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RITAINE, which hitherto hath, as it were, launched out with huge Promontories, looking on the one side toward Germanie, on the other side toward Ireland, now as it were affraid of the Sea violently inrushing upon it, withdraweth it selfe father in, and by making larger separations of lands retyreth backe, gathered into a farre narrower breath. For it is not past one hundred miles broad from coast to coast, which on both sides passe on in a maner with streight and direct shores Northward as farre as to Scotland. All this part well neere of the Iland, whiles the Romane Empire stood upright and flourished in Britaine, was inhabited by the Brigantes. For Ptolomee writeth that they dwelt from the East sea to the West. A nation that was right valiant, populous withall, and of especiall note among ancient Authors, who all doe name them Brigantes, unlesse it be Stephanus onely, in his booke Of Cities, who called them Brigae, in which place, that which he wrote of them is defective at this day in the bookes, by reason that the sentence is unperfect. If I should thinke that these were called Brigantes of briga, which in the ancient Spanish tongue signified a Citie, I should not satisfie my selfe, seeing it appeereth for certaine out of Strabo that it is a meere Spanish word. If I were of opinion with Goropius that out of the Low Dutch tongue they were termed Brigantes, as one would say Free-hands, should I not obtrude upon you his dreames for dainties? Howsoever the case standeth, our Britans our Welshmen, if they see any of a bad disposition and audaciously playing lawlesse and leawd parts, use to say of them by of a common merry quippe, wharret Brigans, that is, They play the Brigants. And the Frenchmen at this day, abiding as it seemeth to the ancient language of the Gaules, usually terme such leawd fellowes brigans, like as Pirats shipes brigantins. But whether the force of the word was such in old times in the Gaules or Britans language, or whether our Brigantes were such like men, I dare not determine. Yet, if my memorie faile me not, Strabo calleth the Brigantes (a people about Alpes) grassatores, that is, robbers, and Julius, a Belgian, a young man of desperat boldnesse, who counted power, authority, honestie, and vertue to be nothing but naked names, is in Tacitus surnamed Briganticus. With which kind of vice our old Brigantes may seeme to have beene tainted, when so they robbed and spoiled the neighbour inhabitants, that the Emperour Antoninus Pius for this cause tooke away a great part of their country from them, as Pausanias witnesseth, who writeth thus of them: ἀπετέμετο δὲ καὶ τῶν ἐν Βριττανίᾳ Βριγάντων τὴν πολλήν, ὅτι ἐπεσβαίνειν καὶ οὗτοι σὺν ὅπλοις ἦρξαν ἐς τὴν Γενουνίαν μοῖραν, ὑπηκόους ῾Ρωμαίων, that is, Antoninus Pius cut the Brigantes in Britaine short of a great part of their country because they beganne to take armes and in hostile maner to invade Genunia, a region subject to the Romanes. Neither will any, I hope, take this as a reproch. Surely I should seeme farre unlike my selfe if I fell now to taxe ignominiously any private person, much lesse a nation. Neither was this counted a reprochfull imputation in that warlicke age when all nations reckoned that their right, which they could winne or hold by might and dint of sword. Roberies, saith Caesar, among the Germans are not noted with any infamie, such I meane as are committed without the borders of every State, and they allow the practise thereof to exercise their youth withal, and to keepe them from ydlenesse. And for a reason not unlike, the Paeones among the Greekes are so called quia percussores, that is, because they were cutters, the Quadi among the Germans, and the Chaldaei likewise are reported to have gotten those names because they used to robbe and kill.
2. Now, in that Florianus Del Campo, a Spaniard, hath with to much affectation derived our Brigantes from Spaine from Ireland, and from thence into Britaine, grounding upon no other conjecture but that he found the Citie Brigantia in his owne country Spaine, he hath, I feare me, swarved from the Truth. For in case our Brigantes and those in Ireland had not the same name both for one cause, I had rather with my friend, the right learned Thomas Savil, judge that as well divers of our Brigantes, also other nations of Britaine, from the first comming of the Romans hither, departed into Ireland, some for desire of quietnesse and ease, others that the Lordly dominion of the Romans might not be an eiesore unto them, and others againe because they would not by their good will loose that liberty in their old age which by nature they were endowed with in their childhood. But that Claudius the Emperour was the first of all the Romans who set upon these our Brigantes and brought them under the Romane dominion, Seneca in his Play sheweth by these verses:

The Britans, such as seated are beyond the knowen Sea-coast,
And Brigants with blew peinted shields, he forced with his hoast
To yeeld their neckes in Romane chaines, as captives to be led,
And even the Ocean this new powre of Romane-ax to dread.

And yet I have beene of this mind, that they were not they conquered, but committed themselves rather unto the tuition and protection of the Romanes. For that which he poetically endited, the Historiographers do not mention. And Tacitus recordeth how by occasion at that time of certaine discords risen among the Brigantes, Ostorius, who now made preparation for new warres, was hindered and pulled backe, which he with the execution of a few easily appeased. At which time, the Brigantes had Cartismandua, a right noble and puissant Lady, for their Queene, who intercepted Caratacus and delivered him into the Romans hands. Hereupon ensued welth of welth and prosperity, roiotous and incontinent life, in so much as, forsaking her husband Venutius his bed, she joined herselfe in marriage with Vellocatus his Esquire, and made him King. Which foule fact was the overthrow shortly after of her house, and thereby a bloudy and mortall warre was enkindled. The love and affection of the country went generally with the lawfull husband, but the Queenes untemperate lust and cruelty were perpemptorie in maintaining the adulterer. She by crafty plots and mischeivous meanes intercepteth the brother and kinsfolke of Venutius. Venutius againe for his part, pricked forward with shamefull disgrace, by the helpe of friends whom he procured, and the rebellion withall of the Brigantes themselves, brought Cartismandua into great extremities. Then, upon her instant [plea] unto the Romans for aid, garisons were set, Cohorts and wings of foote and horse were sent, which after sundry skirmishes with variable event delivered her person out of perill, yet so as that the Kingdome remained to Venutius, and the warre with the Romanes, who were not able to subdue the Brigantes before the time of Vespasian. For then Petilius Cerealis, having invaded this country, fought many battailes, and some of them very bloudy, and either conquered or else wasted a great part of the Brigantes. Whereas Tacitus writeth that this Queene of the Brigantes delivered Caratacus prisoner unto Claudius the Emperour, there is in that excellent author a manifest ἀντιχρονισμὸς, and the same noted a good while since by Justus Lipsius, deeply insighted in understanding old Authors. For neither was this Caratacus Prince of the Silures and Ordevices led in pompe at that triumph of Claudius, nor yet Caratacus sonne of Cunobelinus (for so he is called in the Roman Fasti, whom Dio nameth Catacratus). Of whom Aulus Plautius, if not the very same yeere, yet in the next following triumphed by way of Ovation. But let others sift out these matters, and thereof I have already said somewhat. In the Emperour Hadrians time, when, as Aelius Spartianus saith, The Britans could not be contained under the Romans dominion, it may seeme that these our Brigantes revolted from the Romans and made a turbulent insurrection. For had it not beene so, there was no cause why Juvenall, who then lived, should thus write:

Downe with the Moores sheepecotes and folds,
Downe with the Brigantes forts and holds.

Neither afterward in the time of Antoninus Pius was their courage, as it may seeme, very much abated, when he tooke away part of their territories from them, because they had mad rodes, as I have said before, into Genunia or Guinethia, a province confederate with the Romans.
3. If I durst by our Critickes good leave (who in these daies, presuming so much of their great wits, are supercriticall), me thinkes I could heere cleare Tacitus of a fault or two, which sitteth close to him, as concerning the Brigantes. The one is in the twelfth Book of his Annales, where I would read for Venutius out of the State of the Iugantes, out of the state of the Brigantes, which Tacitus himselfe seemeth to insinuate in the third Booke of his Histories. the other, in the life of Agricola, The Brigantes, saith he, under the leading of a Woman, burnt the Colonie &c. Where truth would have you read The Trinobantes. For he speaketh of Queene Boadicia, who had nothing to doe with the Brigantes. But the Trinobantes she stirred indeed to rebellion,and burnt the Colonie Camalodunum.
4. But this country of theirs, so exceeding large, which the further it goes the narrower it waxeth, riseth on high in the mids with continued ridges and edges of hils (as Italie is raised up with Appeninus), which make a partition betweene those counties into which it is now divided. For beneath those hils toward the East and the German Sea lieth Yorkshire and the Bishopricke of Duresme [Durham], and on the West side Lancashire, Westmerland, and Cumberland, all which countries in the first infancie of the English-Saxons Empire were contained within the Kingdome of the Deiri. For they call those Countries the Kingdome of the Northanhumbers, and devided them into two parts, Deiara, called in that age Dheirland, which is neerer unto us and on this side Tine, and Bernicia, which, lying beyond Tine, reached as farre as Edenborrough Firth in Scotland, which part, although they had their severall Kings a long time, yet at length grew all to be one kingdome. And, that I may note this one thing by the way, whereas in the life of Charles of the Great it is read thus, Eardulph King of the Nordanhumbers, that is, De-Irland, being driven out of his country unto Charles the Great &c., we must read jointly Dierland, and understand the place of this country, and not of Ireland, as some have misconceived.


HE County of Yorke, in the Saxon tonge Everwic-scyre, Effroc-scyre and Ebora-scyre, commonly Yorkeshire, the greatest Shire by far of al England, is thought to bee in a temperate measure fruitfull. If at one place there bee stonie and sandy barraine ground, in another place there are for it cornfields as rich and fruitfull: if it be voide and destitute of woods heere, you shall finde it shadowed there with most thicke forests, so providently useth nature such a temperature, that the whole country may seeme by reason also of that variety more gracefull and delectable. Where it bendeth Westward, it is bounded with the hilles I spake of from Lancashire and Westmorland. On the North-side it hath the Bishopricke of Durham, which the river Tees with a continued course separateth from it. On the East-side the Germaine Sea lieth sore upon it, and the South-side is enclosed first with Cheshire and Darbyshire, then with Nottinghamshire, and after with Lincolnshire, where that famous arme of the sea Humber floweth betweene, into which all the rivers well neere that water this shire empty themselves, as it were, into their common receptacle.
2. This whole shire is divided into three partes, which according to three quarters of the world are called The West-Riding, The East-Riding, and The North-riding. West-riding for a good while is compassed in with the river Ouse, with the bound of Lancashire, and with the South limits of the shire, and beareth toward the West and South. East-Riding looketh to the Sunne-rising and the Ocean, which togither with the river Derwent incloseth it. North-Riding reacheth Northward, hemmed in, as it were, with the river Tees, with Derwent and a long race of the river Ouse. In that West part, out of the Westerne mountaines or hils in the confines issue many rivers which Ouse alone enterteineth ever one, and carrieth them all with him into Humber. Neither can I see any fitter way to describe this part than to follow the streames of Done, Calder, Are, Wherfe, Nid, and Ouse, which, springing out of these hilles, are the rivers of most account, and runne by places likewise of greatest importance.
3. The river Danus, commonly called Don and Dune, so termed, as it should seeme, for that it is carried into a chanell some-what flat, shallow and low by the ground (for so much signifieth dan in the British language), after it hath saluted Wortley, which gave surname to a worshipfull family, as also Wentworth hard by, whence beside other gentlemen as well in this Country as else where, the Barons of Wentworth have derived both their originall and name, runneth first by Sheafield a towne of great name (like as other small townes adjoyning) for the Smithes therein (considering there bee many iron mines there about), fortified also with a strong and ancient Castle, which in right line descended from the Lovetofts, the Lords Furnivall, ‡and Thomas Lord Nevil of Halumshire,‡ unto the Talbots, Earles of Shrewsbury. From thence Don, clad with alders and other trees, goeth to Rotheram, which glorieth in Thomas Rotheram sometime Archbishop of Yorke, a wise man, bearing the name of the towne, beeing borne therein and a singular benefactor thereunto, who founded and endowed there a Colledge with three schooles in it to teach children writing, Grammar, and Musicke, which the greedy iniquity of these our times hath already swallowed. Then looketh it up to Connisborow or Conines-borrough, an ancient castle, in the British tonge Caer Conan, seated upon a rock, into which, what time as Aurelius Ambrosius had so discomfited and scattered the English Saxons at Maisbelly that they tooke them to their heeles and fled every man the next way hee could finde, Hengest their Captaine retyred himselfe for safety, and a few daies after brought his men forth to battaile before the Campe against the Britans that pursewed him, where hee fought a bluddy field to him and his. For a great number of men were there cut in peeces, and the Britans, having intercepted him, chopt of his head, if we may beleeve the British History rather than the English-Saxon Chronicles, which report that he, being outworne with travell [travail] and labour, died in peace. But this Coningsborough in latter ages was the possession of the Earles of Warren. Afterwards, he runneth under Sprotburg, the ancient seat of that ancient family of the Fitz-Williams Knights, who are most honourably allied and of kin to the noblest houses of England, and from whom descended Sir William Fitz-Williams Earle of Southampton, in our fathers remembrance, and Sir William Fitz-Williams late Lord Deputy of Ireland. But in processe of time this is fallen to the Copleys, like as Elmesly with other possessions of theirs in this tract are come by right of inheritance to the Savils.
4. From hence Done, running with a divided streame hard to an old towne, giveth it his owne name, which we at this day call Dan-caster, the Scots Don-castle, the Saxons Dona-ceaster, NinniusCaer Daun, but Antonine the Emperour Danum, like as the booke of Notices, which hath recorded that the Captaine of the Crispinian Horsemen lay there in garison under the Generall of Britaine. This about the yeere of our Lord 759 was so burnt with fire from heaven, and laie so buried under the owne ruines, that it could scarce breath againe. A large plot it sheweth yet, where a Citadell stood, which men thinke was then consumed with fire, in which place I saw the Church of S. Georges, a faire Church, and the onely Church they have in the towne. Beneath this towne Southward scarce five miles off is Tickhill, which I am not willing to omit, an old towne, fensed with as old a Castle, large enough but having onely a single wall about it, and with an high mount whereon standeth a round Keepe. It carried in old time such a dignity with it that the Manours and Lords belonging thereto were called the Honour of Tickhill. In the reigne of Henry the First Roger Busley held the possession thereof. Afterwards the Earles of Ewe in Normandy were long since Lords of it by the gift of King Stephen. Then King Richard the First gave it unto John his brother. In the Barons warre Robert de Vipont deteined it for himselfe, which that he should redeliver unto the Earle of Ewe, King Henry the Third put into his hands the Castle of Carleol and the County. But when the King of France would not restore unto the English againe their possessions in France, the King of England retained it to himselfe, whenas John Earle of Ewe in the right of Alice his great Grandmother claimed of King Edward the First restitution thereof. At length Richard the Second King of England liberally gave it unto John of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster. But now by this time Done, that often riseth heere and overfloteth the fields, gathering his divided waters into one streame againe, when he hath for a while run in one channell through Hatfeld Chace (where there is great game and hunting of red Deere), being divided eft-soone, speedeth himselfe on the one hand to Idel, a river in Nottinghamshire, on the other to Are, that he and they together may fall into Humber. In which very place there are environed with these rivers Diche-march and Marchland, little Mersh Countries or River-Ilands rather, taking up in circuit much about fifteene miles, most plentifull of greene grasse, passing good for feeding of Cattell, and on every side garnished, as it were, with prety townes. Let some of the Inhabitants are of opinion that the land there is hollow and hanging, yea and that as the waters rise the same also is heaved up, a thing that Pomponius Mela hath written concerning Antrum an Isle in France. But among those Beakes [streams] and Brookes that conveie their streames hither, I must not overpasse Went, which floweth out of a standing Poole nere unto Nosthill, where sometime stood an Abbay consecrated to Oswald, both a King and a Saint, which A. Confessour to King Henry the First re-edified. But since the dissolution it hath beene the dwelling house of the Gargraves, knights of especiall good respect.
5. Calder, springing in the very confines of Lancashire, runneth along certaine townes of no account, among which, at Gretland in the toppe of an hill (whereunto there is no ascent but of one side), was digged up this Votive Altar, erected, as it should seeme, to the tutelar God of the whole State of the Brigants, which altar was to be seene at Bradley in the house of the right worshipfull Sir John Savill Knight, Baron of the Exchequer, ‡but now among Sir Robert Cottons Antiquities:‡

On the other side :

ET SVIS S. M. A. G. S.

That is, To the God of the whole Communalty and state of the Brigantes, and to the sacred Majestie of the Augusti, Titus Aurelius Aurelianus hath dedicated for him selfe and his. (The letters that bee last of all passe my skill altogither.) When Antonine the third time and Geta were Consuls.
6. Now whether that Dui be God, whom the Britans now call Diw, or a peculiar local God or Genius of the Brigantes, I leave for to be discussed by them that are better learned. Like as the soules are divided and distributed among them that are borne (saith Symmachus), even so are Fatal Genii among men. And the divine minde alloteth sundry keepers and guardians to particular Countries. For thus they were in old time perswaded in their divinity, and thus they beleeved. And, to say nothing of forraine nations, whose historie is very full of such peculiar and locall Gods, the Britans had in that part which is now called Essex, Andates; in Cumberland, Bello-Tucadrus; in Northumberland Viterinus and Mogontus, as shall appeere more evidently out of those Inscriptions which I will set downe in due place. Servius Honoratus likewise hath well and truly observed that these Locall or Topick Gods doe never passe unto other Countries. But to returne unto the river Calder, which when by the comming in of other waters he is growne bigge and carrieth a fuller streame, hath a faire bridge over it at Eland, neere unto which, at Grimscarre, were brickes found with this inscription:


For the Romans, flourishing in military prowesse, in great wisdome and pollicie exercised both their Legions and Cohorts in times of peace to withstand Idlenesse, by casting of ditches, making of high-waies, baking of brickes, building of bridges, &c.
7. Calder afterward among the very hils leaveth on the left hand Halifax, a most famous towne, lying from West to East upon the steepe descent of an hill. And not many ages since tooke it this name, whereas before time it was called Horton, as some of the Inhabitants doe report, who tell this prety story also touching the alteration of the name. A certaine Clerke, as they call him, was farre in love with a maiden, who when when he might not have his purpose of her, for all the faire meanes and entisementes hee could use, his love beeing turned unto rage (vilanous wretch that hee was), cutt of the maides head: which being hung afterwards upon an Eugh tree, the common people counted as an hallowed relique, untill it was rotten, yea and they came devoutly to visit it, and every one gathered and carried away with him a branch or sprig of the sayd tree. But after the tree was bare and nothing left but the very stock (such was the credulity of that time), it maintained the opinion of reverence and religion still. For the people were perswaded that the little veines that are stretched out and spred betweene the barke and bodie of the eugh tree in manner of haires or fine threads were the very haires in deed of the virgins head. Hereupon they that dwelt there abut repaired on pilgrimage hither, and such resort there was unto it that Horton, beeing but a little village before, grew up to a great towne, and was called by a new name Halig-Fax or Hali-fex, that is, Holy haire. For the Englishmen dwelling beyond Trent call the haire of the head Fax. Whence also there is a familie in the Country of gentlemen named Faire-fax, of the faire bush of their haire. They therefore which by resemblance of the name gather this to be Ptolomees Olicana be farre deceived. Now this place is become famous as well among the multitude by reason of a law there whereby they behead streightwaies whoever are taken stealing, as also amongst the learned: for they report that Johannes de Sacro Bosco, the Author of the Sphaere, was here borne, yet more famous it is for the greatnesse of the Parish, which reckoneth in it eleven Chappels, whereof two bee Parish-chappels, and to the number of twelve thousand people therein. So that the inhabitants are wont to give out that this parish of theirs mainteineth more men and women than other living creatures of what kinde soever. Whereas you shall see elsewhere in England, in the most fruitfull and fertile places, many thousands of sheepe and very few men, as if folke had given place to flockes of sheepe and heards of neat, or else were devoured of them. Moreover, the industrie of the inhabitants heere is admirable, who in a barraine soile, wherein there is no commodious, nay scarce any dwelling and living at all, have so come up and flourished by clothing (a trade which they tooke to not above three score and tenne yeere agoe at the farthest) that they greatly enrich their owne estates, and winne the praise from all their neighbours: yea, and have proved the saying to bee true, that barrain places give a good edge to industry, and that hence it is that Norimberg in Germany, Venice and Genua in Italie, and Limoges in France, situate all in barain places, are become right flourishing Cities. Sixe miles from hence and not farre from the right side of the river Calder, neere unto Almond-bury, a little towne standing upon an high and steepe hill which hath no easie passage on even ground unto it but of one side, are seene the manifest tokens of a rampier, some ruines of walles and of a Castle, which was garded about with a triple strength of forts and bulwarkes. Some will have this also to have been Olicana. But the truth saith otherwise, and namely that it is Cambodunum, which Ptolomee calleth amisse Camulodunum, and Beda, by a word divided, Campo-dunum. This is proved by the distance thereof, on the one side from Mancumium, on the other from Calcaria, according to which Antonine placeth it. Moreover it seemeth to have flourished in very great honour when the English Saxons first beganne to rule. For the Kings towne it was, and had in it a Cathedrall Church built by Paulinus the Apostle of these partes, and the same dedicated to Saint Alban. Whence in steed of Albon-bury it is now called Almon-bery. But when Ceadwell the Britan and Penda the Mercian made sharpe warre upon Edwin the Prince of these Countries, it was set on fire by the enemie, as Beda writeth, which the very adust and burnt colour as yet remaining upon the stones doth testifie. Yet afterwards there was a Castle built in the same place, which King Stephen, as I have red, confirmed unto Henry Lacy. Hard unto it lieth Whitley, the habitation of an ancient and notable familie of Beaumont, which notwithstanding is different from that house of the Barons and vicounts Beau-mont, yet it was of great name in this tract before their comming into England.
8. Calder, now leaving these places behinde him, and having passed by Kirkley an house in times past of religious Nunnes, and the tombe of Robin Hood that right good and honest Robber (in which regard he is so much spoken of), goeth to Dewsburrough, seated under an high hill. Whether it had the name of Dui that tutelar God of the place of whom I wrote a little before, I am not able to say. Surely the name is not unlike, for it soundeth as much as Duis Burgh, and flourished at the verie first infancie, as it were, of the Church springing up amongst the Englishmen in this Province. For I have heard that there stood a Crosse heere with this inscription:


That is,


And that this Paulinus was the first Archbishop of Yorke, about the yeere of our redemption 626, all Chronicles doe accord. From hence Calder, running by Thornhill (which from knights of that surname is descended to the Savills), passeth hard by Wakefield a towne famous for clothing, for greatnesse, for faire building, a well frequented mercate, and a bridge, upon which King Edward the Fourth erected a beautifull chappell in memoriall of those that lost their lives there in battaile. the possession some time this was of the Earles of Warren and of Surry, as also Sandall Castle adjoyning, which John Earle of Warren (who was alwaies fleshly lustfull) built when he had used the wife of Thomas Earle of Lancaster more familiarly then honesty would require, to the end he might deteine and keepe her in it securely from her husband. By this townes side, when the civill warre was hote heere in England and setled in the very bowels thereof, Richard Duke of Yorke, father to King Edward the Fourth (who chose rather to hazard his fortune than to stay the good time thereof) was slaine in the field by those that tooke part with the house of Lancaster. The Tract lying heere round about for a great way together is called the Seigniory or Lordship of Wakefield, and hath alwaies for the Seneschal or Steward one of the better sort of Gentlemen dwelling thereby. Which office the Savills have oftentimes borne, who are heere a very great and numerous familie, and at this daie Sir John Savill knight beareth it, who hath a very sightly faire house not farre of at Howley, which maketh a goodly shew. Calder is gone scarce five miles farther when hee betaketh both his water and his name also to the river Are. Where at their very meeting together standeth betweene them Medley, in times past Mede-ley, so called of the situation, as it were, in the midest between two rivers. The seat it was in the age aforegoing of Sir Robert Waterton Master of the Horse to King Henry the Fourth, but now of Sir John Savil a right worshipful knight and a most worthy Baron of the Kings Exchequer, whom I acknowledge full gladly in love and courtesie to have favored me, and out of his learning to have furthered this worke.
9. This river Are springing out of the bothom of the hil Pennigent, which among the Westerne hils mounteth aloft above the rest, doth forthwith so sport himselfe winding in and out, as doubtfull whether hee should returne back to his spring head or runne on still to the sea, that my selfe in going directly forward on my way was faine to passe over it seven times in an houres riding. It is so calme and milde, and carrieth so gentle and slow a streame, that it seemeth not to runne at all but to stand still, whence I suppose it tooke the name. For, as I have said before, ara in the British tongue betokeneth Milde, Stil, and Slow, whereupon that slow river in France Araris hath his name. The country lying about the head of this river is called in our tongue Craven, perchance of the British word crage, that is, a Stone. For the whole tract there is rough all over and unpleasant to see to, with craggie stones, hanging rockes, and rugged waies, in the midest whereof, as it were in a lurking hole, not farre from Are standeth Skipton, and lieth hidden and enclosed among steepe hilles, in like manner as Latium in Italie, which Varro supposeth to have beene so called because it lieth close under Apennine and the Alpes. The towne (for the manner of their building among these hilles) is faire enough, and hath a very proper and strong Castle which Robert de Rumeley built, by whose posterity it came by inheritance to the Earles of Aumarle. And when their inheritance for default of heires fell by escheat into the Kings hands, Robert de Clifford, whose heires are now Earles of Cumberland, by way of exchange obtained of King Edward the Second both this Castle and also faire lands round about it every way, delivering into the kings hands in lieu of the same the possessions that he had in the Marches of Wales.
10. When Are is once past Craven, hee spreadeth broader and passeth by more pleasant fields lying on each side of it, and Kigheley among them, which gave name to the worshipfull familie of Kigheley, so surnamed thereof. Of which family, Henry Kigheley obtained of Edward the First for this Mannor of his The liberty of a mercate and faire, and free warren, so that no man might enter into those lands to hunt and chace in them, or to take any thing that pertained to the Warren, without the licence and good will of Henry himselfe and of his successours. Which was counted in that age for a speciall favour, and I note it once for all, that we may see what Free warren was. But the male issue of this family in the right line ended in Henry Kighley of Inskip. Howbeit, the daughters and heires were wedded to Wiliam Cavendish, now Baron Cavendish of Hardwick, and to Thomas Worseley of Boothes. From hence Are passeth beside Kirstall, an Abbay in times past of no small reckoning, founded by Henry Lacy in the yeere 1147, and at length visiteth Leedes, in the Saxon tongue Loytes, which became a house of the Kings when Cambodunum was by the enemy burnt to the ground, now a rich towne by reason of clothing, where Oswy King of Northumberland put flight Penda the Mercian, And, as Bede saith, this was to the great profit of both nations: for he both delivered his owne people from the hostile spoiling of the miscreants, and also converted the Mercians themselves to the grace of Christian faith. The very place wherein they joyned battaile the writers call Winwidfield, which name I suppose was given it of the victory, like as a place in Westphalia where Quintilius Varus with his legions was slaine, is in the Dutch tongue called Winfield, that is, The fields of victory, as that most learned man and my very good friend Abraham Ortelius hath observed. The little region or Territory about it was in times past by an old name called Elmet, which Eadwin King of Northumberland, the sonne of Aella, after he had expelled Cereticus a British King, conquered in the yeere of Christ 620. Herein is digged limestone every where, which is burnt at Brotherton and Knottingley, and at certaine set times, as it were at faires, a mighty quantity thereof is conveied to Wakefield, Sandall, and Sanbridge, and so is sold unto this Westerne Country, which is hilly and somewhat cold, for to manure and enrich their corne fields. But let us leave these things to husbandmen; as for my self, I professe my ignorance therein, and will goe forward as I beganne.
11. At length Are entertaineth Calder aforesaid with his water as his guest, where neere unto the meeting of both rivers standeth Castleford a little village, Marianus nameth it Casterford: who reporteth that the Citizens of Yorke slew many of King Ethelreds armie there, whom in their pursuite they set upon and charged heere and there at advantage, what time as hee invaded and overranne this country for breaking the alleagence they had sworne unto him. But in Antonine this place is called by a more ancient name Legeolium and Lagetium. Wherein, beside expresse and notable tokens of antiquity, a mighty number of Romaine peeces of money (the common people there tearme them Sarisins head) were found at beanfield (a place so called now of Beanes) hard by the Church. The distance also from Dan and Yorke, betweene which he placed it, doth most cleerely confirme as much, to say nothing of the situation thereof hard by the Romans High streat, and last of all for that Roger Hoveden in plaine termes calleth it a City.
12. From hence Are, being now bigger, after it hath received Calder unto it, leaveth on the left hand Brotherton a little towne, in which Queene Margaret, turning thither out of the way as she road on hunting, was delivered of child, and brought forth unto her husband King Edward the First Thomas de Brotherton, so named of the place, who was afterward Earle of Norfolke and Mareshall of England. And not farre beneath, Are, after it hath received into it Dan, looseth himselfe in Ouse. On the right hand, where a yellower kind of marle is found, which being cast and spred upon the fields, maketh them beare corne for many yeres together, he passeth by Pontfract, commonly called Pontfret, situate not farre from the river bank, which towne gat life, as it were, by the death of old Legeolium. In the Saxons time it was called Kirkby, but the Normans of a broken bridge named it in French Pontfract. Upon this occasion, as it is commonly thought that the wooden bridge over Are hard by was broken when a mighty multitude of people accompanied William Archbishop of Yorke (King Stephens sisters sonne), newly returned from Rome. Whereby a great number fell into the river, and yet by reason that the Archbishop shed many a teare at this accident and called upon God for helpe, there was not one of them that perished. Seated it is in a very pleasant place, that bringeth forth Liquirice and skirworts [water parsnips] in great plenty, adourned also with faire buildings, and hath to shew a stately Castle as a man shall see, situate upon a rocke no lesse goodly to the eie than safe for the defence, wel fortified with ditches and bulwarkes. Hildebert Lacie a Norman, unto whom King William the First, after that Alricke the Saxon was thrust out, had given this towne with the land about it, first built this Castle. But Henrie Lacy his nephew, came into the field at the battaile of Trenchbrey (I speake out of the Pleas) against King Henrie the First: wherefore he was disseised of the Baronie of Pontfract, and the King gave the Honor to Wido de Lavall, who held it untill King Stephens daies, at which time the said Henrie made an entry into the Baronie, and by mediation of the King compounded with Wido for an hundred and fifty pounds. This Henrie had a sonne named Robert, who, having no issue, left Albreda Lizours his sister by the mothers side, and not by the father, to be his heire, because he had none other so neere in bloud unto him, whereby she, after Roberts death, kept both the inheritances in her hand, namely of her brother Lacies and her father Lizours. And these be the very words of the booke of the Monasterie of Stanlow. This Abreda was married to Richard Fitz Eustach, Constable of Chester, whose heires assumed unto them the names of Lacies, and flourished under the title of Earles of Lincolne. By a daughter of the last of these Lacies, this goodly inheritance by a deede of conveiance was devolved in the end to the Earles of Lancaster, who enlarged the Castle very much, and Queene Elizabeth likewise bestowed great cost in repairing it, and beganne to build a faire Chappell. This place hath beene infamous for the murder and bloud shed of Princes. For Thomas Earle of Lancaster, the first of Lancastrian house that in right of his wife possessed it, stained and embrewed the same with his owne bloud. For King Edward the Second, to free himselfe from rebellion and contempt, shewed upon him a good example of wholsome severity, and beheaded him heere. Whom notwithstanding the common people enrolled in the Beadroll of Saints. Here also was that Richard the Second King of England, whom King Henrie the Fourth deposed from his Kingdome with hunger, cold, and strange kinds of torments, most wickedly made away. And heere King Richard the Third caused Antonie Earle Rivers, King Edward the Fifth his Unkle by the mothers side, and Sir Richard Grey Knight, halfe brother to the same King by the mothers side, both innocent persons, to loose their heads. For the Usurper feared least those courageous and resolute men would stop his passage, aspiring as he did by wicked meanes to the Crowne. As for the Abbay which the Lacies heere founded for religious persons, and the Hospitall which Sir Robert Knolles erected for poore people, I let passe wittingly, seeing there is scarce any rubbish now remaining of those good workes.
13. From Legeolium or Castleford abovesaid, leaving behind us Shirburne a little towne but well inhabited, which tooke name of the cleere bourne or riveret, and which King Athelstane graunted unto the Archbishop of Yorke, by the high ridge or port way raised up of a great height, we came to Aberford, a little village situate upon the said way, famous onely for making of pinnes, which by womens judgement are especially commended as the best. Under this the little river Coc (in bookes named Cokarus) runneth, and in the descent downe thereunto the foundations of an old Castle, which they call Castle Cary, are to be seene. Scarce two miles from hence, at the spring head of Coc, standeth Barwic in Elmet the roiall house or seat, by report, in times past of the Kings of Northumberland, which was environed about with walles, as the very ruins and ruble thereof seeme to testifie. On the other side is placed Hesselwood, the principall seat of that worthy and right ancient family of the Vavasours, who by their office (for the Kings Valvasors [a Court official] in times past they were) tooke to them this name, and in the latter daies of King Edward the First Sir William Vavasor was called among other Barons of the Realme unto the high Court of Parliament, as appeereth in the very writs, as they call them, of Summons. Under this place lieth that most famous delfe or quarry of stone, called Peters Post, for that with the stones hewed out of it, by the liberall grant of the Vavasors, that stately and sumpteous Church of Saint Peters at Yorke was reedified.
14. From Aberford the saide riveret Coc speedeth immediately to the river Wherf, as it were, sad, sorrowfull, and with heavy cheere, in detestation of all civile warres, since time that he ranne all died with English bloud. For upon his banke neere unto Towton a little country Village, was (as I may truly say) that our English Pharsalia. In no place ever saw our England such puissant forces, so much gentry and nobilitie together: a hundred thousand fighting men and no fewer of the one side and the other. Never were their leaders and Captaines of both parts more fierce, hardy, and resolute, never more cheerefull and forward to fight: who upon Palme Sunday in the yeere 1461, in battaile array with banner displaied, entred the field and encountred. And when they had continued a doubtfull and variable fight a great part of the day, at length the Lancastrians, not able to abide any longer the violence of their enimies (the chiefe cause of whose overthrow was the disordered unwealdinesse of their owne armie) turned backe and fled amaine. And those that tooke part with Yorke, being eager upon execution, followed them in chase so hotely that they had the killing of a number of noble men and gentlemen, and thirty thousand Englishmen were that day leaft dead in the field. But I leave this to the Historians. Somwhat lower, neere unto Shirburne, at Huddleston a little village, is a famous Stone quarry, out of which the stones when they are newly heawen be very soft, but after they be seasoned with wind and weather, they become of themselves exceeding solid and hard. ‡But (to returne) Coc, making no long course, sheadeteh himselfe into Wherf.‡
15. This Wherf or Wharf, in the English Saxons language Guerf, comming downe out of Craven, and for a great while runneth in a parallel distance even with Are. If a man should thinke the name to be wrested from the word guer, which in British signifieth swift and violent, verily, the nature of that river concurrreth with his opinion. For he runneth with a swift and speedy streame, making a great noise as hee goeth, as if he wee froward, stubborne,and angry, and is made more fell and teasty with a number of stones lying in his chanell, which he rolleth and tumbleth before him in such sort that it is a wonder to see the maner of it, but especially when hee swelleth high in winter. And verily it is a troublesome river and dangerous even in summer time also, which I my selfe had experience of, not without some perill of mine owne, when I first travailed over this country. For it hath such slippery stones in it that an horse can have no sure footing on them, or else the violence of the water carrieth them away from under his feete. In all his long course, which from the spring head unto Ouse is almost fifty miles, he passeth onely by little townes of no especiall account, running downe by Kilnesey Cragge, the highest and steepest rocke that ever I saw in a midland Country, by Burnsall, where Sir William Craven, Knight and Alderman of London there borne, is now building of a stone bridge: who also hard by, of a pious minde and beneficiall unto his country, hath of late founded a Grammar schoole. Also by Barden-Towre, a little turret belonging to the Earle of Cumberland, where there is round about good store of game and hunting of fat Deere. By Bolton, where sometime stood a little Abbay. By Bethmelsley, the seat of the notable family of Claphams, out of which came John Clapham a worthy Warriour in the Civile broiles between Lancaster and Yorke. From thence commeth he to Ilekely, which, considering the site in respect of Yorke out of Ptolomee, and the affinity of the name together, I would judge to be Olicana. surely that is an old towne (besides the Columnes engraven with Roman worke lying in the Churchyard and elswere), and was in Severus time reedified by the meanes of Virius Lupus, Lieutenant Generall and Propraetor then of Britaine, this inscription lately digged up hard by the Church doth plainly shew:


That the second Cohort of the Lingones abode heere, an Altar beareth witnesse which I saw there, upholding now the Staires of an house, and having this inscription set upon it by the Captaine of the second Cohort of the Lingones, to Verbeia, haply the Nymph or Goddesse of Wherf, the river running thereby, which river they called Verbeia as I suppose, out of so neere affinity of the names:


For Rivers, as Gildas writeth, in that age had by the blind and ignorant people of Britaine divine honours heaped upon them. And Seneca sheweth that in times past Altars were erected unto them: We worship, saith he, the heads of great rivers, and the sudden breaking forth of an huge river out of an hidden and secret place hath altars consecrated unto it. Againe, All waters, as Servius Honoratus saith, had their severall Nymphs to take the rule and protection of them. Moreover, in a wall of the Church is fastened this broken and unperfect inscription:

AVG. ............

But at the very Church it selfe, whiles I sought diligently for monuments of Romaine antiquity, I found nothing but the image in stone, all armed, of Sir Adam Midleton, who seemeth to have flourished under King Edward the First, and whose posterity remaineth yet in the country heereby, at Stubham.
16. More beneath standeth Otley, a towne of the Archbishops of Yorke, but it hath nothing memorable, unlesse it be one high and and hard craggy cliffe called Chevin, under which it is situate. For the ridge of an hil the Britans terme chevin, whence I may conjecture that that continued ridge of mountaines in France, where in old time they spake the same language that Britans did, was called Gevenna and Gebenna. After this, Wherf runneth hard by, with his bankes on both sides reared up, and consisting of that Limestone which maketh grounds fat and fertile, where I saw Harewood Castle of good strength, which by the alteration of times hath often changed his Lords. Long since it belonged to the Curcies, but by Alice an inheritrice it came to Warin Fitz-Gerold, who had taken her to wife; whose daughter Margerie and one of his heires, being endowed with a very great estate of living, was first married unto Baldwin de Ripariis, the Earles sonne of Devonshire, who died before his father; afterwards to Falque de Brent, by the beneficiall favour of King John, for his approved service in pilling, polling, and spoiling most cruelly. But when at length Isabell de Ripariis Countesse of Devonshire departed this life without issue, this Castle fell unto Robert de L’isle the sonne of Warin, as unto her cousin in bloud and one of her heires; in the end by those of Aldborrough it descended to the Rithers, as I am enformed by Francis Thinn, who very diligently and judiciously hath a long time hunted after Pedigree antiquities. Neither is Gawthorp adjoining heereby to be concealed in silence, whenas the ancient family of Gascoignes, descended out of Gascoigne in France, as it seemeth, had made it famous both with their vertue and antiquitie.
17. From hence runneth Wherf hard by Wetherby, a mercate towne of good note, which hath no antiquity at all to shew, but a place only beneath it (they cal it usually now Saint Helens fourd) where the high Roman street crossed over the river. From thence he passeth downe by Tadcaster, a very little towne, but I cannot but thinke as well by the distance from other places, as by the nature of the soile and by the name, that it was Calcaria. For it is about nine Italian miles from Yorke, according as Antonine hath set Calcaria. Also the limestone, which is the very soader [solder] and binder of all morter, and hardly elsewhere in this tract to be found, heere is digged up in great quantity and vented [distributed] as farre as to Yorke and the whole countrie bordering round about, for use in building. Considering then that the said Lime was by the Britans and Saxons in old time, and is by the Northren Englishmen caled after the Roman name calc (For that imperious citie Rome imposed not their yoke onely, but their language also upon the subdued nations), seeing also that in the Code of Theodosius those bee tearmed calcarienses who are the burners of limestone, it may not seeme absurd if the Etymologie of the name be fetched from calx, that is, Chalke or Lime, even as Chalcis of χαλκός, that is, brasse, Ammon of ἄμμος, that is, Sand, Pteleon of πτελέαι, that is, Elmes, and Calcaria a Citie of Cliveland haply of calx, that is, Lime, tooke their names, especially seeing that Bede calleth it also Calca-cester, where he reporteth that Heina, the first woman in this country that put on the Vaile and religious habite of a Nunne, retyred herselfe apart to this Citie, and therein made her abode. Moreover, an hill neere to the towne is called Kelc-bar, in which there lieth couched somewhat of the ancient name. Neither are there other arguments wanting to prove the antiquity therof. For, to say nothing how it is situate upon a port highway, there be peeces of the Roman Emperours money oftentimes digged up, and the tokens of the trenches and bankes that compassed about, the plot also where an old castle stood yet remaining, out of the reliques whereof not many yeeres agoe was a bridge built, which when Wherf is once passed under, he becommeth more still, and so gently intermingleth his water with Ouse. And verily a thing it is in my judgement to be wondered at that Wherf, being encreased with so many waters, in summer time runneth so shallow under this bridge that one comming hether about mid sommer, when hee saw it, pretily and merrily versified thus:

Nought hath Tadcaster worth my Muse, and that my verse deserv’s,
Unlesse a faire bridge stately built, the which no river serv’s.

But had he come in winter time, he should have seene the bridge (so great as it was) scarce able to receive so much water. But Naturall philosophers know full well that both wels and rivers, according to the seasons, and the heat or cold without or within, doe decrease or encrease accordingly. ‡Whereupon in his returne he, finding heere durt for dust, and full current water under the bridge, recanted with these verses:

Quae Tadcaster erat sine flumine, pulvere plena.
Nunc habet immensum fluvium, et pro pulvere lutum.

18. Somewhat higher Nid, a muddy river, runneth downe, well beset with woods on either side, out of the botome of Craven hils, first by Niderdale, a vale unto which it giveth name, and from thence carrieth his streame by Rippley a mercate towne, where the Inglebeys, a family of great antiquity, flourished in good reputation. Afterwards, with his deepe chanell he fenseth Gnaresburg, commonly called Knarsborrow Castle, situate upon a most ragged and rough rocke, whence also it hath the name. Which Serle de Burgh, unkle by the father side to Eustace Vescy, built, as the tradition holdeth. Afterward it became the seate of the Estoteviles, and now it is counted part of the lands belonging to the Dutchy of Lancaster. Under it there is a well, in which the waters spring not up out of the vaines of the earth, but distill and trickle downe dropping from the rockes hanging over it, whence they call it Dropping Well, into which what wood so ever is put will in short space be covered over with a stonie barke and turne into stone, as it hath beene often observed. In the territorie thereby Liquirice groweth in great abundance, and a yellower and softer kind of marle is there found, passing good to make the ground fertile. The Keeper or chiefe ranger of the Forest adjoining was in times past one Gamell: whose posterity of their habitation at Screven assumed the name of Screven, and from them descended the Slingsbeis, who received this forestership of King Edward the First, and to this day live heere in great and good regard. Nid, having passed by these places not farre from Allerton, the seat of a very ancient and signale family of the Malliveries, who in old Deeds and records are caled Mali-leporarii, goeth on a little way, and then meeting Ouse, augmenteth the streame of Ouse by his confluence.
19. As for Ure, he also springing out of these Westerne hilles, but on the other side of the country in North-Riding, when by this name he hath watered the North part of this Shire, a little before he commeth to Ripon serveth for the limite dividing the North and West Ridings one from another. This Rippon, in the Saxon tongue Hrippun, being placed betweene Ure and Skell, a rill, is beholden to religious houses for all the dignity it had, and especially to a Monasterie built in the primitive Church of the English-Saxons by Wilfride Archbishop of Yorke, and that with such arched and embowed Vaults, with such floorings and stories of stone worke, with such turnings and windings in and out of Galleries (so saith William of Malmesbury) that it was wonderfull. Which the Danes afterward, being so violent and outragious that they spared neither God nor man, raced together with the towne. Yet flourished it againe, repaired by meanes of Odo Archbishop of Canterburie: who being a very great maister of Ceremoniall misteries, translated from hence to Canterbury the reliques of Wilfride. But since the Normans arrivall it prospered most, whenas the Castles, as one saith, of Monkes beganne to bee built in greater number. For then both the towne grew famous partly under the chiefe Magistrate, whom they call by an old Saxon word Wakeman, as one would say Watchman, and partly by their industry in clothing, which at this day is much deminished, and the monasterie likewise under the tuition and protection of the Archbishops of Yorke beganne marveilously to reflourish. Besides, a very faire Church was there also built, at the charitable charges of the Noblemen and Gentry dwelling there about, and of their owne Treasurer, which with three high Spire-steeples doth welcome those that come to the towne, and did as it were aemulate in workmanship the wealthy Abbay of Fountaines, built within the sight of it by Thurstin Archbishop of Yorke. On the one side of this Church we saw a little College of singing men, which Henrie Bath Archbishop of Yorke erected; on the other side a very great mount of earth called Hilshow, cast up, as they report, by the Danes. Within the Church, Saint Wilfrides Needle was in our grandfathers remembrance very famous. A narrow hole this was, in the Crowdes or close vaulted roome under the ground, whereby womens honestie was tried. For such as were chast did easily passe through, but as many as had played false were miraculously, I know not how, held fast and could not creepe through. The Abbay Fountaines aforesaid, most pleasantly seated in a right plentifull country and having lead mines neere it, had the originall from twelve praecise Monkes of Yorke, who, fervently zealous to serve God in a more strict kind of life, forsooke their cloistures and addicted themselves to the ordinances of Saint Barnard. For whom, after they had reaped many Harvests of troubles, Thurstine Archbishop of Yorke built this Abbay, which was acknowledged an immediat daughter of Clarefalle, and in a few yeares became a mother to many others, as Kirstall, Salley, Meaux, &c. I have made more willingly mention of these, because S. Bernard in his Epistles so highly approved their life and discipline.
20. Not farre beneath there standeth by Ure a little towne called Burrowbridge, of the bridge that is made over the river: which is now built very high and faire of stone worke, but in King Edward the Second his time it seemeth to have beene of wood. For wee read that when the Nobles of England disquieted this king and troubled the state, Humfrey Bohun Earle of Hereford in his going over it was at a chinke thereof thrust through the body about his groine by a souldiour lying close under the bridge. Neere unto this bridge Westward wee saw in three divers little fields foure huge stones of pyramidall forme, but very rudely wrought, set as it were in a streight and direct line. The two Pyramides in the middest, whereof the one was lately pulled downe by some that hoped, though in vaine, to finde treasure, did almost touch one another. The uttermore stand not far off, yet almost in equall distance from these on both sides. Of these I have nothing else to say but that I am of opinion with some that they were monuments of victorie erected by the Romans hard by the high street that went this way. For I willingly overpasse the fables of the common people, who call them the Devills Bolts, which they shot at ancient cities and therewith overthrew them. Yet will not I passe over this, that very many, and those learned men, thinke they are not made of naturall stone in deed, but compounded of pure sand, lime, vitriol (whereof also they say there bee certaine small graines within), and some unctuous matter. Of such a kinde there were Rome cisterns, so firmely compact of very strong lime and sand, as Pliny writeth, that they seemed to be naturall stones.
21. A little Eastward from this bridge, Is-urium Brigantum, an ancient city so-called of the river Ure running by it, flourished in ancient times, but was rased to the very ground many ages past. Neverthelesse the village risen up neare the place giveth testimony to the antiquity thereof, for it is called Ealdburg and Aldborrow. But in that very plot of ground where the said citie stood are now arable grounds and pastures, so that scarce any footing [vestige] thereof doth appeare. Surely the verie credite of writers should have had much adoe to make us beleeve that this had become Is-urium, but that Ure the rivers name, the Romane coine daylie digged up, and the distance according to Antonines account betwixt this and Yorke warranted it. For by that Ure (which the Saxons afterward named Ouse because it hath entertained Ousburne a little river) is gone sixteene italian miles form hence, hee runneth through the city Eboracum or Eburacum, which Ptolomee in the second Booke of his Great Construction calleth Brigantium (if the said booke bee not corrupted), because it was the chiefe city of the Brigantes. Ninnius calleth it Caer Ebrauc, the Britans Caer Effroc, the Saxons Evorric and Eoforric, and wee at this day Yorke. The British history reporteth that it tooke name of King Ebrauc the founder, yet give mee leave to deeme conjecturally, without the prejudice to others, that the name Eburacum is derived from nothing else but from the river Ure, so that it soundeth as much as by Ure, or along the side of Ure. For even so the Eburovices in France were seated by the river Eure neere unto Eureux in Normandy. Sembably the Eburones in the Netherlands, neere unto the river Oure in the Dioecese of Lhuick, and Eblana in Ireland standeth hard by the river Lefny. This is the second city of England, the fairest in all this country, and a singular safegard and ornament both to all the North-parts. A pleasant place, large and stately, well fortified, beautifully adorned as well with private as publike buildings, rich, populous, and to the greater dignity thereto it hath an Archiepiscopall See. Ure, which now is called Ouse, flowing with a gentle streame from the North part Southward, cutteth it, as I said, in twaine, and divideth it, as it were, into two cities, which are conjoined with a stone bridge, having the mightiest arch of them that ever I saw. The West part, nothing so populous, is compassed in with a verie faire wall and the river together, fouresquarewise, and giveth entrance to those that come thither at one onely gate, named Milel Barre, as one would say, The great gate. From which a long street and a broade reacheth to the very bridge, and the same streete beset with proper houses having gardens and orchards planted on the back-side on either hand, and behinde them fieldes even hard to the walles for exercise and disports. In the South angle whereof which they and the river make betweene them, I saw a mount, raised, as it seemeth, for some castle to be built upon, called The Old Bale, which William Melton Archbishop, as wee read in the Archbishops lives, strongly enclosed, first with thicke planckes eighteene foot long, afterward with a stone-wall, yet there is nothing of all that now to be seene.
22. The East side, wherein the houses stand very thicke and the streetes bee narrower, in forme resembleth as it were a lentill, and is fortified also with very strong walles, and on the South-east defended with the deepe chanell of Fosse a muddy river, which, entring into the heart of the citie by a blinde way, hath a bridge over it, with houses standing upon it so close ranged one by another that any man would judge to bee not a bridge but a continued streete, and so a little lower runneth into Ouse, where at their confluence and meeting together, right over against the mount that I spake of, King William the Conquerour in a very convenient place raised a most strong castle to awe the Citizens. Upon which time hath now a great while without empeachment wrought his will, ever since that Englishmen fell to neglect strong holds as receptacles for those whose hearts would not serve to fight in open field. On this side also, toward the North-east standeth the Cathedrall church dedicated to Saint Peter, an excellent faire fabrique and a stately: neere unto which, without the walles of the city, but yet enclosed within walles and by the river, flourished a renowned Abbay called Saint Maries, which Alan the Third, Earle of Little Britain in Armorica and of Richmond, built and endowed with rich livings, but now it is converted into the Princes house, and is commonly called The Manour.
23. Whence I should fetch the originall of York but from the Romans I cannot tell, seeing the Britans before the Romans comming had no other townes than woods fensed with trenches and rampier, as Caesar and Strabo unreprovable authors doe testifie. To say nothing therefore of King Ebrauk, whom some men both curious and credulous, as it should seeme, have imagined out of the name of Eboracum (for so is Yorke in Latin termed) to have beene the founder thereof, most certaine it is that the Sixt Legion Victrix, which Hadrian the Emperor brought out of Germany over into Britaine, was placed here in garizon. And that it was a Colonie of the Romans, it appeereth both by the authority of Ptolomee and Antonine, and also by an ancient Inscription which I saw in a certaine Aldermans house there in these words:


As also by a peece of money coined by the Emperor Severus, in the reverse whereof we read:


Buhow it is that Victor in Historie of the Caesars hath called Yorke municipium of free towne of Britaine, being as it was a Colony, I require farther time to deliberat thereupon, unlesse it were that the inhabitants of Yorke, like as sometime the Prenestines did, chose rather from a Colonie to be brought unto the state of a free-Burgh. For Colonies, having, as A. Gellius writeth, lawes, customes and rights at the will of the people Rome and not at their owne pleasure, seemed more obnoxious, and their condition not so free, whereas free Cities, such as in Latin are named municipia, used rights, lawes, and orders of their owne, and the Citizens or burgesses thereof were partakers with the people of Rome in their honorable offices onely, and bound of necessity to nothing else. No mervaile therefore if Colonies were changed into Free burroughs. But to what end stand I upon this point? This difference of the name is not in the history of the Emperors so exactly observed but that one and the selfe same place is called both a Colony and a municipium or free city. Howbeit out of that peece of mony I dare not constantly affirme that Severus first conducted and planted this Colonie, seeing that Ptolomee and Antonine himselfe writeth it was the seat of the Sixth Legion in the Antonines time. But we read that Severus had his palace in this City, and here at the houre of death gave up his last breath with these words, I entred upon a state everywhere troublesome, and I leave it peaceable even to the Britains. His bodie was carried forth here to the funerall fire by the soldiors, after the military fashion, and committed to the flames, honoured with Justs and Turneaments of his soldiours and his owne sonnes, in a place beneath this City Westward nere to Ackham, where is to bee seene a great mount of earth raised up, which, as Raulph Niger hath recorded, was in his time of Severus called Sivers. His ashes, being bestowed in a little golden pot or vessel of the Porphyrite stone, were carried to Rome and shrined there in the monument of the Antonines. At which time there was in this city the temple of Goddess Bellona. For Spartianus, speaking of Severus and this very city, saith thus: When Severus returned and came into the City, purposing to offer sacrifice, he was led first of all to the Temple of Bellona by the errour of a rusticall Augur or Soothsaying pries. At which time the Tribunall or Justice Haul of his city was in this respect most happy, because therein sat to minister justice that Oracle of the law Aemilius Paulus Papinianus, as Forcatulus witnesseth. And from this place it was, for certaine, that Severus and Antoninus Emperours, beeing consulted in a case or question of Right, gave forth their Imperiall constitution De rei Vindictione. An hundred yeeres or thereabout after the death of Severus, Flavius Valerius Constantius surnamed Chlorus, an Emperour surpassing in all vertue and Christian piety, who came hether when the Gods, as the Panegyrist saith, called him now to the inmost entry and dore of the earth, ended his life also in this city and was deified, as we may see by ancient coines. And albeit Florilegus recordeth that his tombe was found in Wales, as I have said, yet men of credite have enformed me that in our fathers remembrance, when Abbaies were suppressed and pulled downe, in a certaine vault or crowdes or a little chappell under the ground, wherein Constantius was supposed to have beene buried, there was found a lampe burning. For Lazius writeth that in ancient time they preserved light in Sepulchres by resolving gold artificially into a liquid and fatty substance which should continue burning a long time and for many ages together. This Emperour begat of his former wife Helena CONSTANTINE THE GREAT, THE DELIVERER OF ROME CITY, as ancient inscriptions give testimony, THE FOUNDER OF PEACE, AND THE REPAIRER OF THE COMMONWEALTH. Who was present in Yorke at his fathers last gaspe, and forthwith proclaimed Emperour. The soldiours, as the Panegyricall oratour saith, regarding rather the good of the state than private affections, cast the purple robe upon him whiles he wept and put spurs to his horse, to avoide the importunity of the army attempting and requiring so instantly to make him Emperour. But the happiness of that state overcame his modesty. Whence it is that the Author of the Panegyrical oration crieth out in these words, O fortunate Britaine and now blessed above al lands, which first sawest Constantine Emperor!
24. Hence it may be gathered in what and how great estimation Yorke was in those daies, seeing the Roman Emperours Court was there held. For our owne country writers record that this City was by Constantius adorned and graced with an Episcopall See. But yet that Taurinus the Martyr Bishop of Eureux sat heere and governed I will not say, as others doe. For Vincentius, out of whom they sucked this error, would by his own words convince me of untruth. But when the Romans were departed and had left Britaine for a prey to Barbarous nations, this City, sore afflicted with many calamities, suffered her part also of miseries, and was little or nothing better about the end of the Scotish and Saxons warres than a poore small shadow of a great name. For when Paulinus preached Christian religion to the English Saxons in this country, it lay so desolate that there remained not so much as a chappell in it for King Edwin to be baptized in. Who in the yeere after Christs birth 627 built a little oratorie of woode, and whenas afterward hee went in hand with building a greater Church of stone, scarce had hee laied the foundation thereof when he was prevented by death and left it to be finished by his successour Oswald. Ever since that time the Ecclesiasticall dignity in this Church encreased, and, by a Pall sent unto it from Honorius the Pope, became a Metropolitane City; which beside twelve Bishoprickes in England, exercised the powre of a Primate over all the Bishops of Scotland. But many yeeres since Scotland withdrew it selfe from this her Metropolitane, and the Metropolitane City it selfe hath so devoured other Bishoprickes adjoyning, beeing but little to say truth and of small account, that it hath now but foure with in the owne Dioecese, namely the Bishoprickes of Durham, of Chester, of Carlile, and of Man or Sodorensis in the Isle of Man. And the Archbishop Egbert, who flourished about the yeere of our salvation 740, erected at Yorke, a most famous Library, the Cabinet as I may so terme it (these bee the words of William of Malmesbury) and closet of all liberall Artes. Touching which Librarie, Alcwin of Yorke scholemaster to Charles the Great, first founder of the University of Paris, and the onely [unique] Honour of this City, in an Epistle to the said Charles wrote thus: Give me the bookes of deeper and more exquisite scholasticall learning, such as I had in mine owne Country by the good and most devout industry of the Archbishop Egbert. And if it please your wisdome, I will send backe some of your owne servants, who may exemplifie out of them all those things that bee necessary, and bring the floures of Britaine into France, that there may not bee a garden of learning enclosed onelie within Yorke walles, but that streames of Paradise may bee also at Towrs. Then also it was that Princes bestowed many and great livings and lands upon the Church of Yorke, especially Ulphus the sonne of Toral (I note so much out of an old booke, that there may plainly appeere a custome of our ancestours in endowing Churches with livings). This Ulphus aforesaid ruled in the West part of Deira, and by reason of the debate that was like to arise betweene his sonnes the elder and the younger about their Lordships and Seignories after his death, forthwith hee made them all alike. For without delay hee went to Yorke, tooke the horne with him out of which hee was wont to drinke, filled it with wine, and before the Altar of God and blessed Saint Peter Prince of the Apostles, kneeling upon his knees he dranke, and thereby enfeoffed them in all his lands and revenewes. Which horne was there kept as a monument (as I have heard) until our fathers daies.
25. I might seeme to speake in derogation of the Clergie, if I should report what secret heart-burnings, or rather open enmities, flashed out betweene the Archbishops of Yorke and of Canterbury upon worldly ambition, whiles with great wast of their wealth, but more losse of their credite and reputation, they bickered most eagerly about the Primacie. For the Church of Yorke, as he writeth, inferiour though it were unto that of Canterbury in riches, yet being equall in dignity, albeit of later time founded, and advanced on high with the same powre that Canterbury hath, confirmed also with the like authority of Apostolical priviledges, tooke it ill to be subject unto that of Canterbury by vertue of a Decree of Alexander of Rome, who ordained that the Church of Yorke ought to be subject unto Canterbury, and in al things to obey the constitutions of the Archbishop thereof, as Primate of al Britain, in such matters as appertaine to Christian religion. Concerning the Archbishops of Yorke, it not part verily of my purpose to write anything here, although there be very many of them who deserve for their vertue and piety to be renowned. Let it suffice to note in a word that from Paulinus the first Archbishop, consecrated in the yeere of our redemption 625, there have sitten in that See three score and five Archbishops, unto the yeere 1606, in which Dominus Tobie Matthew, a most reverent Prelate for the ornaments of vertue and piety, for learned eloquence, and continuall exercise of teaching, was translated hether from the Bishoprick of Durham.
26. This Citie for a time flourished very notably under the English Saxons dominion, untill the Danes, like a mighty storme thundring from out of the North-east, defaced it againe with merveilous great ruines, and by killing and slaying disteined it with bloud, which that Alcuine aforesaid in his Epistle to Egelred King of Northumberland may seem to have presaged before. What signifieth (saith he) that raining of cloud which in Lent we saw at Yorke, the head City of the whole Kingdome, in Saint Peters Church, to fall downe violently in threatning wise from the top of the roufe in the North part of the house, and that in a faire day? May it not be thought that bloud is comming upon the Land from the North parts? Verily soone after it was embrued with bloud, and did pine away with most miserable calamities when the Danes spoiled, wasted and murthered all where ever they came. And verily in the yeere 867 the wals were so battered and shaken by reason of continuall warres that Osbright and Ella Kings of Northumberland, whiles they pursewed the Danes, easily brake into the City: who being both of them slaine in a most bloudy battaile in the very midest of the City, left the victory unto the Danes. Whereupon William of Malmesbury writeth in this manner: Yorke, always exposed first to the rage of the Northren Nations, susteined the Barbarous assaults of the Danes, and groaned, beeing piteously shaken with manifold ruines. But as the very same Author witnesseth, King Athelstone wonne it perforce out of the Danes hands, and overthrew the Castle quite which they had here fortified. Neither for all of this was it altogether free from warres in the times next ensuing, whiles that age ranne fatall for the destruction of cities.
27. But the Normans, as they ended these miseries, so they made almost a finall hand of Yorke also. For when the sonnes of Sueno the Dane had landed in these parts with a Danish fleete of 240 saile, the Normans lying in garrizon, who kept two forts within the City, fearing least the houses in the suburbes might stand the enemy in steed to fill up the ditches withall, set them on fire. But by reason the winde rose highly, the fire was so carried and spred throughout the City that now it was set a-burning, when the Danes, breaking in upon them, made pitifull slaughter in every place, having putten the Normans to the sword, and keeping alive William Malle and Gilbert Gant, two principall persons, that they might be tithed [decimated] with the soldiors. For every tenth man of the Normans they chose out by lot to be executed. Whereupon King William the Conqueror was so incensed with desire of revenge that he shewed his cruelty upon the citizens by putting them all to death as if they had taken part with the Danes, and upon the citie it selfe by setting it on fire afresh. And, as William of Malmesbury said, he so depopulated and defaced the villages adjoyning, and the sinews of that fertile region were so cut by the spoiles there committed and booties raised, and the ground for the space of three score miles lay so untilled, that if a stranger had then seene the Cities in that in times were of high account, the towres which with their lofty tops threatned the skie, and the fields that were rich in pastures hee could not but sigh and lament, yea and if an ancient inhabitant had beheld the same, hee could not have knowne them. How great Yorke had beene afore-time, Domesday boke shall tel you in these words: In King Edward the Confessours time there were in Yorke City sixe Divisions or Shires, besides that of the Archbishops. One was layd waste for the Castles or forts. In the five Divisions were 1428 dwelling mansions to give entertainement. And in the Archbishops shire or Division 200 dwelling Mansions likewise. After these wofull overthrowes our Countryman Necham thus versified of it:

The City that great Ebrauk built, I come now for to view,
Whereof the See pontificall is to Saint Peter due.
This many times laid desolate, and peopled new hath beene,
Her wals cast downe and ruinate ful often hath it seene.
What micheife hostile hands could worke, not once nor twice it found.
What then? Since now long time of peace doth keepe it safe and sound.

28. For in his time, when after these troublesome stormes a most pleasant calme of peace presently ensewed, it rose of it selfe againe and flourished afresh, although the Scots and Rebels both did often times make full account to destroy it. But under the reigne of King Stephen it caught exceeding great harme by casualty of fire, wherein were consumed the Cathedrall church, the Abby of S. Mary and other religious houses, yea and that noble and most furnished library (as it is thought) which Alcuin hath recorded to have bin founded by Archbishop Egeldred his Praeceptour. As for the Abbay of S. Mary, it quickly recovred the former dignity by new buildings, but the Cathedral Church lay longer ere it held up head againe, and not before King Edward the First his time. For then John Roman, Treasurer of the Church, laid the foundation of a new worke, which his son John, William Melton, and John Thoresby, all of them Archbishops, brought by little and little to that perfection and beauty which now it sheweth, yet not without the helping hand of the nobility and gentry thereabout, especially of the Percies and the Vavasours, which the Armes of their houses standing in the very Church, and their images at the West gate of the Church, doe shew, Percies pourtraied with a peece of timber, and Vavasours with a stone in their hands, for that the one supplied the stone, the other the timber for this new building. This Church, as he reporteth who wrote the life of Aeneas Sylvius, who was Pope Pius the Second, and that upon the Popes own relation, for workmanship and greatnese is memorable over all the world, and the Chapell most lightsome, the glasse windowes whereof are fast bound betweene pillers that bee most slender in the mids. This chapell is that most dainty and beautifull Chapter house, in which this verse stands painted in golden letters:

The floure of floures a Rose men call:
So is this house of housen all.

29. About the same time also the Citizens fensed the city round about with new walles and many towres and bulwarkes set orderly in divers places, yea and ordeined very good and holsome lawes for the government thereof. King Richard the Second granted it to be a County incorporate by it selfe, and King Richard the Third began to repaire the castle. And that nothing might be wanting, King Henry the Eighth within the memory of our fathers appointed here a Councell not unlike to the Parliaments in France, for to decide and determine the causes and controversies of these North parts according to equity and conscience, which consisteth of a Lord President, certaine counsellers at the Princes pleasure, a Secretarie and under officers. As touching the Longitude of Yorke, our Mathematicians have described it to be two and twenty degrees and twenty five scruples, the Latitude 43 degrees and 10 scruples. Hitherto have we treated of the West part of this shire and of Yorke Citie, which is reckoned neither in the one part nor the other, but enjoyeth peculiar liberties, and hath jurisdiction over the territorie adjoining on the West side. Which they call the Libertie of Ansty, others the Ancienty of the Antiquitie, but others have derived it very probably from the Dutch word anstossen, which betokeneth limits. And now for a conclusion have heere what Master John Jonston of Aberden hath but a while since written in verse of York:

In parts remote of Northern tract there stands as soveraigne
A Citie old, but yet of old eftsoones made new againe.
Whilom of Romaine legions and Captaines proud it was,
But since by forces barbarous sacked and spoiled, alasse.
The Picts so fierce, the Scots and Danes, Normans and Englishmen
Gainst it their bolts of dreadfull warre have thundred now and then.
Yet after sundry bitter blasts, and many a cursed clap,
A milder gale of peaceful daies hath brought it better hap.
Of British kingdome London is chiefe seat and principall,
And unto it there goes by right Yorke Citie next of all.

30. Ouse on leaving York, being other whiles disquieted and troubled with that whirling encounter of contrary waters and forceable eddies which some call Higra, runneth downe through Bishops Thorpe, called Saint Andrews Thorpe before that Walter Grey Archbishop of Yorke purchased it with ready money, and to prevent the Kings Officers, who are wont rigorously to seize upon Bishops Temporalities when the See is vacant, gave it to the Deane and Chapter of Yorke with this condition, that they should alwaies yeeld it to his Successours. Of whom, Richard Le Scrope Archbishop of Yorke, a man of a firie spirit and ready to entertaine rebellion, was condemned in this very place of high treason by King Henry the Fourth, against whom he had raised an insurrection. Afterward Cawood a castle of the Archbishops standeth upon the same river, which King Athelstan, as I have read, gave unto the Church. Just against which on the other side of the river lieth Ricall, where Harald Haardread arrived with a great fleet of Danes. Then Ouse passeth hard by Selby a little towne, well peopled and of good resort, where King Henrie the First was borne, and where his father King William the First built a faire Abbay in memorie of Saint German, who happily confuted that venemous Pelagian haeresie, which often times (as the serpent Hydra) grew to an head againe in Britaine. The Abbats of this Church, as also of Saint Maries in Yorke, were the only Abbats in the North-parts that had place in the Parliament house. And so Ouse at length speedeth away to Humber, ‡leaving first Escricke a seat of the Lascelles, sometimes to be remembred for that King James advaunced Sir Thomas Knivet thereof Lord Knivet to the honor of Baron Knivet of Escrick in the yere 1607.‡ And afterward passing by Drax, a religious house of Chanons founded there by Sir William Painell, and whereas William of Newbourgh writeth, Philip of Tollevilla had a castle most strongly fensed with rivers, wods, and marishes about it, which he, confident upon the courage of his folowers and his provision of victuals and armour, defended against King Stephen untill it was won by assault.


AST-Riding, the second part of this region, wherein Ptolomee placed the Parisi, lieth Eastward from Yorke. On the North side and the West it is bounded with the river Darwent, that runneth downe with a winding course, on the South with the Salt water of Humber, and on the East with the German Ocean. Upon the Sea side and along Darwent the soile is meetly good and fertile, but in the mids it is nothing else but an heape of hilles rising up on high, which they call Yorkes wold. Darwent, springing not farre from the shore, first taketh his way Westward. Then he windeth into the South by Aiton and Malton, whereof, because they belong to the North part of the Shire, I will speake in due place. No sooner is hee entred into this quarter but downe he runneth not farre from the ruins of the old Castle Montferrant. The Lords whereof were in times past the Fossards, men of noble parentage and welthy withall. But when William Fossard ward to the King, being committed unto William le Grosse Earle of Aumarle as to his guardian, and now come to his yeeres, abused his sister, the Earle in wreckfull displeasure for this fact of his laid this Castle even with the ground and forced the young Gentleman to forsake his country. Howbeit, after the Earles death he recovered his inheritance againe, and left one onely daughter behind him, who, being married unto Richard de Tornham, bare a daughter maried to Peter de Mauly, whose heires and successours, being bettered in their estate by this inheritance of the Fossards, became great and honorable Barons. Not farre from hence is situate upon the river side Kirkham, as one would say of Church-place. For a Priory of Chanons was there founded by Walter Espec, a man of high place and calling, by whose daughter a great estate accrewed to the family of the Lords Rossess. Then, but somewhat lower, Darwent had a Citie of his owne name, which Antonine the Emperour calleth Derventio, and placeth it seven miles from Yorke. The booke of Notices maketh mention of a captaine over the companie Derventiensis under the Generall of Britaine, that resided in it, and in the Saxons Empire it seemeth to have beene that towne where the King used to lie, which Bede saith was situate neere unto the river Doroventio. In which, as he also writeth, Eumer that murderous villaine thrust at Edwin King of Northumberland with a sword and had runne him through, but that one of his men stepped betweene and saved the Kings life with the losse of his own. Yet could never have said precisely which was the very place, had not that most judicious Robert Marshall given me a light thereof. For he gave me to understand that just at the very same distance from Yorke which I spake of there stands hard upon the river Darwent a little towne named Auldby, that is, if you interpret the Saxon word, The old Habitation, where are extant yet in sight some tokens of antiquity, and, upon a very high hill neere unto the river, the rubbish of an ancient fortification, so that it cannot chuse but to have beene the said Citie Derventio. From hence glideth the river hard under Stanford Bridge, which also of the battaile there fought is called Battlebridge. For at that bridge Harald King of England, after a great execution done upon the Danes, slew in a pight [pitched] field Harald Haardread King of Norway, who with a fleet of 200 saile grievously annoied the Isle of Britaine, and was now landed at Richall, spoiling and wasting all in his way. The King of England who, having the honour of the field, found among the spoiles such a masse of gold as that twelve lustie young men had much adoe to carry it on their backes, as Adam Bremensis recordeth. This field was foughten scarce nine daies before the arrivall of William Conquerour, what time the dissolute and roiotous life of the Englishmen seemed to fortell their imminent overthrow and destruction. But of this I have spoken before.
32. Derwent, which when it is encreased with raine, and as it were provoked to anger, doth often time contemne his bankes and surround the medowes lying about it, passing from hence by Wreshil, a proper and strong Castle which Sir Thomas Percy Earle of Worcester built, running amaine under Babthorpe, which yeedeth both name and habitation to a worshipfull family of Knights degree, and so at length dischargeth himselfe into Ouse. Out of this stocke it was (for let us not thinke much to tell of those who performed faithfull service to their Prince and country) that both father and sonne, fighting together under the banner of King Henrie the Sixth, lost their lives in the battaile of Saint Albans, and were there buried together with this Epitaph:

Behold where two Raulph Babthorps, both the Sonne and father, lie,
Under a stone of marble hard, enterrd in this mould drie.
To Henrie Sixth the father Squire, the Sonne he Sewere [steward] was,
Both true to Prince, and for his sake they both their life did passe.

33. And now Ouse, by this time carrying a fuller streame, runneth neere Howden a mercate towne, famous not so much for any beauty in it, or great resort thereto, as because it hath given name to a little Territorie adjoining called of it Howdenshire, and had therein not long since a prety collegiat Church of five Prebendaries, unto which joined the Bishops house of Durrham, who have great lands thereabout. One of which, namely Walter Skirlaw, who flourished about the yeere of Lord 1390, as we read in the booke of Durham, built a very great and large steeple to this Church, that if there happened by chance any inundation it might serve the inhabitants for a place of refuge to save themselves in. And not farre from hence stands Metham, which gave both surname and habitation also to the ancient house of the Methams.
34. And now the river Ouse, being very broad, swift, and roring besides, outpoureth his streame into the Frith or salt water Abus. For so calleth Ptolomee that arme of the Sea which the English Saxons and we tearme Humber, whereof also the country beyond it by a generall name was called Northumberland. Both these names may seeme to have beene drawne with some little change from the British word aber, which among them signifieth the mouth of a river, and I would thinke it was imposed upon this river by way of excellencie, because Ure or Ouse, having entertained and lodged many rivers, carieth them all with him along into this, yea and other rivers of right great name are emptied into it. And verily it is one of the broadest armes of the sea and best stored with fish in all Britaine. It riseth high as the Ocean, at every tid floweth, and when the same ebbeth and returneth backe, it carieth his owne streame and the current of the sea together most forcibly and with a mighty noise, not without great danger of such as saile therein, whence Necham writeth thus of it:

More fear’d of shipmen Huber streame, than waves of sea so deep,
Disdaining cities great to see, neare country townes doth keepe.

And following the British Historie, as if it had beene so called of a King of the Hunnes, he addeth this moreover:

A prince of Hunnes, whiles that he shewed his backe to Locrine brave,
Was drowned heere, and so the name to Humber water gave.

Touching whom another Poet also:

Whiles he turn’d backe and tooke this flight, the river stopt the same.
There drownd was he, and then of him the water tooke the name.

35. Neither were there indeed any cities seene to stand by this Arme of the Sea in Nechams daies, but before and after there flourished one or two Cities in these places. Under the Roman Empire, not farre from the banke by Foulnesse, a river of smal account, where Wighton a little towne of husbandry well inhabited is now seene, stood, as we may well thinke, in old time Delgovitia. And that I may not take hold of the distance from Derventio for a proofe, both the resemblance and the signification also of the name doe concurre. For delgwe in the British tongue signifieth the Statues or Images of the Heathen Gods, and in a small village adjoining to this little towne there was a temple of Idols even in the Saxons time, of exceeding great name and request, which of those Heathen gods was then tearmed Godmundingham, and now is called in the same sense Godmanham. Neither doubt I but that even when the Britans flourished it was some famous Oracle much frequented, when superstition spread, and, swaying among all nations, had wholy possessed the weak minds of ignorant people. But when Paulinus preached Christ unto Northumberland men, Coy-si, who had beene a Pontife or Bishop of the heathen rites and ceremonies, after hee had once embraced Christian religion, first of all profaned this Temple, the very inhabitation of impiety, by launcing a speare against it, yea hee destroyed it and, as Bede writeth, set it on fire with all the enclosures and Isles belonging to it. From hence, something more Eastward, the river Hull bendeth his course to Humber, which river hath his spring head neere unto Driffeild, a village well knowne by reason of the tombe of Alfred that most learned King of Northumberland, and the mounts that be raised heere and there about it. The said river hasteneth thitherward, not farre from Leckenfielde, an house of the Percies Earles of Northumberland: neere unto which standeth the dwelling place of a very famous and ancient progenie of the Hothams at Schorburg, together with the rubbish of an old Castle of Peter Mauly at Garthum. And now approacheth the river Hull nerer unto Beverly, in the English Saxon tongue called Bever-lega, which Bede seemeth to name, the monasterie in Deirwaud, that is, in the wood of the Deiri, a great towne, very populous and full of trade. A man would guesse it by the name and situation to be Petuaria Parisiorum, although it affordeth nothing of greater antiquity than that John surnamed de Beverley, Archbishop of Yorke, a man, as Bede witnesseth, both godly and learned, after he had given over his Bishopricke as weary of this world, came hither and ended his life in contemplation, about the yeere of our redemption 721. The Kings held the memoriall of this John so sacred and reverend, especially King Athelstan, who honored him as his tutelar Saint, after he had put the Danes to flight, that they endowed this place with many and those very great priviledges, ‡and Athelstane granted them liberties in these generall words, As free make I thee, as heart may thinke, or eie may see.‡ Yea and there was granted unto it the priviledges of a Sanctuarie, so that bankrupts and men suspected of any capital crime worthy of death might be free and safe there from danger of the law. In which there was erected a Chaire of stone with this inscription:

This seat of Stone is called Freedstool, that is, The
chaire of Peace,
unto which what offender soever
flieth and commeth, hath all maner of security.

36. Hereby the towne grew great, and daily there flocked hither a number to dwell as inmates, and the townesmen for conveiance of commodities by sea made a chanell for a water course out of the river Hull sufficient to carry boats and barges. For the chiefe Magistracie there it had twelve wardens, afterwards Governours and Wardens. And now, by the gracious grant of Queene Elizabeth, a Major and Governours. More Eastward, there flourished Meaux Abbay, so called of one Gamell borne at Meaux in France, who obtained it at William the Conquerours hands for a place to dwell in, and heere was founded an Abbay for the Monkes of the Cluniacke order by William Le Grosse Earle of Aulbermarle, to be released of is vow that he had made to visite Jerusalem. A little lower runneth out in a great length Cottingham, a country towne of husbandry, where by licence granted from King John, Robert Estotevill the Lord thereof built a Castle, now utterly fallen to ruine. Which Robert was descended from Robert Grondebeofe or Grandebeofe, a Baron of Normandie and a man of great name and reputation: whose inheritance fell by marriage to the Lord de Wake, and by a daughter of John de Wake it came to Edmund Earle of Kent, who had a daughter named Joane wife unto that most warlicke Knight Edward Prince of Wales, who so often victoriously vanquished the French in divers places. The river Hull aforesaid, after it hath passed six miles from hence, sheddeth himselfe into Humber, and neere unto his mouth hath a towne of his owne name called Kingston upon Hull, but commonly Hull. This towne fetcheth the beginning from no great antiquity. For King Edward the First, who in regard of his Princely vertews deserveth to bee ranged among the principall and best Kings that ever were, having well vewed and considered the opportunity of the place, which before time was called Wike, had it by right of exchange from the Abbat of Meaux, and in lieu of the Beasts stalls and sheepe pastures, as I conceive it, which there he found, built a towne that he named Kingston, as one would say, The Kings towne. And there, as we read in the records of the Kingdome, hee made an haven and free Burgh, the inhabitants thereof also free Burgesses, and he granted divers liberties to them. And by little and little it rose to that dignity that for stately and sumpteous buildings, for strong blockhouses, for well furnished ships, for store of Merchants and abundance of all things, it is become now the most famous towne of Merchandise in these parts. All which the inhabitants ascribe partly to Michael De la Pole, who obtained their priviledges for them after that King Richard the Second had promoted him to the honor of Earle of Suffolke, and partly their gainfull trade by Island [Iceland] fish dried and hardned, which they terme Stockfish, whereby they gathered a maine masse of riches. Hence it came to pass that within a little while they fensed their Citie with a bricke wall, strengthend it with many Towres and Bulwarkes where it is not defended with the river, and brought such a deale of coblestones for ballais [ballast] to their ships, that therewith they have paved all the quarters and streets of the towne most beautifully. For the cheife Magistrate it had (as I have beene enformed) first a Warden or Custos, then Bailives, afterward a Major and Ballives, and in the end they obtained of King Henry the Sixth that they might have a Major and a Sherife, and that the very towne should be a County, as our lawiers use to say, incorporate by it self. Neither will I thinke it much to note, although in Barbarous tearmes, out of the booke of Meaux Abbay, as touching the Major of this City. William De la Pole, Knight, was beforetime a merchant at Ravens-rod, skilfull in merchandise and inferiour to no English merchant whatsoever. He, making his aboade afterwards at King-ston upon Hull, was the first Major that ever the said towne had: hee beganne also and founded the monastery of Saint Michel hard by the said King-ston, which now is an house of the Carthusian or Charter-house monkes. And hee had for his eldest sonne Sir Michael De la Pole Earle of Suffolke, who caused the said Monasterie to bee inhabited by Carthusian monkes. And verily William de la Pole aforesaid lent many thousand pounds of gold unto King Edward whiles he made his abode at Antwerp in Brabant, wherefore the King in recompence of the said gold made him Lord chiefe Baron of is Exchequer, conferred upon him the whole Seignorie or Lordship of Holdernesse, togither with other lands belonging unto the Crowne, and that by the Kings Charter, yea and ordained that he should be reputed a Baneret. Yet if any man make doubt hereof, the Recordes, I hope, may satisfie him fully, in which William De la Pole is in plaine tearmes called dilectus valectus et mercator noster, that is, Our welbeloved valect [valet] and our Merchant. Now Valect, to tell you once for all, was in those daies an honorable title as well in France as in England, but afterwards applied unto servants and gromes, whereupon when the Gentry rejected it, by changing the name they began to be called Gentlemen of the Bedchamber.
37. From Hull a Promontorie runneth on forward and shooteth out afarre into the sea, which Polomee calleth Ocellum, wee Holdernesse, and a certaine monke Cavam Deiram, as it were the hollow Country of the Deirans, in the same signification that Coelosyria is so tearmed, as one would say Holow Syria. In this Promontory the first towne wee meet with in the winding shore is Headon, in times past (if wee list to beleeve fame that useth to amplifie the truth, and which for my part I will not discredite) risen to exceeding great account by the industry of merchants and sea-fairing men: from which (so uncertaine is the condition as well of places as of people) it is so much fallen by the vicinity of Hull and the choaking up of the haven which hath empoverished it, that it can shew scarce any whit of the ancient state it had, although King John granted unto Baldwin Earle of Aulbemarle and of Holdernesse, and to his wife Hawis, free Burgage heere, so that the Burgers might hold in free Burgage, with those customes that Yorke and Nichol, that is, Lincolne. Yet now it beginneth by little and little to revive againe in hope to recover the former dignity. There standeth hard by the Promontorie an ancient towne which Antonine the Emperour called Praetorium, but wee in our age Patrington, like as the Italians have changed the name of a towne sometime called Praetorium into Petrovina. That I doe not mistake heerin, both the distance from Delgovitia and the very name yet remaining doth prove, which also in some sort implieth that this is the very same that in Ptolomees copies is written Petuaria corruptly for Praetorium. But whether this name were given it either from Praetorium, that is, the hal of Justice, or from some large and stately house such as the Romans tearmed praetoria, it doth not appeere for certaine. The inhabitants glorie much yet as touching their Antiquity and the commodiousnesse of the haven in ancient times, and they may as well glorie for the pleasantnesse thereof. For it hath a most delectable prospect: on the one side lieth the maine sea brimme upon it, on the other Humber a famous arme of the sea, and over against it the fresh and greene skirtes of Lincolnshire. The high way of the Romans from the Picts wall which Antonine the Emperor followed here endeth. For Ulpian hath written that such high waies commonly end at the sea, at rivers, or at Cities. Somewhat lower standeth Winsted, the habitation of the Hildeards knights of ancient descent; and higher into the Country Rosse, from whence the honorable family of the Barons Rosse tooke their name, like as they were seated there in times past; and hard by the sea-side Grimstons-garth, were the Grimstons for a long time have lived in good reputation; and a little from hence standeth Rise, the mansion house in old time of certaine noble men bearing the name of Faulconberg. And then, in the very necke of the promontorie, where it draweth in most narrow into a sharpe point, and is called Spurnhead, is Kelnsey a little village, which plainely sheweth that this is the very Ocellum mentioned by Ptolomee. For, as from Ocelklum Kelnsey is derived, so Ocellum doubtless was made of y-kill, which, as I have said before, signifieth in the British tongue a Promontory or narrow neck of land.
38. From Spurn-head the shore withdraweth it selfe backe by little and little, and, gently bending inward, shooteth Northward by Overthorne and Witherensey, two little Churches, called of the sisters that built them Sisters kirks. And not farre from Constable-Burton, so called of the Lords thereof, who beeing by marriages linked to right honorable houses, flourish at this day in great worship, and out of which familie Robert (as wee read in the booke of the Abbay of Meaux) was one of the Earle of Aubemarls knights, who being aged and full of daies tooke upon him the Crosse and went with King Richard in his voiage toward the holy land. Then by Skipsey, which Dru the first Lord of Holdernesse fortified with a Castle. When the shore beginneth to spread againe and beare out into the sea, it maketh roome for a bay or creeke that Ptolomee calleth Εὐλίμενον Gabrantovicorum, which the Latine Interpreters have translated, some, Portuosum Sinum, that is, The harborous Creeke, others Salutarem, that is, The safe Creeke. But neither of them both better expresseth the nature of the Greeke word than the very name of a little village in the nouke thereof, which wee call Sureby. For that which is safe and sure from danger, the Britans and French men both terme seur, as wee Englishmen sure, who peradventure did borrow this word from the Britans. There is no cause, therefore, why wee should doubt but that this creeke was that very Εὐλίμενον of the Gabrantovici who dwelt there abouts. Hard by standeth Bridlington, a towne very well knowne by reason of John of Bridlington a poeticall monkish prophet, whose ridiculous prophesies in Rhyme I have read ‡albeit they were not worth the reading.‡ And not farre from hence for a great length toward Driffield was there a ditch, cast up and brought on by the Earles of Holdernesse to confine and bound their lands, which they called Earles Dyke. But whence this little nation here inhabiting were named Gabrantovici I dare not search, unlesse happily it were of goates, which the Britans tearme gaffran, and whereof there is not greater store in al Britain than hereabout. Neither ought this derivation of the name to seeme absurd, seeing that Aegira in Achaea boroweth the name of goates, Nebrodes in Siciliy of fallow Deere, and Boetia in Greece of Kine and Oxen. That little Promontory which with his bent made this creeke is commonly called Flamborough Head, and in the Saxon tongue Fleam-burg by Authors, who write that Ida the Saxon, who first subdued these Countries, arrived here. Some thinke it tooke the name from a watchtowre which did by night put forth a flame or burning light for to direct sailers into the haven. For the Britains retaine yet out of the provinciall language this word flam, and Mariners paint this creeke in their sea-cards [charts] with a blazing flame on the head. Yet others are of opinion that this name arrived in this Island with the English out of Angloen in Denmarke, the ancient seat of the English nation. For there is a towne called Flemsburg, and that the Englishmen from hence called it so, like as the Gaules, as Livie witnesseth, tearmed Mediolanum, that is, Millan in Italie, after the name of Mediolanum in Gaule, which they had left behind them. For there is a little village in this Promontory named Flamborrough, where another notable house of the Constables had anciently their seat, which some do derive from the Lacies Constables of Chester. Beeing in these partes, I could learne nothing for all the enquirie that I made as touching the bournes commonly called Vipsey, which (as Walter of Heminburgh hath recorded) flow every other yeere out of blind springs and runne with a forcible and violent streame toward the sea neere unto this Promontory. Yet take here with you that which William Newbrigensis, who was borne neare that place, writeth of them. Those famous waters which commonly are called Vipseys rise out of the earth from many sources, not continually, but every second yeere, and beeing growne unto a great bourn runne downe by the lower grounds into the sea. Which when they are dry, it is a good signe. For their breaking out and flowing is said to be an infallible token portending some dearth to ensue. From thence the shore is drawne in, whereby there runneth forth into the sea a certaine shelf or slang, like unto an out-thrust tongue, such as Englishmen in old time termed a file, whereupon the little village there Filey tooke name. And more within the land you see Flixton, where in King Athelstanes time was built an Hospitall for the defense (thus word for word it is recorded) of way-faring people passing that way from Wolves, least they should be devoured. Whereby it appeereth for certaine that in those daies Wolves made foule worke in this tract, which now are no where to be seene in England, no not in the very marches toward Scotland, and yet within Scotland there be numbers of them in most places.
39. This little territory or Seigniory of Holdernesse King William the First gave to Drugh Buerer a Fleming, upon whom also hee had bestowed his Niece in marriage, whom when he had made away with poison and thereupon fled to save himselfe, hee had to succeed him Stephen the son of Odo, Lord of Aulbemarle in Normandy, who was descended from the Earles of Champaigne, whom King William the First, because hee was his nephew by the halfe sister of the mothers side, as they write, made Earl of Aulbemarle: whose posterity in England retained the title, although Aulbemarle be a place in Normandy. His successor was William surnamed Le Grosse, whose onely daughter Avis was married to three husbands one after another, namely to Wiliam Magnavill Earle of Essex, to Baldwine De Beton, and William Foris or de Fortibus. By this last husband only she had issue William, who also had a sonne named William. His onely daughter Avelin, beeing the wedded wife of Edmond Crouchback Earle of Lancaster, died without Children. And so, as we read in the booke of Meaux Abbay, for default of heires the Earledome of Aulbemarle and honor of Holdernesse were seized into the Kings hands. Howbeit in the ages ensuing King Richard the Second created Thomas of Woodstock his unkle, and afterwards Edward Plantagenet Earle of Rutland, the Duke of Yorkes son, Duke of Aulbemarle in his fathers life time. Likewise King Henry the Fourth made his owne sonne Thomas Duke of Clarence and Earle of Aulbemarle, which title King Henry the Sixth afterward added unto the stile of Richard Beauchamp Earle of Warwicke, for the greater augmentation of his honour.


CARCE two miles above Flamborrough-head beginneth the North Riding, or the North part of this Country, which, affronting the other parts and beginning at the sea, is streatched out Westward and carrieth a very long tract with it (though not so broad) for threescore miles togither, even as farre as to Westmorland, limited on the once side with Derwent, and for a while with the river Ure, on the other side with Tees running all along it, which on the North coast seperateth it from the Bishoprick of Durham. And very fitly may this part bee divided into Blackamore, Cliveland, Northallvertonshire and Richmondshire.
41. That which lieth East and bendeth toward the sea is called Blackamore, that is, The black moorish land. For it is mountanous and craggy. The sea coast thereof hath Scarborrough castle for the greatest ornament, a very goodly and famous thing, in old time called Scear-burg, that is, A burgh upon the Scar or steepe rocke. The description whereof have here out of William of Newburgh his history. A rocke of a wonderfull height and bignesse, which by reason of steepe cragges and cliffes almost on every side is unaccessible, beareth into the sea, wherewith it is all compassed about save onely a certaine streight in manner of a gullet, which yeeldeth accesse and openeth into the West, having in the toppe a very faire, greene, and large plaine conteining about three score acres of ground or rather more, a little well also of fresh water springing out of a stony rocke. In the foresaid gullet or passage, which a man shall have much adoe to ascend up unto, standeth a stately and princelike Towre, and beneath the said passage beginneth the City or Towne, spreading two sides South and North, but having the fore part Westward. And verily it is fensed afront with a wall of the owne, but on the East fortified with the rock of the Castle, and both the sides thereof are watered with the sea. This place William Le Grosse Earle of Aulbemarle and Holdernesse, vewing well and seeing it to bee a convenient plot for to build a Castle upon, helping Nature forward with very costly worke closed the whole plaine of the rocke with a wall, and built a towre in the very streight of the passage. Which beeing in processe of time fallen downe, King Henry the Second caused to bee built in the same place a great and goodly castle, after hee had now brought under the Nobles of England, who during the loose government of King Stephen had consumed the lands of the Crowne, but especially, amongst others, that William abovesaid of Aulbemarle, who had in this tract ruled and reigned like a King, and possessed himselfe of this place as his owne. Touching the most project boldnesse of Thomas Stafford, who to the end hee might overthrow himselfe with great attempts, with a few French men surprised this Castle of a sodaine in Queene Maries reigne, and held it for two daies togither, I neede not to speake, ne yet of Sherleis, a gentleman of France, who, having accompanied him, was judicially endited and convict of high treason, albeit he was a forrainer, because hee had done against the duty of his allegeance, the peace then betweene the Kingdome of England of France beeing in force. These are matters better knowne than that the world can take notice of them by any writings of mine. Yet may this seeme a thing worth my labour and expedient to note, how the Hollanders and Zelanders use to take mervelous plentie of herrings (call them in Latin haleces, leucomenidae, or chalcides, which of them you please) upon this coast, and make a very gaineful trade thereof, having anciently first obtained licence by an ancient custome out of this castle. For the Englishmen granted licence to fish, reserving the honour to themselves, but resigning for lazinesse, as it were, the profit unto strangers. For it is almost incredible what infinite summes of money the Hollanders raise unto themselves by this their fishing in our shore. These Herrings (pardon mee, I pray you, if briefly by way of digression I doe make mention of Gods goodnesse towardes us), which in our great grandfathers daies kept as it were their station onely about Norway, now in our time, not without the divine providence, swimme yeerely around about this Isle of Britain by skules in wonderfull great numbers. About Midsommer they shoole out of the deepe and vast Northren-sea to the coasts of Scotland, at which time, because they are then at the fattest, they be streightwaies sold. Thence come they to the English East coast, and from the middest of August unto November is the best and most plentuous taking of them betweene Scarborrough and Tamis mouth. Afterwards, by force of some great storme, they are carried into the British sea, and there untill Christmas offer themselves to the fishers nettes. From hence, dividing themselves and swimming along both sides of Ireland, after they have coasted round about Britaine, they take their course into the Northren Ocean as their home, and there settle themselves as it were and rest untill June, where, after they have cast their spawne and brought forth a yong frie, they returne againe in mighty great skulles and so march about these Isles. Whiles I am writing hereof, that comes into my minde which sometimes I read in Saint Ambrose. Fishes (saith hee) by infinite numbers, meeting, as one would say, by common consent out of many places from sundry creekes of the sea, with a joint flote, as it were, make toward the blastes of the North winde, and by a certaine direction and instinct of Nature hast into that sea of the Northren partes. A man that sawe the manner of them would say a certaine tyde were comming downe from the current, they rush so forward and cut the waves as they passe with a violent powre through Propontis into Pontus Euxinus. But to my matter againe.
42. From thence the shore, endented and interlaced with rockes, bendeth in as farre as to the river Teise, and by a compasse that the said shore fetcheth there is made a bay about a mile broade, which of that outlaw Robert Hood so much talked about we call Robin Hoods Bay. For hee (as John Major the Scotishman writeth) flourished in the reigne of Richard the First, and the said Author setteth him out with this commendation that, hee was in deed an Arch-robber, but the gentellest theefe that ever was. Then Dunus Sinus, a creeke mentioned by Ptolomee, streightwaies by giving backe of the shore on both sides sheweth it selfe, neere unto which standeth Dunesley a little village, and hard by it Whitby, in the English Saxon tongue Streaney-heale, which Beda expoundeth to bee the Bay of a Watch-towre. Neither will I call that interpretation into question, although in our language it doth resemble Sinum Salutis, that is the Bay of health, so that I would say this very same was Salutaris Sinus, that is, The Bay of safety, but that the situation in the Geographer did perswade mee otherwise. Here are found certaine stones faschioned like serpents folded and wrapped round as in a wreathe, even the very pastimes of Nature disporting her selfe, who, as one saith, when shee is wearied as it were with serious workes, forgeth and shapeth some things by way of game and recreation. A man would thinke verily they had beene sometime serpents, which a coate or crust of stone had now covered all over. But people to credulous ascribe this to the Praiers of Saint Hilda, as if shee had thus transformed and changed them: who in our Primitive Church withstood to her powre the shoring and shaving of Priests and the celebration of Easter according to the order of Rome, when a Synod was helden touching these matters in the yeere of our Lord 664 in the Abbay which shee had built in this place, and whereof her selfe was first Governesse. Unto whose holinesse also they ascribe that those wild geese which in winter flie by flockes unto Pooles and Rivers that are not frozen over in the South partes, whiles they flie over certaine fields heere adjoyning, soudainely fall downe to the ground, to the exceeding great admiration of all men: a thing that I would not have related had I not heard it from very many persons of right good credit. But such as are not given to superstitious credulity attribute this unto a secret propriety of this ground, and to an hidden dissent betweene this soile and those geese, such as is between wolves and Squilla rootes. For provident Nature hath infused suchlike secret mutuall combinations and contrarieties, which the learned terme Sympathies and Antipathies, as all men acknowledge, for their preservation. Afterwards Edelfleda King Oswins daughter enriched this Abbay with most large revenewes, where also she solemnized her fathers funerall obsequies. But at length the Danes, robbing and spoiling wherever they came, utterly overthrew it, and although Sir Percie reedified it, being immediately upon the comming in of the Normans head-ruler of the same, yet now it scarce affordeth any footing [vestige] at all of the ancient dignity. Hard by upon a steepe hill, howbeit betweene two others higher than it, toward the sea, stood by report the Castle of Wada a Saxon Duke, who in that confused Anarchie of the Northumbers and massacre of Princes and Nobles, having combined with those that murdred King Ethered, gave battaile unto King Ardulph at Whally in Lancashire, but with so disasterous successe that after his owne powre was discomfited and put to flight, himselfe was faine to flie, and afterwards by a languishing sicknesse ended his life, and heere within the hill betweene two entire and solide stones above seven foote high lieth entombed: which stones because they stand eleven foote asunder, the people doubt not to affirme that hee was a mighty Giant. Neere unto this place, long time after, Peter de Malolacu built a Castle, which being full as it were of grace and beauty he named in French Moult-Grace, as we read in the historie of Meaulx, but because it became a most grievous yoke unto the neighbour inhabitants, the people, maisters alwaies of our usuall speech, by change of one letter termed it Moult-grave, by which name, although the reason thereof be not so well knowen, the world takes knowledge of it. This Peter de Malolacu, commonly called Mauley (that I may in this point satisfie the curious), borne in Poictou in France, married the onely daughter of Robert de Turnham in the reigne of King Richard the First, in whose right he entred upon a very great inheritance; after whom succeeded in order seven Peters called Lords Mauley, who give for their Arms a bend Sables in an eschocheon Or. But when the seventh died issuelesse, this the Manours of Dancaster, Bainton, Bridesalle &c. were parted by the sisters betweene the families of the Salvains and Bigots.
43. Neere unto this place, as elsewhere in this shore, is found Blacke amber or Geate. Some take it to be that gagates which in old time they held to be one of the rare gems and pretious stones. It groweth among the cliffes and rockes where they chinke and gape asunder. Before it be polished, it is of a reddish colour, but after it be once polished it becommeth, as saith Solinus, as a Gemme of a bright radiant blacke colour. Touching which, Rhemnius Palaemon out of Dionysius Afer thus versifieth:

The Geat is blacke and shineth passing bright,
Which Stone in water dipt and drencht takes fire and burneth light.
In oyle, a wonder for to see, the flame is quickly done,
And, like to Amber, rub it hard, small stickes it catcheth soone.

And Marbodaeus in his little booke of pretious stones:

Geat is a Stone and Gemme well neere, that men in Lycia find,
But fruitfull Britaine yeelds the best simply of all that kind.
Of colour blacke, yet bright it is, most smoth and light withall.
Well rubbed and enchauf’d thereby, thin strawes and fescues small
That are neere hand it drawes thereto. It burns in water drencht.
Annoint the same with fatty oyle, the flame streightwaies is quencht.

Heare also what Solinus saith: In Britaine there is great store of gagates or Geat, and an excellent stone it is. If you demaund the colour, it is a bright radiant blacke; if the quality, it is in maner nothing weighty; if the nature, it burneth in water, and is quenched with oyle; if the vertue, being made hote with rubbing, it holdeth such things as are applied thereto.
44. From Whitby the shore gives backe Westward, by which lieth Cliveland, taking that name as it seemeth of steep bankes, which in our language we call cliffes. For there runne along along the side thereof cliffie hills, at the foote of which the country spreadeth into a plaine full of fertile fields. Upon the shore Skengrave a little village is much benefited by taking great store of fish, where also, by report, was caught a Sea-man about 70 yeeres since, that for certaine daies together fed of raw fishes, but, espying his opportunity, escaped away unto his proper element again. Whensoever the winds are laied, and that upon still wether the sea is most calme, and the water lieth as one would say levell and plaine without any noise, there is heard heere many times on a sudden a great way off, as it were, an horrible and fearefull groning. At which time the fishermen dare not launch out farre into the deepe, as beleeving, according to their shallow reach [understanding], that the Ocean is a fell and cruel beast, and being then very hungry desireth greedily in that sort to devoure mens bodies. Beneath Sken-grave is situate Kilton Castle within a parke, which belonged sometime to the habitation of the Thwengs, whose patrimonie descended to the Barons of Lumley, Hilton, and Daubeneie. And there joineth almost close unto Skelton Castle, appertaining to the ancient family of the Barons Brus, who derive their descent from Robert Brus the Norman. The said Robert had two sonnes, Adam Lord of Skelton and Robert of Anandale in Scotland, from whom is descended the roiall stem of Scotland. But Peter Brus the fifth Lord of Skelton died without issue, and left his sisters to inherite: namely Agnes, wife to Walter Falconberg; Lucie, wedded to Marmaduke Thweng, of whom is come the Baron Lumley; Margaret, married to Robert Ros; and Laderina to John Belle-eau, men in that age of honorable reputation. The heires successively of Walter Falconberg flourished a long time, but in the end by a femall the possessions came to Sir William Nevil, who was a redoubted Knight for martiall proesse, and by King Edward the Fourth advaunced to the title of Earle of Kent. And his daughters were bestowed in marriage upon Sir John Coigniers, Nicholas Bedhowing, and Richard Strangwaies.
45. Neere unto Hunt-cliffe and not farre from the shore there appeere aloft at a vale water certaine rockes, about which the fishes that we call Seales, short (as some thinke) for Sea-veales, meete together in droves to sleepe and sunne themselves. And upon that rocke which is next unto the shore there lieth one, as it were, to keepe the Centinell, and as any man approcheth nere, he either by throwing downe a big stone or by tumbling himselfe into the water with a great noise giveth a signall to the rest to looke unto themselves and get into the water. Most affraid they be of men, against whom when they chase them they, being destitute of water, fling backward with their hinder feete a cloud, as it were, of sand and gravell stones, yea and often times drive them away. For women they care not so much, and therefore whosoever would take them use to bee clad in womens apparell. In the same coast are found stones, some of a yellowish, others of a reddish colour, and some againe with a rough cast crust over them of a certaine salt matter, which by their smell and tast shew of Coperose, nitre, and brimstone, and also great store of Marquesites in colour resembling brasse.
46. Hard by at Huntly Nabb, the shore that lay for a great way in length open riseth now up with craggey rockes, at the rootes whereof there lie scattering heere and there stones of divers bignesse, so artificially by nature shaped round in maner of a globe that one would take them to be big bullets made by the turns hand for shot to bee discharged out of great ordinance. In which, if you breake them, are found stony serpents enwrapped round like a wreath, but most of them are headles. Then see you from thence Wilton Castle, sometime the Bulmers, and above it at Dobham the river Tees voideth into the Sea after it hath lodged sundry rivers, and at the last one that is namelesse, beside Yare a mercate towne well known, which river watereth Stokesley, a little mercate towne, likewise that hath a long time appertained to the noble family of Eure. Beneath which places, Wharton Castle belonging to the Barons Menill, and Harsley to the family of Hotham, and afterward to Strangwaies, now wrestle with old age, and hardly hold up their heads.
47. The mouth of Tees aforesaid, suspected in times past of sailers, is now found to be a sure road and harbour, and to give direction for safe accesse and entrance unto it there are erected on both sides thereof within our remembrance high turrets with light. Foure miles from this Tees mouth standeth Gisburgh on high, now a small towne, but whiles it stood in flourishing estate it was right glorious for a very faire and rich Abbay built by Robert de Brus, Lord of the place, about the yeere of our Salvation 1119, and for the common buriall place of all the gentry and nobility of this tract, which also brought forth Walter de Heminford, no unlearned Historiographer. This verily is a passing good place, and may well for pleasantnesse, delightsome variety, and rare gifts of Nature contend with Puteoli in Italy, which in regard of healthy situation it also farre excelleth. The aer is molified and made more mild by the mountaines seated betweene it and what way the sea yeeldeth a cold and winterly disposition. The soile fruitfull and plenteous in grasse affordeth delectable floures a great part of the yeere, and richly aboundeth with vaines of mettall and Alum-earth of sundry colours, but especially of ocher and murray [rust], likewise of iron, out of which they have now begunne to try very good Alum and Coperose. Which with learned skill and cunning not many yeeres since Sir Thomas Chaloner Knight (a learned sercher into natures workes, and unto whose charge our most high and mighty King hath committed his sonne Prince Henrie, the lovely joy and delight of Britaine) first discovered, by observing that the leaves of trees were of a more weake greene colour heere than in other places, that the okes had their rootes spreading broad but very eb [shallow] within the ground, the which had much strength but small store of sappe, that the earth, standing upon cley and being of divers colours, whitish, yellowish, and blew, was never frozen, and in a cleere night glittered in the pathes like unto glasse. Not farre off, Ounsbery or Rosebery Topping mounteth up in a mighty height and maketh a goodly shew afarre of, serving unto sailers for a marke of direction, and to the neighbour inhabitants for a prognostication. For so often as the head thereof hath his cloudy cap on, lightly [often] there followeth raine, ‡whereupon they have a Proverbiall Rhime, when Rosebery topping weares a cap, let Cliveland then beware a clap.‡ Neere unto the top of it out of an huge rocke there floweth a spring of water medicinable for diseased eies, and from hence there is a most goodly and pleasant prospect downe into the vallies below lying a great away about, to the hils full of grasse, greene meddowes, delightsome pastures, fruitfull corne fields, riverets stored with fish, the river Tees mouth full of rodes and harbours, the ground plaine and open without danger of inundation, and into the sea with ships therein under saile. Beneath it standeth Kildale, a Castle of the Percies Earles of Northumberland, and more Eastward Danby, which from Brus also by the Thwengs came unto the Baron Latimers, from whose heire descended the Willoughbeies, Barons of Brooke. But this Danby with other possessions was sold to the Nevills, of which family Sir George Nevill was by King Henrie the Sixth called among Barons to the Parliaments under the name of Lord Latimer, in whose progenie and posterity this dignity hath continued unto our daies. There remaineth nothing else heere for me to note but that the Barons Meinill held certaine lands in this shire of the Archbishops of Canterbury, and for the same the Coigners, Strangwaies and Darcies, descended from them, are bound to performe certaine service to the said Archbishops. and whereas the King of England by his Prerogative shall have the Wardship (these bee the very words of the Praerogative) of all their lands who hold of him in chiefe by Knights service, of which themselves as tenants shall be seized in their Demense as of Fee, the day whereon they die, of whomseover they held by the like service, so that themselves notwithstanding hold of the King an tenement of the ancient demesne of the Crowne unto the full and lawfull age of the heire. Yet are excepted these Fees and others of the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of Durrham, betweene Tine and Tees &c., so that they may have the Wardship of such lands, although elsewhere they held of the King.
48. Farther within the country among the mountaines of Blackamore there offereth it selfe (beside wandering beakes [streams] and violent swift brookes, which challenge the vallies everywhere as their owne to passe through) no memorable thing, unlesse it be Pickering, a good bigge towne belonging to the Dutchy of Lancaster, situate upon an hill and fortified with an old Castle, unto which a number of small villages lying there round about doe appertaine, whereupon the country adjoining is commonly called Pickering Lith, the Liberty of Pickering, and Forest of Pickering, the which King Henrie the Third gave unto his younger sonne Edmund, Earle of Lancaster, Wherein, neere unto the river Darwent standeth Atton, that gave name unto the right noble family of the Attons Knights, descended from the Lords Vescy, the inheritance of which family was by the daughters parted betweene Edward Saint John, the Evers, and the Coigniers. Now from Edward Saint John a great portion thereof came by a daughter to Henrie Bromflet. Which Henrie verily was summoned to the High court of Parliament by these expresse termes, elsewhere not to be found in Summons: Our Will is that both yee and your heires males of your body lawfully issuing be Barons of Vescy. Afterwards that title passed away by a daughter to the Cliffords. On the other side, foure miles from Pickering neere unto Dow, a swift running riveret, lieth Kirkby-Morside hard unto the hilles, where of it had that name a mercate towne not of the meanest reckoning, and the possession sometime of the Estotevilles.
49. Behind these Westward, Rhidal lieth low, a goodly, pleasant and plentifull vale adorned with three and twenty Parish-churches, through the mids whereof runneth the river Rhie. A place (as saith William of Newborrough) wast, desolate, and full of horrour, before that Walter Espec had granted it to the Monkes of the Cluniack order and founded there an Abbay. In this vale is Elmesley seated, which, if I deceive not my selfe, Bede called Ulmetum; where that Robert called de Rosse, surnamed Fursan, built a Castle, nere unto which the river Recall hideth it selfe under the ground. More beneath, hard by the riverside standeth Riton, an ancient possession of the ancient familie of the Percihaies, commonly named Percies. From thence Rhie carrieth with him the streames of many a brooke into Derwent, which watereth in this vale Malton a mercate towne well knowne, and frequented for corne, horses, fish, and implements of husbandry, where are to be seene the foundations of an old Castle belonging, as I have heard say, in old time to the Vescies, Barons in these parts of great estate and honor. Their pedigree, as appeereth evidently by the Kings records, is derived from William Tyson, who being Lord of Malton and of Alnewicke in Northumberland, was slain in the battaile at Hastings against the Normans. Whose onely daughter was given in marriage to Ivo de Vescy a Norman, and he left behind him his only daughter likewise named Beatric, with whom Eustach the son of Fitz-John With One Eye contracted marriage, who in the reigne of Stephen founded the religious houses at Malton and Watton. For his second wife, daughter to William, Constable of Chester, was Ladie of Watton. William the sonne of Eustach by Beatrice, being ripped out of his mothers wombe, assumed unto him the name of Vescy and the Armes, a Cross-floury Argent in a shield Gueles. This William begat of Beatrice daughter to Robert Estotevill of Knaresburg two sonnes, Eustach de Vescy, who tooke to wife Margaret daughter to William King of the Scots, and Sir Warin de Vescy Lord of Knapton. As for Eustach, father hee was of William, who begat John, that died without issue, and William so renowned for his exploites in Ireland. And these changed the Armes of their house into a shield Or with a crosse Sables. But William, after that his legitimate sonne John died in the warre of Wales, granted unto King Edward certaine lands in Ireland that his illegitimate sonne William surnamed of Kildare might inherite is fathers estate. And he ordeined Anthony Bec Bishop of Durham his feofie in trust to the use of his sonne, but he was scarce trusty as touching Alnewic, Eltham in Kent, and other lands, which he is reported to have conveied indirectly to his owne use. This illegitimate sonne young Vescy was slaine in the Battaile of Sterling in Scotland. And at length the title fell backe unto the line of the Attons, considering that Margaret the only daughter of Sir Gwarin Vescy was wedded unto Gilbert de Atton. But heereof enough, if not to much, and of it I have spoken before.
50. Neere unto this vale there flourished two famous Abbaies, Newborrough (unto which we are endebted for William of Newborrough, a learned and diligent writer of the English Historie), now the habitation of the worshipfull family of Bellasise, descended out of the Bishopricke of Durrham, and Bellelanda, commonly Biland, both founded and endowed by Robert Mowbay. This family of the Mowbraies was for powre, nobility, and wealth comparable to any other, and possessed very faire lands with the Castles of Slingesby, Threske, and others in this Tract. The originall of this race if you desire to understand, I will compendiously set it downe. When Roger de Mowbray Earle of Northumberland and Richard de Grundebeofe for their disloialtie were disseized of all their possessions, King Henrie the First bestowed a great part thereof upon Nigell or Niele de Albeni, of the same family that the Albeneis Earles of Arundell were descended; a man of very high birth in Normandie, who had bin Bowbearer to King William Rufus, and so enriched him thereby that he held in England 140 Knights fees, and in Normandie 120. He commanded also that Roger is sonne should assume the name of Mowbray, from whom flowred out the Mowbraies Earles of Nottingham and Dukes of Norfolke. To these Mowbraies also belonged in times past Gilling Castle standing hard by, but now unto that ancient and worshipfull familie which of their faire bush of haire got their name Fairfax. For fax in the old English tongue signifieth haires or the haire of the head, whereupon our progenitours called a Comet or blasing starre A Faxed starre, like as a place, whereof I have spoken before, Haly-fax, of holy haires.
51. Then beneath these Southward lieth Calaterium Nemus, commonly called The Forest of Caltres, shaded in some places with trees, in others some a wet flat, full of moist and moorish quavemires, very notorious in these daies by reason of a solemne horse running, wherein the horse that outrunneth the rest hath for his prise a little golden bell. It is almost incredible what a multitude of people conflow hither from all parts to these games, and what great wagers are laid on the horses heads for their swift running. In this Forest standeth Creac, which Egfrid King of Northumberland in the yere 684 gave with three miles round about unto Saint Cuthbert, by whom it came to the Church of Durrham. Scarce foure miles hence is situate most pleasantly among little woods and groves Sherry-Hutton, a very proper Castle bilt by Sir Bertrand Bulmer, and reedified by Ralph Nevil, the first Earle of Westmorland. Neere unto which standeth Hinderskell, a little Castle built by the Barons of Greystocke, which others call Hunderd-skell, of a number of fountaines that spring up and rise there.
52. Behind the hilles Westward, where the country spreadeth it selfe out againe into a more fresh and plaine champion, lieth Alvertonshire, commonly called Northallertonshire, a little countrie watered with the riveret Wiske, and taking the name of Northalverton a towne, sometime called Eafertun, which is nothing else but a long broad street, howbeit having in it on S. Bartholomewes Day the greatest Faire of Kine and Oxen, and of most resort that I ever saw in all my life. King William Rufus gave this with the territorie adjoining unto the Church of Durrham, to the Bishops of which See it is very much beholden. For William Comin, who by force held the Bishopricke of Durrham, built the Castle there, and granted it unto his nephew, which now is in maner quite decaied and gone. The Bishops likewise his successours granted unto it certaine liberties and immunities. For in the Booke of Durham we read that Hugh Pudsey Bishop of Durrham fortified the towne, having obtained licence of the King, that among those unlawfull castles which by commandement were then destroyed in many places of England, this onely should have the priviledge to stand still. Which notwithstanding, the King commaunded afterward to be layd even with the ground. Hard by this was that field foughten which they commonly call the Battaile of the Standard, in which David King of Scots, who with his unexampled cruelty had made this country almost a wildernesse, was after so great a slaughter of his people put to flight, that then and never before our countrimen thought they were fully revenged. For that indeed came to passe in this battaile which Raulfe the Bishop said, when before the battaile in an oration he encouraged the English to fight: A confused multitude untrained is an impediment to it selfe, in prosperous successe to hurt others, and in adverse fortune to escape it selfe. This was called The battaile of the Standard because the English, keeping themselves close together about the standard, received the first onset and shock of the Scotish, endured it, and at length put them to flight. And this Standard, as I have seene it pictured in ancient bookes, was a mighty huge chariot supported with wheeles, wherein was set a pole of a great height in maner of a mast, and upon the very top thereof stood a crosse to be seene, and under the crosse hung a banner. This when it was advaunced was a token that every one should prepare himselfe to fight, and it was reputed as an holy and sacred altar that each man was to defend with all powre possible, resembling the same for all the world that carrocium of the Italians, which might never be brought abroad but in the greatest extremetie and danger of the whole state.
53. Within this little shire Threske, commonly called Thruske, is worth to bee mentioned: which had sometime a most strong Castle out of which Roger Mowbray displaied his banner of rebellion and called in the King of Scots to the overthrow of his owne native country, what time as King Henrie the Second had rashly and inconsideratly digged, as it were, his owne grave, by investing his sonne King in equall authority with himselfe. But his rebellion was in the end quenched with bloud, and this Castle quite dismantled, so that beside a ditch and rampier I could see nothing there of a Castle. Another firebrand also of rebellion flamed out heere in the reigne of Henrie the Seventh. For when the unruly commons tooke it most grievously that a light subsidie granted by the States of the Kingdome in Parliament was exacted of them, and had driven away the Collectors thereof, forthwith (as it is commonly seene that Rashnes speeding once well can never keep a mean nor make an end) they violently set upon Henrie Percy, Earle of Northumberland, who was Lieutenant of these parts, and slew him in this place; and, having John Egremond to be their leader, tooke armes against their country and their Prince. But a few daies after they felt the smart of their lawlesse insolencie grievously and justly as they had deserved. Heere hard by are Soureby and Brakenbake, belonging to a very ancient and right worshipfull family of the Lascelles. Also more Southward Sezay, sometime of the Darels (from whence a great family branched) and afterwards the Dawnies, who for a long time flourished heere maintaining the degree and dignity of Knights right worthily.
54. The first and onely Earle of York (after William Mallet and one or two Estotevils of the Norman bloud, who they say were Sheriffes by inheritance) was Otho sonne to Henry Leo, Duke of Bavar and Saxony, by Maude the daughter of Henry the Second, King of England, who was afterwards proclaimed Emperour and stiled by the name of Otho the Fourth. From whose brother William, another sonne of Maud, are descended the Dukes of Brunswicke and Luneburgh in Germanie, who for a token of this their kinred with the Kings of England give the same Armes that the first Kings of England of Norman bloud bare, to wit two Leopards or Lions Or in a shield Gueles. Long after, King Richard the Second created Edmund of Langley, fift sonne of King Edward the Third, Duke of Yorke, who by a second daughter of Peter King of Castile and of Leon had two sonnes. Edward, the eldest, in his fathers lifetime was first Earle of Cambridge, afterwards Duke of Aumarle, and in the end Duke of Yorke: who manfully fighting in the battaile at Agincourt in France lost his life, leaving no children, and Richard, his second sonne, Earle of Cambridge, who having married Anne sister of Edmund Mortimer, whose grand-mother likewise was the onely daughter of Leonell Duke of Clarence, and practising to advance Edmund his wives brother to the roiall dignity, was streightwaies intercepted and beheaded, as if hee had beene corrupted by the French to destroy King Henry the Fifth. Sixteene yeeres after, his sonne Richard was restored in bloud through the exceeding but unadvised favour of King Henry the Sixth, as being sonne to Richard Earle of Cambridge, brother to Edward Duke of Yorke, and cousin also to Edmund Earle of March. And now, beeing Duke of Yorke, Earle of March and of Ulster, Lord of Wigmore, Clare, Trim, and Conaught, he bare himselfe so loftie that shortly he made claime openly in Parliament against King Henry the Sixth, as in his owne right, for the crowne, which he had closely affected by indirect courses before in making complaintes of the misgovernment of the state, spreading seditious rumours, scattering libels abroade, complotting secret conspiracies, and stirring up tumults, yea and open warres, laying downe his title thus, as being the sonne of Anne Mortimer, who came of Philip the daughter and sole heire of Leonel Duke of Clarence, third sonne of King Edward the Third, and therefore to bee preferred by very good right in succession of the Kingdome, before the children of John of Gaunt the fourth sonne of the said Edward the Third. And when answere was made unto him that the Nobles of the realme and the Duke himselfe had sworne allegeance unto the King; that the Kingdome by authority of Parliament had beene conferred and entailed upon Henry the Fourth and his heires; that the Duke, claiming his title from the Duke of Clarence, never tooke upon him the Armes of the Duke of Clarence; that Henry the Fourth held the crowne in right from King Henry the Third, hee easily avoided all these allegations: namely, that the said oth unto the King, taken by Mans law, was in no wise to bee performed, whenas it tended to the suppression of the truth and right, which stand by the law of God; that there was no need of Parliamentary authority to entaile the crowne and kingdome unto the Lancastrians, neither would they themselves seeke for it so, if they had stood upon any right thereto. As for the Armes of the Duke of Clarence, which were his by right, hee forbare of purpose to give them untill then, like as he did to claime his right to the Imperiall crowne. And as for the right or title derived from King Henry the Third, it was a meere ridiculous devise and manifest untruth to cloake the violent usurpation of Henry the Fourth, and therefore condemned of all men. Albeit these plees in the behalfe of the Duke of Yorke stood directly with law, yet for remedie of imminent dangers the matter was ordered thus by the wisedome of the Parliament: that Henry the Sixth should enjoy the right of the kingdome for tearme of life only, and that Richard Duke of Yorke should bee proclaimed heire apparant of the kingdome, he and his heires to succeed after him, provided alwaies that neither of them should plot or practise ought to the destruction of the other. Howbeit the Duke immediatly was transported so headlong with ambition that he went about to preoccupate and forestall his owne hopes, and so he raised that deadly warre between the houses of Yorke and Lancaster, distinguished by the white and red rose, wherein himselfe soone after lost his life at Wakefield, King Henry the Sixth was foure times taken prisoner, and the end despoiled both of his kingdome and life. Edward Earle of March, sonne to the said Richard, obteined the crowne, and, being deposed from the same, recovered it againe (thus inconstant fortune disported her selfe, lifting up and throwing downe Princes at her pleasure), many Princes of the roiall bloud and a number of the Nobility lost their lives. Those hereditary and rich Provinces in France belonging to the Kings of England were lost, the wealth of the realme wholy wasted, and the poore people thereof overwhelmed with al manner of misery. Edward, now beeing established in his royal throne and in the ranke of Kings carrying the name of Edward the Fourth, gave unto Richard his second sonne the title of Duke of Yorke, who together with King Edward the Fifth his brother was by their unkle Richard the Third murdered. Then King Henry the Seventh granted the same title unto his yonger sonne, who afterwards was crowned King of England by the name of Henry the Eight. And even now of late King James invested Charles his second sonne (whom before hee had created in Scotland Duke of Albany, Marquesse of Romond, Earle of Rosse and Baron of Ardmanoch), a child not full foure yeeres of age, Duke of Yorke, by cincture of a sword, imposition of a cap and coronet of gold upon his head, and by delivering unto him a vierge of gold, after he had according to the order with due complements made the day before both him and eleven more of Noble parentage Knights of the Bath.
Reckoned there are in this County Parishes 459, under which be very many chappels, for number of inhabitants aequall unto great Parishes.


HE rest of this Country, which lieth toward the North-west and carrieth a great compasse, is called Richmondshire or Richmount shire, taking the name from a Castle which Alan Earle of little Britaine had built, unto whom William the Conquerour gave this shire (which before time belonged to Eadwin and Englishman) by these short letters Patents, as it is it set downe on the booke of Richmond Fees. I William surnamed Bastard, King of England, doe give and grant unto thee my Nephew Alane Earle of Britaine, and to thine heires for ever, all and every the manour houses and lands which late belonged to Earle Eadwine in Yorkeshire, with the knights fees and other liberties and customes, as freely and in as honorable wise as the said Eadwin held the same. Given at our leaguer before the City of Yorke.
56. This shire most of it lieth very high, with ragged rockes and swelling mountaines, whose sloping sides in some places beare good grasse, the botomes and vallies are not altogether unfruitfull. The hilles themselves within are stored with lead, pit-coale, and coper. For in a Charter of King Edward the Fourth there is mention made of a Mine or Delfe of copper neere unto the very towne of Richmond. But covetousnesse, which driveth men even as far as Hell, hath not yet perced into these mountaines, as also in other places stone like unto sea winkles or cockles and other sea fish, if they bee not the wonders of nature, I will with Orosius a Christian Historiographer deeme them to be undoubted tokens of the generall deluge that surrounded the face of the whole earth in Noahs time. When the sea (saith he) in Noahs daies overflowed all the earth and brought a generall floud, so that, the whole globe thereof being therewith surrounded and covered, there was one face, as of the firmament, so also of the sea. The soundest writers most evidently teach that all mankinde perished, a few persons excepted, who by vertue of their faith were reserved alive for offspring and propagation. Howbeit even they also have witnessed that some there had beene who, although they were ignorant of the times past and knew not the Author Himselfe of times, yet gathered conjecturally as much by giving a guesse by those rough stones which were we are wont to finde on hilles remote from the sea, resembling Cocles and Oysters, yea and oftentimes eaten in hollow with the waters.
57. Where this Country bordereth upon Lancashire, amongst the mountaines it is in most places so wast, solitary, unpleasant, and unsightly, so mute and still also, that the borderers dwelling thereby have called certaine riverets creeping this waie Hel-becks. But especially that above the head of the river Ure, which having a bridge over it of one entier stone, falleth downe such a depth that it striketh in a certaine horror to as many as looke downe. And in this tract there be safe harbors for goates and Deere, as well red as fallow, which for their huge bignesse with their ragged and branching hornes are most sightly. The river Ure, which we have often spoken of before, hath his fall here out of the Western mountaines, and first of all cutting through the midest of the vale called Wentesdale whiles it is yet but small, as beeing neere unto his springhead, where great flocks of sheepe doe pasture, and which in some places beareth lead stones plentifully, is increased by a little river comming out of the South called Baint, which with a great noise streameth out of the poole Semer. At the very place where these rivers meet, and where there stand a few small cottages, which of the first bridge made over Ure they call Baintbrig, there lay in old time a garizon of the Romans, whereof the very reliques are at this day remaining. For on top of an hill, which of a fort or Burge they now call Burgh, appere the groundworkes of an ancient hold conteining about five acres of ground in compasse, and beneath it East-ward many tokens of some old habitation and dwelling places. Where, amongst many other signes of Roman antiquity, I have seene of late this fragment of an antique inscription in a very faire letter, with Winged Victory supporting the same:


By this we may guesse that the said hold at Burgh was in times past named Bracchium, which before time had beene made of turfe, but now built with stone and the same laied with good morter. Also, that the Sixth Cohort of the Nervians lay there in garison, who may seeme to have had also their place of Summer aboade in that high hill hard by, fensed with a banke and trench about it, which now they tearme Ethelbury. And not long since there were digged up the statue of Aurelius Commodus the Emperor, who, as Lampridius writeth, was surnamed by his flattering clawbackes Britannicus, even when the Britans would have elected an Emperor against him. And then, it may seeme, was this statue of his set up, when he, prizing himselfe more than a man, proceeded to that folly that hee gave commandement he should be called The Roman Hercules, Jupiters sonne. For he was portraied in the habite of Hercules, and his right hand armed with a club, under which there lay, as I have heard such a mangled inscription as this, broken heere and there with voide places betweene: the draught whereof was badly taken out, and before I came hither was utterly spoiled.

..................CAESARI AVGVSTO

58. This was to be seene in Nappa an house built with turrets, and the cheife seat of the Medcalfs, thought to be at this day the greatest family for multitude of the same name in all England. For I have heard that Sir Christopher Medcalfe Knight, and the top of his kinred, beeing of late high-Sherife of the shire, accompanied with three hundred men of the same house, all on horsback and in a livery, met and received the Justices of Assizes, and so brought them to Yorke. From hence runneth Ure downe amaine, full of Creifishes ever since Sir Christopher Medcalfe in our remembrance brought that kinde of fish hither out of the South part of England, and betweene two rockes, whereof the place is named Att-scarre, it runneth headlong downe not far from Bolton, a stately castle, the ancient seat of the Barons Scrops, and which Richard le Scrope and Chancellour of England under King Richard the Second, built with exceeding great cost; and now, bending his course Eastward, commeth to Midelham, the honour whereof (as wee read in the Genealogie or Pedigree of the Nevills) Alan Earle of Richmond bestowed upon his younger brother Rinebald, with all the lands which before their comming belonged to Gilpatrick the Dane. His nephew by is sonne Raulph, named Robert Fitz-Ralph, had all Wentesedale also by gift of Conan Earle of Britaine and of Richmond, and at Midleham raised a most strong castle. His sonne Ranulph erected a little Abbay for Chanons at Coverham (now called short, Corham) in Coverdale, whose sonne Ralph had a daughter named Mary, who, beeing wedded to Robert Lord Nevill, with this marriage translated this very faire and large inheritance as her portion into the family of Nevils. Which Robert Nevil, having had many children by his wife, was taken in adultery unknowne, and by the husband of the adultresse being for revenge bereft of his genitours [genitals], shortly after died with extremity of paine.
59. Then Ure, after it hath passed a few miles forward, watereth Jervis or Jorvalle Abbay of Cistertians, founded first at Fors, and after translated hither by Stephen Earle of Britaine and Richmund, but now wholy ruinated; and after that Masham, which was the possession of the Scropes of Masham, who as they sprung from the stocke of the Scropes of Bolton, so they were by marriages ingraffed againe into the same. On the other side of this river but more inward standeth Snath, the principall house of the Barons Latimer, who derived their noble descent from George Nevill, younger sonne of Ralph Nevil the first Earle of Westmorland, and hee received this title of honour from King Henry the Sixth when as the ancienter house of the Latimers expired in a female, and so by a continued succession they have flourished unto these our daies, when for default of male issue of the last baron Latimer, that goodly and rich inheritance was divided among his daughters, married into the families of the Percies, Cecils, D’anvers and Cornwallis. Neither are there any other places in this part of the shire worth the naming that Ure runneth by, unlesse it be Tanfeld, the habitation in times past of the Gernegans Knights, from whom it descended to the Marmions, the last of whom left for his heire Amice second wife to John Lord Grey of Rotherfeld, by whom he had two sonnes, John, that assumed the surname of Marmion and died issuelesse, and Robert, who left behinde him one onely daughter and sole heire Elizabeth, wife to Sir Henry Fitz-Hugh, a noble Baron.
60. After this, Ure interteineth the river Swale, so called (as Thomas Spot writeth) of his swiftnesse, unlading it selfe into it with a maine and violent streame: which Swale runneth downe Eastward out of the West mountaines also, scarce five miles above the head of Ure, a river reputed very sacred amongst the ancient English for that it in it, when the English Saxons first embraced Christianity, there in one day baptized with festivall joy by Paulinus the Archbishop of Yorke above tenne thousand men, besides women and little children. This Swale passeth downe along an open vale of good largenesse, which of it is called Swals-dale, having good plenty of grasse, but as great want of wood, first by Marrick, where there stood an Abbay built by the Askses, men in old time of great name; also by Mask, a place full of lead ore. Then runneth it through Richmond, the cheife towne of the Country, having but a smal circuit of walles, but yet by reason of the suburbs lying out in length at three gates well peopled and frequented. which Alan the first Earle thereof built, reposing small trust in Gilling (a place or manour house of his hard by) to withstand the violence of the Danes and English, whom the Normans had despoiled of their inheritance, and hee adorned it with this name, as one would say, The rich mount. Hee fensed it with a wall and a most strong castle which, beeing set upon a rock, from on high looketh downe to Swale, that with a mighty rumbling noise rusheth rather then runneth among the stones. For the said house or manour place of Gilling was more holy in regard of devout religion than sure and strong for any fortification it had, ever since that therein (Beda called it Gethling) Oswy King of Northumberland, being intertained guest-wise, was by his host forelaied [ambushed] and murthered; for the expiation whereof, the said monastery was built, highly accounted of among our ancestours. More Northward, Ravenswath castle sheweth it selfe compassed with a good large wall, but now fallen, which was the seat of the Barons named Fitz-Hugh, extracted from the ancient line of the English nation, who were Lords of the place before the Normans Conquest and lived in great name unto King Henry the Seventh his daies, enriched with faire possessions by marriage with the heires of the noble house of Furneaux and Marmion, which came at last by the females unto the Fienes Lords Dacres in the South, and to the Parrs.
61. Three miles beyond Richmond, Swale runneth by that ancient City which Ptolomee and Antonine call Caturactonium and Catarracton, but Bede Cattaractan, and in another place the village nere unto Catarracta, whereupon I suppose it had the name of Cattaracta, that is, a Flud-fall or water-fall, considering hard by there is a such a fall, but nerer unto Richmond, where Swale rusheth rather than runneth, as I have said, with fooming waters, meeting here and there with rockes whereby his streame is interrupted and broken. And wherefore should he call it the the towne nere unto Catarracta if there were not there a waterfall? That it was in those daies a moist famous City may be gathered out of Ptolomee, because he tooke there an observation of the heavens position. For in the second Booke and 6 chapter of his Great Construction he describeth and setteth downe the 34 Parallele through Cattaractonium in Britaine, and maketh it to bee distant from the Aequator 57 degrees, yet in his Geographical tables he defineth the longest daie to be 18 Aequinoctiall houres, so that by his owne calculation it is distant from the Aequator 58 degrees. But at this day, as said that Poet,

Nothing hath the same
But onely a great name.

For it is but a small village called Catarrick and Catarrick-bridge, howbeit well knowne both by the situation thereof nere unto the HIgh street way which the Romans made, that here passeth over the river, and also by the heapes of rubbish heere and there dispersed, which carry some shew of antiquity, especially about Kettercikswart and Burghale, somewhat farther off from the bridge and more Eastward hard by the river, where we beheld a mighty mount and foure bulwarkes raised as it were with exceeding great labour up to a great height. What sorrow it susteined in times past at the Picts and Saxons hands, when with fire and sword they made foule havock of all the Cities of Britaine, I cannot certainely tell, but it seemeth to have flourished after the Saxon Empire was established (although Bede in every place calleth it vicum, that is, a village ) untill that in the yeere 769 it was set on faire and burnt by Eanred or Beanred the Tyrant, who pittifully mangled the Kingdome of Northumberland. But both he streight after miserably perished by fire, and Cattaractoninum also began to revive againe out of the very ashes. For in the 77 yeere after King Etheldred solemnized heere his marriage with the daughter of Offa King of the Mercians. Notwithstanding, it continued not long in a good and flourishing estate, for in that confusion immediatly ensuing of the Danes, who laied all wast, it was quite destroied.
62. Swale driveth on with a long course, not without some lets [obstructions] heere and there in his streame, not farre from Hornby Castle, belonging to the family of Saint Quintin, which afterwards came to the Cogniers, and seeth nothing besides fresh pastures, country houses, and villages, unlesse it be Bedal, standing by another river running unto him. Which Bedall glorieth much of a Baron it had named Sir Brian Fitz-Alan, who flourished in the daies of King Edward the First in regard of his worth and his ancient nobility, as descended from the Earles of Britaine and Richmond. But for default of heires males, the inheritance came by the daughters to Stapletons and the Greies of Rotherfeld.
63. By this time Swale, having left Richmondshire behind, cometh neere unto Ure or Ouse, where hee visiteth Topcliffe the chiefe seat of the Percies. Marianus calleth it Taden-clife, who writeth that in the yeere of our Redemption 949 the States of Northumberland bound themselves there by an oath of allegiance unto King Eldred the West-Saxon, And at the very confluence of these rivers standeth Mitton, a small village but remarkable by no small slaughter. For the Scotish in the yere 1319, when the pestilence had consumed in maner all the manhood of England, having made an inrode thus farre robbing and ransacking all where they came, soone discomfited and put to flight no small powre of priests and country people which the Archbishop of York had led forth with banner displaied into the field. But to returne backe againe to our matter. From Cataractonium the high street or Port way divideth it selfe in twaine. Where it taketh Northward, it leadeth by Caldwell and Aldburgh, which betokeneth an old Burrowgh. By what name it was knowen in ancient times I cannot easily guesse. By the great ruins it should seeme to have beene some notable place, and neere at hand there is seene a ditch by Stanwig a little village, that runneth eight miles in length betweene the river Tees and Swale. Where the said high way goeth Northwestward about twelve miles off, you meet with Bowes, which is also written Bough, now a little village, where in the ages aforegoing the Earles of Richmond had a prety Castelet, a certaine custome called Thorough-toll, and their furcas, i .e. powre to hang. But that in old time it was called in Antonines Itinerarie Lavatrrae and Levatrae, both the account of distance and the site thereof by the high street, which heere is evidently apparent by the ridge thereof, doe easily prove. But that which maketh much to confirme the antiquitie of it is an ancient large Stone in the Church, sometimes used by them for an altar stone, with this inscription upon it to the honor of Hadrian the Emperour:


NO AVG. PONT. MAXM. .................
COS. I ................ P. P. COH IIII F. .............

This fragment also was there digged up:


64. Whiles under Severus the Emperour Virius Lupus ruled as Lieuntenant Generall and Propraetor of Britaine, the first Cohort of the Thracians lay heere in garison: for whose sake he reedified the Bath or Hote house, as appeereth by this inscription, which from hence hath beene translated to Cunnington, unto the house of that right worshipfull and learned Sir Robert Cotton, Knight;


Heere must I cause them to forgoe their error who by this inscription falsely copied forth, whiles the read untruly BALINGIUM for BALINIUM, are of opinion that the name of the place was BALINGIUM. But if a man looke neerer to the words, hee shall find it most evidently engraven in the stone BALINEUM: which word they used in old time, as the learned know, for BALNEUM, that is a Bath or Hotehouse, who also are not ignorant that souldiers, as well as others, used ordinarily to bath, both for health and cleanlinesse, as who every day, before they did eate, in that age were wont to bath, as also that such like bathing houses both publicke and private were made every where with so great cost and superfluous excesse that he thought himselfe poore and a very begger, who had not on the walles of his bathing house resplendent with great and costly embossed Glasses. In which Bathes men and women both washed one with another, albeit this had oftentimes beene prohibited as well by the Imperiall lawes as the Synodall decrees. In the declining estate of the Roman Empire the Company or Band of the Exploratores with their Captaine kept their station here under the dispose of the Generall of Britaine, as appeereth for certaine out of the Notice of Provinces, where it is named Lavatres. But wheras such Bathes as these were called also in Latin lavacra, some Criticke, no doubt, will pronounce that this place was named Lavatriae in steed of Lavacria. Yet would I rather have it take the name of a little river running neere by, which, as I hare say, is called laver. As for the latter name Bowes, considering the old towne heere was burnt downe to the ground (as the inhabitants with one voice doe report), I would thinke it grew upon that occasion. For that which is burnt with fire the Britans still at the day doe terme boeth, and by the same word the Suburbes of Chester beyond the river Dee, which the Englishmen call Hanbridge, the Britans or Welshmen named Treboth, that is, The burnt towne, because in a tumult of the Welshmen it was consumed with fire.
65. Heere beginneth to rise that high hilly and solitary country exposed to wind and raine, which, because it is stony, is called in our native language Stanemore. All heere round about is nothing but a wild desert, unlesse it be an homely Hostelrie, rather than an Inne, in the very mids thereof, called the Spitle on Stanmore, for to entertaine waifaring persons, and neere to it is a fragment of a crosse, which we call Rerecross, the Scots Reicrosse, as one would say The Kings Crosse. Which Crosse Hector Boetius the Scotish writer recordeth to have beene erected as a meere [boundary] stone confining England and Scotland, what time as King William the Conquerour granted Cumberland and unto the Scots on this condition, that they should hold it of him as his tenants and not attempt any thing prejudiciall or hurtfull to the Crowne of England. And a litle lower, upon the Romans high street, there stood a little fort of the Romans built four square, which at this day they call Maiden-casle. from whence, as the Borderers reported, the said High way went with many windings in and out as farre as to Caer Vorran in Northumberland.
66. There have beene divers Earles of Richmond according as the princes favour enclined, and those out of divers families, whom I will notwithstanding set downe as exactly and truly as I can in their right order. The first Earles were out of the house of little Britaine in France, ‡whose descent is confusedly intricate amongst their owne writers for that there were two principall Earles once, one of Haulte Britaine and another of Base Britaine for many yeres, and every one of their children had a part in Gavellkind [the equal division of a patrimony] and were stiled Earles of Britaine without distinction.‡ But of these the first Earle of Richmond, according to our writers and Records, was Alane ‡surnamed Feregaunt, that is,‡ The Red, ‡sone of Hoel Earle of Britaine, ‡descended from Hawise great Awnt to William Conquerour, who gave this country unto him by name of the lands of Earle Eadwin in Yorkshire, and withall bestowed his daughter upon him, by whom he had no issue. He built Richmond Castle, as is before specified, to defend himselfe from disinherited and outlawed Englishmen in those parts, and dying left Britaine to his sonne Conan Le Grosse by a second wife.‡ But Alan the Balcke ‡sonne of Eudo sonne of Geffrey Earle of of Britaine and Hawise aforesaid,‡ succeeded in Richmond, and he, ‡having no child,‡ left to Stephen ‡his brother.‡ This Stephen begat Alan ‡surnamed Le Sauvage, his sonne and successour, who assisted King Stephen against Maude the Empresse in the battaile at Lincolne, and married Bertha one of the heires of Conan Le Grosse Earle of Hault Britaine, by whom he had Conan Let Petit Earle of both Britaines by haereditary right, as well as of Richmond.‡ Hee by the assistance of King Henrie the Second of England dispossessed Eudo Vicount of Porhouet his father in lawe, ‡who usurped the title of Britaine in right of the said Bertha his wife, and ended his life leaving onely one daughter Constance by Margaret sister to Malcolme King of Scots.‡ Geffray third sonne ‡was advanced by his father to the marriage of the said Constance, whereby he was Earle of Britaine and Richmond,‡ and begat of her Arthur who succeeded him, and ‡as the French write‡ was made away by King John his unkle. True it is indeede that for this cause the French called King John into question as Duke of Normandie. And notwithstanding he was absent, and not heard once to plead, neither confessing ought nor convicted, yet by a definitive sentence they condemned him and awarded from him Normandie and his possessions in France, albeit himselfe had promised, under safe conduct, to appeere in personally at Paris, there to make answere as touching the death of Arthur, who as a liege subject had bound himselfe by oath to bee true and loyall unto him, and yet started backe from his allegeance, raised a rebellion, and was taken prisoner in battaile. At which time this question was debated, whether the Peeres of France might give judgement of a King annointed, and therefore superiour, considering that a greater dignity drowneth the lesse, and now one and the same person was both King of England and Duke of Normandie. But whither do I digresse? After Arthur, there succeeded orderly in the Earldome of Richmond Guy Vicount of Thouars, unto whom the foresaid Constance was secondly married. Ranulph the third, Earle of Chester, the third husband of the said Constance. Peter of Dreux descended from the bloud roiall of France, who wedded Alice the onely daughter of Constance by her husband abovenamed Guy. Then upon dislike of the house of Britaine, Peter of Savoy, Unkle by the mothers side unto Eleonor the wife of King Henrie the Third was made Earle of Richmond, who for feare of the Nobles and Commons of England that murmured against strangers preferred to honours in England, voluntarily surrendred up this Honour, which was restored to John Earle of Britaine sonne to Peter of Dreux. After whom succeeded John his sonne, the first Duke of Britaine, who wedded Beatrice daughter to Henrie the Third King of England. Whose sonne Arthur was Duke of Britaine and, as some write, Earle of Richmond. Certes, John of Britaine is younger brother, immediatly after the fathers death, bare this honorable title. And he added unto the ancient Armes of Drewx with the canton of Britaine the Lions of England in Bordeur. He was Gardian of Scotland under King Edward the Second, and there taken and detained prisoner for three yeeres space, and died at length without issue in the reigne of Edward the Third. And John Duke of Britaine, his nephew, the sonne of Arthur, succeeded in this Earldome. After his decease without children, ‡when there was hote contention about the Dutchie of Britaine betweene John Earle of Montford of the halfe brother and Joane his brothers daughter and heire of the whole bloud, married to Charles of Bloys,‡ King Edward the Third, affecting the said John Earle of Montfort and to strengthen his owne party in France, favoured the title of the said John Earle of Montfort for that he was a man and nerer in degree, and therefore seemed to have better right and to be preferred before his Niece ‡(to whom the Parliament of France had adjudged it) and what is more for that he sware fealty to him as King of France for the Dutchie of Britaine.‡ In these respects hee granted the Earldome of Richmond unto the said John untill he might recover is owne possessions in France, which being soone after recovered by aid of the English, the said King bestowed it upon John of Gaunt his sonne. And he afterward surrendred it againe into the King his fathers hands for other possessions. Who forthwith created John Earle of Montford Duke of Britaine, surnamed the Valiaunt Earle of Richmond, unto whom he had given his daughter to wife, that therby he might more surely oblige unto him a warlike person, and then ill affected to the French. But in his Earldome because he adhered unto the French King against England, howbeit he kept still the bare title and left it unto his posterity. But the possession was granted to Dame Joane of Britaine his sister, and the widdow of Ralph Lord Basset of Draiton. After her decease first Ralph Nevill Earle of Westmorland had the Castle and Earledome of Richmond for the tearme of his owne life by the gift of King Henry the Fourth. And after him John Duke of Bedford. Then King Henrie the Sixth conferred the title of Earle of Richmond upon Edmund of Hadham his halfe brother by the mothers side, with this speciall and peculiar prerogative, To take his place in Parliament next unto Dukes. After him succeeded Henrie his sonne, who was King of England by the name of Henrie the Seventh. But turing his exile George Duke of Clarence and Richard Duke of Glocester received the Seignorie of Richmond, but not the title, from their brother King Edward the Fourth. Last of all Henrie the base sonne of King Henrie the Eighth was by his father invested Duke of Richmond, who departed this life without issue 1535. ‡As for Sir Thomas Grey, who was made Baron of Richmount by King Henrie the Sixth, was not Lord of this Richmond, but of a place in Bedfordshire called Rugemound and Richmount Greies.‡
There are contained in this shire parishes 104 beside Chapells.

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