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A Parliament holden. | Laws made. | A Fifteene and a Tenth what it is. | A Subsidy what it is. | Throckmorton taken prisoner. | English auxiliary Forces in France. | Queene Elizabeth advertiseth the Spaniard of her Forces sent into France. | His answer. | The Hostages for Calice seeke to fly away. | The French Protestants forsake the English. | Warre denounced on both sides. | The French Inhabitants thrust out of New-haven. | It is offered for Calice. | The pestilence amongst the Souldiers.| New-haven beseiged. | Yeelded up. | Publique rejoycing for the same in France. | A sore Plague at London. | Marriage propounded again to the Queene of Scots. | The Queene of England commendeth unto her Robert Dudley for a husband. | The French disswade her. | The Scots insult over their Queene. | The Death of the Lord Grey. | And the Bishop of Aquila. | The Spaniard more enraged against the English. | The death of the Lord Paget. | The highest degrees of honour. | The death of the Earle of Rutland. | The death of the Dutchesse of Suffolke.

N the moneth of January the Estates of the Realme assembled at Westminster and made wholesome Lawes for the reliefe of the poore, for matter of the Navy, for maintenance and increase of tillage, for punishing of vagabonds, forgers of evidences, clippers, washers, rounders, and filers of money, phantasticall Prophecies, Conjurers or Sorcerers, buggerers, and perjurers, for translating the Bible and divine Service into the Welsh tongue; and also for preservation of the Queenes Majestie and the Realme, and avoyding of inconveniences and dishonours which have fallen by meanes of the usurped authority of the Bishop of Rome. And to the end to restraine the boldnes of those which maintained the same, they enacted that they should be guilty of high Treason which by writing, word, or deed, should thrice maintaine the authority of any forraine Prince, Prelate, or State, in spirituall matters in England or other the Queenes Dominions, and which should refuse the oath of the Queenes Supremacy in causes spirtuall or over persons Ecclesiasticall, the same being tendered unto them twice. Yet so as neither they should be attainted in blood, nor their goods and lands confiscate, nor that this oath should be exacted of any Baron of the Realme, or any of most eminent dignity (for that the Qeene doubted not of their faithfull obedience), nor of any man also but which was, had beene, or should beare Ecclesiasticall Orders, or then bare, had borne, or should beare Ecclesiasticall function, or being warned, should not observe the Rites and Ceremonies of the Church of England, or should deprave the same by publicke word or deed, or should celebrate or heare Masse, etc. as is to be seen in the Statute. Moreover the Estates congratulating the happinesse of the times graunted unto the Queene for Religion reformed, peace restored, England with Scotland freed from the forreine enemy, money refined, the Navy renewed, warlike munition by sea and land provided, and for the laudable enterprize in France for the securing of England, and of the young King of France, and the recovering of Calice [Calais], they graunted (I say) the Eccliasticall men one subsity, and the Laity another, with two Fifteenes and Tenths. A Fifteen and a Tenth (that I may note it for forrainers sakes) is a certain taxation upon every City, Borrough, and Towne, not upon every particular man, but in generall, in respect of the fifteenth part of the wealth of the places. A Subsidy we call that which is imposed upon every man, being cessed by the powle [assessed by the poll], man by man, according to the valuation of their goods and lands. But neither is this nor the other taxation imposed, but by consent of the Estates in Parliament.
  2. In the meane time the Prince of Condey, while he poasted to the English auxiliary Forces in Normandy, was intercepted in that memorable battel of Dreux, and taken prisoner by the Duke of Guise; and together amongs others, Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, who was present at the battel, being before voluntarily taken prisoner by the Protestants, that he might impart certain secret Counsels with him. But within a while after he was set at liberty, and payed the money agreed upon to Coligny, who with the auxiliary Companies marched to the Castle of Caen, which he then besieged, and with their helpe the sooner forced Caen, Baieux, Faleise, and the Church of Saint Lo to surrender.
3. Whilest these things are done in France, Queene Elizabeth ,by Chaloner her Ambassadour in Spaine, signified to the King that shee had sent over an Army into France to the end to prevent the Guises in time, who insulted against her and plotted her destruction, before they should transferre the warre into England, and to hold New-haven being delivered into her hands untill she was satisfied for Calice. He answered, if Calise were all that were sought, he for his part wished it with his heart. But if the warre were undertaken for Religion, hee could not neglect the ancient Religion. As for the Guises, how weake ones (saith he) are they, that the most potent Queene of England should feare them, who have no affinity with the French as in former times? In England also the Bishop of Aquila the Spanish Ambassadour many times told the Queene that in this warre the Spaniard neither would nor could forsake his brother the French King. To whom she made no other answer but that English Proverbe, Every man must defend his owne house, and I mine. Neither was the Spaniard ignorant that the Queene at the same time earnestly sollicited the Protestants of Germany by Henry Knolles and Christopher Monts to relieve Condey, and defend the common cause of Religion. Whereat he also taking displeasure, sought causes secretly against her even in respect to Religion.
4. In the meane time, the French Hostages which were sent into England for five hundred thousand Crownes for restoring of Calice, when they saw all things to tend to warre, made preparation for their flying away, but when they were ready to take shipping they were brought back againe, together with John Ribald that famous Pilot, who was come secretly into England to convey them away. A peace in the meane while was agreed upon in France, betweene the King and Condey (who was fed with hope of the Lieutenancy generall in France, and of marriage with the Queene of Scots) and the Protestants, without any regard had to the Queene of England. Who all with one voyce protested that unlesse the English would depart from New-haven, the Covenant in the Treaty of the Castle of Cambray for restoring of Calice should be voyde, and by publicke Proclamation liberty was given all Frenchmen to invade all Englishmen, take, and rob them, as long as they should hold New-haven. The same liberty the Queene of England likewise graunted to the English, that they might hold all Frenchmen (except those that dwelt in London) for enemies, as long as they should detaine Calice. Hereupon incredible it is with how great a Fleet the English invaded the seas, and shut up the French, yea, and the Spaniards also, insomuch as the Queene was faine to excuse their piraticall insolency against the Spaniards by her Ambassadour, and to restraine them by Proclamation.
5. The Earle of Warwick, Governour of New-haven, when he perceived the wavering fidelity of the Townesmen being French, who now upon a slight rumour of peace held secret counsels both amongst themselves and with the Rhinegrave (who lay with a power of men in the Country adjoyning) for betraying the Towne and shutting out the English, he removed out of the Towne all the French, as well Protestants as Papists without difference, and layed hands on their ships. Which the French tooke very hardly, complaining that the English intended not so much the protection of the afflicted Frenchmen as the possession of the place, and taxed them as injurious to strangers. Certainely, nothing in old time more alienated the Normans, Acquitanians, Poictons, and the rest under the English Jurisdiction in France, than that they held them in no other degree then forreiners. And now the French provide all things most diligently for the siege of the Towne, and withall the King and Conde earnestly sollicite in England by Briquemot and D’Aluy for the rendering of New-haven; neither did the Queen refuse it upon these conditions: If the King of Spain would become surety for the restoring of Calice within the time prefixed; if the Treaty at the Castle of Cambray might be confirmed by the oaths of the King, the Queene mother, and the Princes of the blood, and approved in every Parliament of France, and Hostages of the chiefe Nobility delivered.
6. In the meane time the pestilence raged very sore at New-haven among the Garrison Soldiers; and of the Souldiers sent thither to relieve them, two hundred perished by ship-wracke, with their Leader Sir Thomas Finch Knight, and two brethren of the Lord Wentworths. Whereby when there was small hope of holding the Towne, Sir Thomas Smith the Ordinary Ambassadour in France was commanded to propound the restoring of it for Calice, and that the matter should be compounded by the arbitrement even of the Spaniard who had marryed the French Kings sister. But they utterly refused saying that the French King acknowledged no superiour, nor would referre his matters to the arbitrement of any Prince. And Sir Nicholas Throckmorton they laid hold on, being sent with charge and Instructions for these matters, suspecting that he, being a man skilfull in stirring up hurly-burlyes, was returned to raise commotions, charging him that he was come into France without publicke warrantise, whereas notwithstanding he had both Letters of credence and other Letters also from the French Ambassadour in England. Neither would they once heare him, being certainely perswaded that New-haven would shortly be wonne, by reason of the raging pestilence. Thither now was come the Constable Monmorency with the chiefe of the Nobility, and soone after Condey himselfe witht he flowre of the Protestants. To the English that greatly admired the change of the French Protestants mindes, it was answered, that a peace being now concluded, they must fight with joynt forces not for Religion, but for their Country. Montmorency sent a Trumpet to Warwick, to summon him to yeeld up the Towne; who sent him back with Sir Hugh Powlett, who told him that the English were ready to undergoe all extremities, rather than yeeld up the place without the Queenes commandement. So the workes being raised, and the battery continued many dayes, breaches made, the Conduits stopped, and the water drawne out of the ditch, which lay higher then the Sea, the French urge the assault, the English with stout confidence resist them with all their might, more men perishing by force of the pestilence then by the sword of the enemy.
7. These things when Queene Elizabeth understood, lamenting with teares the most afflicted estate of her people, lest she might seeme to expose her most stout men any longer to the pestilence and sword, having by a publicke writing commended the valour of her Leaders and Souldiers, shee commanded Warwick to agree with the French about a surrender upon reasonable conditions; who sent Powlett, Sir Maurice Dennis Treasurer of the Garrison, Horsey, and Pelham to Montmorency about yeelding up the Towne, and soone after they agreed upon these conditions, That the Towne with all the munitions, ships and goods which belonged to the French King and his subjects, should bee rendered up; that the greater Towre of the Towne should forthwith be delivered into the hands of Montmorency; that the prisoners taken on both sides should be delivered without ransome; and that the English, with all things that belonged to the Queene and them, should freely depart within sixe dayes, if the wind served. The Hostages delivered were Sir Olivar Manours, the Earl of Rutlands brother, Leighton, Pelham, and Horsey. The last that stayed was Colonell Edward Randolph, who in piety never sufficiently commended spared not to carry the poore Souldiers sicke and labouring of the plague upon his shoulders into the ships. Thus New-haven, having beene more grievously assailed by the pestilence then by the enemy, was left to the French, after that the English had held it eleven moneths. In which time, besides common Souldiers, there were taken away by the plague Somerset, John Zouch, Albery Darcy, Drury, Entwessell, Ormesby, Vaghan, Croker, Cockson, Prowd, Saul, Kemis, brave Commanders. There were slaine two Tremayns brothers, Sanders, Bromfield the Master Gunner, Robinson Bailive of the Towne, Strangways a man famous for Sea-service, and Goodale a most skilfull myner.
8. For the recovery of this little Towne, the French King gave immortall thankes to God publickely, the Papists all over France triumphed for joy, making their bragges that the English were cast out of France by the helpe of the same Protestants by whom they were called into France, and that thereby were sowne the seeds of discord betweene the English and the Protestants of France. Hospital the Chancellour, congratulating this felicity to the French in a long Oration, to amplifie the same reported out of a false rumour that the English Fleet came with new supplyes of men within sight of the Towne the next day after it was yeelded up; and he pronounced that by this warre the English had quite forfeited their Title and right to claime Calice. The Soldiers that were brought backe into England sicke of the plague dispersed the force thereof with such a contagious pestilence, that it grievously afflicted the whole Realmee; and out of the City of London alone, which consisteth of a hundred twenty one Parishes, there were carried forth to burying about 21130 corpses.
9. Whereas in the heate of the Civill warre in France, the Duke of Guise the Queene of Scots uncle was slaine, her Dowry money not payed out of France, Hamilton Duke of Castle-herault deprived of his Dukewome, and the Scots excluded from the Captainship of the Guard in France, she certainely tooke these things very heavily. The Cardinall of Loraine another of her uncles, fearing lest hereupon she forsaking the French, should apply her selfe to the amity of the English, propounded unto her againe by Croc the marriage with Charles of Austria, tendering her the County of Tyrol in Dowry. She imparteth the matter to Queene Elizabeth, who by Randolph advised her the same things which I have before spoken, of taking her an husband, and then more expressly commended unto her for an husband Robert Dudley (whose wife being Robert’s heire, had dyed of late by a fall from a steepe place), and promised her that if shee would marry him, she should by authority of Parliament be declared her sister, or daughter, and heire of England, in case she should dye without issue. As soone as the Queene mother and her uncles in France understood this by Foix the French Ambassadour in England, they so disdained this marriage with Dudley as altogether disparageable, and most unworthy of the blood Royall and regall Majesty, that they promised not onely payment of her Dowry money unto her, but also to the Scots the confirmation of their ancient liberties, and more ample liberties also, if she would firmely persist in the French amity, and reject that tendered marriage. They suggested under her also that Queene Elizabeth propounded this marriage not seriously, but colourably, as if shee had pointed out Dudley to be an husband for her owne selfe; neither was there any confidence in the authority of Parliament, for in England what one Parliament established, another repealed. Besides, the counsels and designes of England did ayme at nothing else but to keepe her by any cunning from marrying at all. Yet she referred the matter to a conference, being in the meane time sore troubled and vexed at home, whilest Murray cast the Archbishop of Saint Andrewes in prison because he had not abstained from celebrating Masse, for which he hardly obtained pardon with many teares, and the hot Ministers of the Church, borne out by Murrays authority, offered violence to a Priest that said Masse at Court (which by Law was allowed), and yet they escaped without punishment. Neither was she able to suppresse those that were up in commotion, though she tooke all the care she could for the Common-wealth, graunting a generall pardon, augmenting the Judges stipends, making wholesome Laws, instituting the paine of death upon adulterers, and often hearing causes in Court of Justice, that shee might with an even hand containe the highest with the lowest.
10. In this sorrowfull yeere dyed to the great griefe of the Protestants William Lord Gray of Wilton, Governour of Barwick, a man flourishing in military glory, having much wasted his Patrimony by meanes of a heavy ransome which he payed, being taken prisoner in France; to whom succeeded in the government of Berwick Francis Earle of Bedford.
11. With no lesse sorrow to the Papists, dyed also Alvares a Quadra, Bishop of Aquila, the Spanish Ambassadour in England, who had cherished their hopes of restoring the Romish Religion in Enland, and was most deare and inward with the Pooles, of whom I have spoken before. Whereby he grew to be suspected, as if he bent himselfe wholly to trouble the quiet estate of England and to breake off the amity betwixt the Queene and the Spaniard, that the Queene sollicited the Spaniard to have him called home. But hee excused in respect of piety, and wrote backe that Princes were in a sorry case if for every displeasure their Ambassadours must be called home. Certainely hee tooke it in disdaine that this his Ambassadour was without his privity confined within his house, subjected to examinations, and publickely reprehended, and all for no other cause then that he received into his house an Italian that fled thither, having discharged a Pistoll against another, and had secretly conveyed him away. From this time the Spaniard was more incensed against the English, taking occasion for that the English Pirates invested the French upon the coastes of Spaine and intended to set forth a voyage into West India. And this his conceived anger he manifestly discovered, by sending Richard Shelly an Englishman (that had fled for Religion, and bare a most hatefull minde to his Prince) of an honourable Embassie to Maximilian King of Romans designed, to congratulate him, and by laying hands on certaine English merchant ships in the havens of Baetica, now called Andoluzea, for that the English in pursuing the French had taken certaine ships of the Spaniards.
12. This yeere also departed this life William Lord Paget, a man well growne in yeeres, and one whose vertue had raised him to very great honours. For by his singular learning and wisedome hee deserved so well that King Henry the eighth tooke him for his Secretary, sent him Ambassadour to Charles the Emperour and to Francis the first King of France, and named him amongst the Curators of the Realme in the minority of his sonne; King Edward the sixth made him Chancellour of the Dutchy of Lancaster and Controller of the Houshold, raised him to the honour of a Baron, honoured him with the Garter of Saint George (which notwithstanding Dudley Duke of Northumberland disgracefully tooke from him, and Queene Mary with honour restored, as to one that by his wisdome and counsell had deserved passing well of the Common-wealth), and made him Lord Privy Seale, which among the highest degrees of Civill honour is the fourth (for King Henry the eighth graunted by Act of Parliament the first place to the Lord Chancellour, the second to the Lord Treasurer, the third to the President of the Kings Councell, and the fourth to the Lord Privy Seale, and above all Dukes also, excepting the Kings sonnes, brethren, uncles, and nephews). Queene Elizabeth, when he was by reason of his age unfit for imployment, eased him of the publicke care according as he desired, and held him most deare though most devoted to the Romis Religion. He left three sonnes, Henry and Thomas, who succeeded one another in the Barony, and Charles whom I am often to speake of. Certaine daughters also he left, matched into Noble houses.
13.Him Henry Manours, or De Maneriis, Earle of Rutland, accompanied to a better life, being sonne of Thomas the first Earle of this family, and nephew of George Lord Roos, by the daughter of Thomas Saint Leger (alias Sellenger or De Sancto Lodegaria) and Anne his wife (being sister to King Edward the fourth, brought very much honour to this family), and great grandsonne to Robert, who having married the daughter and heire of the most ancient Baron Roos, brought to this Family goodly revenewes and the Title of Lord Roos. This Henry begate on Margaret Nevil, daughter of Ralph Earle of Westmorland, two sonnes, Edward and John, in their order Earles of Rutland, and a daughter married to William Courtney of Ponderham.
14. Francesse Dutchesse of Suffolke let her wretched life this yeere, being daughter to Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolke by Mary second sister to Henry the eighth, and Queen Dowager of France, after shee had seene her daughter the Lady Jane proclaimed Queene of England, and soone after beheaded, her husband shortly after taken away by the same death, the Lady Catharine her second daughter married to the Earle of Pembrokes sonne, divorced, and now shut up in the Towre, and the Lady Mary her third daughter unequally matched in marriage with Keys Groom-porter at the Court; and she her selfe forgetting the Nobility of her linage, had marryed Adrian Stokes, a meane Gentleman, to her dishonour, yet for her security. 



Peace betwixt France and England. | The Articles of the peace. | The French King chosen into the Order of the Garter. | Don Diego. | The English hardly handled in Spain. | And in the Low Countries. | Mutual complaints of the Netherlanders and the English. | English marchandies prohibited in the Netherlands. | The English settle their Staple at Emden. | Gusman laboureth to reconcile them. | The English wooll the Golden Fleece of Burgundy. | A rich trading betwixt the English and the Netherlanders. | Restored by Gusmans mediation. | Queene Elizabeth commeth to see Cambridge. | She raiseth Robert Dudley to honours. | He accuseth Bacon. | Divers opinions concerning the succession. | The Queene of Scots calleth home Lenox into Scotland. | The Genealogie. | The causes of calling home Lenox. | The Queene of England seketh to prevent her. | She commendeth Leicester againe. | A conference about a marriage with Leicester. | The Queene of Scots sutors.

OW did France insult, having recovered peace at home which hee did owe in a manner to the Queene of England. For they had the more gladly concluded the same amongst themselves, that they might stop the breach against the inundation of the English, being not unmindefull what great slaughters they had made in old time, being called into France by the Duke of Burgundy upon a private grudge. When by this meanes the heate of warre betwixt the French and the English was rather smothered then any firme peace knit, the Queene, having beene neglected by the ungratefull Protestants of France, resolved to take no longer care of other mens estates with perill of her owne, but deliberately betooke her selfe to cogitation of peace; which she assailed by the negotiation of Sir Thomas Smith a wise man and excellently well learned; and the French harkened thereunto. Throckmorton, who then lived in France as it were in free custody, was joyned with him in procuring a peace. France commited the matter to the Moruillier Bishop of Orleans and Jacques Burdin Secretary; who in the moneth of Aprill consented to these conditions of peace at Troys in Champaign: Neither party shall invade other. The one shall not aide any that invadeth the other. Private mens facts shall binde themselves onely. Commerce shall be free. Traitors and Rebels shall not be received. Reservation of rights and Titles also, actions, demands, and claimes which they have or pretend to have one against the other respectively, shall remaine to them safe and whole; and in like manner defences and exceptions shall be reserved. The next day they agreed upon these Articles following, by themselves apart: A certaine summe of money shall be repayed to Queene Elizabeth at times prefixed. Upon the payment of sixe hundred and twenty thousands Crownes, the hostages shall be delivered out of England; and Throckmorton shall returne free into his Country after confirmation of the League. The French testified their joy for this peace by making of Bonfires openly, according to custome. The Queene of England confirmed it by oath, in presence of Gonor and Foix, and within a while after the French King did the like in presence of the Lord Hunsdon; who the same time solemnly invested him into the Order of Saint George, with the Garter, a Robe of honour, a chaine of collar wrought with Roses, with the Image of Saint George hanging at it, etc.
2. In these dayes came Ambassadour into England in the roome of the Bishop of Aquila, who was deceased certaine moneths before, Don Diego, or Didaco Gusman de Sylva, Chanon of Toledo, a man venerable for his gravity and Priestly habit. During this interim the English were more hardly dealt withall in Spaine, by the procurement of Don Roderico Gomez de Sylva, in hatred of their Religion. But the Duke of Alva tempered the matter, whether in love towards the English as he pretended, or hatred against Gomez, a man cannot well say. The English also were hardly intreated in the Netherland Provinces of the Spaniard, while Cardinall Granvill in hatred also of their Religion went about to set the English and the Netherlanders (being both Nations happy by mutuall commerce) at variance one against the other. For through his procurement the Netherlanders complained the last yeere by Assenville that greater customes then ordinary were layed upon their marchandizes in England (which notwithstanding was done in the Raigne of Philip and Mary), and also that many of the Netherlanders mechanicall workes were by Act of Parliament prohibited to be brought into England. The English in like manner complained that their goods were confiscated in the Netherlands for very light causes by authority of a certaine new Edict whereby marchandies were forbidden to be exported, that passage through the Netherland Provinces with horses, Salt-peter, gun-powder out of Italy and Germany, was prohibited, that most grievous imposts, and such as were never before heard of, were most rigorously exacted for victuals, anchorages, houses, etc., and all this contrary to the League of commerce heretofore concluded, called The great Intercourse.
3. Meane while the Dutchesse of Parma, Governesse of the Lowe Countreies, forbideth first the matter of stuffe of the marchandies prohibited in England to be carried into England out of the Low Countries; and soone after forbiddeth the English cloathes to be brought into the Netherlands, seeking a colour thereof by reason of the plague which raged very lately in England; indeed through the subtill counsell of the Cardinall of Granvill, to the end that the English Clothiers, and those that in great number depended upon them, might be stirred up to commotion when their cloaths were not exported, and in the meane time clothing might be set up in the Netherlands, to the damage of the English. The English, stomaking this, take occasion as if they stood in feare of the Inquisition of Spaine now brought into the Netherlands, and forseeing future tumult in the Netherlands, settle their Mart or Staple of cloathes and English marchandies at Emden upon the river Ems in Friesland. On the other side the Gouvernesse of the Netherlands forbiddeth by Edict all Netherlanders to trade with the English at Emden or elsewhere, or to bring any marchandies bought of them into the Netherlands, upon paine of confiscation.
4. These courses Gusman thought to bee sharp and damageable to both parts. For he, being a wise man, knew how great wealth redounded to the Netherlands by the English mens trafficke; whence it was that Lodovic Malanus Earle of Flanders, about the yeere 1338, allured the English by graunting them most ample priviledges to settle the Staple of English wooll at Bruges in Flanders. For from that time ever since, through the resort of almost all Nations into Flanders to buy clothes of English wooll and other English marchandies, retailing, shipping, and fishing hath flourished among the Netherlanders. Insomuch as the English wooll hath beene to them the true golden Fleece, whereunto that famous Order of the Knight-hood of the Golden Fleece hath beene beholden for the originall, and the Dukes of Burgundy have beene indebted for their wealth. Certainely in these our dayes (I speake it out of bookes of Accounts), the commerce betwixd the English and the Netherlanders hath amounted to above twelve millions of Dukats every yeere, and the English clothes (to say nothing of Lead, Tinne, etc.) five millions of Dukats. Hence it was that hee laboured to compound the matter, and so wrought that the commerce which had beene stopped was restored to the former state, and whatseover had beene decreed and ordained on both sides from the first of January in the first yeere of Queene Elizabeth, was suspended till more full order were taken by Commissioners on both sides.
5. But the next yeere following, when the Lord Vicount Montacute, Nicholas Wotton, and Walter Haddon, Master of the Requests, for the English, Montigni, Assonville, and Joachim Giles for the Netherlanders, began once or twice to treate of these things at Bruges, the tumults in the Netherlands renewing, interrupted the Conference, after that it was agreed that there should bee free commerce till the one Prince should denounce the contrary to the other, the marchants on both sides being warned thereof forty dayes before, that they might provide for themselves and their marchandises.
6. These matters being compounded abroad, the Queene went in progresse to take the pleasures of the Country, and visited the University of Cambridge, one of the eyes of Britaine; where being with all kindes of honour received by the Students, and delighted with Comedies, Tragedies, and Scholasticall disputations, she survayed every Colledge, and in a Latin Oration acknowledged their love and kindenesse, commending their multiplicity of learning, exhorting them to bend their whole minde and cogitations to the study of good Letters, whereof she promised to deserve well.
7. At her returne she created Robert Dudley, who was Master of the Horse, and flourished in highest grace with her, and whom she had with a privy purpose (as I said) to be husband of the Queene of Scots, Baron of Denbigh (giving him Denbigh with large possessions thereunto belonging) and the next day created him Earle of Leicester, to him and the heires male of his body lawfully begotten; and all to make him the more worthy of so high a marriage. For whose sake also she had before honored his eldest brother Ambrose with the title of Lord Lisle, or of the Isle,, and Earle of Warwick, To him and his lawfull heires male, and to his brother Robert, and the heires male of his body lawfully begotten. Dudley having these honours heaped upon him, to the end to winde himselfe into favour with the Queene of Scots, whom he wooed by all the offices he could, and laboured to winne her favour, forthwith accused the Lord Keeper Bacon to the Queene that he had intermeddled against the Queene of Scots in the matter of succession; and was privy to a booke, wherein Hales (whom I have before spoken of) went about to derive the Title of the Crowne of England, in case the Queene should dye without issue, to the House of Suffolke. Whereupon Hales was committed to the Towre; but Bacon (though Hales denyed it) Cecyl with much adoe and late restored to the Queenes favour, who kept his owne judgement in this point fast locked up within his owne brest, and so alwayes resolved to doe , unless (as he said) the Queene her selfe command him to deliver it. Who certainly never heard any thing more unwillingly then that the Title of succession should be called in disputation. But the wiser and wealthier sort were not more sollicitous of any thing in the world, whilest in this difference about Religion the hot Protestants thought that the Queene of Scots, though her Title were most undoubted, yet because she was of another Religion, was to be rejected upon very high and subtill points of Law; and of the Papists some, and the greatest part of all indifferent men, though she was to be admitted, as being the true and undoubted heire by Lawe; and some of them preferred Margaret the Queene of Scots aunt, and wife to Matthew Stuart Earle of Lenox, and her children, as from whom they had great hopes being borne in England. These things were not hid from the Queene of Scots, who to provent them all she could sent for Matthew Earle of Lenox into Scotland, by the advice of the Countesse of Lenox her aunt, under colour to restore him to his ancient inheritance, but indeed to consult with him about these matters; who by his wives meanes obtained both leave and Letters of commendation from Queene Elizabeth, when he had now beene a banished man out of his Country full twenty yeeres.
8. This Matthew (to fetch the matter higher for the more perspicuity) was descended of the same stocke of the Stuarts that the Royall family of the King of Scots were, and borne of their blood Royall. For Mary the daughter of James the second, King of Scots, bare to James Hamilton James, the first of that stocke Earle of Arran, and Mary a daughter, wife to Matthew Stuart Earle of Lenox, the first of this Christen name. James Earle of Arran divorcing his first wife, marryed over her head in her life time Jenetta of Betone, the Cardinall of Betones aunt, on whom he begate James Duke of Chastel-herault, whom his emulators hereupon held for illegitimate. Mary the Earle of Arrans sister bare to Matthew John Earle of Lenox, who being slaine by the Hamiltons while sought to set King James the fourth at liberty, left this second Matthew Stuart Earle of Lenox, of whom I now speake, a man most deare to James the fifth for his fathers sake. But Matthew, after the King was dead, and that the Hamiltons bare all the sway, withdrew himselfe into France; from whence being sent backe into Scotland by Henry the French King, lest the Common-wealth of Scotland should receive any detriment by Hamilton the Regent, he performed stout service. Neverthelesse being indeed a good and open-hearted man, hee was intrapped in the cunning wiles of the Cardinall of Betone and Hamilton, and within a short time lost the French Kings favour. And when he could neither stay at home nor returne into France, he came into England and put himselfe under the protection of King Henry the eighth, who gladly intertained him being a mighty man of adherents in the West parts of Scotland, and though the Hamiltons condemned him and confiscated his possessions, yet he acknowledged him the next heire to the Crowne of Scotland after Mary, being then a young infant, and gave him Margaret Douglasse his niece by his elder sister to wife, with large possessions in England to the value of seventeene hundred markes by the yeere, covenanting with him, that hee should deliver into the King of Englands hands the Castell of Donbritton and the Ile of Buth, with the Castell of Rothsay. Which things being stoutly undertaken, fayled of the successe.
9. This Matthew Earle of Lenox, the Queene of Scots being a wise and provident woman, and one which set up her rest in hope of England, sent for (as I said) into Scotland, remitted his banishment, and restored him to his ancient livings, both to oppose him against the attempts of James her base brother, whom shee had honoured with the Earledom of Murray, and also to cut off from others all hope of succession in England by this Matheew sonne Henry Lord Darly. For if he being a young man, of the blood Royall, should match into some potent family of England, she doubted lest he relying upon the strength of the English, might be some let [hinderance] unto her in her Title to the succession in England, forasmuch as in the opinion of most men he was holden to be the next heire after to the Kingdome of England. Neither was there any one thing which she more desired then that the two Kingdomes of Scotland and England might be devolved by her upon some man of the Scottish blood, and might by him be propagated to posterity in the ancient name of the Stuarts.
10. Hereof Queene Elizabeth got some inkling, who to prevent it advertised the Queene of Scots by Randolph that the marriage was generally so disliked by all the English that she had proroged the Parliament to another time against the mindes of her Councell, lest Estates of the Realme being incensed, should even for this cause enact somewhat against her Title to the succession. Which that it might not be done afterward, and that shee might give satisfaction to the English, she advised her to thinke of some other marriage; and now againe shee earnestly commended Leicester unto her for an husband, whom in this respect chiefly shee had raised to the honour of an Earle.
11. Hereupon the Earle of Bedford and Randolph, the Earle of Murray and Lidington, Commissioners on both sides, treated at Barwick in the moneth of November, about a marriage with Leicester. The English Commissioners promised inviolable amity, perpetuall peace, and assured hope of succession, if she would marry with Leicester. For upon this condition Queene Elizabeth had promised to declare her by Act of Parliament her adoptive daughter or sister, as soone as she was married. The Scottish Commissioners maintained stiffly that it stood not with the dignity of a Queene, which had been sought unto for a wife by Charles the Emperour Ferdinands sonne, by the French King, the Prince of Condey, and the Duke of Ferrara, to condescend to the marriage of a new created Earle and a subject of England, upon hope only, without Dowry; neither stood it with the Queene of Englands honour, to commend such an husband to so great a Princesse, her kinswoman, but this would be a most certaine argument of her love, if she would permit her to choose her a man at her pleasure, which would imbrace peace with England, and withall assigne unto her some annuall pension and confirme unto her the Title of succession by Act of Parliament. In all this businesse, Queene Elizabeth much desired that by this marriage the succession of both Kingdomes might be established in an English stocke, though she made but slow speed about it. The Queene of Scots, when the matter was prolonged the space of full two yeeres, and now she desitined the Lord Darly to be her husband, suspected that she was deceitfully dealt withall, and that Queene Elizabeth propounded this marriage to no other purpose but to chose for her selfe the best of all the suitors, or else marry with Leicester the more excusably, if she being an absolute Queene did first consent to the marriage of Leicester. But the Scottish Commissioners, providing for their owne private respects, had resolved to breake off any match whatsoever by any meanses, and that to maintaine their owne power with the Queene. Queene Elizabeth gave secret warning to Bedford by close Letters that he should not urge the matter. And in this hope hee was thought to have secretly favoured the Lord Darly.

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