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ESTWARD, Northward from Westmoreland lieth Cumberland, the utmost region this way of the Realme of England, as that which on the North side boundeth upon Scotland. On the Southside and the West the Irish sea beateth upon it, and Eastward above Westmorland it butteth upon Northumberland. It tooke the name of the inhabitants, who were the true and naturall Britans and called themselves in their owne language Kumbri and Kambri. For the Histories testifie that the Britans remained heere a long time, maugree [despite] the English Saxons, howsoever they fretted and stormed thereat: yea and Marianus himself recordeth as much, who tearmed this Country Cumbrorum terram, that is, The land of the Cumbri, or Britans, to say nothing of the places that everywhere here beare British names, as Caer-Luel, Caer-dronock, Pen-rith, Pen-rodoc, &c., which declare the same and as cleerely proove mine assertion.
2. The Country although it be somewhat with the coldest, as lying farre North, and seemeth as rough by reason of hilles, yet for the variety thereof it smileth upon the beholders, and give contentment to as many as travaile it. For after the rockes bunching out, the mountaines standing thicke togither, rich of mettal mines, and betweene them great meeres [lakes] stored with all kindes of wild-foule, you come to prety hills good for pasturage and well replenished with flockes of sheepe, beneath which againe you meet with goodly plaines spreading out a great way, yeelding corne sufficiently. Besides all this, the Ocean, driving and dashing upon the shore, affourdeth plenty of excellent good fish, and upbraideth, as it were, the Inhabitants there abouts with their negligence, for that they practise fishing no more than they doe.
3. The South part of this shire is called Copeland and Coupland, for that it beareth up the head aloft with sharpe edged and pointed hilles, which the Britains tearme copa, or as others would have it, named Copeland as one would say Coperland, of rich mines of copper therein. In this part, at the very mouth of the river Duden, whereby it is severed apart from Lancashire, standeth Millum Castle, belonging to the ancient house of the Hodlestones, from whence as the shore fetcheth about with a bent Northward, two rivers very commodiously enclose within them Ravenglasse, a station or roade for ships, where also, as I have learned, were to bee seene Roman inscriptions. Some will have it called in old time Aven-glasse, as one would say, The Blew River, and they talke much of king Eveling, that heere had his Court and roiall palace. One of these rivers, named Eske, springeth up at the foote of Hard Knot, an high steepe mountaine, in the top whereof were discovered of late huge stones and foundations of a castle, not without great wonder, considering it is so steepe and upright that one can hardly ascend up to it. Somewhat higher, Irt a little river maketh way toward the sea, wherein the muscles and cochles, after they have with a kinde of yawning or gaping sucked in dew, which they lust after to conceive by, bring forth pearles, or to speake as the Poet doeth, Shell-beries, which the inhabitants thereby search after at a low water, and our Lapidaries and Jewellers buy of the poore needy people for a little, but sell againe at an high rate: of these and such like, Marbodaeus seemeth to speake in this verse:

And Britanie of ancient fame
Breeds and brings forth perle of great name.

4. Now by this time the shore treandeth out more and more, and encloseth Westward, where it maketh a little promontory which the common sort for Saint Bega call Saint Bees. For Bega, a devout and religious Irish woman, led there a solitary life, unto whose holinesse are ascribed certaine vaine miracles, as the taming of a wild bul, and the procuring of a mighty deepe snow, which in the longest Summer day by her praiers fell and lay thicke upon the valleies and tops of hilles. Scarce a mile hence standeth Egremont Castle on the top of an hill, the seat in times past of William de Meschines, unto whom King Henry the First gave it to hold by one knights service, and that he should serve at the Kings Commandement in the Army for Wales and Scotland. Who left behinde him a daughter, the wife of William Fitz-Duncan of the bloud roiall of Scotland, by whose daughter also the inheritance came into the familie of the Lucies; from them likewise, by the Moltons and Fitz-Waters, the title of Egremont descended unto the Ratcliffes Earles of Sussex. And yet Sir Thomas Percy through the favour of King Henry the Sixth enjoied it for a time, being summoned to the Parliaments by the name of Thomas Percy of Egremont.
5. From hence the shore, drawing it selfe backe by little and little and, as it appeereth by the heapes of rubbish, it hath been fortified all along by the Romans, wheresoever there was easie landing. For it was the outmost bound of the Roman Empire, and the Scots lay sorest upon this coast and infested it most, when (as it were with continuall surges of warre) they flowed and flocked hither by heapes out of Ireland. And certaine it is that Moresby a little village, where is a roade for ships, was one of these fortifications. For there are many monuments of antiquity, as vaultes under the ground, great foundations, many caves which they used to tearme Picts-Holes, many fragments of stones with inscriptions engraven in them are there often times found in the ground. Of which upon I read tis, LVCIVS SEVERINVS ORDINATVS, on another COH. VII. And this Altar I saw lately digged out there, with a little horned image representing Silvanus, erected to his honor by the second Cohort of the Lingones:


As also this fragment, which John Fletcher Lord of the place transcribed out for mee and sent unto me.


But no stone hitherto hath beene found that assureth us that it was Morbium, where the cataphractarii horsemen, or men at armes, served, notwithstanding the name in some sort implieth as much. Neither is Hay-Castle, which saw hard by, to be passed over with silence, a place verily to be regarded for antiquity sake, which by report of the inhabitants belonged successively in elder time to Gentlemen surnamed Moresby and Distinton.
6. After this, the river Derwent hideth himselfe in the Ocean; which having his first beginning in Borrodale, a vally hemmed in with crooked hilles, creepeth betweene the mountains called Derwent Fels; wherein at Newlands and elsewhere copper mines were discovered by Thomas Shurland and Daniel Hotchstatter, a German of Auspurge, in our daies, and yet the same these knowen before, as appeareth by closle [close] rowles of King Henrie the Third n. 18. Upon the discoverie of these mines there was a memorable case in law betweene the late Queene Elizabeth of sacred memorie and Thomas Percie Earle of Northumberland, in whose Lordship they were found, but in regard of the queenes roiall praerogative, and for that there were in them veines of gold and silver, they were adjudged to the queene. But hereby it is wel seene how untrue it was that Cicero wrote in his Epistles unto Atticus, This is for certaine knowen, saith he, that there is not in the Iland Britaine so much as one scruple of silver. Neither would Caesar, if he had knowen of these mines, have written that the Britans had use of coper brought into them from other parts beyond sea, seeing that the mines not onely serve England over, but also afford great plenty beside, that is carried yeerely forth of the Realme. Heere also is commonly found that minerall kind of earth or hardned glittering stone (we cal it Black-lead) with which painters use to draw their lins and make pictures of one colour in their first draughts: which whether it bee pnigitis or melanteria, spoken of by Dioscorides, or Ochre, a kind of earth so burnt with heat that it becommeth blacke, or whether it were unknowen unto the old writers, I cannot certainly averre, and let others for me search it out. Derwent, after it hath passed through these hilles, spreadeth abroad into a large lake, Bede tearmeth it praegrande stagnum, that is, a very great poole, wherein are three Ilands eminent above the water. The one hath an house in it of the Ratcliffes, a family of Knights degree; the second is inhabited by the Dutch Minerall men; the third is thought to be that wherein, as Bede writeth, Saint Herbert lived an Heremeticall life. On the very skirt of this botome, in a pleasant soile, compassed about with deawy hilles and fensed on the North side with that high mountaine Skiddaw, lieth Kesike, a little towne which King Edward the First made a Mercate by the procurement of Sir Thomas of Derwentwater Lord of the place, from whom it lineally descended to the family of the Radcliffs. ‡It was well knowen many yeeres agoe by reason of the mines of copper, as we may see in a certaine Charter of King Edward the Fourth, and is at this day much inhabited by Minerall men, who have heere there smelting house by Derwent side, which with his forcible streame and their ingenious inventions serveth them in notable steede for easie bellowes workes, forge workes, and sawing of boords, not without admiration of such as behold it.‡ As for that mountaine Skiddaw aforesaid, it riseth up to such an height with two heads like unto Parnassus, and with a kind of emulation beholdeth Scruffell hill before it in Anandale within Scotland, that from these two mountaines, according as the misty clouds arise or fall, the people thereby dwelling make their prognostication of the change of wether, and commonly sing this note:

If Skiddaw hath a cap
Scruffell wots full well of that.

Like as there goes also this usual byword concerning the height as well of this hil, as of other twaine in this tract:

Skiddaw, Lauvellin, et Casticand,
Are the highest hils in all England.

7. From hence Derwent, sometimes within a narrow chanell, other whiles with a broader streame, speedeth him very fast Northward to entertaine Cockar. Which when they meete doe incompasse, almost round about, Cokarmouth a mercate towne of good welth, and a Castle of the Earles of Northumberland. The towne is built faire enough, but standeth somewhat with the lowest betweene two hilles, upon the one of which the Church is seated, and upon the other right over against it a very strong Castle, the gate whereof carrieth in the Front the Armes of the Moltons, Humfarnvills, Lucies, and Percies. Opposite unto this beyond the river two miles off lieth the carcasse of an ancient Castle called Papcastle, which by a number of monuments laieth claime to bee a Romaine antiquity: whether this were Guasmoric which, as Ninnius writeth, King Vortigern built neere unto Luguballia, and the Englishmen of old time called Palme-castle, I cannot so easily affirme. Where among many monuments of Antiquity was found a broad vessell of a greenish stone artificially engraven with little images, which whether it had beene a Laver to wash in, or a Font, or, as one calleth it, sacrarium regenerationis, for which purpose it serveth now at Brid-kirke, that is, at S. Brigids Church hard by, I dare not say. ‡But I have read that Fonts were adourned with the Pictures of holy men, to the end that such as were baptized might afterward have before there eies whose deedes they were to imitate, as saith Pontius Paulinus. For in the first plantation of Christianity among the Gentiles, such onely as were of full age, after they were instructed in the principles of Christian religion, were admitted to Baptisme. And that but twice in the yeere, at Easter and Whitsontide, except upon urgent necessitie. At which times they which were to be baptized were attired in white garments exorcised and exsuffled, with sundry ceremonies, which I leave to the learned in Christian antiquities. But this font we speake of is thus inscribed:‡

But what they signifie, or what nations characters they should be, I know not, let the learned determine thereof. The first and the eight differ not much from that which in the time of the Emperour Constantine the Great Christians used for the name of Christ. The rest in forme, though not in sound, come very neere unto those which are seene in the tombe of Gormon a King of the Danes at Jelling in Danmarke, the which Peter of Lindeberge did put forth in the yeere 1591.
8. These places which erewhile I have named, together with a fourth part of the Baronie of Egremond, Wigton, Lewsewater, Aspatrick, Vidal &c., a right faire and goodly inheritance, Maude Lucy (who was the heire of Anthony Molton or de Lucy her brother) gave unto her husband Henrie Percie Earle of Northumberland, and albeit she had no issue by him, yet made she the family of the Perceis her heires upon this condition, That they should beare quarterly the Lucies Armes, sc. three Luces Argent in a shield Gueles, with their owne Armes, or, that I may use the words of the Originall, On condition to give their owne armes, Gueles with three Luces argent, together with the Armes of Percy Or, a Lion-Azur quarterly, and the same condition by a fine levied. Afterwards, Derwent, having gathered his waters into one streame, entreth into the Ocean at Wirkinton, a place famous for taking of Salmons, and now the seat of the ancient family of the Curwens Knights, who fetch their descent from Gospatric Earle of Northumberland, and their surname they tooke by covenant and composition from Culwen a family in Galloway, the heire whereof they had married; and heere have they a stately house built Castlelike, and from whom (without offence or vanity be it spoken) my selfe am descended by the mothers side.
9. From thence some thinke there was a wall made to defend the shore in convenient places, for foure miles or there about, by Stilicho the potent commander of the Roman state, what time as the Scots annoyed these coasts out of Ireland. For thus speaketh Britaine of herselfe in Claudian:

“And of me likewise at hands (quoth she) to perish, through despight
Of neighbour Nations, Stilicho fensed against their might,
What time the Scots all Ireland mov’d offense armes to take &c.”

There are also, as yet, such continued ruins and broken walles to be seene as farre as to Elne Mouth, which river no long course hath at his spring head Ierby, a good big mercate towne standing upon it. I judge it to have beene that Arbeia which the Barcarii Tigrienses kept their standing guard, and at his mouth Elenborrough, that is, the Burgh upon Elen, where the first band of the Dalmations together with their Captaine in old time made their abode. The neere resemblance of the name Elenborough with Olenacum, where the First Herculean Winge lay in Garrison in the time of Theodosius the Younger is some motive to thinke that this was that Olenacum, but yet I dare not affirme it. Seated it was upon the height of a hill, and hath a goodly prospect farre into the Irish sea. But now Corne growes where the towne stood, neverthelesse many expresse footings thereof are evidently to be seene. The ancient vaults stand open, and many altars, stones with inscriptions, and Statues are heere gotten out of the ground. Which John Sinhous a very honest man, in whose grounds they are digged up, keepeth charily, and hath placed orderly about his house. In the mids of his yard their standeth erected a most beautifull foure square Altar of a reddish stone right artificially in antique worke engraven five foote or there abouts high, with an inscription therein of an excellent good letter. But loe the thing it selfe all whole, and every side thereof, as the draught was most lively taken out by the hand of Sir Robert Cotton of Connington, Knight, a singular lover of antiquity, what time as he and I together, of an affectionate love to illustrate our native country, made a survey of these coasts in the yeere of our redemption 1599, not without the sweet food and contentment of our mindes. And I cannot chuse but with thankfull heart remember that very good and worthy Gentleman, not onely in this regard that most kindly hee gave us right courteous and friendly entertainment, but also for that, being himselfe well learned, he is a lover of ancient literature, and most diligently persevereth in these inscriptions, which by others that are unskilfull and unlettered be streight waies defaced, broken, and converted to other uses, to exceeding great prejudice and detriment of antiquity.

10. In the Inscription all is as plain as may bee: onely in the last line save one (ET and AEDES) are read by implication of the letters. The last part being maimed may haply be amended in this wise: DECVRIONVM ORDINEM RESTITVIT &c. These Decurions were in free townes (called municipia) the same that Senators were in Rome and Colonies, so called because they executed the office of curiae, whereupon they were named also curiales, who had the ordering and managing of civile offices.
11. On the back-side of this Altar in the upper edge and border thereof are red, as you see, these two words VOLANTII VIVAS, which doe perplex me, neither can I expound them, unless the Decurions, Gentlemen, and Commons (for of these three states consisted a municipium or free Corporation) added this as a well wishing and votive inscription unto G. Cornelius Peregrinus (who restored Houses, habitations, and Decurions), that so bounteous and beneficiall a man VOLANTII VIVERET, that is, might live at Volantium. Hence, I suppose, if conjecture may carry it, that Volantium in times past was the name of this place. Underneath are engraven instruments belonging to Sacrifice, an ax or Cleaver, and a chopping Knife. On the left side a Mallet and a great bason, in that on the right side a platter, a dish, and a peare, if my sight serve me well, or as others would have it, a drinking up or jugg. For these were vessels ordained for Sacrifices; and others beside, as a Cruet, an Incense pan or Censer, a footlesse pot, the Priests miter &c., which I have seene expresly portraied upon the sides of other Altars in this tract. The Second Altar which I have here adjoined was digged up at Old Carlile, and is now to be seene in the Barhouses house at Ilkirke: an inscription it had with that intricate connexion of letters one in another, as the graver hath heere very lively portaied. And thus it seemeth they are to be read: Iovi optimo maximo. Ala Augusta ob virtutem appellata, cui praeest Publius Aelius, Publii filius Sergia Magnus de Mursa ex Pannonia inferiore Praefectus. Aproniano (et fortasse) Bradua consulibus. Unto most gracious and mighty Jupiter. The Wing, named for their vertue Augusta, the Captaine whereof is Publius Aelius, sonne of Publius, Magnus, of Morsa. From out of the lower Pannonia, Praefect. When Aprionianus and (haply) Bradua were Consuls. The third Altar, with an inscription to Belatucadrus the tutelar God of the place, is in this wise to be red: Belatucadro Iulus Civilis optio (id est excubiis praefectus) votum solvit libens merito. Unto Belatucadrus Julius Civilis optio, that is, Praefect over the watch and ward, hath performed his vow, willingly and duly. In the fourth Altar, which is of all the rest the fairest, there is no difficulty at all, and this is the tenour of it. Dis deabusque Publius Posthumius Aciliannus praefectus cohortis primae Dalmatarum. To the Gods and Goddesses, Publius Posthumius Acilianus Praefect or Captaine of the first Cohort of the Dalmatians.
12. Such Altars as these (neither neede we thinke much to observe those ancient rites, which now long since the most sacred Christian religion hath chased away and banished quite), they were wont to crowne with greene branches, like as they did the Beasts for Sacrifices and themselves, and then they used with Frankincense and wine to make supplication, to kill, and offer their sacrifices: yea and their maner was to enhuile [oil] or anoint the very altars all over. Concerning the demolishing and overthrow of which, as Christian religion came in place and beganne to prevaile, Prudentius the Christian Poet thus wrote:

Men thought not much their hands thus to employ,
And if in place some antique stone there stood,
Which folke were wont in error, with much joy,
To garnish round with ribbands, and with bloud
Of Hens to embrue, they brake it in that mood.

These inscriptions likewise heereunder I saw there:

PRO SA -----------------

D. M.
F. C.

D. M.



D. M.

D. M.

There is a stone also heere seene workmanly cut and erected for some victorie of the Emperours, in which two winged genii hold up betweene them a Guirland, as here is represented:

That is, for the victorie of the Augusti [or Emperours] our Lords.
13. When the shore hath passed on right forward a little way from hence, it bendeth so backe againe with an arme of the sea retiring inward, that it may seeme to bee that Moricambe which Ptolomee setteth heere, the nature of the place and the name doe so just agree. For a crooked creeke it is of salt water, and moricambe in the British tongue signifieth a crooked sea. Hard by this, David the First King of Scots built the Abbey de Ulmo, commonly called Holme Cultrain, and the Abbots thereof erected Ulstey a fortresse neere unto it for a treasury and place of surety to lay up their bookes, charters, and evidences, against the sodaine invasions of the Scottish. Wherein the secret workes, they say, of MIchael the Scot lie in conflict with mothes, which Michael, professing here a religious life, was so wholly possessed with the study of the mathematickes and other abstruse arts, about the yeere of our Lord 1290, that beeing taken of the common people for a Necromancer, there went a name of him (such was their credulity) that he wrought divers wonders and miracles. Beneath this Abbay, the brooke called Waver runneth into the said arme of the sea, which brooke taketh into it the riveret Wiza, at the head whereof lie the very bones and pitifull reliques of an ancient citie, which sheweth unto us that there is nothing upon earth but the same is subject to mortality. The neighbours call it at this day Old Carlile. What name it had in old time I know not, unlesse it were Castra Exploratorum, that is, The Espialls or Discoverers Castle. The distance put downe by Antonine (who doth not so much seeke after the shortest waies, as reckon up the places of greater note and name), as well from Bulgium as Lugo-vallum, suiteth thereto verie aptly the situation; also to discover and descry afar off is passing fit and commodious, for seated it is upon the top of a good high hill, from whence a man may easily take a full view of all the country round about. Howbeit, most certaine it is that the wing of horsemen which for their valour was named Augusta and Augusta Gordiana, kept residence here in Gordian the Emperours time, as appeareth evidently by these inscriptions which I saw hard by:


D. M.

‡This votive altar also of a rude stone was erected for the happy health of the Emperour Gordian the Third and his wife Furia Sabina Tranquilla and their whole familie by the troupe of horsemen surnamed Augusta Gordiana, when Aemilius Chrispinus [sic] a native of Africa governed the same under Nonnius Philippus Lieutenant generall of Britaine in the yeere of Christ 243, as appeareth by the Consuls therein specified.‡


14. From hence also were altars brought, which are erected in the high way by Wigton, in the sides whereof are to bee seene a drinking cup or mazar, a footlesse pot, a mallet, a boll &c., all vessels appertaining to sacrifice. But time hath so worne out the letters that nothing can bee read. And not farre from hence just by the high street way there was digged up a long rude stone in manner of a columne, which we saw at Thoresbey, with this inscription to the honour of Philip the Emperour and his sonne, who flourished about the yeere of our Lord 248:

TR. P. COS . . .

This also with others Oswald Dikes, a learned minister of Gods Word, copied out for me, and now is to bee seene in the house of Thomas Dikes Gentleman at Wardal:


Likewise another suchlike altar to a private tutelar God of the place was there found with this unperfect inscription:


15. Besides an infinite number of pety images, statues of horsemen, Aegles, Lions, Ganimedes, and many other monuments of antiquity which are dayly discovered. Something higher, a little promontory shooteth out, and a great frith or arme of the sea lieth under it, beeing now the common limit confining England and Scotland, serving in times past to make a separation betweene the Roman Province and the Picts. Upon this standeth that ancient towne Blatum-bulgium (happily of bulch, a British word that signifieth a separation). From which, as from the most remot place and the limite of the Roman province, Antonine the Emperor beginneth his journeies through Britaine. The inhabitants at this day call it Bulnesse, and as small a village as it is, yet hath it a pile, and in token of the antiquity thereof, besides the tracts of streetes, ruinous walles, and an haven now stopped up with mud, there led a paved high way from hence along the sea-shore as farre as to Elen Borrough, if we may relie upon report of the by-dwellers. Beyond this a mile (as is to bee seene by the foundations at a nepe tide) beganne the Wall, the most renowned workes of the Romanes, which was the bound in times past of the Roman province, raised of purpose to seclude and keepe out the barbarous nations that in this tract were evermore barking and baying (as an ancient writer saith) about the Roman Empire. I mervailed at first why they built here so great fortifications, considering that for eight miles or thereabout there lieth opposite a very great frith and arme of the sea; but now I understand that at every ebbe the water is so low that the borderers and beast-stealers may easily wade over. That the forme of these shores hath beene changed it doth evidently appeere by the tree-rotes covered over with sand a good way off from the shore, which oftentimes at a low ebbe are discovered with the windes. I know not whether I may relate here which the inhabitants reported concerning trees without boughes under the ground, oftentimes found out here in the mosses, by the direction of deaw in Summer, for they have observed that the deaw never standeth on that ground under which they lie.
16. By the same Frith, more within the land, standeth Drumbough Castle, belonging of later time to the Lords of Dacre, a station in times past of the Romans. Some will have it to have beene Exploratorum Castra, notwithstanding the distance utterly countrouleth [excludes] it. There was also an other station of the Romans beside it, which now beeing changed into a new name is called Burgh upon Sands, whence the territorie adjoyning is named the Baronie of Burgh, the which Richard Meschines Lord of Cumberland gave unto Robert de Trivers, but from him it came to the Morvills, the last of which house named Hugh left behinde him a daughter who by her second husband Thomas de Molton had issue Thomas Molton, Lord of this place, whose sonne Thomas by marriage with the heire of Hubert de Vaulx adjoined Gilles-land to his possessions; which in the end were devolved all unto Ranulph Dacre, who married Matilde the heire of Moulton. But for no one thing was this little Burgh upon Sands more famous than that King Edward the First, that triumphant conquerour of his enemies, was heere taken out of this world by untimely death. A right noble and worthy Prince to whom God proportioned a most princely presence and personage, as a right worthy seat to entertaine so heroicall a minde. For hee not onely in regard of fortitude and wisdome, but also for a beautifull and personall presence was in all pointes answerable to the height of roiall majestie, whom fortune also in the very Prime and floure of his age inured to many a warre, and exercised in most dangerous troubles of the state, whiles she framed and fitted him for the Empire of Britain: which hee, once crowned King, managed and governed in such wise that, having subdued the Welsh and vanquished the Scots, hee may most justly bee counted the second ornament of Great Britaine. Under this Burgh within the very Frith, where the salt water ebbeth and floweth, the Englishmen and Scotish, by report of the inhabitants, fought with their fleetes at full sea, and also with their horsemen and footemen at the ebbe. A thing which may seeme no lesse mervailous than that which Plinie hath reported, not without wonder, of the like place in Caramania. This arme of the sea both nations call Solway Frith of Solway, a towne in Scotland standing upon it. But Ptolomee more truly tearmeth it Ituna. For Eden, that notable river which wandereth through Westmorland and the inner partes of this shire, powreth forth into it a mighty masse of water, having not yet forgotten what adoe it had to passe away, strugling and wrestling as it did, among the carcasses of freebutters lying dead in it on heapes in the yeere of salvation 1216, when it swallowed them up loden with booties out of England, and so buried that rable of robbers under his waves.
17. This river Eden, when it is entred into this shire, receiveth from the West the river Eimot, flowing out of Ulse a great lake heretofore mentioned, nere unto the banke whereof, hard by the riveret Dacor, standeth Dacre Castle, of signale note for that it hath given surname to the honorable familie of the Barons Dacre, and mentioned anciently by Bede for that it had a monasterie in those daies; as also by William of Malmesbury, in regard that Constantine King of Scots and Eugenius or Ewain King of Cumberland yeelded themselves there togither with their kingdomes unto Athelstane King of England upon condition to be protected by him.
18. Not much higher, and not farre from the confluence of Eimot and Loder, where is seene that round trench of earth which the country people tearme Arthurs Table, stands Penrith, which is, if you interpret it out of the British language, The red head or hill (for the soile and the stones there are of a redish colour), but commonly called Perith. A little towne and of indifferent trade, fortified on the West side with a castle of the Kings, which in the reigne of King Henry the Sixth was repaired out of the ruines of a Roman fort thereby called Maburg, adorned with a proper church, and the mercate place is large, with an edifice of timber therein for the use of those that resort thither to mercate, garnished with beares at a ragged staffe, which was the devise of the Earles of Warwicke. It belonged in times past unto the Bishops of Durham. But when Anthony Bec the Bishop, overweening himselfe with overmuch wealth, waxed proud and insolent, King Edward the First (as wee finde in Durham booke) tooke from him Werke in Tividale, Perith, and the Church of Simondburne. But for the commodious use of this towne William Stricland Bishop of Carlile, descended from a respective ancient race in this tract, at his owne charges caused a chanell for a water course to be made out of Petter-rill, that is the little Petter, which nere unto the bank had Plumpton park, a very large plot of ground which the Kings of England allotted in old time for wild beasts, but King Henry the Eighth disparked it and wisely appointed it for habitation of men, as beeing in the verie merches wel neere where the Realmes of England and Scotland confine one upon the other. Just by this place I saw many remaines of a decaied towne, which they there for the vicinity thereof doe now call Old Perith. I for my part would deeme it to be Petrianae. For the fragment of an antique inscription erected by Ulpius Traianus emeritus, an old discharged and pensionary souldiour of the Petreian wing, doth convince and proove that the wing Petriana made abode heere. But behold both it and others which wee copied out here:

F. P. C.

D. M.


D. M.



19. After that Eden hath now given Eimot enterteinment, hee turneth his course Northward by both the Salkelds, watering as hee goes obscure small villages and fortresses. Amongst which at the lesse Salkeld there bee erected in manner of a circle seventie seaven stones, every one tenne foote high, and a speciall one by it selfe before them at the very entrance, rising fifteene foote in height. This stone the common people thereby dwelling name Long Megge, like as the rest her daughters. And within that ring or circle are heapes of stones, under which, they say, lie covered the bodies of men slaine. And verily, there is reason to thinke that this was a monument of some victory there atchieved, ‡for no man would deem that they were erected in vaine.‡
20. From thence passeth Eden by Kirk-Oswald, consecrated to Saint Oswald, the possession in old time of that Sir Hugh Morvill who with his associates slew Thomas Archbishop of Canterbury, and in memoriall of this fact the sword which hee then used was kept heere a long time; and so goeth on by Armanthwayte a Castle of the Skeltons; by Corby castle, belonging to the worthie and ancient familie of the Salkelds, well advanced by marriage with the heire of Rosgill; by Wetherall, sometime a little Abbay or Cell which acknowledged the Abbay of Saint Marie in Yorke for her mother, where within a rocke are to bee seene certaine little habitations or cabins hewed hollow for a place of sure refuge in this dangerous countrie. Thence by Warwic (Virosidum, as I supposed), where the sixt Cohort of the Nervians in old time held their station within the limite of that Wall against the Picts and Scots, and there in the later age was built a very strong bridge of stone, at the charges of the Salkelds and Richmonds; by Linstock castle also belonging to the Bishop of Carlile in the Barony of Crosby, which Waldeof the sonne of Earle Gospatrick, Lord of Allerdale, granted unto the church of Carlile. And now by this time Eden, beeing ready to lodge himselfe in his owne arme of the sea, taketh in two rivers at once, namely Peterill and Caud, which, keeping an equal distance asunder, march along from the South, and hold as it were a parallel pace just togither. By Peterill, beside Petrianae, which I spake of, standeth Greistock, a castle belonging not long since to an honorable house which derived their first descent from one Ranulph Fitz-Walter: of which line William called De Greystock wedded Mary a daughter and one of the coheires of Sir Roger Merley Lord of Morpath, and hee had a sonne named John, who beeing childlesse, by licence of King Edward the First conveighed his inheritance to Ralph Granthorpe, the sonne of William and his aunts sonne by the father side: whose male progeny flourished a long time in honor with the title of Lord Greistock, but about King Henry the Seventh his daies expired and came to an end, and so the inheritance came by marriage unto the Barons of Dacre, and the femall heires generall of the last Baron Dacre were married unto Philip Earle of Arundell and Lord William Howard, sonnes of Thomas Howard late Duke of Norfolke.
21. Upon Caud, beside the coper mines neere unto Caudbeck, standeth Highgate a castle of the Richmonds of ancient descent, and a proper fine castle of the Bishops of Carlile, called the Rose castle. It seemeth also that Congavata was hereabout in which the second Band of the Lergi served in garizon. For Congavata in the British tongue signifieth The valley by Gavata, which now is called short Caud. But the very place where this towne stood I cannot precisely point out. Betwixt the meeting of these rivers, the ancient City Carlile is passing commodiously and pleasantly seated, garded on the North side with the chanell of Eden, on the East with Peterill, on the West with Caud; and beside these naturall fenses it is fortified with strong walls of stone, with a castle, and a Citadell as they tearme it. In faschion it lieth somewhat long, running out from West to East. On the West side is the castle of a good large compasse, which King Richard the Third, as appeereth by his Armes, repaired. In the midest almost of the City riseth on high the Cathedrall church, the upper part whereof being the newer, is very artificially and curiously wrought, yet the nether part is much more ancient. But on the East side it is defended with the Citadel that King Henry the Eight built strongly with sundry bulwarkes. The Romans and Britans called this city Lugu-vallum and Lugu-ballium or Lugu-balia, the English Saxons Luell, as Bede witnesseth. Ptolomee, as some think, Leucopibia. Ninnius, Caer Lualid. The ridiculous prophesies of the Britans tearmed it The City of Duball. We, Carlile, and Latine writers by a newer name Carleolum. For our Historiographers accord with common consent that Luguballia and Carleolum were the same. But in searching out the Etymology thereof, good God, how hath Leland besturred him, beeing in the end driven to this point, that he thought verily Eden was called Lugus, and ballum came from vallis, that is, a vale, so that Lugu ballum soundeth much as the Vale by Lugus. But I, if so bee I may also hatch a conjecture, would rather suppose, but without praejudice, that the said termination vallum and vallia are derived from that most famous militare vallum or Trench that standeth apparent a little from the citie. For that Picts Wall, which was afterwardes set upon the Trench or rampire of Severus, appeereth somewhat beyond the river Eden, which now hath a wooden bridge over it, neere unto a little village called Stanwicke, and went over the very river just against the Castle: where within the chanell of the river mighty stones, the remaines thereof, are yet extant. Also lugus or lucus among the ancient Celts or Gaules, who spake the same language that once Britans did, signifieth a towre, as we may may learne by Pomponius Mela. For that which Antonine is named Lugo Augusti hee calleth Turrim Augusti, that is, The Towre of Augustus, so that Luga-Vallum is as much to say as the Towre or Fort by the wall. From this originall, if the Frenchmen had derived Lugo-dunum, as it were, The towre on the hill, and Lucotecia, for so in old time they called the Citie which we doe Lutetia, that is, Paris, as it were, The faire Towre (for so those words signifie in the British tongue), peradventure they had aimed neerer unto the marke than in fetching the one from lutum, that is dyrt, and the other from Lugdus an imagined King. That this Carlile flourished in the time of the Romans, divers tokens of antiquitie now and then digged up there, and the famous mention of it in those daies doe sufficiently proove. After the furious outrages also of the Picts and Scots were allayed, it retained some part still of the ancient dignitie and was counted a Citie. For in the yeere of Christ 619, Egfrid King of Northumberland passed a gift unto that holy Saint Cuthbert in this forme, I have given unto him also the Citie called Luguballia and 15 miles round about it. At which time also it was walled strong. The Citizens, saith Bede, brought Cuthbert to see the walles of their Citie, and a fountaine or well in it, built in times past according to the wonderfull workmanshippe of the Romans. Who at the very same time, as saith the booke of Durham, ordained a Convent of Nunnes, with an Abbesse and Schooles. Afterwards being defaced and brought to exceeding ruin by the Danes, it lay about 200 yeeres buried under his owne ashes, untill it beganne againe to flourish under the government and favour of King William Rufus, who repaired it with new edifices, built the Castle, and placed a Colonie there first of Flemmings (who streightweies upon better advise hee removed into Wales), but afterwards of Southern Englishmen. Then was there seene, as William of Malmesbury writeth, a Dining chamber after the Romane fashion built of stone and arched with vaults, so that no spiteful force of tempests, nor furious flame of fire could ever shake or hurt it. In the forefront whereof was this Inscription, MARII VICTORIAE, that is, To the victorie of Marius. this Marius some will needs have to be Arviragus the Britan, others, that Marius who, being proclamed Emperor against Gallienus, was named to be of wonderfull strength that, as writers report of him, He had in his fingers no vaines but all sinewes. Yet have I learned that another, making mention of this stone, saith it was not inscribed MARII VICTORIAE but MARTI VICTORI, that is, To victorious Mars: which perhaps may better content some, and seeme to come neerer unto the truth. Carlile, being now better peopled and of greater resort, had, as they write, for Earle, or more truly for Lord thereof, Ralph Meschines. From whom came the Earles of Chester, and at the same time, being raised by King Henrie the First to an Episcopall dignity, had Artulph for the first Bishop. Which, the monkes of Durham have written, was prejudiciall to their Church when Ranulph (say they) Bishop of Durham was banished, and the Church had none to defend her, certain Bishops laid Carlile and Tividale to their Dioeceses. But how the Scotish under the reigne of Stephen wonne this Citie, and King Henrie the Second recovered it; how also King Henrie the Third committed the Castle of Carlile and the County to Robert Vipont; how likewise in the yeere 1292 it was burnt together with the Cathedrall Church and the Suburbs; and how Robert Brus King of Scots in the yeere 1315 laid siege unto it in vaine, you may find in the common Chronicles.
22. And yet it seemes it would quit my paines to adjoine heere to inscriptions that I saw heere the one in Thomas Aglionby his house neere unto the Citadell, but made in the worse age:


‡Whereunto is adjoined the image of a man of Armes on horsbacke armed at all peeces, with a launce in his hand. As for the other, it standeth in the Gardens of Thomas Middleton, in very large and faire letter thus:‡

VIC. P. F.
G. P. R. F.

Which is, as I guess, Legio Sexta, Victrix, Pia Felis. The rest let some other decipher.
23. The onely Earle that Carlile had was Sir Andrew de Harcla, whom King Edward the Second created Earle (that I may speake out of the very originall instrument of his Creation), for his laudable and good service performed against Thomas Earle of Lancaster and other his abetters, in vanquishing the Kings enemies and disloiall Subjects, and delivering them up into the Kings hands when they were vanquished, girt with a sword and created Earle under the honour and name of the Earle of Carlile. Who notwithstanding proved a wretched Traitour himselfe unthankfull and disloyally false both to his Prince and country, and being afterwards apprehended, was with shame and reproch paied duly for the desert of his perfidious ingratitude, degraded in this manner: first by cutting off his spurres with an hatchet, afterwards disgirded of his militarie Belt, then disposed of his shoes and gantlets, last of all and was drawen, hanged, beheaded, and quartered.
24. As for the position of Carlile, the Meridian is distant from the utmost line of the West 21 degrees and 31 Minutes, and elevation of the North poole 54 degrees and 55 MInutes, and so with these Encomiasticall verses of Master John Jonston I bid Carlile adue:


Unto the Roman legions sometimes the surest Station,
The fartheset bound and Captaines toile of that Victorious Nation.
From prospect high, farre all abroad it lookes to neighbour fields.
Hence fight and skirmish it maintaines, and thence all danger shields.
People quicke witted, fierce in field, in martiall feats well seene,
Expert likewise right skilfully to fight with weapons keene.
Whilom the King of Scots it held, whiles their State stood upright,
And once againe to ancient crowne it now reverts by right.
What, Romane Caesar, thinkest thou, the world hath heere an end,
And seest thou not another world behind yet doth extend?
Well maist thou see this and no more. For Scotish valour taught
Such hauty minds to gage themselves, and heere to make defaut [an end].

25. If you now crosse over the Eden, you may see hard by the banke Rowcliffe, a little Castle erected not long since by the Lords de Dacres for the defense of their Tenants. And above it, the two rivers Esle and Leven running jointly together enter at one out-gate into the Solway Frith. As for Eske, he rumbleth downe out of Scotland, and for certaine miles together confesseth himselfe to be within the English dominion, and entertaineth the river Kirsop, where the English and Scotish parted asunder of late, not by waters but by mutuall feare one of another, have made passing good proofe on both sides of their great valour and proesse. Neere this river Kirsop, where is now seene by Netherby a little village with a few cotages in it, there are such strange and great ruins of an ancient Citie, and the name of Eske running before it doth sound so neere, that we imagine Aesica stood there, wherein the Tribune of the first band of the Astures kept watch and ward in old time against the Northern enemies. But now dwelleth heere the chiefe of the Grayhams family, very famous among the Borderers for their martiall disposition. And in a wall of his house, this Roman inscription is is set up in memoriall of Hadrian the emperour by the Legion surnamed Augusta Secunda:


26. But where the River Lidd and Eske conjoine their streames, there was sometimes, as I have heard, Liddel Castle and the Baronie of the Estotevills, who held lands in Cornage, which Earle Ranulph, as I read, in an old Inquisition gave unto Turgill Brundas. But from Estotevill it came hereditarily unto the Wakes, and by them unto the Earles of Kent of the bloud roiall. And John Earle of Kent graunted it unto King Edward the Third, and King Richard the Second unto John of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster. Beyond this river Eske, the land for certaine miles together is accounted English ground: wherein Solom Mosse became very famous, by reason especially of so many of the Scottish nobility taken there prisoners in the yeere 1543, what time as the Scotish, resolute to set upon Sir Thomas Wharton Lord Warden of the English marches, so soone as they understood that their King had committed the command of the armie to Oliver Sincler (whom they disdained), they conceived such indignation thereat that with their owne harme and losse, breaking their arraies in tumultuous maner, they made a generall confusion of all: which the English beholding from the higher ground, forthwith charged violently upon them and put them to flight. Many they toke prisoners, who, flinging away their weapons, yeelded themselves, after some few souldiers on both sides slaine, into the hands of the English and of the borderers. Presently whereupon James the Fifth King of Scots was so disjected that, weary of his life, he died for very sorrow. The Land thereabout is called Batable ground, as one would say, Litigious, because the English and the Scotish have litigiously contended about it. For the inhabitants on both sides, as borderers in all other parts, are a military kind of men, nimble, wilie, alwaies in readines for any service, yea and by reason of often skirmishes passing wel experienced. Leven, the other river whereof I spake, springing in the limite just of both Kingdomes, runneth by no memorable place, unlesse it be Beucastle (as they commonly call it), a Castle of the Kings, which, standing in a wild and solitarie country, hath beene defended onely by a ward of souldiers. But this in publicke Records is written Beuth-castle, so that the name may seeme to have come from that Bueth who, about King Henrie the First his daies, after a sort ruled all in this tract. Certaine it is that in the reigne of Edward the Third it was the Patrimonie of Sir John of Strivelin, a Baron who married the daughter and one of the heires of Adam of Swinborn. In the Church, now much decaied, there is laied for a grave stone this old inscription translated thither from some other place:


In the churchyard there is erected a Crosse about 20 foote high, all of one entier foure square stone, very artificially cut and engraven, but the letters are so worne and gone that they cannot be red. But whereas the Crosse is chequy in that manner as the shield of Armes belonging to the family of Vaulx sometimes Lords in this tract, we may well thinke that it was erected by them.
27. More into the South and farther within the country lieth the Baronie of Gillesland, a little region so encombred by reason of sudden rising brookes, which they call gilles , that I would have deemed it tooke the name of them, had I not red in a booke belonging to the Abbay of Lanercost that one Gill Fitz-Beuth, who is called also Gilbert in a Charter of King Henrie the Second, held it as Lord in old time, of whom it is probable this name was rather given to it. Through this Gillesland the wall of Severus, that most famous monument of all Britaine, runneth streight as it were by a line from Carlile Eastward, by Stanwickes, a little village; by Scalby castle belonging in times past to the Tilliols (sometimes a name in tract of good worship and reputation), from whom it came to the Pickerings; then Cambec a small brooke runneth under the wall. Neere unto which the Barons of Dacre built Askerton castle, a little pile, where the governour of Gillesland, whom they call Land-Sergeant, had a ward. Beneath the wall it conjoineth it selfe with the river irthing, where standeth Irthington the chiefe Manour, as they terme it, of this Baronie of Gillesland. And great ruins are heere to be seene at Castle-steed. Neere unto it is Brampton a little mercate towne, which we suppose to be Bremeturacum, at the very line and range of wall, for it is scarce a mile from the said wall: where in times past lay the first Band of the Tungri out of Germanie in the declining state of the Roman Empire, and a company of Armaturae under the generall of Britaine. These were horsmen armed at all peeces. But whether these Armatures were Duplar or Simplar, it is doubtful. Duplar or Duple Armaturae they were called in those daies who had Duble alowances of Corne, Simplar that had but single. Neither verily must I overpasse in silence that hard by Brampton there mounteth up an high hill, fortified in the very top with a trench, they call it the Mote, from which there is a faire prospect every way into the country. Beneath this and by Castle Steeds, like as at Trederman joining unto it, were found these inscriptions exemplified for me by the hand of the right honorable Lord William Howard of Naworth, third sonne unto Thomas late Duke of Norfolke, a singular lover of venerable antiquity and lerned withall, who in these parts in right of his wife, a sister and one of the heires of the last Lord Dacre, enjoieth faire possessions.

28. This stone also was found there in an old Hotehouse, wherein by ill fortune the name of the Emperours Lieutenant and Propraetor of Britaine is worne out:

28. Neere to Brompton, Gelt a riveret runneth downe, by the banke whereof in a crag called Helbecke are read these antiquities (wherein the words hang not well together), erected as it seemeth by a Lieutenant of the second Legion Augusta under Agricola the Propraetor, and others beside which the injurie of time hath envied us:

In the same rocke these words also are red, written a more moderne and newer letter:


29. This Gelt emptieth himselfe into the river Irthing, which with a swift and angry streame holdeth his course by Naworth Castle, belonging unto the Lord William Howard aforesaid, who now repaireth it: but lately to the Barons of Dacre, of whom when the last died in his tender years, Leonard Dacre his Unkle, who chose rather to try the title of inheritance with his Prince by force of armes than with his neices by wager [challenge] of law, seized into his hands this Castle and levied a band of rebells against his Prince: whom the Lord of Hunsdon with the garizon souldiors of Berwick soone discomfited and put to flight. In which conflict many were slaine, but more ranne away, amongst whom Leonard himselfe escaped. ‡But of him more in my Annales. Neerer unto the wall beyond the river Irthinge was lately found this faire votive altare erected to the Goddess Nymphe of the Brigantes for the health of the Empresse Plautilla, wife to Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Severus, and the whole Imperiall family by Marcus Cocceius Nigrinus a Treasurer to the Emperour, when Laetus was second time Consull, with intricate connexion of letters, which I read thus:

Questor AVGusti Numini DEVOTVS
LAETO II. --------

Hereby was the Priorie of Lanercost founded by Richard de Vauls Lord of Gillesland, and hard by the wall Burd Oswald. Beneath which, where the Picts wall passed over the river Irthing by an arched bridge, was he station of the first band Aelia Dacica, or of the Dacians (the place is now named Willoford), which the Booke of Notice of Provinces and many altars bearing inscriptions to Iupiter Optimus Maximus reared by that Cohort heere doe plentifully prove. Of which I thought good to adde these unto the rest, although time hath almost worne them out:

I. O. M.
DAC. CVI----
PRAE | | | | | |
IG | | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | | | | |

I. O. M.
C. -- C -- A. GETA

I. O. M.
DAC. C. P.

C. -- C -- A. GETA


VIC. P. F.


I. O. M.
---C. P. P. LVTRIC

I. O. M.

ANA. C. P----EST

I. O. M.

---- H. I. AEL. DAC.
----C. PRAEE SI.--
-------FLIVS FA
-----S TRIB. ------
----PETVO. -------

30. The first Lord of Gillesland that hitherto I have read of was Wiliam Meschines, the brother of Ralph Lord of Cumberland (I meane not that William brother to Ranulph Earle of Chester, from whom came Ranulph de Ruelent, but the brother of Ralph), yet could hee never wrest it wholy out of the Scots hands. For Gill the sonne of Bueth held the greatest part of it by force and armes. After his death, King Henry the Second gave it to Hubert de Vaulx or de Vallibus, whose shield of Armes was Chequy Or et Gueles. His sonne Robert founded and endowed the Priorie of Lanercost. but the inheritance after a few yeeres was by marriage translated to the Moltons, and from them by a daughter to Ranulph Lord Dacre, whose line hath flourished unto our daies in very great honour.
31. Having now in some sort surveied the maritime coasts and more inward parts of Cumberland, the side that lieth more Easterly, being leane, hungry, and a wast, remaineth to be viewed: and yet it sheweth nothing but the spring-head of South Tine in a moorish place, and an ancient Romane high way eight els broad, paved with great stone (commonly called Mayden Way) which leadeth out of Westmorland. And where the riveret Alon and the aforesaid South Tine meete togither in one chanell, by the side of an hill of gentle descent, there remaine yet the footings of a very great and ancient towne, which was toward the North enclosed within a fourefold rampier, and Westward with one and an halfe. The name of the place is now Whiteley Castle, and for to testifie the antiquity thereof, there remaineth this imperfect inscription, with letters inserted one in another after a short and compendious manner of writing, whereby we learne that the third Cohort of the Nervians erected there a Temple unto the Emperor Antonine, sonne of Severus:

IMP. CAES. Lucii Septimi Severi Ara
TR. POT -- X -- IMP. --- COS. IIII P. p.--
COMMVNI CVRANTE ------------
---------- LEGATO AVG.
RVM --- G. R. POS.

Whereas therefore the third Cohort of the Nervii served in this place, which Cohort the Booke of Notices in a later time placeth at Alione, or as Antonine nameth it, Alone, and the little river running underneath is named Alne, if I should thinke this were Alone, it might seeme rather probable than true, considering the injurie of devouring time and the furie of enemies have long agoe outworne these matters out of all remembrance.
32. Albeit when the state of the Romane Empire decaied most in Britaine, this Country had beene most grievously harried and spoiled by the Scots and Picts, yet it preserved and kept longe the ancient and naturall inhabitants the Britans, and late it was ere it became subjects to the English Saxons. But when againe the English Saxons state, sore shaken by Danish warres, ranne to ruine, it had peculiar Governors, called Kings of Cumberland, unto the yeere of our Lord 946, at what time as the Floure-gatherer of Westminster saith, King Edmund, by the helpe of Leoline Prince of Southwales, wasted all Cumberland, and having put out the eyes of both the sons of Dunmail King of the same province, hee granted that kingdome unto Malcolme King of Scots, to bee holden of him, that hee might defend the North partes of England by land and sea from the inrodes and invasions of the common enemies. Whereupon the eldest sons of the Kings of Scotland were for a while under the English Saxons and Danes both called the Praefects or Deputy Rulers of Cumberland. But when England had yeelded it selfe into the hands of the Normans, this part also became subject unto them, and fell unto the lot of Ralph de Meschines, whose eldest sonne Ranulph was Lord of Cumberland and, partly in his mothers right and partly by his Princes favour togither, Earle also of Chester. But King Stephen, to purchase favour with the Scottes, restored it unto them againe that they should hold it of him and the Kings of England. Howbeit, King Henry the Second who succeeded after him, perceiving that this over-great liberality of Stephen was prejudiciall both to himself and his realme, demanded again of the Scot Northumberland, Cumberland and Westmorland. And the King of Scots (as Newbrigensis writeth), wisely considering that the King of England had in those partes both the better right and also greater poure, although hee might have pretended [appealed to] the oth, which he was said to have made unto his grandfather David, what time he was knighted by him, yet restored he the foresaid marches according to his demand fully and wholy, and received of him againe the Earledome of Huntingdon, which by ancient right apperteine to him.
33. As for Earles of Cumberland, there were none before the time of King Henry the Eight, who created Henry Lord Clifford (who derived his pedigree from the Lords Vipont) the first Earle of Cumberland: who of Margaret the daughter of Henry Percy Earle of Northumberland begat Henry the second Earle. He by first his wife, daughter to Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolke, had issue Margaret Countesse of Derby, and by a second wife the daughter of Lord Dacre of Gillesland, two sonnes, George and Francis. George the third Earle, renowned for sea-service, armed with an able bode to endure travaile, and a valerous minde to undertake dangers, died in the yeere 1605, leaving one onely daughter the Lady Anne, now Countesse of Dorset. But his brother Sir Francis Clifford succeeded in the Earledome, a man whose ardent and honorable affection to vertue is answerable in all points to his honourable parentage.
‡As for the Wardens of the West-marches anent Scotland in this County, which were Noblemen of especiall trust, I neede to say nothing, whenas by the union of both kingdoms under one head that office is now determined [ended].‡
This shire reckoneth, besides chappels, 58 Parish Churches.

that is,

HROUGH the high part of Cumberland shooteth that most famous Wall (in no case to bee passed over in silence), the limite of the Roman province, the Barbarian Rampier, the Fore-fence and Enclosure (for so the ancient writers tearmed it), being called in Dion διατείχισμα, that is a Crosse wall, in Herodian χῶμα, that is, a Trench or Fosse cast up, by Antonine, Cassiodore and others vallum, that is, the Rampier, by Bede murus, that is the Wal, by the Britans Gual-Sever, Gal-Sever, Bal, Val, and Mur-sever, by the Scottish Scottishwaith, by the English and those that dwell thereabouts the Picts Wall or the Pehits Wall, the Keepe wall, and simply, by way of excellencie, The Wall.
2. When the ambitious and valiant Romans, finding, by the guidance of God and assistance of vertue, their successe in all their affaires above their wishes, had enlarged their Empire every way so as that the very unwealdinesse thereof beganne now to be of it selfe fearefully suspected, their Emperors thought it their best and safest policy to limit and conteine the same within certaine bounds. For in wisdome they say that in all greatnesse there ought to be a meane, like as the heaven it selfe reacheth not beyond the limited compasse, and the seas are tossed to and from within their owne precincts. Now those limites or bounds, according to the natures of the places, were either natural, as the sea, greater rivers, mountaines, wasts and desert grounds, or artificiall, as Frontier-fenses, namely trenches or dykes, castles, keeps or fortresses, wards, mounds, and baricadoes by trees cut downe and plashed [stripped], bankes, rampiers and walles. Along which were planted garisons of souldiors against the Barbarous nations confining. Whence it is that we read thus in the Novellae of Theodosius the Emperor: Whatsoever lieth included within the powre and regiment of the Romans is by the appointment and dispose of our ancestors defended from the Incursions of Barbarians with the rampier of a Limit. Along these limits or borders, souldiers lay garisoned in time of peace within Frontier-castles and cities, but when there was any feare of wast and spoile from bordering nations, some of them had their field-stations within the Barbarian ground for defence of the lands; others made out-rodes into the enemies marches to discover how the enemies stirred, yea, and if good occasion were offered, to encounter with them before them came to the Limites.
3. In this Island, the Romans when they perceived that the farther parts of Britaine lying North were so cold a rough barraine soile, and inhabited by the Caledonian Britans and Barbarous nations, in subduing whereof they were so sure to take much paines and reape very small profit, built at sundry times divers fore-fenses, as well to bound as to defend the province. The first of these seemeth to have bin made by Julius Agricola, when hee fortified with holds and garizons that narrow space of ground that lieth betweene Edenborrough Frith and Dunbretten Frith, which afterwards was eftsons strengthened.
4. When Terminus the God of bounds, ‡who would not give place to Jupiter himselfe, was so enforced to yeeld to Hadrian the Emperor that he withdrew the Limite of the Roman Empire in the East to the river Euphrates,‡ whether for envie to Trajans glorie under whom the Empire extended farthest, or for feare, hee likewise withdrew the limits fourescore miles or there about within this Island, to the River Tine, and there made the second Fore-fence. Hee, saith Spartianus, brought a wall on for fourescore miles in length (which should divide the Barbarians and the Romans asunder), raised with great stakes or piles pitched deepe in the ground and fastned togither in manner of a mural or military mound for defense, as may be gathered out of that which followeth in Spartianus. And this is that Fore-fense wherewith we are now in hand. For it goeth out in length LXXX Italian miles. About which were Pons Aelius, Classis Aelia, Cohors Alia, Alia Sabiniania, which tooke their names from Aelius Hadrianus and Sabina his wife. And that Scottish Historiographer who wrote The Wheele of time writeth thus: Hadrian was the first of all that made a rampier or wall of an huge and wonderfull bignesse like unto a mountaine, all of turfes digged out of the ground, with a ditch lying to it afronte, from the mouth of Tine unto the river Eske, that is, from the German sea unto the Irish Ocean. Which Hector Boetius accordingly witnesseth in the same words.
5. Lollus Urbicus, Lieutenant of Britaine under the Emperor Antoninus Pius, by his fortunate fights did enlarge the bounds againe as farre as to that first Frontier fense that was made by Julius Agricola, and even there raised up a third fense with a wall. He, saith Capitolinus, vanquished the Britains, and, having driven out the Barbarians, made another wall of turfes beyond that of Hadrianus. The honour of which warre happily dispatched and finished in Britaine, Fronto, as the Panegyricall Oratour saith, ascribed unto Antonine the Emperor, and testified that He, although sitting still at home in the very palace of Rome, had given charge and commission to another generall for the warre, yet like unto the Pilot of a Galley sitting at the sterne and guiding the helme, deserved the glorie of the whole voiage and expedition. But that this Wall of Antoninus Pius and of his Lieutenant Lollius Urbicus was in Scotland shalbe proved hereafter.
6. When the Caledonian Britans, whiles Commodus was Emperor, had broken through this wall, Severus, neglecting that farre and huge big country, made a fortification crosse over the Island from Solway Frith to Tinmouith, in that very place (if I have any judgement) where Hadrian made his wall of stakes and piles. And of mine opinion is Hector Boetius. Severus, saith hee, commanded Hadrians wall to bee repaired with bulwarks of stone and Turrets, placed in such convenient distance as that the sound of a trumpet, though against the winde, might be heard from the one unto the other. And in another place: Our Chronicles report that the wall begunn by Hadrian was finished by Severus. Also Hierom Surita, a most learned Spaniard, who writeth that the Fense of Hadrian was extended farther by Septimius Severus with great fortifications, by the name of Vallum. Sembably, Guidus Paucirolus, who affirmeth that Severus did but reedifie and repaire the Wall of Hadrian, beeing fallne downe. Hee, saith Spartianus, fenses Britaine (which is one of the chiefe actes recorded in his time) by erecting up a wall overthwart the Island, to the bound of the Ocean on both sides of the Isle. Whereupon hee got the title of Britannicus. After he had driven out the enemies, as saith Aurelius Victor, he fensed Britaine so far forth as it was commodious unto him &c. As also Spartianus. Againe, Eutropius: To the end that he might fortifie with all safety and security the provinces which he had recovered, he made a wall for 35 or rather more truly 80 miles in length, even from sea to sea. That part of the Island which hee had recovered, as Orosius writeth, he thought good to sever from other untamed Nations by a rampier or wal. And therefore he cast a great ditch and raised a most strong wall, fortified with many turrets for the space of an hundred and twenty two miles, from the sea. With whom Bede agreeth, who will not willingly here that Severus made a wall, for that he laboreth to prove that a wall is made of stone and a rampier, named vallum, of stakes or piles that be called vall, and of turffs (whereas in very truth vallum and murus, that is, a wal, be indifferently used one for another). And yet Spartianus calleth it murus, that is, a wall, and should seeme to shew that hee made both a wall and a trench by these words, Post murum apud vallum in Britania missum &c. Howbeit wee gather out of Bede that the said vallum or Rampier was nothing else but a wall of turffes, and no man can truly say that the wall of Severus was built of stone. But have heere the very words of Bede himselfe. Severus, having gotten the victorie in civill warres at home, which had fallen out to be very dangerous, was drawn into Britaine upon generall revolt almost of all the allies there. where, after great and sore battailes many times fought, when he had regained part of the Iland, he thought good to have the same divided from other wild and untamed nations, but with a wall, as some thinke, but with a rampier. For a wall is made of stone, but a rampier, whereby Camps are fortified to repell the force of enimies, is made of Turffes cut out of the earth round about, but raised high in maner of a wall above ground, so that there be a ditch or trench affront it, where out of the turffes were gotten. Upon which are pitched piles of very strong timber. And so Severus cast a great ditch, and raised a most strong rampier, strengthened with many turrets thereupon, from sea to sea. Neither is it known by any other name in Antonine or the Notice of Provinces than by vallum, that is, a Rampire, and is in the British tongue tearmed Guall-Sever. Heereto wee may annex the authority of Ethelward our ancientest writer next unto Bede, who as touching Severus hath these words: He did cast a ditch or trench crosse over the Iland from sea to sea; within it also he built a wall with turrets and bulwarkes. which afterwards hee calleth Fossam Severiam, that is, Severs fosse or ditch, like as we read in the most ancient Annales of the English-Saxons, Severus Brytenland mid dic fosgyrd fram sae op sae, that is, Severus foregirdled and fensed Britain with a ditch from sea to sea. And later writers in this wise, Severus on Brytene geworht weal of turfum fram sae to sae, that is, Severus in Britaine made and finished a wall of turffes or a rampart from sea to sea. William of Malmesburie likewise nameth it a famous and most notorious trench. In which very place, two hundred yeeres after or much there about, a wall of stone was set up, whereof I am to speake anone.
7. Whereas Eutropius hath set downe the length of it to be 35 miles, Victor 32, and other Authors 132, I suppose some faults have crept into the numbers. For the Iland is not so broad in that place, although a man should take the measure of the wall as it stood winding in and out, rising also and falling heere and there. Nay, if one should reduce it into Italian miles he should find little above foureskore, as Spartianus hath truly reckoned them. Some fewe yeeres after, this Munition, as it seemes, was forlet [abandoned]. Howbeit, when Alexander Severus the Emperour, as we read in Lampridius, had once given unto the Captaines and souldiours of the marches those grounds and lands which were wonne from the enimies, so that they should be there propertie, if their heires served as soldiers, and that they should never returne to any private men, supposing they would goe to the warres more willingly and take the better care if they should defend their owne peculiar possessions. ‡Note these words well, I pray you. For hence may be deduced either a kind of feudum, or the beginning of feuds.‡ After this the Romans, marching beyond the wall and building themselves Stations within the out-land and Barbarian soile, fortifying also and furnishing them accordingly, enlarged the limits of the Romane Empire againe as far as to Edenborough Frith. Neverthelesse the savage and barbarous people, never ceasing to assaile them upon advantages, drave them backe now and then as far as to Severus Trench. Diocletian the Emperour had a provident eie to these limits, under whom, whenas the whole commaund in Britaine was committed unto Carausius for that he was reputed the fitter man to warre against these warlike nations. He did set up againe the Fore-fense betweene Dumbritton Frith and Edenborrow-Frith, as I will shew in place convenient. The first that ever had blame for neglecting these limites was Constantine the Great. For thus writeth Zosimus: Whereas the Roman Empire by the providence of Diocletian was in the utmost marches thereof every where surely fensed with townes, Castles and Burghs, and all their military companies made their abode in them, it was impossible for the barbarous nations to passe in, but they were so met with all at every turne by forces there set to repell them backe. Constantine, abolishing this munition of Garrisons, placed the greater part of the souldiers, whom hee had removed from out of the marches, in townes that had no neede of garisons and defense. So hee left the marches open to the inrodes of Barbarous nations, without garisons, and pestered the Cities that were at peace and quiet with a sort of souldiers, whereby most of them are now already become desolate, and the souldiers themselves, addicted to Theatricall sports and pleasures, grew by his meanes deboshed [debased]. To conclude and simply to speake in one word, he it was that gave the first cause and beginning that the state of the Empire runneth to wrecke and ruin.
8. The country that lay betweene these Enclosures or fore-fenses Theodosius, father unto Theodosius the Emperour, recovered. He reedified and repaired the cities, strengthned the garison castles and the limits with much watch and ward and fortifications, yea and when he had recovered the province, restored it to the ancient estate, in such wise as that it had a lawfull Governour by it selfe, and as afterward in honour of Valentinian the Emperour called Valentinia. Theodosius also his sonne, having now by his owne vertue atained unto the imperiall majestie, had a provident care of these limits, and gave commandements that the Maister of the Offices should yeere by yeere give advise and advertisement unto the Emperour how all things went with the souldiers, and in what sort the charge of Castles, holds, and fore-fenses was performed. But when the Roman Empire beganne once to decay apparently, and the Picts together with the Scots, breaking through the wall of Turffes by Edenborrow-frith, cruelly wasted and overranne these parts, the Roman legion sent to aide the Britans under the leading of Gallio of Ravenna, after they had driven away and quite removed the Barbarians, being now called backe again for the defense of France, exhorted the Britans (these be the very words of Gildas and Bede) to make a wall overthwart the Iland betweene the two seas, which might serve for a defence to keepe of the enemies, and so returned home with great triumph. But the Ilanders fall to building of a wall as they were willed, not so much with stone as with turffes, considering they had no workman to bring up so great a peece of worke, and so they did set up one good for nothing. Which, as Gildas saith, being made by the rude and unskilfull common multitude, without any one to give direction, not so much of stone as of turffe, served them in no steed. As touching the place where this wall was made, Bede proceedeth to write in this manner: They raised it betweene the two Friths or Armes of the sea, for the space of many miles, that where the fense of water failed, there by the helpe of a rampier they might defend the borders from the invasion of enemies. And such a forefense, reaching a great length, secured Assyria from the inrodes of foraine nations, as Ammianus Marcellinus writeth. And the Seres [Chinese] at his day, as we read in Osorius, fortifie their vales and plaine champion [flatland] with walles, that they might thereby shelter and defend themselves from the violent incursions of the Scithians. Of which worke there made (saith Bede), that is to say, of a most broad and high rampier, a man may see the expresse and certaine remaines to this day. Which beginneth almost two miles from a Monasterie called Abercurving Eastward, at a place named in the Picts language Penuahel, in the English tongue Penuelton, and reaching Westward, endeth neere the Citie Alcluid. But the former enimies no sooner perceived that the Roman souldiers were returned, but presently sailing thither by water, breake through the bounds into the marches, kill and slay all before them, and whatever stood in their way, they went downe with it under foote they over-trample it, as if it had bin standing corn ready for harvest. Whereupon Embassadors were dispatched againe to Rome, making piteous moane, and with teares craving aide that their miserable country might not utterly be destroyed, nor the name of a Roman province, which had so long time flourished among them, wax contemptible, being now overwhelmed with the outrage of strange nations. Heereupon a Legion was sent over, which being arrived unlooked for toward Winter, made great slaughter of the enimies. As for the rest that were able to shift away and escape, they drave <them> beyond the seas, who before time made it a practise every yeere while no souldiers made head against them, to passe over the said seas and raise booties. Now by this time the Romaines were retyred backe unto the wall or Rampier of Severus and per lineam valli (as the Booke of Notices tearmeth it, which was written toward the latter end of Theodosius the Younger his reigne) that is on both sides as well within as without the wall, they kept a standing watch and ward in severall Stations appointed, namely five wings of Horsemen with their Captaines; 15 Cohorts of foote men with their Colonesl; one band, and likewise one squadron, which I have mentioned and will againe in due place. As touching the time immediately ensuing, Bede goeth forward to relate in these words: Then the Romans denounced [announced] unto the Britans that they could endure no longer to be out toyled and wearied with such painfull voiages and expeditions for defense of them, advising them to take weapon in hand themselves and endeavour to fight with the enimie, who could not by any meanes be stronger than they, unlesse themselves would give way to idlenesse and become feeble therewith. Moreover the Romans, because they thought this also might serve their allies in some steed, whom they were forced to leave, placed a wal of strong stone from sea to sea directly betweene the cities, which had beene built there for feare of the enimies (where Severus also in times past had made a rampier). Heere will I also put downe the words of Gildas, from whom Bede borrowed all this. The Romans directly levell a wall after their usuall maner of building, not like unto the other, at the common and private charges, adjoining unto them the poore and miserable naturall home borne inhabitants from sea to sea betwixt the Cities, which chaunced to have beene place there for feare of the enimies. And now heare what Bede saith againe. Which wall, that hath beene hetherto famous and conspicuous, they with publicke and private cost, having with them the Britans helping hand also, built eight foote broad and twelve foote high, in a direct line from East forward to West, as is evident even at this day to the beholders. Out of which words of Bede you may see that a great learned man, whiles he thinketh to hit the birde in the eie, hath missed the marke, streining and striving mightily to prove against Boetius and other Scottish writers that Severus his wall of Turffe was in Scotland. Doth not Bede write in plaine tearmes, after he had spoken of the Earth-wall at Abercurving in Scotland, that a wall was reared of strong stone where Severus had made his of turfe? And where I pray is that wall of stone but in this place, betweene Tine-mouth and Solwey Frith? Where was then that wall of Severus? As for the wall, there are yet such expresse tokens of it in this place that you may tracke it as it were all the way it went, and in the Wasts, as they tearme them, I my selfe have beheld with my owne eies on either side huge peeces thereof standing for a great way together, onely wanting their battlements.
9. Verily I have seene the tract of it over the high pitches and steepe descents of hilles, wonderfully rising and falling. And where the fields like more plaine and open, a broad and deepe ditch without, just before it, which now in many places is grounded up, and within a banke or militarie highway, but in most places interrupted. It had many towres or fortresses about a mile distant from another, which they call Castle steeds, and more with in little fensed townes tearmed in these daies Chesters, the plots or ground workes whereof are to be seene in some places foure square; also turrets standing betweene these, wherein souldiers being placed might discover the enimies and be ready to set upon them, wherein also the Areani might have their Stations, whom the foresaid Theodosius, after they were convicted of falshood, displaced and removed from their Stations. These Areani (as Marcellinus saith) were a kind of men ordained in old time, whose office it was to runne a great way to and fro from place to place to intimate or give intelligence unto our Leaders what sturre and noise there was abroad among the neighbour nations. So that the first founders of this wall may seeme to have beene directed by his counsell, who wrote unto Theodosius as his sonnes as touching Military affaires in this maner; Among the commodities of State and Weale publicke, right behovefull is the care concerning the Limits, which in all places doe gard and enclose the sides of the Empire. The defense whereof may be best assured by certaine castles built neare together, so that they be erected with a steedy wall and strong towres a mile asunder one from another. Which munitions verily the Land-lords ought to arreare without the publicke charge by a distribution of that care among themselves, for to keepe watch and ward in them and in the field forefenses, that the peace and quiet of the Provinces being garded round about therewith, as with a girdle of defense, may rest safe and secure from hurt and harme. The dwellers heereabout talk much of a brasen trunke (whereof they found peeces now and then) that, set and fitted in the wall artificially, ranne betweene every Fortresse and Towre to as that if any one in what towre soever conveied the watchword into it, the sound would have beene carried streightwaies without any stay to the next, then to the third, and so to them all one after another, and all to signifie at what place the assault of the enimie was feared. The like miraculous devise of the towres in Bizantium Xiphiline relateth out of Dion in the life of Severus. But since the wall now lies along, and no pipe remaineth there, many tenants hold farmes and lands of our Kings heere round about in Cornage, as our Lawyers speake, that is, by winding of an horne, which some thinke had the first originall from an ancient custome of the Romanes, who also were bound to goe by the Kings Praecept in the army and service for Scotland (these be the words of the Records) as they marched forth in the Vantward, as they returned home in the Rereward.
10. But that I may follow the tract of this wall more directly in particular, it beginneth at the Irish sea hard by Blatum Bulgium or Bulnesse, and goeth on along the side of Solwey Frith, and so by Burgh upon Sands unto Lugu-vallum or Carlile, where it passeth over Eden. From thence it runneth forth and hath the river Irthing beneath it, crossing over Camberke a little brooke running crooked with many turnings in and out, where are great tokens to be seene of a fortification. After this, having cut over the rivers Irthing and Poltrosse, it entreth into Northumberland, and among the mountaines hudled together goeth along by the side of the river which they call South-Tine without any interruption (save only that it is divided by North-Tine, where in ancient times there was a bridge over it) as farre as to the German Ocean, as I will shew in due place when I am come into Northumberland.
11. Yet this admirable worke could not avert and keepe out the tempestuous stormes of forraine enimies. But when the Roman armies were retired out of Britaine, the Picts and Scots, assaulting the wall upon the sudden with their engins and hooked weapons, pluckt and pulled downe the garison souldiers, brake through the fense, and overranne Britaine farre and neere, being then disarmed and shaken with civill broiles, and most miserably afflicted with extreame famin. But the most wofull and lamentable miserie of these heavie times, Gildas, a Britan who lived not long after, pensilleth out lively in these words: As the Romans were returning homeward, there appere striving who could come first out of their Caroches [small boats] in which they had passed over the vale Stitica, like unto duskish swarmes of wormes comming forth of their little caves with most narrow holes at noone day in summer, and when the heat of the sunne is at the highest, a rabble of Scots and Picts, in maners partly different, but in one and the same greedy designe of bloudshed. And, having knowledge once that our friends and associates were retired home, and had denied ever to returne againe, they, with greater confidence and boldnesse than before time, attempt to possesse themselves of all the North side, and the utmost part of the land from out of the Inlanders hands as farre as to the very wall. Against these invasions there stands placed on high in a Keepe a lasie crew unable to fight, unfit (God he knowes) for service, trembling and quaking at the heart, which night and day sat still as benummed, and sturred not abroad. Mean while the hooked engines of their naked and bareshanked enimies cease not, wherewith the most miserable inhabitants were plucked downe from the walles and dashed against the hard ground. This good yet did such an untimely death unto those that thus lost their lives, that by so quicke a dispatch and end they were freed from the view of most piteous paines and imminent afflictions of their bretheren and children. What should I say more? When they had left the cities and high wall, they were againe driven to flie and hide themselves, and being thus dispersed, in more desperate case they were than they had bin before. The enimies likewise presse stil sorer upon them, and sembably hasten bloudy carnage and slaughters one in the necke of another. And even as lambs are torne in peeces by butchers, so are these lamentable inhabitants by the enimies, insomuch as their aboad and continuance together might be well compared to wild beasts. For both they preyed one upon another, and by robbing also forbare not the short pittance of food that the poorer sort of the inhabitants had for their owne small sustentation. And also these outward calamities were encreased with domesticall commotions, so that by reason of so great robbing, pilling and spoiling, the whole country wanted the stay of all kind of food, save onely that which they gat by hunting to comfort their poore pining bodies.
12. But this is worth the observation, that as by the wisdome of the Romans this wall was so built, that it had two very great rivers neere to it on the inner side (as it were) for another defense, namely Tine and Irthing, that are divided one from the other with a very narrow parcell of ground. So on the other side the Barbarous people were so cunning that in the same place especially they made their first entrance betwixt these rivers where they might have free passage farther into the heart of the province without hinderance of an river, according as we will shew by and by in Northumberland. The fabulous tales of the common people concerning this wall I doe wittingly and willingly overpasse. Yet this one thing which I was enformed of by men of good credite I will not conceale from the reader. There continueth a settled perswasion among a great part of the people there about, and the same received by tradition, that the Roman souldiers of the marches did plant heere every where in old time for their use certaine medicinable herbes for to cure wounds, whence it is that some Empiricke practitioners of Chirurgery in Scotland flocke hither every yeere in the beginning of summer to gather such Simples and wound herbes, the vertue whereof they highly commend as found by long experience, and to be of singular efficacie.

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