy Forces to celebrate her marriage securely. And so sharply she prosecuted the Rebels by the King her husband, that she chased them into England before the English Companies promised them could come to their succour. And the Queene of England graunted to Murray by way of connivence a lurking place in England, being a man most addicted to the English, and secretly supplied him with money by the hands of the Earle of Bedford, till he returned into Scotland the next day after David Rizo was slaine, as in due place we will declare. The causes why shee admitted Murray and the Scotish rebels into England were these: for that the Queene of Scots had received into her protection Yaxley, Standon, and Walsh, English fugitives, into Scotland, and O-Neal an Irishman, and had plotted with the Pope against the English, and had not done Justice upon the Rank-riders and Pirates.
6. This marriage being consummated, nothing seemed better to those which principally sought the advancement of the Protestants Religion and the safety of England then that, to weaken the Queene of Scots hope of the Kingdome of England, Queene Elizabeth should now seriously apply her minde to marriage. And very oportunely at that time did the Emperour Maximilian the second propound honorable conditions of marriage with his brother Charles, by Adam Smircorite his Ambassadour. At which time (for what causes I know not, unlesse it were for this marriage), there arose very grievous quarrels in the Court betweene the Earle of Sussex which highly favoured the marriage, and Leicester, who in respect of his owne hopes privily opposed it. (Certainly very great and shamefull hopes doe they foster, which have already attained things beyond hope.) And surely Sussex injuriously contemned him as a new upstart, who (as he was wont to say in detracting him) could produce no more but two ancestors, namely, his father and his grand-father, and those both of them enemies and Traitors to their Country. Hereupon the whole Court was divided into factions and part-taking, and the Earles, if at any time they went abroad, carryed with them great traines of followers with Swords and Bucklers, having iron pikes pointing out at the bosses (which were then in use), as if it were to try their uttermost. But after a few dayes the Queene reconciled them, and buryed their malice rather then tooke it away. For the dissentions of the Nobility, and that common by-word Divide et impera, that is, Set at odds, and command, inculcated by some, she condemned, judging that the force of command consisted in the consent of obeyers; yet now and then shee tooke pleasure (and not unprofitably) in the emulation and privy grudges of her women.
7. In the meane time she, being not unmindefull of Scottish matters, within a moneth or two after the solemnizing of the marriage in Scotland, sent Tamworth a Gentleman of her Privy Chamber to the Queene of Scots, to put her in minde of not breaking the peace, to expostulate her hasty marriage with a native subject of England without her consent, and withall to require Lenox and the Lord Darly his sonne to be sent backe into England, according to the forme of the confederacy, and Murray to be received into grace. She having secret inkling of the matter, admitted not the man to her presence, but by Articles put in writing, promised in the word of a Prince, that neither shee nor her husband would attempt any thing which should be prejudiciall to the Queene of England, or to the lawfull children of her body, or to the tranquillity of the Realme, either by receiving of fugitives, or making of League with forrainers, or by any other meanes; yea that they would most gladly contract such a League with the Queene and Kingdome of England as might be beneficiall and honourable to both Kingdomes, and would innovate nothing in the Religion, Lawes, and liberties of England, if ever they should enjoy the Kingdome of England. Howbeit with this condition, that the Queene of England would in like sort fully performe the same things her and her husband, and would by Act of Parliament establish the succession of the Crowne of England in her person and her lawfull issue, and in default thereof, in Margaret Countesse of Lenox, her husbands mother, and her lawfull children. As for other matters, she had advertised the Queene of marriage with the Lord Darly, as soone as she was certainely resolved to marry him; but she received no answer. That she had satisfied the Queenes demands, forasmuch as she had not married a forrainer, but an Englishman, then whom she knew not any of more noble blood, nor more worthy of her in all Britaine. But it seemed strange to her that she should not keepe the Lord Darly with her, whom she had joyned unto her in holy wedlocke; or should not stay Lenox in Scotland, who was a native Earle of Scotland. As for Murray, whom she had found her most mortall enemy, she lovingly intreateth her to leave her subjects to her owne judgement, for shee intermeddled not in causes of the subjects of England. With this answer Tamworth returned having received intertainement smally to his worth, as he thought; for, being a man of a busie tongue, he had blotted the Queene of Scots reputation with I know not what obloquie, and vouchsafed not her husband the Title of King.
8. At this time these things following fell out for the increase of Queene Elizabeths honour, that by meanes of the consenting voyce and report of all men touching her vertue, Cecily the sister of Erric King of Swethland [Sweden], and wife of Christopher Marquesse of Baden, being now great with childe, came a long journey from the farthermost parts of the North thorow Germany to see her; whom with her husband she honourably intertained, assigning unto her a yeerly pension, and Christening her sonne, whom she named Edwardus Fortunatus; and Donald Mac-Carty More, a great and mighty Lord of Ireland, upon his knees delivered into her very hands large territories, that receiving them backe againe from her, he might hold them in fee ot him and his heires male lawfully begotten. And for default of such heires, hee granted them to the Crown of England. She of her courtesie most graciously embracing him (as shee was a Prince born to winne the love of men) did in her wisedome invest him solemnly with the Title of Earle of Glencarne, and his sonne Teg with the Title of Baron of Valentia, gave them gifts, and bore the charges of their journey, that she might have them instruments against Desmond, who was now suspected to practice some innovation.
9. This yeere Sir Nicholas Arnold of Glocestershire, Knight, governed Ireland with the Title of Lord Justicer, and had not above 1590 men in Garrisons; but he being soone called home, delivered up his charge to Sir Henry Sidney, who in the Raigne of Queene Mary had beene for a while Justicer and Treasurer of Ireland, and was now President of Wales. The first Presidents of Ireland, whom now we call in Latin Pro-reges, that is, Vice-royes, or Deputies, were (that I may note it by the way) from the first entrance of the English under Henry the second till King Edward the third’s dayes called Justicers of Ireland, and Justicers and Keepers of the Land of Ireland; then Lieutenants, and their Vice-regent Deputies. Afterward, they were at the Prince his pleasure tearmed sometimes Deputies, sometimes Justicers, and sometimes Lieutenants (which is a little more honour), but for the most part with one and the same authority. And without doubt those first Justicers of Ireland (as the Justicer of England, who in that age was also for brevity called Justice) were ordained for keeping of the peace, and ministring of Justice to all and every person; as were the Propraetors and Proconsuls in old time among the Romanes, which were sent into a Providence with highest command.
10. Sidney having taken the charge upon him, found Munster the South part of Ireland most confused, Girald Earle of Desmond, who had religiously promised all duties of a faithfull subject, and Thomas Earle of Ormond, and others, being in hot combustion amongst themselves, and breaking forth into Civill warres. Insomuch as the Queen, to take away the strife, sent for Desmond into England, and ordained a President to minister Justice thorowout that Province, with an Assistant, two Lawyers, and a Clerke. And for first President she names Sir Warham Saint-Leger, a man of long practice and experience in Irish matters.
11. In the midst of October this yeere, Sir Thomas Chaloner rendered his soule to God, being lately returned from his Embassie in Spaine, a man very famous, borne in London, and brought up in Cambridge, who had devoted himselfe as well to the Muses as to Mars. Being a young man, he served under Charles the fifth in the expedition of Algier, where being shipwrack’t, after he had swumme till his strength and his armes failed him, at the length catching hold of a cable with his teeth he escaped, not without the losse of some of this teeth. In the Raigne of Edward the sixth at Musselborough field, he fought so manfully that the Duke of Somerset Knighted him. Under Queene Elizabeth he went on an honourable Embassie to the Emperour Ferdinand, and was ordinary Ambassadour in Spaine almost foure yeeres, where in a pure and learned verse he compose five bookes De Republica Anglorum Instauranda, whilest (as he said) hee lieved, Hieme in furno, aestate in horreo, that is, In Winter in a stoove, in Summer in a barne. He was buryed in Pauls Church in London, with a sumptuous funerall according to his worth, whereat was present as chiefe mourner Cecyl, for that his sonne Thomas, who was afterward Governour to Henry Prince of Wales, was not then growne up.
ANNO DOMINI 1566
Norfolke and Leicester made Knights of the French Order. | Graine provided. | Arundell travaileth. | And Englishmen into Hungary. | James the sixth King of the Scots borne. | Queene Elizabeth congratulateth. | She visiteth the University of Oxford. | A Parliament. | The Estates urge the Queene to marriage or a Successor.| The Lords moderately. | The Commons most sharpely. | The Queene taketh it hardly. | Dangers by a successor designed. | And to the designed also. | With gentle words she appeaseth them. | She remitteth part of the Subsidy. | She nippeth the Estates in an Oration. | She openly favoureth the Queene of Scots in the Title of the succession. | The ordination of Bishops confirmed. | Promoters. | The Earle of Bedford. | The Prince of Scotland commended to the Queene of Englands protection. | The death of Mason and Sackville.
N the beginning of the yeere, Charles the ninth King of France sent Ramboullet into England to the Queen with the ensignes of the Cockle-shelled Order of Saint Michael, that she might bestow them on two Noble men of England at her choise. She chose the Duke of Norfolke and the Earle of Leicester, Leicester as most deare unto her, Norfolke as most Noble. Whom Ramboullet solemnly invested in the Queenes Court at Westminster, after he had beene himselfe honorably placed for the King his master among the Knights of St. George at Windsore. Which French Order she then held for a great honour, remembering that no Englishman had beene chosen into that Order but her father King Henry the eighth, her brother King Edward the sixth, and Charled Brandon Duke of Suffolke. Which she, being most observant of all things which pertaine to honour, grieved to see afterwards growne vile and base, when she perceived it to be prostituted as it were to every man without difference. Neither did she onely regard matters of honour, but above all things most carefull she was of the safety and welfare of her subjects. For whereas, through the unseasonablenesse of the ayre, such as were skilfull feared a dearth of graine, she not onely prohibited the transportation of graine out of England, but providently also procured great plenty to be brought in.
2. In the meane time Henry Earle of Arundell, the powerfullest Lord amongst the Nobility of the Land, after he had in a vaine hope of marriage with the Queene consumed great wealth, and his hope was quite dashed (Leicester being now in greatest power with the Queene, and his friends in Court sayling to his trust), obtained leave under colour of recovering his health, but indeed to mitigate his griefe, and voluntarily departed the Land. But others of the English Nation, who according to their innated fortitude, thought themselves borne to Armes, not to idlenesse, when Gentlemen out of all parts of Europe <which> were excited upon the fame of the warre against the Turkes, went into Hungary. Amongst whom, those of the better note were Sir John Smith cousan german to King Edward the sixth, being sonne to Jane Seimors sister, the Kings mother, Henry Champernoun, Philip Bushide, Richard Grenvill, William Gorges, Thomas Cotton, and others.
3. In June following was the Queene of Scots, to the perpetuall felicity of Britaine, happily brought to bed of her sonne James, who lately was Monarch of Britaine; which she shortly after signified to Queene Elizabeth by James Melvin. The Queene, though shee inwardly grieved that she was prevented by her emulator of the honour of being a mother, yet sent she forthwith Sir Henry Killegrew to congratulate her delivery and the birth of her sonne, and to put her in minde no more to favour Shan O-Neal who then rebelled in Ireland, or to harbour Christopher Rokesbey, a fugitive out of England, and also to punish certaine Rank-riders upon the borders.
4. Queene Elizabeth now making her Progresse into the Country to recreate her minde, that she might shew her selfe no lesse gracious to the Muses at Oxford then at Cambridge, which gently envyed one another, went to the University of Oxford, where, being magnificently intertained, she stayed seven dayes, being much delighted with the pleasantnesse of the place, the beautifulnesse of the Colleges, and the wits and most exquisite learning of the Students, who spent a great part of the night in Comedies and Tragedies, and the dayes in learned disputations, for which shee gave them large thankes in a Latin Oration with singular sweetnesse of speech, and so most graciously bade them farewell.
5. As soone as she returned to London, the Estates of the Realme assembled themselves in great number the first of November, being the day appointed by summons; and after they had passed a bill or two, they began to dispute sharply about the succession, for that the Queen as it were vowed to virginity, did now in full 8 yeeres think nothing seriously of a husband, and on the one side the Papists propounded unto themselves the Queene of Scots, which had newly brought forth a sonne, and on the other wise the Protestants with different affections propounded to themselves, some one man, and some another, and every of them having respect to his owne security and Religion presaged the stormes of a most fearfull time, if she should dye without a certaine successor. And so farre brake forth their sharpe and hot spirits that they taxed the Queene, as if she neglected her Country and posterity, defamed Cecil with slaunders and scandalous books, as a corrupt Counsellour in this matter, and cursed Huic the Queenes Phisition, as a disswader of her marriage for I wot not what womanish impotency. The Earles also of Pembroke and Leicester and others openly, and the Duke of Norfolke more closely, thought that an husband was to be imposed upon the Queene, or a successor to bee publickly designed by an Act of Parliament, even against the Queenes will. Whereupon they were excluded out of the Presence Chamber, and prohibited accesse to the Queene. But they soone submitted themselves to the Queene, and obtained pardon.
6. Yet they and the rest of the higher House, being carefull for a successor, besought the Queene with all earnestnesse by the mouth of Bacon Lord Keeper their Speaker, according to the duty which they owe to God, their Alleageance to their Prince, and love to their Country, that forasmuch as by her they now quietly enjoyed all the benefites of Peace, Justice, and Clemency, both they and their posterity might securely and alwayes enjoy the same by her. But (say they) they cannot enjoy the same, unlesse she marry, and withall designe a Successor. Above all things therefore they doe wish and pray her that she will joyne her selfe in the sacred bond of marriage to whomsoever, wheresoever, and how soone soever it may please her, to the end she may have children to bee Pillars of the Realme; and withall that she will with the Estates of the Realme constitute and appoint a Successor, if shee or her children (which God forbid) should dye without issue. That they should so earnestly begge this, which is so mainely necessary, there are (say they) many causes, to wit, the fresh feare which invaded all men, when very lately her health was indangered; the opportunity of the time, when the Estates of the Realme were now assembled, who would maturely deliberate of so weighty matters; the terror which she should strike into her adversaries; and the immortall joy wherewith shee should replenish all her subjects. They commend the example of her Ancestours, which in such cases have prudently provided for the security of their posterity, condemning that spech of Pyrrhus, who said hee would leave the Kingdome to him which had the sharpest sword. Moreover they propound how great a storme of calamities would hang over England if she should put off her mortality, designing no certain Successour; that seditions and Civill warres would breake forth, wherein the victory itselfe were most miserable; that Religion would be abolished, Justice smothered, the Lawes trodden under feet, when there would be no certaine Prince, which is the soule of the Lawe, and that the Kingdome would fall as a prey to forrainers. And other calamities of that sort they reckon up and exaggerate, wherein all men would be involved if she should dye without issue. Out of the sacred Scriptures also they modestly joyne hereunto precepts, counsels, and examples.
7. But in the lower House, some there were which handled these things more tumultuously, namely, Bell and Monson great Lawyers, Dutton, Paul Wentworth, and others, which rent the authority of the Queenes Majesty too much, and amongst other things imputed that Kings are bound to designe a Successour, that the love of the subjects is the strongest, yea the impregnable Fort of Princes, and their onely prop and pillar. But this love Princes cannot get, unlesse they cause that it may goe well with their subjects, not onely while they live themselves, but after their deaths also. And this can by no meanes be effected, unlesse there be a Successor certainely knowne. That the Queene by not designing a Successor, doth both provoke the wrath of God and alienate the hearts of her people. But, that she may have God favorable to her, and her people most loving and fast tyed unto her, and that she may erect Statues for her selfe in mens mindes never to decay, let her designe a Successour. If not, she may be spoken of as a nurse, not as a mother of her Country, but as a step-mother, nay, as a parricide of her Country, which had rather that England which now breathed with her breath, should together with her expire, then survive her.That no Prince but cowards, and such as are hated of their owne people, and timorous women, have ever stood in feare of their Successours, and the dangers of a designed Successour are not to be feared of that Prance which is fortified with the love of his people.
8. All this Queen Elizabeth heard with much discontentment, yet for a while she either contemned it, or concealed it within her brest. For she knew, being taught by experience, how great danger would threaten her by having a Successour designed, forasmuch as in the Raigne of Queen Mary many of the Nobility and people had cast their eyes and minds upon her, because she was to succeede her; whatsoever was said or done in the Queenes private Chamber, or Privy Councell, they presently revealed unto her; and Wyat and others, not content with their estate, and greedy of innovation, had conspired against Queene Mary, to place her in the Throne, when she full little thought of it. She knew that the hopes of competitours would be better kept in, and themselves contained in their duty, while shee held them every one in suspence and expectance, and proclaimed none. She knew that children, out of an over-hasty desire to raigne, had taken armes against their owne Parents; neither could there any greater kindnesse be expected from kinred. She had observed in reading, and discoursing now and then she called to remembrance, that successours in a collaterall line had seldome been proclaimed, that Lewis of Orleance, Successor to Charles the eighth, and Francis of Angolesme, Successour to Lewis in the Kingdome of France, were never declared, yet succeeded they without any stirre. That the designation also in England had ever beene the undoing of them that had been designed. For Roger Mortimer Earle of March, designed heire to the Crowne by King Richard the second, was in short time extinct; his sonne Edmund was for no other cause shut up in prison in Ireland full twenty yeeres, and there languished to death. John De-la-Poole Earle of Lincolne, designed Successour by Richard the third when his sonne was dead, was alwaies suspected by Henry the seventh, and in the end, attempting new matters, was slaine in the field; and his brother Edmund beheaded under Henry the eighth. But these things may seeme beside the purpose.
9. But whereas there were some which ceased not with vehemency of minde and sharpe inforcement, daily more and more to urge and exclaime these things which I have said, and more biting speeches then these also, she caused thirty of the highest House, and as many of the Lower, to be picked out, and to come before her, whom with gentle reprehension she appeased, and with her Majesty, wherein was very much authority, diverted them from their purpose, promising largely not onely the care of a Prince, but also the affection of a mother. And whereas the Estates had offered farre greater subsidies then they were wont, upon condition that she would designe a certaine Successour, she flatly refused that extraordinary offer, accepted an ordinary summe, commending their affection, and freely remitted the fourth payment of the subsidy that was granted, saying that money in her subjects cofers was as well as in her owne.
10. The last day of this Parliament shee made a short speech to the Estates to this effect, which I will more shortly abridge. Whereas Princes words doe enter more deepely into mens eares and mindes, take these things from our mouth. I that am a lover of the simple Truth, have ever thought you likewise to be ingenuous lovers of the same. But I have been deceived. For I have found that in this Parliament Dissimulation hath walked up and downe, masked under the vizard of Liberty and Succession. Of your number some there are which have thought that Liberty to dispute of the Succession, and to establish the same, is forthwith either to be granted or denyed. If we had granted it, these men had had their desire, and had triumphed over us. And if we had denyed it, they thought to have moved the hatred of our people against us, which our mortallest enemies could never yet doe. But their wisdome was unseasonable, and their counsels over-hasty, neither did they foresee the event. Yet hereby we have easily perceived who incline towards us, and who are adverse unto us. And wee see that your whole house may be devided into foure sorts. For some have been plotters and authours, some actors, which with smooth words have perswaded, some which have consented being seduced with smooth words, and some which have beene silent, admiring such boldnesse; and these certainely are the more excusable. Doe ye thinke that we neglect your safety and security by the Succession? Or that we have a will to infringe your Liberty? Be it farre from us. We never thought it. But indeed we thought good to call you backe when ye were running into the pit. Every thing hath his fit season. Ye may peradventure after us have a wiser Prince; but a more loving towards you, ye shall never have. For our part, whether we may see such a Parliament againe, wee know not. But for you, take heed, lest ye provoke your Princes patience. Neverthelesse, of this be assured, that we thinke very well of most of you, and doe imbrace every one of you with our former kindenesse, even from our heart.
11. Thus by a womans wisdome she suppressed these commotions, which Time so qualified, shining ever cleerer and cleerer, that very few, but such as were seditious or timorous, were troubled with care about a Successour. And certainely the most sort of men, whatsoever they pretend, have no more feeling in publicke matters then concerneth their owne private. Neverthelesse, that the Successour might be the more certainely knowne, whom shee, according to the most undoubted right intended, she cast Thornton into the Tower, being at this time Reader of Law in Lincolnes Inne in London; of whom the Queene of Scots complained, that in his reading he had called her Title in question.
12. In this Assembly of the Estates (besides other things for the benefit of the Common-wealth), a declaration was made by joynt consent of all men, That the election, consecration, confirmation, and investiture of the Archbishops and Bishops of England (which some had by way of calumniation called in question) were lawfull, and that the said Bishops were elected and consecrate rightely, and according to the Actes and Statutes of the Realme. And it was also enacted, That both they, and those which were from thenceforth in like manner to be consecrated, were and should be rightly and duly consecrate, any Law and Canon to the contrary whatsoever notwithstanding. For the Papists depraved them as false and counterfeite Bishops, peradventure for that the Unction, the Ring, the Crosier-staffe, with the Benediction were not used; and as if they were not ritely ordinated by three Bishops, which might by an ascending line referre their ordination to the Apostolike authority received from Christ. Which notwithstanding (as by the Registers appeareth), they might most truely have done, being consecrated with devout prayers, godly invocation of the holy Spirit, the imposition of three such Bishops hands, a Sermon preached, and the celebration of the Lords Supper.
13. About this time was restrained by wholesome severity the insolents of certaine bad people, which here and there offered violence, beat, and openly in the streetes cryed out against those Informers whom the vulgar sort call Promoters. About the same time also approached the day appointed for the baptizaing of the Prince of Scotland; at whose Christening the Queene of England being requested to be Godmother, sent the Earle of Bedford with a Font of gold for a present, and commanded expressly that neither he, nor the Englishmen that were in his company, should give the Lord Darly the Title of King.
14. The solemnity being finished, the Earle of Bedford, according to his instructions, dealt with the Queene of Scots, that the domesticall jarrings betwixt her and her husband might be compounded (for certaine ill-willers, sworne enemies to them both, had cunningly taken away that most sweet society of life and love betwixt them), and that the Treaty of Edenborough might be confirmed. This latter she flatly denyed, alleaging that there was somewhat in the Treaty which might be prejudiciall to her and her childrens Title to the Crowne of England. Yet shee promised to send Commissioners to England to treate of the confirming thereof, some things being altered, to wit, that she should abstaine from the Title and Armes of Englan, as long as Queene Elizabeth and those which should bee borne of her should live, as if it were conceived in the Treaty that she should abstaine from them altogether. Which Commissioners should also informe her how fouly shee was wrong’d through the bad practices of those that too much abused the ingenuous credulity of her husband. And now being sicke and weake, she commended by her Letters her young sonne to the trust and protection of Queene Elizabeth, wherein though shee knew (I use the very words of her Letter) that shee was undoubted heire of England after the Queene, and that many men forged much matter against her Title, she promised that she would no longer urge any declaration of her Title, but with all affection assist, and alwayes adhere unto her against all men.
15. This yeere and the same day dyed two of the Privy Councell, John Mason Treasurer of the Queenes Chamber, a grave and learned man, a great intruder into Ecclesiasticall livings; and Sir Richard Sackvill Under-Treasurer of the Exchequer, a provident wise man, and the Queenes kinsman by his mother, which was a Bolen. In this Sackvils place was substituted Sir Walter Mildmay, an upright and most advised man; and in the roome of the other succeeded Sir Francis Knolles, who had married Catherine Cary, the Queenes cousin german by Mary Bolen.
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