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BISHOPRICK OF DURHAM

HE Bishopricke of Durham or Duresme, bordering on the North-side upon Yorkshire, is shaped in fashion of a triangle the utmost angle whereof is made up, toward the West, where the Northren Limit and the Spring-head of Tees doe meete. One of the sides which lieth Southward is bounded in with the continued course of the river Tees running downe along by it, the other, that looketh Northward, is limited first with a short line from the utmost point to the river Derwent, then with Derwent it selfe, untill it hath taken unto it Chopwell a little river, and afterward with the river Tine. The Sea coast fashioneth out the Base of the Triangle, which lieth Eastward, and the German Ocean with a mighty roaring and forcible violence beateth thereupon.
2. On that part where it gathereth narrow to the Westerne angle, the fields are naked and barraine, the woods very thinne, the hilles bare without grasse, but not without mines of yron. As for the Vallies, they are reasonably grasse, and that high hill which I tearmed the Apenine of England cutteth in twaine this angle. But on the last part or Base of the Triangle, as also on both sides, the ground, being well manured, is very fruitfull, and the increase yeeldeth good recompense for the husbandmans toile; it is also well garnished with meddowes, pastures, and corn-fields, beset every where with townes and yeelding plenty of Sea coale, which in many places we use for fewell. Some will have this coale to be an earthy blacke Bitumen, others to be gagates, and some againe the lapis Thracius, all which that great Philosopher in Mineralls George Agrippa hath prooved to be one and the same thing. Surely this of ours is nothing else but Bitumen, or a clammy kind of cley hardned with heat under the earth, and so throughly concocted. For it yeeldeth the smell of Bitumen, and if water be sprinkled upon it, it burneth more vehemently and the cleerer; but whether it may be quenched with oile I have not tried. And if the Stone called obsidianus be in our country, I would take that to be it, which is found in other places of England and commonly called Canoale cole. For it is hard, bright, shiny, and somewhat easie to be cloven peece meale into flakes, and being once kindled it burneth very quickly. But let us leave these matters to those that search more deeply into Natures closets.
3. All this country with other territories also there adjoining the Monasticall writers tearme the Land or Patrimonie of Saint Cuthbert. For so they called whatsoever belonged to the Church of Durrham, whereof S. Cuthbert was the Patron: who in the primitive state of the English Church, being Bishop of Lindefarn, led all his life in such holinesse and so sincerely that he was enrolled among the English Saints. Our Kings also and Peeres of the realme, because they had verily perswaded themselves that he was their Tutelar Saint and Protectour against the Scots, went not onely in pilgrimage with devotion to visite his bodie (which they beleeved to have continued ful sound and uncorrupt), but also gave very large possessions to this Church and endowed the same with many immunities. King Egfride bestowed upon Cuthbert himselfe whiles he lived great revenewes in the very Citie of Yorke, and Creake also whereof I spake, and the Citie Luguballia, as we read in the historie of Durrham. King Aelfred and Guthrun the Dane, whom hee made Lieutenant of Northumberland, gave afterwards all the llands betweene the rivers Were and Tine unto Cuthbert and to those who ministred in this Church, to have and to hold for ever as their rightful possession, (these bee the very words in effect of an ancient booke) whence they might have sufficient maintenance to live upon, and not be pinched with poverty. Over and besides, they ordained his Church to be a safe Sanctuarie for all fugitives, that whosoever for any cause fled unto his corps should have peaceable being for 37 daies, and the same liberty never for any occasion to be infringed or denied. Edward and Athelstan, Kings, Knute also or Canutus the Dane, who came on his bare feete to Cuthberts tombe, not onely confirmed but enlarged also these liberties. In like manner King William the Conquerour, since whose it time it hath alwaies beene deemed a County Palatine, yea and some of the Bishops as Counts Palatines have engraven in their seales a Knight or man at armes in complet harnesse sitting upon an horse all trapped, with one hand brandishing a sword, and in the other holding out the Armes of the Bishopricke. The Bishops also have had their roialties and princely rights, so that the goods of outlawed and attained persons out of the Kings protection fell into their hands and not into the Kings: yea and the commons of that province, standing upon their priviledges, have refused to serve in warre under the King in Scotland. For they pleaded (the Storie of Duresme shall speake for me) that they were Holiwerke folkes, and held their lands to defend the Corps of Saint Cuthbert; neither ought they to goe out of the praecincts of the Bishopricke, namely beyond Tine and Tesse, for King or Bishop. But King Edward the First was the first that abridged them of these liberties. For whenas he interposed himselfe as Arbitratour betweene the Bishop Antonie Bec and the Priour, who contended most egerly about certaine lands, and they would not stand to his award, he seised, as saith mine author, the libertie of the Bishopricke into his owne hand, and there were many corners serched, many flawes found, and the Liberty in many points much impaired. Howbeit, the Church afterward recovered her rights and held them inviolate unto the daies of King Edward the Sixth; unto whom, upon the dissolution of the Bishopricke, the States in Parliament granted all the revenewes and liberties thereof. But forthwith Queene Marie by the same authoritie repealed this Act and restored all things safe and sound unto the Church againe, which it enjoieth at this day. For the Bishop, James Pilkinton, of late time entred his action against Queene Elizabeth about the possessions and goods of Charles Nevill Earle of Westmorland, and of others that stood attainted for treason in this precinct, because they had most wickedly levied warre against their native country, and hee the said Bishop had followed the suit to a triall, if the authority of Parliament had not interposed and adjudged the same for that time unto the Queene, because to her exceeding great charges she had delivered both Bishop and Bishopricke from the outrage of the rebells. But leaving these matters, let us proceede forward to the description of places.
4. The river that boundeth the South part of this country is called by Latin writers Teisis and Tessa, commonly Tees; by Polydore Virgill the Italian (whose minde ranne to Athesis of his owne country Italie) without any reason Athesis. In Ptolomee it seemeth to be called Τούασις and Tuesis, and yet I thinke that in him it is removed out of his proper place through the negligence of transcribers. For considering he hath placed Tuesis and Tina in the more remote part of Britaine, where the Scots now inhabite, and seeing that this region is enclosed within Tees and Tine, if I durst, as a Criticke, correct that ancient Geographer I would recall them home againe into their owne places, though they have beene long displaced, and that with the Scots good leave, I hope, who have no rivers upon which they can truly father these names. Tees springeth out of that Stonie country called Stanemore, and, carrying away with him in his chanell along many brooks and beckes [streams] on each side, and running through rockes (out of which at Egleston, where there is a marble Quarroy, and where Conan Earle of Britaine and Richmond founded a small Abbay), first beateth upon Bernard Castle, built and so named by Bernard Balliol the great grandfathers father of John Balliol King of the Scots. But this John Balliol, whom King Edward the First had declared King of Scotland, lost the same with other of his possessions, because he had broken his allegeance which he sware unto Edward. At which time the King, being highly displeased with Antonie Bishop of Durham, tooke this Castle (as witnesseth the booke of Duresme) with the appertinences thereto from him, and conferred the same upon the Earle of Warwicke, as Herkes also and Hertnes, which hee gave unto Robert Clifford; Keverston also, which he bestowed upon Geffrey of Hertpole, which the Bishop had by the forfeiture of John Baliol, Robert Bruse, and Christopher Seton. But a few yeeres after, Lewis Beaumount the Bishop, a man roially descended but altogether unlettered, brought his action for this castle and the rest of those possessions, and obtained his suite by vertue of judgement given in this tenour: The Bishop of Durham ought to have the forfeiture of warres within the liberties of his Bishoprick, as the King hath it without. Hard by it is Stretlham seene, where dwelt for a long time the worshipfull familie of the Bowes, Knights, who from time to time in the greatest troubles have performed passing good service to Prince and Country, and derive their pedigree from William de Bowes, unto whom, as I have read, Alanus Niger Earle of Britaine and Richmond granted that he might give for his Armes the Scutcheon of Britain with three bent Bowes therein.
5. Not full five miles from hence standeth somewhat farther from Tees bank Standrop, which also is called Stainthorpe, that is, Stony village, a little mercate towne, where there was a Collegiat Church founded by the Nevills, and was their Burial-place. Neare unto it is Raby, which Cnute or Canute the Danish King gave freely unto the Church of Durham together with the land lying round about it, and Stanthorpe, to bee held for ever. Since which time, as mine Author informeth mee, the Familie of the Nevills, or De Nova Villa, held Raby of the Church, paying yeerely for it foure pounds and a stagge. These Nevilles deduce their descent from Waltheof Earle of Northumberland, out of whose posteritie, when Robert the sonne of Maldred Lord of Raby had married the daughter of Geffrey Nevill the Norman (whose grandsire Gilbert Nevill is reported to have beene Admirall to King William the Conquerour), their succeeding progenie tooke unto them the name of Nevilles, and grew up into a most numerous, honorable, and mighty house: who erected heere a great and spatious castle, which was their first and principall seat. These two places Stainthorpe and Raby are severed one from another onely by a little rill which after some few miles runneth into Tees neere unto Selaby, where now is the habitation of the Brakenburies, a familie of right good note both in regard of their owne antiquity, as also for their marriage contracted with the heire of Denton and of Wicliff.
6. Tees, passing from thence by Sockburne, the dwelling house of the ancient and Noble familie of the Coigniers, out of which were the Barons of Coigneirs of Hornby (whose inheritance, much bettered by matching in marriage with the heires of the Lord Darcy of Metnill and of William Nevill Earle of Kent and Lord of Fauconberg, is descended from them in the memorie of our fathers, to the Atherstons and the Darcies) holdeth his course neere unto Derlington, a mercate towne of good resort, which Seir, an English Saxon the sonne of Ulph, having obteined leave of King Etheldred, gave unto the Church of Durham, and Hugh Pudsey adorned it with a faire Church and other aedificies. In this towne field are three pittes of a wonderfull depth, the common people tearme them Hel-Kettles because the water in them by the Antiperistasis, or reverberation of the cold aire striking thereupon, waxeth hote. The wiser sort and men of better judgement doe think they came by the sinking downe of the ground swallowed up in some earth-quake, and that by a good probable reason. For thus wee reade in the Chronicles of Tinmouth: In the yeere of our Lord 1179 on Christmas day the ground heaved it selfe up aloft like unto a high towre, and so continued all that daie as it were unmoveable, untill the evening, and then fell with so horrible a noise that it made all the neighbour dwellers afraide, and the earth swallowed it up and made in the same place a deepe pitte, which is there to be seene for a testimonie unto this daie. That these pittes have passages under the ground Bishop Cuthbert Tonstall first observed, by finding that goose in the river Teese which hee for the better triall and experience of these pittes had marked and let downe into them. Beyond Derlington, Tees hath no townes of any great standing upon it, but gliding along the skirtes of greene fieldes and by country villages, winding in and out as he passeth, at length dischargeth himselfe at a large mouth into the Ocean, whence the base or bothom of the Triangle aforesaid towardes the sea beginneth.
7. From hence the shore coasteth Northward, holding on entire still, save that it is interrupted with one or two little brookes and no more nere unto Gretham, where Robert Bishop of Durham, having the Manour given freely unto him by Sir Peter de Montfort, founded a goodly Hospitall. Next unto it is Claxton, which gave name unto a family of good and ancient note in this tract, whereof I have beene the more willing to make mention because of the same house was Thomas Claxton, an affectionate lover of venerable antiquity. From thence the shore shooteth forth into the sea with one onely promontory scarce seven miles above Tees mouth, on which standeth very commodiously Hartlepoole, a good towne of trade and a safe harbour for shipping. Bede seemeth to call it Heortu, which Henry of Huntington interpreteth the Harts or Stagges Island, where hee writeth that Heiu a religious woman founded a monasterie in times past, if Heorteu bee not rather the name of that little territorie, which the Booke of Duresme seemeth to implie and in another place calleth Heort-nesse, because it lieth out somewhat farre into the sea. From this for fifteene miles together the shore, being in no place broken off, but here and theire embrodered as it were and garnished with townes, smileth pleasantly upon those that saile that way, untill it openeth it selfe to make roome for the river Vedra. For so Ptolomee calleth that which Bede nameth Wirus, the Saxons Weorg, and we Were. This river first groweth into one out of three riverets Burdonhop, Wel-hop, and Kel-hop, in the utmost part of this country Westward: which when they are joined in one chanel is called by the one name Were, and speedeth into the East by vast moores and heathes, by great parkes of the Bishops, and by Witton a little castle or pile belonging to the Lords Evers, who are noble men in this Country of great antiquity, as descended from the Lords of Clavering and Warkworth, as also from the Vescies and the Attons by daughters, renowned for their martiall proesse, which Scotland may well witnesse. For King Edward the First gave unto them for their valiant service Kettnes a little towne in Scotland, and King Henry the Eighth within our fathers remembrance honoured them in that respect with the title of Barons. Then Were after a few miles taketh into him from the South Gaunlesse a riveret, where, at the very meeting of them both together, there standeth upon a high hill Aukland, so called of Okes (like as Sarron in Greece), which sheweth an house of the Bishops stately built with turrets by Anthonie Bec, and withall a beautifull bridge made by Walter Skirlaw a Bishop of Durham about the yeere 1400, who also enlarged this house and built the bridge over Tees at Yare. From hence Were turneth his course Northward that he might water this shire the longer, and then forthwith looketh up to the remaines of an ancient city not now a-dying, but dead many yeeres agoe, standing on the brow of a hill, which Antonine the Emperour called Vinovium, Ptolomee Binovium, in whom it is so thrust out of his owne place and set as it were in another climate, that it would for ever have leien hid had not Antonine pointed at it with his finger. Wee call it at this day Binchester, and it hath in it a very few houses. Yet it is very well knowne to them that dwell there about, both by reason of the heapes of rubbish and the reliques of walles yet to be seene, as also for peeces of Romaine coine often digged up there, which they call Binchteser Penies, yea and for the Inscriptions of the Romans, among which I hapened of late when I was thereupon an Alter with this Inscription:

DE AB.
MATRIB. Q. LO --
--- CL. QVIN
TIANVS --- COS.
V. S. L. M.

Another stone also was heere lately gotten out of the ground, but defaced with voide places where the letters were worne out, which notwithstanding, if one behold it wishly [carefully], seemeth to shew this inscription:

------
------
TRIB. COHOR. I.
CARTOV ----
MARTI VICTORI
GENIO LOCI.
ET BONO EVENTVI

Neither have I read any thing else of it but that an old booke maketh mention how the Earles of Northumberland long since plucked way this with other villages from the church, what time as that accursed and unsatiable hunger after gold swallowed up also the sacred patrimony of the church.
8. On the other Banke of Were among the mounting hilles appeereth Branspeth Castle, which the Bulmers built, and the daughter of Sir Bertram Bulmer coupled in mariage unto Geffrey Nevil, adjoyned with other great possessions unto the familie of the Nevills. Within a while after, Were runneth downe, much troubled and hindered in his course with many great stones apparent above the water, which unlesse the river doe rise and swell with great store of raine, are never overcovered; and upon which (a thing that hapneth not elsewhere) if yee powre water and temper it a little with them, it sucketh in a saltish quality. Nay, that which more is, at Butterby a little village, when the river in summer time is very ebbe and shallow, there issueth out of those stones a certaine salt reddish water, which by the heat of the Sunne waxeth so white, and withall groweth to a thicke substance, that the people dwelling thereby gather from hence salt sufficiently for their use.
9. And now the river, as though it purposed to make an Island, compasseth almost on every side the chiefe City of this Province standing on an hill, whence the Saxons gave it the name Dunholm. For, as you may gather out of Bede, they called an hill dun an a river Island holme. Hereof the Latin writers have made Dunelmum, the Normans Duresme but the common people most corruptly name it Durham. It is seated on high, and passing strong withall, yet taketh it up no great circuit of ground; shaped in forme, as one would say, of an egge, environed on every side save on the North with the river, and fortified with a wall. Toward the South-side almost, whereas the river fetcheth it selfe about, standeth the Cathedrall church aloft, making a solemne and a sightly shew with an high towre in the midest and two spire at the West end. In the midest there is a castle placed, as it were, betweene two stone bridges over the river, the one Eastward, the other West-ward. From the castle Northward is seene a spatious mercate place and Saint Nicholas church: from whence there runneth out a great length North-east a Suburbe compassed on two sides the river, like as others on both sides beyond the river, which lead unto the bridges, and every of them have their severall Churches. The originall of this City is of no great antiquity. For when the distressed Monkes of LIndisfarn, driven hither and thither by the Danes warres, wandered up and downe without any certaine place of abode with the corps of Saint Cuthbert, at length here they settled themselves by divine direction, about the yeere of our salvation 995. But heere the whole matter out of mine author of Durham: All the people accompanying the corps of that most holy father Cuthbert came into Dunholm, a place verily strong of it selfe by nature, but not easily to bee inhabited, as beeing wholy beset on every side with a most thicke wood: onely in the middest was a little plaine, which was wont to bee rilled and sowed with corne, where Bishop Aldwin built afterwards a faire Church of stone. The foresaid Prelate therefore, through the helpe of all the people and the assistance of Uthred Earle of Northumberland, stocked up all the wood and in short time made the whole place habitable. To conclude, the people generally from the river Coqued as farre as to Tees came right willingly, as well to this worke, as after that to build a Church, and untill it was finished ceased not to follow that businesse devoutly. Wherefore after the wood was quite grubbed up, and every one had their mansion place assigned out by lot, the said Bishoppe. in a fervent love to Christ and Cuthbert, upon an honest and Godly intent beganne (no small peece of worke) to build a Church, and endevoured by all meanes to finish the same. Thus farre mine author.
10. Not many yeeres after, those Englishmen who could not endure the insolent command of the Normans, presuming upon the natural strength of that place, chose it for their cheife hold and seat of resistance, yea and from thence troubled the Conqueror not a little. For William Gemeticensis writeth thus: They went into a part of the Country which for waters and woods was inaccessible, raising a Castle with a most strong trench and rampier, which they called Dunholme: out of which making many rodes sundry waies, for a certaine space they kept themselves close there, waiting for the comming of Swene King of the Danes. But when that fell not out according to their expectation, they provided for themselves by flight, and King William, comming to Durham, granted many priviledges for establishing the liberty of the Church, and built the castle whereof I spake on the higher part of the hill, which afterwards became the Bishops house, and the keies thereof, when the Bishopricke was voide, were wont by an ancient custome to be hanged upon Saint Cuthberts shrine.
11. When this castle was once built, William of Malmesbury, who lived about that time, describeth this city in these words: Durham is a prety hill rising by little and little from one plaine of the valley with a gentle ascent, untill it come to be a mount. And although by reason of the rough and steepe situation of the rockes there is no way for the enemie to enter it, yet they of these daies have erected a Castle upon the hill. At the very foot and botom of the Castle runneth a river, wherein is great store of fish, but of Salmons especially. At the same time wel neere (as that ancient booke reporteth), William de Careleph the Bishop, who gathered againe the dispersed monkes hither (for the Danes in every place had overthrowne their cloistures), pulled downe that Church which Aldwin had formerly built and beganne the foundation of another of a fairer worke, which his successor Ralph finished. And after that, Nicholas Fernham Bishop, and Thomas Melscomb Prior, adjoyned a new fabrique or frame unto it in the yeere of Christ 1242. And a good while after, William Skirlaw the Bishop built at the West end of the Church a faire peece of worke which they call Gallilee, whereinto he translated the marble tombe of Venerable Bede. In which place Hugh Pudsey beganne in times past an house, wherein (I use the wordes of an ancient booke) women might lawfullie enter, that whereas they had not corporall accesse unto the more secret holy places, yet they might have some comfort by the beholding of the holy mysteries. But that Ralph the Bishop aforesaid, as our Historian writeth, reduced the place betweene the Church and the Castle, which had beene taken up with many dwelling houses, into a plaine and open ground, for feare least either any anoyance by filth or dangers by fire might some nere unto the Church. And all be it the City was strong enough by the naturall site, yet hee made it more strong and stately with a wall, reaching in length from the chancell of the Church unto the keepe and towre of the castle. Which wall now by little and little giveth place unto time, and never, that I could heere suffered any assault of enemie. For when David Brus, King of Scots, had forraied the Country with fire and sword as farre as to Beauparke or Beereparke, which is a parke nere unto the City, whiles King Edward the Third besieged Calais, Henry Percy and William Zouch Archbishop of Yorke, with their companies of men mustered up in hast, encountered the Scots, and so courageously charged them that, having taken the King prisoner, they slew the most of the first and second battaile [divisions], and put the third to a fearefull flight: neither staied they at most steepe and combersome places, untill they recovered their owne holds. This is that famous battaile which our people call the Battaile at Nevills Crosse. For, the cheifest of the Scottish Nobility beeing slaine and the King taken prisoner at this field, they were enforced to yeeld much ground within their confines, yea and to render many Castles. But this may suffice as touching Durham, which I will take my leave of, if you thinke good, with a Distichon of Necham and a Hexastichon of John Jonston:

Durham by art and site of place well fensed, and now farewell,
Where for devout religion the Mitre doth excell.

The river Were, that ranne most swift ere while, with streame now soft
And chanell lesse, to famous men in towne lookes up aloft,
Whom once it bred, and of whose bones in grave it is possest,
Where under sacred marble stone Great Beda now doth rest.
Of Armes or of Religion may other boast, I grant,
For Armes and Religion both, this City makes her vaunt.

12. Concerning the Monkes that were cast out at the suppression of the Abbaies, the twelve Prebendaries and two Arch-Deacons placed in this Church, and the Priors name changed into the dignity of a Deane, I neede not to say anything, for they are yet in fresh memorie. ‡And unwilling I am to remember how this Bishopricke was dissolved by a private Statute, and all the possessions thereof given to Edward the Sixth, when private greediness eadged by Church men did grind the Church and withdrew much from God, wherewith Christian pietie had formerly honoured God. But Queene Marie repealed that statute and restored the said Bishopricke with all the possessions and franchises thereof, that God might enjoy His owne.‡ The Longitude of this City is 22 degrees. The Latitude 54 degrees and 57 minutes.
Beneath Durham, that I may not overpasse it, standeth Eastward a very faire Hospitall which Hugh Pudsey, that most wealthy Bishop and Earle of Northumberland for so long as it was, Beeing very indulgently compassionate to Lepres (as Neubrigensis writeth) built with cost (I must needes say profuse enough), but in some sort not so honest, as who layd no small deall of others mens right (so great was his powre) upon this devotion, whiles hee thought much to disburse sufficient of his owne. Howbeit hee assigned unto it revenewes to maintaine threescore and five Lepers, besides Masse Priests.
13.From Durham Were carrieth his streame Northward with a more direct course by Finchdale, where in the reigne of King Henry the Second Goodrick, a man of the ancient Christian simplicity and austerity, wholy devoted to the service of God, led a solitary life and ended his daies, beeing buried in the same place wherein, as that William of Neuborrow saith, he was wont either to lie prostrate whiles he praied, or to lay him downe when hee was sicke. Who with this his devout simplicity drew men into so great an admiration of him that Richard, brother unto that rich Bishop Hugh Pudsey, built a Chappell in memoriall of him. From thence Were passeth by Lumley Castle, standing within a parke, the ancient seat of the Lumlies, who descended from Liulph, a man in this tract of right great Nobility in the time of King Edward the Confessour, who married Aldgitha the daughter of Aldred Earle of Northumberland. Of these Lumleies, Marmaduke assumed unto him his mothers coate of Armes (in whose right he was seized of a goodly inheritance of the Thwengs), namely Argent of Fesse Gueles betweene three Poppinjayes Vert, whereas the Lumlies before time had borne for their Armes Six Popinjayes Argent, in Gueles. For shee was the eldest daughter of Sir Marmaduke Thweng Lord of Kilton, and one of the heires of Thomas Thweng her brother. But Ralph sonne to the said Marmaduke was the first Baron Lumley, created by King Richard the Second: which honour John the Ninth from him enjoied in our daies, a man most honorable for all the ornaments of true Nobility.
14. Just over against this place, not farre from other other banke of the river standeth Chester upon the Street, as one would say, the Castle or little City by the port way side. The Saxons called it Concester, wherupon I would deeme it to bee Condericum, in which, as the Booke of Notices recordeth, the first wing of the Astures in the Romans time kept station and lay in garizon within the Line or praecinct (as that booke saith) of the Wall. For it is but a few miles distant from that famous Wall whereof I am to speake hereafter. The Bishops of Lindisfarre lived obscurely here with the corps of Saint Cuthbert, whiles the raging stormes of the Danes were up, for the space of an hundred and thirteene yeeres. In memorie whereof, when Egelricke Bishoppe of Durham laied the foundation of a new Church in that place, hee found such a mightie masse of money buried within the ground, as is thought, by the Romanes, that, wallowing now in wealth, hee gave over his Bishopricke and, beeing returned to Peterborowe whereof hee had beene Abbot before, made causeys through the fennes and raised other workes, not without exceeding great charges. And a long time after Anthony Bec, Bishop of Durham and Patriarch of Jerusalem, erected here a Collegiat Church, a Deane, and seven Prebends. In which church the Lord Lumley abovesaid placed and ranged in goodly order the monuments of his Ancestors in a continued line of succession even from Liulph unto these of our daies, which he had either gotten togither out of monasteries that were subverted, or caused to bee made anew. And further within, almost in the middest of the Triangle, there is another little village also knowne of late by reason of the College of a Deane and Prebendaries founded by that Antony Bec at Lanchester, which I once thought to have beene Longovicum, a station of the Romanes.
15. But let us returne unto Were, which now at length turneth his course Eastward, and, running beside Hilton a Castle of the Hiltons, a familie of ancient gentry, venteth his waters with a vast mouth into the sea at Wiran-muth, as Bede tearmeth it, now named Monkes Were-mouth because it belonged to the Monkes. Touching which mouth or out-let, thus writeth William of Malmsburie; This Were where hee entereth into the sea, intertaineth shippes brought in with a faire gale of winde within the gentle and quiet bosome of his out-let. Both the bankes whereof Benedict Bishop beautified with Churches and built Abbaies there, one in the name of Saint Peter and the other of Saint Paule. The painfull industry of this man hee will wonder at who shall read his life, for that he brought hither great store of bookes and was the first man that ever procured Masons and Glasiers for windowes to come into England.  Five miles higher, the river Tine doth also unlade it selfe, which together with Derwent for a good way lineth out (as it were) the North side of this country. Upon Derwent, which hath his spring head neere unto the top of the Triangle, there standeth nothing of note, unlesse it be a little Village which now they call Ebchester of Ebba, a Virgin of the bloud roiall of the Northumbers, of whom there went so great a name and opinion for her sanctimonie and devotion about the yeere 650 that, being Canonized among the Saints, she hath many Churches in the Iland dedicated unto her, which the common sort usually call Saint Tabbs for Saint Ebbes.
16. But by Tine there is situate a memorable towne called Gateshead, in the English Saxon tongue Gaetesheved, and by Latin Historians Caprae Caput, which as the same as one would say Goates head, and is as it were the Suburbs of Newcastle, standing on the hether side of Tine, whereunto also it was annexed by King Edward the Sixth when the Bishopricke was dissolved. But Queene Marie soone after restored it againe unto the Church. The common people thinke it is farre more ancient than New-castle it selfe. And if I also should say that this and New-castle together (for one towne it may seeme in old time to have beene, divided onely by the river) was that Frontier station which under the later Emperours they called Gabrosentum, and was kept by the second Band of the Thracians, and that it retained still the ancient name in sense and signification, whereas New-castle hath gotten once or twice a new name, I hope my opinion would be nothing dissonant from the truth. For gaffr in the British tongue signifieth a goat, and hen in ordinary speech is used for pen, which betokeneth an head, and in the very same signification our old Historiographers terme it in Latin Caprae Caput, like as Brundisium in the Messapians Language tooke that name from a Stags head. I would thinke that this name was given unto this place by occasion of some Inn that had a Goats head for the signe, even as Gallus Gallinaceus, that is, The Housecocke, Tres Sorores, that is, Three Sisters, and Pirum, that is, The Peare, places in Africke, Spaine, and Italie whereof Antonine maketh mention, which of such signes (as some learned men suppose) tooke their names. And our HIstorians all with one accord name this towne Caprae Caput when they record that Walcher Bishop of Durham, whom King William the First had made Governour over Northumberland with the authority of an Earle, was slaine in this place by the furious multitude for misgoverning the country.
17. Beneath this towne, almost at the very mouth of Tine, is to be seene Girwy, now Jarrow, the native soile of venerable Bede, where also in ancient times flourished a little Monastery, the founder whereof and the time of the foundation this inscription sheweth, which is yet extant in the Church wall:

DEDICATIO BASILICAE
S. PAVLI VIII KL. MAII
ANNO XVI ECFRIDI REG.
CEOLFRIDI ABB. EIVSDEMQ.
ECCLES. DEO AVCTORE
CONDITORIS ANNO IIII

These greater Churches, when the Saving light of Christ shone upon the world (let it not seeme impertinent to note so much by occasion of the word basilica) were tearmed basilicae for that the basilicae of the Gentiles, which were large and spatious Hauls wherein Magistrats sat in judgement and ministred Justice, were converted into Christian Churches. Whence Ausonius wrote thus, Basilica olim negotiis plena &c. The Basilica [or Haul of Justice] in times past full of businesses, is now full of Prayers and vowes, or else because they were built in forme somewhat long in maner of those basilicae.
18. Heere our Bede, the singular glory and ornament of England, who for his piety and learning got the surname of Venerabilis, bestowed all diligence, as himselfe saith, in meditation of the Scriptures, and amidde the most boisterous billowes and surging waves of Barbarisme wrote many most learned volumes. When he was once dead, there was buried with him, as William of Malmesbury saith, all the knowledge well neere of Acts and monuments, untill our time. For when there succeeded even one more lazier than another, the heat of good studies was abated and cooled through the whole land. And the Danes for their part plagued this holy place in such wise that shortly after the Conquest, when some in these countries went in hand to reestablish the Monkes againe, and Walcher the Bishop assigned this place for them, Onely walles, as saith mine author, were standing without any roufe, and it scarcely retained any signe of the ancient dignity, howbeit for all that, they, framing a roufe over head of rough hewen wood such as they could get, and thatching it with straw, beganne to celebrate divine service therein.
19. I neede not to make a Catalogue of the Bishops of Durham, who are reputed Count-Palatines. Let it suffice to intimate this much, that since the first time a See was heere erected, in the yeere of our redemption 995, there have sitten in it 35 Bishops unto our daies. Of which these were most eminent: Hugh Pudsey nobly descended and allyed to King Stephen, who for a thousand and thirteene pounds presently disbursed, purchased of King Richard the First the County of Northumberland for his life, and Sathbrege to his successours for ever, and built that goodly Hospitall whereof I spake, betweene and whom and the Archbishop there arose a most bitter controversie, whiles (as he writeth of them) hic praeesse, ille non subesse, et neuter prodesse contenderet, that is, One would be superior, the other would not be inferior, and neither of them would doe any good. Antonie Bec, Patriarch of Jerusalem, who spent infinite summes of money upon vast buildings and glorious furniture. Thomas Wolsey Cardinall, who in his high prosperity wanted nothing but moderation (but his Historie is sufficiently knowen.) And Cuthbert Tunstall, who died in our time, for singular knowledge in the best Sciences, sincere holiness of life, and great wisedome approved in domesticall and forraine imploiments, was (without offence be it spoken) aequivalent to them all, and a singular ornament to his native countrie.
In this province and in Northumberland, beside very many Chappels, are counted parish Churches 118.

LANCASHIRE

must now turne the course of my journey another way, unto the rest of the Brigantes, who were planted on the farther side of the hilles toward the Irish sea, and first unto Lancashire, which I goe unto (God speede me well) after a sort somewhat against my will. For I feare me that I shall not satisfie my selfe, and much lesse the reader. For very few things fell out to my desire when I travailed over the greatest part thereof, the old names in every place have bin so worne out by the continuall assault of Time. But least I might be thought to neglect the harty good Lancashiremen, I will procede, in hope that Gods assistance, which hitherto hath beene favourable unto me, will not now faile me.
2. Under those mountaines which (as I have often said heeretofore) shoote along through the middle of England and interpose themselves as umpiers and Bounders between diverse shires, Lancashire lieth toward the West, in the English Saxon tongue Longcaster-scyre, commonly tearmed Lonkashire, Lancashire, and The County Palatine of Lancaster, because it is notably known by the title of a County Palatine. It is so enclosed betweene Yorkshire on the Eastside and the Irish Sea on the West that on the South side, where it boundeth upon Cheshire, it is broader, and by little and little the more Northward it goeth, where it confineth upon Westmorland, the narrower it groweth. And there, by an Arme of the Sea insinuating it selfe, is interrupted and hath a good part of it which butteth upon Cumberland beyond the said Arme.
3. Where that ground is plaine and champion, it yeeldeth good store of barly and wheat, that which lieth at the botome of the hilles is better for otes. The soile everywhere is meetely good and tolerable, unlesse it be in certaine moist places and unwholsome called Mosses, which notwithstanding make amends for these their discommodities with more plentifull commodities. For if their upper coate been paired away, they yeeld certaine unctuous or fattish Turffes for fewell, and some times under-grownd trees, or which have lien a long time buried there. Underneath also in divers places they affourd abundance of marle, which serveth in steed of mucke to enrich their grounds. whereby the soile, that in mans opinion was held most unapt to bear corne, beginneth now to be so kind and arable that it may be justly thought mens idlenesse in times past was greater than any natural barainnesse of the soile. But a man may judge of the goodnesse of the soile partly by the constitution and complexion of the inhabitants, who are to see to passing faire and beautifull, and in part, if you please, by the cattaile. For in their kine and oxen, which have goodly heads and faire spread hornes, and in body are well proportionate withall, you shall find in maner no one point wanting that Mago the Carthaginian doth require, as Columella specifieth out of him.
4. On the South part, it is separated from Cheshire with the river Mersey, which, springing forth of the midland hilles having passed a little from his head, becommeth a bound to distinguish the Shires, and with a slow current runneth Westward, calling as it were other rivers (to use the words of the Poet) into his skie-coloured and Azure lappe, and forthwith gladly biddeth welcome unto Irwell from the North, which river bringeth along with him all the rivers of this Eastern part. Among these, Roch is of greatest name, which hath standing upon it in the Vale Rochdale, a mercate towne well frequented, like as Irwell it selfe hath situate upon it Bury, a mercate towne nothing inferiour to the other, and hard by, whiles I carefully sought for Coccium, mentioned by Antonine the Emperour, I saw Cockley, a chappell built of timber, beset round about with trees. Also Turton Chapell among very steepe downfalls and overgrowen unpleasant places, Turton towre, and Entweissel a proper faire house, which had in times past Gentlemen of that name, as Turton is the seate at this day of the right ancient family of Orell. But where Irke and Irwell meet together, on the left bank, raised of a reddish kind of ston, scarce three miles from Mersey, flourished that town of right great antiquity which we now call Manchester, and Antonine the Emperour called Mancunum and Manucium, according to the variety of the Copies. This, retaining the first part of his ancient name, farre excelleth the townes lying round about it for the beautifull shew it carieth, for resort unto it, and for clothing, in regard also of the mercate place, the faire Church, and Colledge founded by Thomas Lord De-la-ware, a priest (the last heire male of his family) and summoned to the Parliament among the Lords temporall by the name of Magister Thomas De-la-ware. For he descended from the Greleies, who were the ancient Lords of this towne, and by Joane sister of the said Sir Thomas it came to Wests, now Lords De-la-ware. But in the foregoing age this towne was of farre greater account both for certain wollen clothes there wrought and in great request, commonly called Manchester Cottons, and also for the libertie of a Sanctuary, which under King Henrie the Eighth was by Parlamentary authority translated to Chester. In a parke of the Earle of Derbies neare adjoining called Alparke, where the brooke Medlocke entreth into Irwell, I saw the plot and ground worke of an ancient Fortresse built foure square, commonly called Mancastle, which I will not in any wise say was that ancient Mancunium, it is contained in so narrow a peece of ground, but rather the Fort of Mancunium and station of the Romans where they kept watch and ward, at which I saw this ancient inscription in a long stone to the memorie of Candidus a Centurion:

* Ɔ CANDIDI
FIDES XX.
IIII

As for this other, John Dee that most famous Mathematician and Warden of Manchester Colledge, who had a sight of the same heere, copied it out for mee:

COHO. I. FRISIN
Ɔ MASAVONIS
P. XXIII.

Both which may seeme erected in honor of those Centurions for their loyaltie and honesty so many yeeres approved.
5. In the yeere of our Salvation 920 King Edward the Elder, as Marianus writeth, sent an armie of Mercians into Northumberland to reedifie the Citie of Manchester, and to place a garison there (for it belonged formerly unto the Kings of Northumberland), and seemeth to have beene quite destroied in the Danish warre: against whom, because the inhabitants had borne themselves as valiant men, they will have their towne to be called Manchester, that is, as they expound it, The Citie of Men, and in this conceit, which implieth their owne commendation, they wonderfully please and flatter themselves. But full little knowe the good honest men that Mancunium was the name of it in the Britans time, so that the Etymologie thereof out of our English tongue can by no meanes seeme probable. I for my part therefore would derive it rather from main, a British word which signifieth a stone. For upon a stony hill it is seated, and beneath the very towne, at Colyhurst, there are most good and famous quarries of stone.
6. But to returne againe. Merseie, now by this time carrying a fuller streame by reason of Irwell consociating with him, holdeth on in his journey toward the ocean by Crafford, from whence the Trafford a family of great good note tooke their name as they had their habitation, also by Chatmosse, a low mossie ground lying a great way in length and bredth, a good part wherof, the brookes, swelling high within our fathers remembrance, carried quite away with then, not without much danger, whereby the rivers were corrupted and a number of fresh fish perished. In which place now lieth a vale somewhat low, watered with a little brooke, and trees have beene discovered lying along. So that it may be thought when the ground lay neglected, and the chanells were not skoured in those open and flat valleies for riverets and brookes to passe away, but the water-lades stopped up either through negligence or depopulation, that then all the grounds that lay lower than others became such boggy plots as we call Mosses or else standing Meeres. Which if it bee true, we neede not mervaile that so many trees in the like places every where throughout England (but in this shire especially) overwhelmed, and, as it were, buried. For when their rootes were loosened through overmuch moisture, the trees could not chuse but fall, and in such soft ground sinke and be quite swallowed up. The that dwell there abouts assay and trie with poles and spits where they ly hidden, and when they light upon them marke the place, digge them out, and use them for fire wood. For they burne cleere and give light, as well as torch wood which happily is by reason of a bituminous and clammy fat earth wherein they lie: whence the common sort take them for firres, which notwithstanding Caesar denieth to have growne in Britaine. I now it is an opinion currant with the most that these trees overturned with the force of waters have lien ever since Noahs floud, when the world was drowned, and so much the rather because they are elsewhere digged out of very high places, and yet they denie not but those high grounds are very marish [marshy] and waterish. Such mighty trees also are found oftentimes in Holland, a country of Germanie, which the learned men there suppose were either undermined by waves working into the Shore, or by winds driven forward and brought unto those lower and most places, where they setled and sunke downe. But let the curious company of Philosophers search into these matters, to whom I commend them and their further inquiery, ‡ whether they are not Subterranean trees growing under earth, as well as plants and other creatures.‡
7. After Chatmosse, Holcroft sheweth it selfe, which, as it afforded the seat, so it gave the name also to that right ancient family of the Holcrofts, whose estate in old time was much amended by marriage with one of the heires of Culchit, a place seated hard by which Gilbert de Culchit held of the Fee of Almaricke Butler, as he himselfe did of the Earle of Ferrars in King Henrie the Third his time. Whose eldest daughter and heire, when Richard Fitz-Hugh of Hindley had married, he assumed to himselfe the name of Chulcith, like as his brother Thomas, who wedded the second daughter, was of the possession called Holcroft, another by the same reason was named de Peasfalong, and a fourth de Riseley. Which I note that the reader may understand how our Ancestours, as they were in other things constant and grave, so in leaving and taking up names out of their possessions, they were as vaine and variable as might be. But even in other parts of England also this was in old time a thing in usuall practise. Heere lie there round about ever way little townes, which (as throughout this whole Countie, and Cheshire, and other Northren parts), as they imparted their names to worshipfull houses, so they to have their Lords even unto these daies, men of the very same name with them. As for example Aston of Aston, Atherton of Atherton, Tillesley of Tillesley, Standish of Standish, Bold of Bold, Hesket of Hesket, Worthington of Worthington, Torbec of Torbec &c. And an endlesse peece of worke it were to name them one by one, neither is it any part of my purpose to recken up all families of name and worship, but to take a view and survey of the more ancient places. And as vertue and wealth laied the foundations of these and such like families in these North countries and elsewhere (that I may speake it once for all), and provident moderation with simplicity standing contented with their owne estate both preserved and encreased them, so in the South part of England riotous expense and superfluity, usurious contracts, voluptuous and vicious life, together with indirect courses and crafty dealings, have in short space utterly oevrthrowen most flourishing houses, in so much as men complain that the ofspring of the ancient gentrie hath now a long time faded.
8. ‡ But families as plants have their time of encreasing and decreasing, I and overpassing this‡ will follow on with the course of Mersey, which now by this time runneth downe by Warrington, a towne knowen by reason of the Lords thereof surnamed Butlers, who obtained of King Edward the First the liberty of a mercate for it. From which, Northward, Winwicke is not farre distant: a place among other fat Benefices of England of greatest name, in the uppermost part of the Church whereof are red these rude verses engraven in an old Character concerning King Oswald:

This place sometime thee pleased well, Oswald.
King thou hadst beene once of Northumberland.
Thou sufferdst in a place Marcelde cald,
Thy Kingdome now is heaven, that ay doth stand.

From Warrington, the river Mersey, spreading abroad and and streightwaies drawing in himselfe againe with a wide and open outlet, very commodious for merchandise, entreth into the Irish Sea, where Litherpoole, called in the elder ages Liwer-pole, commonly Lirpoole, is seated, so named, as it is thought, of the water spreading it selfe in maner of a Poole, whence there is a convenient passage over into Ireland and much frequented, and in that respect more notorious than for any antiquity. For there is no mention extant thereof anywhere in ancient writers but that Roger of Poictiers, who was Lord, as they spake in those daies, of the Honour of Lancaster, built a castle heere. Whereof the worthy family of the Molineaux Knights have had the custodie now a long time, whose chiefe seat is hard by at Sefton, which the said Roger of Poictiers gave unto Vivian de Molinaux shortly after the first entrance of the Normans. For all that territorie betweene the two rivers Ribel and Mersey the same Roger held, as appeareth evidently by the authenticall Record of Domesday booke.
9. Neere unto Sefton, Alt a little river seeketh a way into the Sea, and when he hath found it, giveth name to a small village Attmouth standing by, and hath Ferneby nere unto it, wherein the moist and mossie soile turffes are digged up, which serve the inhabitants for fewell and candle light. Under the said Turffes there is a certaine dead and blackish water, upon which there swimmeth I wot not what unctuous matter, and in it swimme little fishes that are caught by the diggers of the turfe, so that we may say there be fishes digged heere out of the earth no lesse than about Heraclea and Tios in Pontus. And no mervaile, seeing that in such watery places fishes otherwhiles seeking for moisture get under the ground, and men goe a-fishing with spades. But that in Paphlagonia many and those good fishes are gotten by digging in places nothing watery, there is some secret and peculiar reason thereof in nature, and pleasantly wrote Seneca, why should not fishes enter and passe into land, if we passe over the Sea?
10. From hence the open shore shooteth out with a great bent, and more within land from the sea standeth Ormeskirke a mercate towne, well knowne by reason of the sepulture there of the Stanleys Earles of Derby, whose cheife seat Latham is hard by, a stately house, which they have enlarged continually ever since King Henry the Fourth his daies, at which time Sir John Stanley knight, father to John Lord deputy of Ireland, descended of the same stemme whence the Barons de Audley, married the daughter and heire of Sir Thomas Latham a right noble knight, who brought to him for her dowrie this faire inheritance with many other possessions. And from that time have the Stanleies planted their seat here: of whom Thomas, the sonne of Thomas Lord Stanley, was by King Henry the Seventh created Earle of Derbie, and had issue by Eleonor Nevill daughter to the Earle of Salisbury, George Lord Strange, for hee had wedded Joan the onely daughter and heire of John Baron Le Strange of Knockin, why dying in this fathers life time begat a sonne named Thomas, the second Earle of Derby, unto whom Anne the daughter of Edward Lord Hastings bare Edward the third Earle of Derbie, who begat Dorothea daughter of Thomas Howard Duke of Norfolke, Henry, the fourth Earle, who married Margaret daughter of Henrie Clifford Earle of Cumberland, mother unto Fernando the fifth Earle lately deceased, and to William now the sixth Earle, who succeeded his brother. But I forget my selfe now whenas I have formerly remembered as much.
11. Duglesse, a riveret, creepeth and stealeth along quietly by this place, nere unto which our Noble Arthur, as Ninnius writeth, put the Saxons to flight in a memorable battaile. At the head hereof standeth the towne Wiggin, called in ancient times Wibiggin, of which names I have nothing else to say but that in Lancashire they call buildings and houses biggins; neither of the towne, but that it is faire and a Corporation also with a Major and burgesses, and the person [parson] of the church, as I have learned, is Lord of the Towne. Hard by it Holland sheweth it selfe, out of a younger brother whereof that most Noble and renowned race of the Hollands Earles of Kent and Dukes also of Surry and Excester fetched both their originall and their surname. But the daughter and heire of the eldest brother, who flourished heere in knights degree, being in the end married into the house of the Lovells, brought unto them an addition of possessions with her armes, viz., in a shield Azur floretè Argent a Lion rampant gardant Argent.
12. Neere unto the mouth of Duglesse is Merton, a very great and large poole which emptieth it selfe into this river, and then streight waies meeteth with the river Ribell neare his out-let, for this is the next river after Mersey that runneth into the sea, and hath not yet lost quite is former ancient name. For Ptolomee calleth the salt water or arme of the sea here Bellisham, and we Ribell, perhaps by addition of the Saxon word rhe unto it, that signifieth a River. This river, comming with a quick and hasty streame out of the hils in Yorkshire, taketh his course first Southward by three exceeding high mountaines, Ingelborrow hil at the spring head, which I wondered at to see how it ascendeth as it were by degrees with a huge and mighty ridge Westward and at the furthest end mounteth up into the aire as if another hil were set upon the head of it. Penigent, haply so called of his whitish and snowy top, for so pengwin signifieth in the British tongue, and he riseth aloft with an huge bulke, howbeit not altogither so high as the other. But when Ribell commeth into Lancashire (for those two stand in Yorkshire) Pendle hill advanceth it selfe up to the skie with a lofty head, and in the verie top thereof bringeth forth a peculiar plant which, as though it came out of the clowdes, they tearme Clowdes-bery. But this mountaine is most notorious for the harme that it did not long since to the country lying beneath it by reason of a mighty deale of water gushing out of it, as also for an infallible prognostication of raine, so often as the top thereof is covered with a mist. Of these hils I have made mention the more willingly, both because they are the highest in our Appenine, whence commeth this vulgar Rhime,

Ingeleborrow, Pendle, and Penigent
Are the highest hils betweene Scotland and Trent,

as also that the reader may understand, as I said before, why the highest Alpes were called of the old Gaules Penninae, and why the very top of the hils named Pennum and Apennini were of them so tearmed. For pen in the British tongue signifieth the tops of hils. By an out corner of parcell of Pendell hill standeth Clithero castle, built by the Lacies nere unto Rhibell, and a neighbour unto it Whaley, in the Saxon tongue Walaleg, famous for the monastery that the said Lacies founded, which was translated from Stanlaw in Cheshire hither in the yeere 1296, where in the yeere 798 Duke Wade unfortunately gave battaile to Ardulph King of Northumberland at Billangho, which is more short called Lango. This Ribell no sooner turneth into the West, but imparteth his name to a small towne, which in our age is called Riblechester, where are digged up from time to time so many monuments of Romaine antiquity, statues, peeces of coine, Pillers, Pedestals, and Chapters [capitals] of pillers, heathen altars, marble-stones and inscriptions, that the inhabitants may seeme not without cause to have this hobling rhyme so rife in their mouths:

It is written upon a wall in Rome:
Ribchester was as rich as any towne in Christendome.

13. And the port high waies came directly hither, raised up with eminent causies, one from Yorke, another out of the North through Bowland-Forrest, a spacious peece of ground which as yet is most evidently to be seene for many miles together. But the country folke have so disfigured the inscriptions that, although I did see many, yet could scarce read one or two of them. At Salesbury Hall, an house of that ancient family of the Talbots standing neare by, I saw the base or foot of a piller with this inscription:

DEO
MARTI, ET
VICTORIAE DD. AUGG.
ET CC --- NN

In a wall neare unto it there is another great stone infixed, shewing in the fore-part Cupid and another little image, out of the backe side or reverse whereof this was exemplyfied for me, but the inscription carrieth no sense with it, which because it troubled me a long time I will set downe here underneath, to see what the opinion of other men is of it.

SEOESAM
ROLNASON
OSALVEDN
AL. Q. Q. SAR.
BREVENM
BEDIANIS
ANTONI
VS MEG. VI.
IC. DOMV
ELICITER

14. For mine owne part, I can make nothing else thereof, but that most of these words were the British names of places adjoyning. In the yeere 1603, when I went a second time to see this place, I hapned upon the greatest and fairest Altar that ever I saw, dedicated to the Mother Goddesses by a Captaine of the Asturians, with this inscription:

DEIS MATRIBVS
M. INGENVI-
VS ASIATICVS
DEC. AL. AST.
SS. LL. M.

Concerning these Deabus or Deis Matribus, that is, Mothers Goddesses, what they were I cannot find out with all my searching (for in the volumes of Inscriptions gathered through the world, save in another Alter besides found among us, they are not mentioned, as farre as I remember. Onely I read that Enguium, a little towne in Sicilie, was ennobled for the presence of the Mother Goddesses, wherein were shewed certaine speares and brasen helmets which Metio and Ulysses consecrated to those goddesses.
15. Another little altar I saw there, cast out among rubbish stone, with this inscription:

PACIFICE
RO MARTI
ELEGAVR
BA POS
VIT EX VO
TO.

So small a one this was that it may seeme to have beene some poore mans little alter to cary with him to and fro, serving onely to burne and offer incense or salt and meale upon it, whereas that other was farre bigger and made for to sacrifice and offer greater beasts upon it. In these altares the posterity no doubt imitated Noah, even after they had fallen away and revolted from the true worship of God. Neither erected they altars to their Gods onely, but also unto their Emperors by way of servile flattery, with this impious title, NVMINI MAIESTATIQVE EORVM, that is, Unto their God-hed and Majesty. Unto these they kneeled in humble manner, these they clasped about and embraced as they praied: before these they tooke their othes, and in one word, in these and in their sacrifices consisted the maine substance of all their religion, so farre forth that whoever had no altar of their owne, they were thought verily to have no religion, nor to acknowledge any God at all.
16. Moreover, very lately and but the other day a stone was digged up here, wherein was engraven the naked portract or image of a man on horsebacke, without saddle, without bridle, with both hands seeming to launce his speare, and ready to ride over a naked man lying downe along at his foote, who holdeth before I wot not foure square peece. Betweene the horse and him that lieth along are these letters D. M. and under him so lying are read these words CAL. SARMATA. All the letters besides, which were many, are so worne out and gone that they could not be read, neither list I to guesse any farther what they were. That ALA SARMATARVM, that is, a wing of Sarmatian horsemen, abode in this place, it may seeme, as well by that former inscription as by this, that many yeeres before was found hard by:

HIS. TERRIS. TEGITVR
AEL. MATRONA QV ------
VIX. AN. XXVIII. AM. II. D. VIII
ET M. IVLIVS MAXIMVS. FIL.
VIX. AN. VI. M. III. D. XX ET CAM
PANIA. DVBBA. MATER
VIX. AN L. IVLIVS MAXIMVS
-----ALAE. AR. CONIVX
CONIVGI. INCOMPARABILI
ET. FILIO. PATRI PIENTIS
SIMO. ET SOCERAE. TENA
CISSIMAE. MEMORIAE. P.

But hence have wee no light at all toward the finding out of the ancient name of this place which now is in question, unlesse it hath now and then changed the name, which other whiles usually happeneth. For in this place Ptolomee hath set Rigodunum, if for Ribodunum, the name is not altogether unlike to Riblechester, and just at this distance from Mancunium, that is, Manchester, that is to say 18 miles off, doth Antonine place Coccium, which also in some copies we read Goccium.
17. But when the flourishing fortune of this City, having runne the full and fatall period, was faded, either by warre or earthquake, as the common sort doe thinke, somewhat lower where Ribell suffereth the violence of the flowing tides of the sea, and is called of the Geographer Bellisama Aestuarium, that is, the salt-water Bellisama, neere unto Peneworth, where in the Conquerours reign there was a little castle (as appeereth by the Records of the said King), out of the fall of Riblechester arose in steed of it her daughter Preston, a great and (for these Countries) a faire towne and wel inhabited, so called of religious men, for in our speech the name soundeth as much as Priests towne. Beneath this Ribell, Derwin a rill commeth in with his water, and the first mercate towne that he watereth is Black-borne, so called of the Black-Water, which towne, belonging in times past to the Lacies, gave name unto Blackburneshire, a little territory adjoyning. From thence it runneth by Houghton towre, which communicated the name unto a notable family that long time dwelt in it, and by Waleton, which William Lord of Lancaster, King Stephens sonne, gave unto Walter de Walton, and afterward it was the possession of the ancient race of the Langtons, who descended from the said Waltons. But now let us resume.
18. The said Preston whereof I spake is by the common people called Preston in Andernesse, for Acumundes-nesse, for so the English Saxons tearmed this part of the shire: which lying betweene the two rivers Ribel and Cocar streatcheth out with a promontorie in manner of a nose, which afterwards they also called Acmunder-nesse. Wherein were no more but sixteene villages inhabited in King William the Conquerours time, the rest lay wast, as wee read in Domes-day Booke, and Roger of Poictiers held the same. But afterwards it belonged to Theobald Walter, from whom the Bottelers of Ireland derive their beginning. For thus wee read in a Charter of King Richard the First: Know yee that wee have given and by this present Charter confirmed unto Theobald Walter, for his homage and service, Agmondernesse full and whole, with all the appertenences &c. This part yeeldeth plenty of oates, but not so apt to beare barly. Howbeit it is full of fresh pastures especially to the sea side, where it is partly Champion [flat] ground, and thereupon it seemeth that a good part of it is called The File for the Field (and yet in the Kings Rolls it goeth under the Latin name Lima, that is, a File, namely that Smithes toole or Instrument wherewith Iron or any other thing is smoothed). But because elsewhere it is marish ground, they hold it not very holsome. Wie, a little river speedily cutting over this part, commeth rolling downe out of Wierdale a very solitary place, and runneth by Grenhaugh castle, which Thomas Stanley, the first Earle of Derby out of this familie, built what time as hee stood in feare of certaine outlawed gentlemen of this shire, whose possessions King Henry the Seventh had freely given unto him. For many an assault they gave him, and other whiles in hostile manner made inrodes into his landes, untill the moderate carriage of the good and worthy man and processe of time pacified these quarelles.
19. Heere along the sea shore you may see in many places heapes of land whereupon they powre water untill it gather a saltish humor, which afterwards with turfes they boile untill it be white salt. There be also here uncertaine sands not to be trusted, but ready to catch and swallow, they call them Quick-sands, so dangerous for travailors, whiles at a low water when tide is past they seeke to goe the nerest way, that they had neede to take very good heed least in going a-foote (I use Sidonius his wordes) they suffer not shipwracke and be cast away on the land. But especially about the mouth of Cocar, where, as it were, in a field of syrts or Quick-sands, Cokarsand Abby, an Abbay not long since of the Cluniack monkes built by Ranulph de Meschines, but open to the violence of windes, stoode betweene the mouthes of Cocar and Lune or Lone, and hath a bleake prospect into the wide Irish sea.
20. This river Lone, commonly called Lune, springing out of the mountaines of Westmorland, running Southward in a chanell now broad, now narrow, with many a reach in and out hindring his streame, enricheth the dwellers thereby in Summer time with great store of Salmons: which, because they delight in cleere water and especially in shallow places that are sandy, come up thicke together into this and other rivers of this coast. As soone as Lune is entred into Lancashire, Lacc, a little brooke from out of the East, joyneth his streame with it. In which place now standeth Over-Burrow, a verie small village of husbandmen, which, as the inhabitants enformed mee, had beene sometimes a great City and tooke up all those large fields betweene Lacce and Lone, and after it had suffered all miseries that follow famine, was driven to composition though extremity. This tradition they received from their ancestours, delivered as it were from hand to hand unto them. And in very truth by divers and sundry monuments exceeding ancient, by engraven stones, pavements of square checker worke, peeces of Romane coine, and by this new name Borrow, which with us signifieth a Burgh, that place should seeme to bee of great antiquity. But if it recover the ancient name it may thanke others and not me, although I have sought as narrowly and diligently for it as for Ants pathes, neither is any man to thinke that the severall names of every towne in Britain are precisely noted and set towne in Ptolomee, Antonine, the Notice of Provinces, and other approved and principall Authors. But if a man may goe by guesse, I would willingly thinke that it was Bremetonacum (which Jerome Surita a Spaniard in his notes upon Antonine deemeth truely to be a different place from Brementuracum), and that by the distance from Coccium, or Riblechester.
21. From this Burrow, the river Lune runneth beside Thurland Tunstalls, a fortresse built by Sir Thomas Tunstall in the time of King Henry the Fourth when the King had given him Licence to fortifie and Kernel his mansion house, that is, to embatle it; also by Hornby, a faire castle which glorieth much of the first founder Nicholas de Mont Begon, and of the Lords thereof the Harringtons and Stanleies, Barons Stanleyes of Mont Eagle, descended from Thomas Stanley the first Earle of Derby of that house, and advanced to that title by King Henry the Eight, of whom the third and the last named William left behinde him his onely daughter and heire Elizabeth, wife to Edward Parker Baron Morley, mother to Sir William Parker, whom in that regard King James commanded to be summoned to Parliament by the title of Lord Mont-Eagle, and whom wee and all our posterity may acknowledg to have beene borne for the good of all Britain. For by a short letter obscurely penned and secretly sent unto him, and by him duetifully discovered, in a happie houre was detected, and the very last houre in maner, when the whole state was at the point to perish by the most horrible and detestable treason that ever any barbarous impiety could contrive, what time certaine Godlesse and irreligious monsters of men masking under the mantle of religion, having bestowed a great quantitie of gunpowder under the Parliament house, stood ready with match in hand to give fire thereto, for to blow up both Prince and Country with one blast in a moment.
22. Lone, having passed on some few miles from hence, commeth within the sight of Lancaster, standing on his South banke, the cheife towne in this region, which the inhabitants more truly call Loncaster, as the Scots also, who name it Loncastell of the Rover Lone. Both the name still remaining and the river running under it doe argue in some sort that this is Longovicum, where under the Lieutenant Generall of Britain, as wee find in the Notice of Provinces, a company of the Longovicarians, who of the place borrowed that name, kept their station. Although the towne at this day is not very well peopled nor much frequented, and all the inhabitants thereof are given to husbandry, for the territorie al round about is wel manured, lying open, fresh and faire, and not voide of woods, yet for proofe of Romaine antiquity they find other whiles peeces of the Emperours coine, especially where the Friery stood: for there, they say, was the plot upon which the ancient city was planted, which the Scots, after they had with a sodaine outroad wasted all in their way, in the yeere of our Redemption 1322 set on fire and burnt. Since which time they have begunne to build neerer unto a greene hill by the river side, on which standeth the castle, great I cannot say, nor of any antiquity, but faire and strong. And hard by it standeth upon the height of the hill the onely Church they have, where the monkes aliens had in times past a cell founded by Roger of Poictiers. A little beneath which, by a faire bridge over Lone, in the descent and side of the hill where it is steepest, hangeth a peece of a mot ancient wall of Romaine worke seeming ready to reele. Wery Wall they call it after a later British name, as it should seeme, of this towne. For they called it Caer Werid, as one would say The Greene City, happily of that fresh greene hill. But I leave this to others. John Lord of Moriton and Lancaster, afterwards King of England, confirmed by Charter to his Burgesses of Lancaster all the liberties which hee had granted unto the Burgesses of Bristoll. And King Edward the Third in the sixe and thirty yeere of his reigne, granted unto the Major and Bailives and Commonaltie of the towne of Lancaster that Plees and Sessions should not else where bee holden. This towne seeth the Pole Arcticke (that I may note so much) elevated foure and fiftie degrees and five minutes, and standeth remooved from the utmost line of the West twentie degrees and forty eight minutes in Longitude.
23. Whiles I looked around about from the top of the said castle hil to see the mouth of Lone, that issueth it selfe into the sea a little lower, Fornesse the other part of this shire appeered in sight, which the sea hath after a sort violently rent apart from the rest. For whenas the shore did from hence shoote out a maine way into the West, the Ocean, as it were much displeased and angry hereat, obstinately ceased not to slash and mangle it, nay, which is more, hath with his fell flowing at boisterous tides devoured the shore, and thereby maketh three wide creekes or bayes, namely, Kent-sand, at which the river Ken powreth it selfe forth, Leven-sand and Dudden-sand, between which two the land beareth out so much that thereupon it tooke the name. For with us on our language Fore-nesse and Foreland is al one with the Latin Promontorium anterius (that is, a Fore-promontory). All this part unlesse it be hard by the sea side, mounteth up aloft with high topped hilles and huge fels [cliffs] standing thicke together (which they terme Forness-fells). Among which the Britans lived safe a great while, trusting upon these strong naturall fenses, although the victorious English Saxons made way through all in the end. For in the yeere 228 after there coming in, I gather that the Britans had their abode heere, because Egfride King of Northumberland gave unto Holy Saint Cuthbert the land called Carthmell and all the Britans in it (thus we find written in his life), and it is very well knowen that Carthmell is part of this shire by Kentsand, and a little towne in it retaineth yet the same name, wherein William Mareschall the elder, Earle of Pembroch, built a Priorie and endowed it with living. If you read in Ptolomee Setantiorum λιμνὴ, that is, The Setantians Mere, as some Copies have, and not Setantiorum λιμνὸς, that is, The Setantians Haven. I durst boldly avouch that these Britans heere were called Setantii. For among these mountaines the greatest standing water in all England, now called Winander-mere, in the English Saxon Winwadre-mer (haply of his winding and turning in and out) lieth streatched out for the space of tenne miles or there about with crooked bankes, and is all paved (as it were) with stone in the bothom, in some places of wonderfull depth, and breeding a peculiar kind of fish found nowhere else, which the inhabitants thereby call a Chare. And a little village standing hard by carieth the name thereof. In which Eathred King of Northumberland in the yere of Christ 792, when he had by force fetched King Elfwolds sonnes out of Yorke and slue them, that by his owne wickednes and their bloud he might secure the Kingdome to himselfe and his.
24. Betwixt this Mere and the river Dudden the promontorie runneth out which we commonly call Fornesse, and hath the Iland Walney as a forefence or countremure [counterewall] lying along by it, with a small arme of the sea betweene. The gullet or entry into which is defended with a fort called the Pile of Fouldrey, standing in the mids of the waves upon a rock, erected there by the Abbot of Fornesse in the first yeere of King Edward the Third. As for the Promontorie it selfe, there is nothing worth the sight in it, unlesse it be the ruins of a monasterie of Cistertian Monkes called Fornesse Abbay, which Stephen Earle of Bullen, afterwards King of England, in the yeere of our redemption 1127 built in a place called sometime Bekensgill, or translated rather from Tulket in Andernesse. Out of the Monkes whereof, and from no place else (as they themselves have reported), the Bishops of the Isle of Man (that lieth just over against) were by an ancient custome wont to be elected, as having beene the mother (as it were) of many Monasteries in the said Man and in Ireland. More Eastward standeth Aldingsham an ancient haereditament belonging to the family of the Haveringtons or Harringtons, unto whom it came from the Flemmings by the Cancefelds, and whose inheritance descended by a daughter unto William Bonvill of Somersetshire, and at last by him unto the Greies Marquesses of Dorset. And somewhat higher is Ulverston, in this regard not to be passed over in silence, for that King Edward the Third gave a moiety thereof unto Sir John Coupland a most brave Warriour, whom also he advaunced to the dignity of a Banaret, because in the battaile at Durham he tooke David the Second, King of the Scots, prisoner. But after his decease, the same King granted it with other faire lands in this tract, and the title also of Earle of Bedford, unto Ingelram Lord Coucy of France, as who had married his daughter Isabell, and whose ancestours in right of Christiana Lindsey had great revenewes in England.
25. Touching the noblemen which have borne the title of Lancaster, there were in the first infancie of the Norman Empire three stiled Lords of the Honour of Lancaster, namely Roger of Poictou, the sonne of Roger Montgomery, who was surnamed Pictavensis, as William of Malmesbury writeth, because hee had married a wife from out of Poictou in France. But when he had by his perfidious disloialty lost his honour, William the sonne of King Stephen and Earle of Moriton and Warren, had the same given unto him by his father. After whose death King Richard the First bestowed it upon his brother John, who was afterward King of England For thus we read in an old Historie: King Richard declared his singular love to his brother John. For, beside Ireland and the Earldome of Moriton in Normandie, hee heaped upon him so many dignities in England that he was in maner a tetrach there. Finally hee conferred upon him Cornwall, Lancaster, Notingham, Derbie, with the countrey adjoining, and manie more beside. A good while after King Henrie the Third, the sonne of John, first advanced Edmund his second sonne, called by some Crouch-backe, to the title of Earle of Lancaster, unto whom hee conveied and made over the inheritances and honors of Simon Montfort Earle of Leicester, Robert Ferrars Earle of Derbie, and John of Monmouth, because they had risen and rebelliously borne armes against him, and he gave this Honor of Lancaster unto him in these words: The Honour, County, Castle, and Towne of Lancaster, with the Cow-pastures and forests of Wiresdale and Lownsdale, New Castle under Lime, the Manour, Forest and Castle of Pickering, the Manour of Scalesby, the towne of Gomicester, and the rents of the towne of Huntendon &c. After he the said Edmund has missed the Kingdome of Sicilie, in which the Pope had invested him in vaine by a ring, and not without ridiculous disgrace to the English nation, caused in honor of him certaine peeces of gold to be stamped with this title, AIMVNDVS REX SICILIAE, having first cunningly suckt a great masse of money from the credulous King in this regard. This Edmund (when his first wife Avelina, daughter and heire to William de Fortibus Earle of Albemarle was dead issuelesse, who neverthelesse in her will had made him her heire) married Blanch of Artois, of the roiall family in France, to his second wife, and by her had Thomas, Henrie, and John, that died an infant. Thomas was the second Earle of Lancaster, who tooke to wife Alice, the onely daughter and heire of Henrie Lacy Earle of Lincolne, who by her deede passed over unto the house of Lancaster her owne inheritance and her mothers, that which belonged to the family of Long Espee, who were Earles of Salisbury, like as her father the said Henrie Lacy had made the like conveiance before of his owne lands, in case Alice should die without issue, as it afterward hapned. But this Thomas, for behaving himselfe insolently toward his Soveraigne Edward the Second, and still supplying fewell to civill warres, being taken prisoner in the field, lost his head, leaving no issue. Howbeit, when this sentence of death pronounced against him was afterwards by authority of Parliament reversed, because had hee not his triall by his Peeres according to the lawe ‡and Great Charter,‡ his brother Henrie succeeded after him in all his possessions and honours. He also was advanced in estate by his wife Maude, daughter and sole heire of Sir Patrick Chaworth, who brought unto him not onely her owne patrimonie, but also great inheritances in Wales, of Mauric of London, and of Siward, from whom they descended. This Henry left behind him Henrie his onely sonne, whom King Edward the Third from an Earle raised unto the honor of a Duke. But hee, having no issue male, departed this life, leaving behind him two daughters, Maude and Blanch, betweene whom the inheritance was divided. Maude was married to William of Bavaria, who was Earle of Holland, Zeland, Frisland, Henault, and in his wives right of Leicester. And whenas she deceased without children, John of Gaunt, so called because he was borne at Gaunt in Flaunders, fourth sonne of King Edward the Third, who had married Blanch the other daughter of Henrie aforesaid, entred upon the whole inheritance, and now being for wealth equivalent to many Kings, and created withall by his father Duke of Lancaster, he obtained also at his hands great roialties. For hee, having related what noble service he had performed to his country at home and abroad in the warres, preferred the County of Lancaster to the dignity of a County Palatine by his letters Patent, the tenour whereof runneth in this wise: We have granted for us and our heires unto our foresaid sonne that he may have for tearme of his life his Chancery within the County of Lancaster, and his writs to be sealed under his owne seale, to be appointed for the office of the Chancellour; also Justices of his owne, as well to hold Plees of the Crowne, as also other plees whatsoever touching common Law; also the hearing and deciding of the same, yea and the making of all executions whatsoever, by vertue of their owne writs and officers there. Moreover all other liberties and Roialties whatsoever to a County Palatine belonging, as freely and in as ample maner as the Earle of Chester within the same County of Chester is knowne to have &c. Neither was he Duke of Lancaster onely, but also by his marriage with Constance the daughter of Peter King of Leon and Castle, hee for a time was stiled by the name of King of Leon and Castle. But by a composition he gave this over, and in the thirteenth yeere of King Richard the Second, by consent of Parliament was created Duke of Aquitaine to have and hold the same for tearme of life of the King of England, as King of France, but to the universall dislike of Aquitaine, and affirming that their Signorie was inseparably annexed to the Crowne of England. At which time his stile ranne thus, John, sonne to the King of England, Duke of Aquitaine and of Lancaster, Earle of Derbie, Lincolne, and Leicester, and high Steward of England.
26. After him, Henrie of Bollingbroke his sonne succeded in the Dukedome of Lancaster, who when he had dispossessed Richard the Second and obtained the kingdom of England, he, considering that being now King he could not bear the title of Duke of Lancaster, and unwilling that the said title should be discontinued, ordained by assent of Parliament that Henrie his eldest sonne should enjoy the same, and be stiled Prince of Wales, Duke of Aquitaine, Lancaster and Cornwall, and Earle of Chester, and also that the liberties and francesies [franchises] of the Dutchy of Lancaster should remain to his said sonne severed from the Crowne of England. And to make better assurance to himselfe, his heires and successours in these inheritances, by authority of Parliament he ordained in these words: Wee, not willing that our said inheritance or the liberties of the same, by occasion of this present assumption upon us of our regall state and dignitie, should be in any thing changed, transfered, diminished, or impaired, will that the same our inheritance with the foresaid rights and liberties thereof be kept, continued, and held fully and wholly to us and our said heires in the said Charters specified, in the same maner and forme, condition and state, as they descended and came unto us; and also with all and every such liberties and franchises and other priviledges, commodities, and profits whatsoever in which our Lord and father whiles he lived had and held it for terme of his owne life, by the grant of Richard late King. And by the tenour of these presents, of our owne certaine knowledge, with the consent of this our present Parliament, we graunt, declare, decree, and ordaine for us and our heires that as well our Dutchy of Lancaster as all other things and every one, Counties, Honours, Castles Manours, Fees or Inheritances, Advocations, possessions, Annuities and Seignories whatsoever descended unto us before the obtaining of our regall dignity, howsoever and wheresoever, by right of inheritance in service or in reversion, or any way whatsoever, remaine for ever to us and our said heires specified in the Charters abovesaid, in forme aforesaid. After this, King Henry the Fifth by authority of Parliament dissevered from the Crown and annexed unto this Dutchy a very great and large inheritance which had descended unto him in right of his mother Dame Marie, who was daughter and one of the heires of Humfrey Bohun Earle of Hereford. In this forme and estate it remained under Henrie the Fifth and Henrie the Sixth, but King Edward the Fourth in the first yeere of his reigne, when he had in Parliament attainted and forfaited Henrie the Sixth, appropriated it, as they use to speake, unto the Crowne, that is to say, unto himselfe and his heires Kings of England. From which King Henrie the Seventh notwithstanding forthwith separated it. And so <it> continueth, having severall officers, namely, a Chauncellor, an Attorney, a Receiver, a Clerke of the Court, six Assistants, a Messenger, two Auditors, 23 Receivers, and three Supervisors &c.
There are counted in this shire, beside very many Chappells, Parishes 36 and no more, but those wonderfull populous, and which for multitude of inhabitants farre exceed the greatest parishes elsewhere.

WESTMORELAND

EYOND the furthest part of Lancashire more Northward lieth another lesser country of the Brigantes, called by late Latin writers Westmaria and Westmorlandia, in our tongue Westmoreland, and of some later Latin writers Westmoria, bounded on the West and Northside with Cumberland, on the East with Yorkshire and the Bishopricke of Durrham. Which because it lieth all of it among moores and high hilles reaching one to another (for our Appenine waxeth heere broader and brooder still as it runneth), and was for the most part unmanured, came by this name in our language. For such places, which cannot easily by the painfull labour of the husbandman bee brought to fruitfulnesse, the Northren Englishmen call Moores, and Westmoreland is nothing else with us but A Western moorish country. Let that dream therefore, as touching King Marius, be excluded out of the schoole of reverend antiquity, who, forsooth, as our Chronicles have dreamed, subdued the Picts and called this country after his owne name.
2. The more southerly part of this shire, contained in a narrow roome betweene the river Lone and Winandermere, is reputed fruitfull enough in the valleis, although it can shewe many felles [cliffs], with rough and stony rockes lying ever bare without grasse, and is all tearmed by one name The Baronie of Kendale and Candale, that is, The Dale by Can. For it tooke name of the river Can, which, running rough upon stones, cutteth through it. On the West banke whereof standeth Kandale or Kendale, called also Kirke by Kandale, a towne of very great trade and resort, with two broad and long streets crossing the one over the other, and a place for excellent clothing and for industrie so surpassing that in regard thereof it carrieth a great name. For the inhabitants have great trafficke and vent [distribution] of their wollen clothes throughout all parts of England. They count it also much for their credite that it hath dignified Barons and Earles with the title thereof. As for their Barons, they were the ofspring of Ino Talboys, of whose race William, by consent of King Henrie the Second, called himselfe William of Lancaster, whose Neice and heire was wedded unto Gilbert the sonne of Roger Fitz-Reinfried, by whose daughters (after her sonne William was dead) the inheritance went to Peter Brus Lord of Skelton, the second of that forename, and unto William Lindesay, from whom by the mothers side, as we learne out of the Lieger [ledger] booke of Fornesse Abbay, Ingelram Lord of Coucy in France fetched his descent. By which Peter Brus his daughter, the sister and heire of Peter Brus the third, came this Baronie to the Rosses of Werke, and from them by right of inheritance this possession was devolved upon the Parres, of whom Sir William Par was made Lord Par by King Henrie the Eight. As for the Castle, the ancient seat of these Lords, standing over against the towne, it runneth to decay through age and neglect. As for Earles of Kendale, there have beene three in number; John Duke of Bedford, advanced to that honor by his brother King Henrie the Fifth; John Duke of Somerset, and John de Foix, of that most noble and honorable family of the Foix in France, whom King Henrie the Sixth for his faithfull service in the French warres had preferred to that dignity. Whence perhaps it is that some of this house of Foix in France retaine the name still of Candale. As for any glory else of antiquity, Kendall to my knowledge challengeth none. And yet I was once of opinion that it was Concangii a station place sometimes of the Romanes. But time hath now instructed me better. Somwhat beneath in the river Can are two catalupae or water falls, where the waters have a downfall with a mighty noise. The one is by Levens a little village, the other more Southward neere to Betham, which to the neighbour inhabitants are as good as true prognostications. For when that which standeth North from them soundeth more cleere and aloud in their eares they looke certainly for faire wether; when that on the South side doth the same, they expect no other than shewers of raine and foggy mists. Thus much for the South and narrower part of this region, which Westward is bounded with the river Winster and the spatious Lake Winandermere, whereof I spake erewhile, and Eastward with the river Lone or Lune.
3. At the upper corner of Winandermere lieth the dead carcasse, as one would say, of an ancient Citie, with great ruines of Walles and many heapes of rubbish one from another, remaining of buildings without the wals yet to be seene. The fortresse thereof was somewhat long, fensed with a ditch and rampire, for it tooke up in length 132 ells and in bredth 80. That it had beene the Romans worke is evident by the British bricke, by the morter tempered with little peeces of bricke among, by small earthen pots or pitchers, by small cruets or vialls of glasse, by peeces of Roman money oftentimes there found, and by round stones as much as milstones or quernstones, of which layed and couched together they framed in old time their columnes, and by the paved high waies leading unto it. Now the ancient name thereof is gone, unlesse a man would guesse at it and thinke it were that Ambroglana whereof the Booke of Notices maketh mention, seeing at this day it is called Ambleside.
4. On the East side the river Lone serveth for a limite, and after his name the tract lying about is called Lonsdale, the principall towne whereof is Kirkby Lonsdale, whither all the people round about repaire to Church and mercate. Above the Spring-head of Lone the country spreadeth broader and the hilles shoot out with many turnings, betweene which there lie some vallies mervailous steepe and deepe withall, with many hollow places in maner of caves. Among these hilles that notable river Eden, which Ptolomee calleth Ituna, shewing his head first in Yorkshire, carrying a small and faint streame in the beginning, but afterwards growing by little and little bigger, with sundry beckes [streams] augmenting it, seeketh a way Northwest by Pendragon Castle, which hath nothing left to it unconsumed by time besides the bare name and an heape of stones. From thence hee passeth by Wharton Hall, the seate of the Barons Wharton, of whom the first was Sir Thomas Wharton, advanced to that dignity by King Henrie the Eighth, whom succeeded his sonne of the same name, and after him Philip that now liveth, the third Baron, a right honorable person. Afterwards it runneth downe by Kirk-by-Stephen, a mercate towne well knowen, and both the Musgraves, two little villages which gave name unto that martiall and warlicke family of the Musgraves, out of which in the reigne of King Edward the Third Thomas Musgrave flourished, and was by solemne write of summons called to the Parliament in the ranke of Barons, and these Musgraves had their principall habitation in Heartly Castle adjoining.
5. Heere Eden doth, as it were, make stay with his streame to give meeting unto other pety rivers; upon one of which scarce two miles off from Eden it selfe stood Veterae, a towne of ancient memorie mentioned by Antonine the Emperour and the Booke of Notices, wherein it is notified that in the declining age of the Romane Empire an Romane Captaine made his abode there with a band of the Directores. But now the towne is decaied and become a small poore village fensed with a little Fortresse, and the name turned into Burgh. For it is commonly named Burgh under Stanemore. For in the time of the later Emperours (and willing I am to note so much once for all), little castles meete for warre occasions and furnished with store of corne beganne to be tearmed burgi, that is burghs, by a new name, which may seeme to have borrowed of the Greeke word πυργός. Hence also came the name of Burgundians, because they inhabited burghs, for so in that age they used to call those dwelling places which were planted heere and there along limites and marches. Neither have i red any thing else of that Burgh but that in the beginning of the Norman government the Northern English conspired heere against William the Conquerour. That this Burgh was Verterae I dare be bold to affirme, because the distance thereof from Levatrae of the one side, and from Brovonacum on the other, being reduced into Italian miles doth exactly agree with Antonines numbers, and for that the high streete of the Romans, as yet evidently apparent by the ridges thereof, leadeth this way to Brovonacum by Aballaba, whereof mention is made in the Booke of Notices, which hath hitherto kept the ancient name so well that it doth most evidently descrie and shew it selfe, yea and in some sort remoove all doubt. For we call it short in steed of Aballaba, Apleby. Memorable is it for the antiquity and situation onely. In the Romanes time, no doubt, the Aurelian Maures [Moors] kept a station there: it standeth also in a pleasant site, encompassed for the most part with the river Eden, but so sclenderly inhabited, and the building so simple, that were it not that by reason of the antiquity it had deserved to be counted the cheife towne of that shire, and to have Sessions and Assises kept in the castle, which is the common gaole for malefactours, it would be little better than a village. For all the beauty of it lieth in one broad street which from North to South riseth with an easie ascent of the hill, in the upper part whereof standeth the castle aloft, environed wholy almost with the river. In the nether end of it is the church, and thereby a schoole which Robert Langton and Miles Spenser, Doctors of the Law, founded, the Maister of whereof is Reginald Bainbridge, a right learned man who governeth the same with great commendation, and who of his courtesie hath exemplified for me many antique inscriptions, and brought some hither into his garden. Neither verily was it for nought that William of Newborrough calleth this towne and burgh princely holds where he writeth that William King of Scots surprised them on the sodaine, a little before himselfe was taken prisoner at Alnewick. Which King John afterwards having recovered, gave liberally unto Robert Vipont in consideration of his singular good service to him and the state.
6. From thence the river with his full course passeth directly North-west by Buley a castle of the Bishops of Carlil, and by Kirby Thore, under which are seene great ruins of an old towne and peeces of Romane coine otherwhiles digged up, and not long since this inscription:

DEO BELATVCAD-
RO LIB VOTV
M. FECIT
IOLVX.

But tract of time hath quite out-worn the old name, and it is called at this day Whealop-Castle. If I might without praejudice to the Judges of antiquity, I would say it were Gallagum mentioned by Ptolome, which Antonine nameth Gallatum, the distance of journeies accord so well, and the name doth not altogither gainesay. For what words the Britans began with Gall, the English turned into Wall. thus they called Galena Wallingford and Gall Sever, Wall of Sever, ‡Gall-dour, Wallbroke &c.‡ Doubtlesse it was a place in old time of better note, seeing that from hence there leadeth a paved streete (Maidenway they call it) to Caer-Vorran neare the Picts-wall 20 miles or thereabout in length by fells, wastes, and moores. Along which street, I would willingly thinke, were placed those Stations and Mansions mentioned by Antonine in the ninth journy of Britain, although no man is able precisely to say in what places they stood, and no mervaile, considering that Time, which devoureth and consumeth all things, hath continually fed upon their carcasses so many ages togither.
7. Not far from Whellop, hard by Crawdundale, there are evident remaines of ditches, trenches, and mounts cast up, and among them this Roman inscription (the draught whereof Reginold Bainbridg before named, head schoolemaster of Applebey, tooke out for me) was ingraven in a craggy rock, the forepart of which was quite eaten out with continuance of time, ‡or thrust out by the roote of a tree there growing:‡

----- VΛRRONIVS
----ECTVS LEG. XX.VV.
---ΛEL. LVCΛNVS
--P. LEG. II. ΛVG. C.

That is to say, by my reading, ---- Varonius praefectus legionis vicesimae Valentis Victricis --- Aelius Lucanus praefecus legionis secundae Augustae, castra metati sunt, ----Varronius captaine of the XX legion Valens Victrix ---- Aelius Lucanus Captaine of the second legion Augusta, encamped or did some such thing. For the twentieth legion, called Valens Victrix, which kept residence at Deva, that is Westchester, and the second legion named Augusta, that abode at Isca, that is, Caer-Leon in Wales, may seeme to have beene emploied against the enimies in these partes, and heere to have staied and kept their standing campe for a time, and that their Captaines or Colonells in memoriall hereof engraved this upon the cragge. The just time I may not easily set downe. Yet to the pointing out of the verie time there remaine to be seene upon a rocke thereby these great capitall letters engraven. CN. OCT. COT. COSS. But in the Consular Rolles among all the Paires of Consulls I can meete with no such names. Yet have I observed this much, that from the time of Severus unto Gordian and afterwards, the letter A in all the inscriptions of that age everywhere in this Island, wanteth the overthwart little line or stroke, and is made thus, Λ.
8. Eden holdeth on his course from hence, not farre from Howgill castle belonging to the familie of the Sandfords, but the Romane highway goeth streight into the West by Whinfield, a large parke shaded with trees, hard by Brovonicum, standing twenty Italian miles or seventeene English miles from Verterae, as Antonine hath set it, who also hath called it Brovocum, like as the Booke of Notices Broconiacum, which specifieth that a company or band of Defensors had heere their abode. The beauty and buildings of this towne although time hath consumed, yet the name remaineth almost untouched, for wee call it Brougham. Here the river Eimet , flowing out of a great Lake and for a good space dividing this shire from Cumberland, receiveth the river Loder into it, nere unto the spring head whereof, hard by Shape, in times past Hepe, a little monastery built by Thomas the sonne of Gospatrick, sonne of Orms, there is a well or fountaine which after the manner of Euripus ebbeth and floweth many times in a day; also there be huge stones in forme of Pyramides, some 9 foote high and foureteene foot thicke, ranged directly as it were in a rowe for a mile in length, with equall distance almost betweene, which may seeme to have bin pitched and erected for to continue the memoriall of some act there atchieved, but what the same was, by injurie of time it is quite forgotten. Hard by Loder there is a place bearing the same name, which, like as Stricland nere unto it, hath imparted their names to families of ancient gentry and worship. Somewhat above, where Loder and Eimot meet in one chanell, in the yeere of our Lord 1602 there was a stone gotten out of the ground erected in the honor of Constantine the Great, with these words:

IMP.
C. VAL.
CONSTA-
NTINO
PIENT.
AVG.

When Eimot hath served a good while for a limit betweene this shire and Cumberland, nere unto Islan-parles, a rocke full well knowne unto the neighbour inhabitants, whereunto nature hath left difficult passage and there framed sundry caves and those full of winding crankes, a place of safe refuge in time of danger, he lodgeth himselfe after some few miles both with his owne streame and with the waters of other rivers also in Eden, so soone as he hath entertained Blencarne a brooke that boundeth this country on Cumberland side. Nere unto which I have heard there be the strange ruines of an old Castle, the people call them the hanging walles of Marcantoniby, that is, of Marke Antonie, as they would have it.
9. As for such as have borne the title of Westmorland, the first Lord, to my knowledge, was Robert De Vipont, who beare Gueles, sixe Annulets Or in his Coate Armour. For King John gave unto him the Balliwick and revenewes of Westmorland, by the service of foure knights, whereupon the Cliffords, his successors until our daies, held the office of the Sherifdom of Westmorland. For Robert de Vipont, the last of that name, left behinde him only two daughters, Isabel wife to Roger Lord Clifford, and Idonea married unto Sir Roger Leybourne. Long time after, King Richard the Second created Ralph Nevill of Raby the first Earle of Westmorland, a man of the greatest and most ancient birth of English nobility, as descended from Ucthred Earle of Northumberland: whose heires successively, by his former wife Margaret daughter to the Earle of Stafford, flourished in that honour, until that Charles by his wilfull stomack and wicked conspiracy, casting off his allegiance to Queene Elizabeth ‡and covering treason under the mantle of religion,‡ most shamefully dishonored that most noble house, and fowlly steined his owne reputation by actuall rebellion in the yeare 1599. Whereupon he fled into the Low Countries, led a miserable life, and died as miserably. The said first Earle, to note so much incidently, by his second wife Catharine daughter to John of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster, had so faire issue, and the name of Nevill therby so greatly multiplied, that almost at one and the same time there flourished out beside the Earle of Westmorland, an Earle of Salisbury, an Earle of Warwicke, an Earle of Kent, Marquesse Montacute, a Duke of Bedford, Lord Latimore, and Lord Abergevenny, all Nevills.
In this shire are conteined Parishes 26.

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