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S in France, so also in Britaine, next adjoining unto the Belgae are Attrebatii, which name beeing now altogether out of use, the place which they inhabite is commonly called Barkshire. For let this stand as graunted (seeing Caesar writeth that forrainers comming out of Gallia Belgica inhabited the sea coasts of Britaine, and reteined still the names of their countries) that these or Attrebatii came hither from the Attrebates of Gaule: who, as Ptolomee recordeth, held the maritime part of Gaule, lying upon the river Sein, and namely that verey country which after a sort lieth full opposite and over against our Atrebatii. It was not, therefore, without good cause if Caesar wrote that Comius Attrebatensis was of great authority in these countries, namely among his owne countrimen, and that after hee was by Caesar vanquished, he fled hither. What time, as Frontinus writeth, whiles his ships were grownded upon a shelfe, hee commaunded his sailes to be hoised up, and so disappointed Caesar (who pursued him) of his purpose: who kenning afarre-of his full sailes, and supposing that with a good gale of forewind hee sailed away, gave over further pursuit. Whence these Attrebatii were so called, it resteth doubtful. For whereas some fetch the original from attrech, which in the old Gauls tongue they would have to signifie a land of Bread, I neither approve or disprove their opinion. Sufficient it may bee for us to have shewed from whence they came into Britain; as for the derivation of their name, let others search for it.
HAT countrie which wee call Barkshire, the late Latine writers terme Bercheria, and was sometime by the English Saxons named Berrocscyre. Which name Asserius Menevensis deriveth from a certaine wood called berroc where grew good store of box, others from a naked or bare oake (for so much the name beroke it self importeth), unto which the Inhabitants in daungers and troublesome times of the commonwealth were wont in old time to resort, there to consult about their publike affairs. The North part hereof the river Isis, which afterwards is called Tamisis, that is, the Tamis [Thames], running with a winding channell full of reaches, but yet carrying a very gentle streame, doth pleasantly water it, and first severeth it from Oxfordshire, afterwards from Buckinghamshire. The South side, where it beareth toward Hantshire, the river Kenet cutteth through, untill it runnes into the Tamis. In the West, where it bordereth upon Wiltshire and carrieth the greatest breadth, as also in the middle part, rich it is of it self and full of commodities, yeelding corne in plenty, especially where it falleth lower to a valley: which I wote not from what shape of a white horse imagined to appeere in a whitish chalky hill, they terme The vale of Whitehorse. As for the East part that confineth with Surrie, it groweth very baraine, or at least wise the soile is lesse fertile, as standing upon forrests and woods that take up a great ground in length and breadth.
2. In the West march thereof, neere unto Isis, standeth Farendon, seated high: famous now for a mercate there kept, but in times past for a certaine Fort which Robert Earle of Glocester built against King Stephen, who notwithstanding wonne it with bloudy assaults, and laid it so levell with the ground that now it is not to bee seene. But the plot of ground whereon it stood, as we find in the Chronicle of Waverley Abbey, King John in the yeere of our Lord 1202 prevented by divine inspiration, graunted with all the appertenances to the building of an Abbay for the Cistertiens order.
3. From hence the river, having with a great turning compasse after much wrestling gotten out towards the North, passeth a long hard by many villages of smal reckoning, till at length with a returne, and disporting himselfe with winding branches and divisions, he commeth to Abbendon, a proper towne and populous, called at first by the English Saxons Sheovesham, then Abbandune, no doubt of the Abbay rather than of one Abben, I wote not what Irish Eremite [hermit], as some have written. A place this was (as we finde in an old booke of Abbendon) upon the plaine of an hill very faire and delectable to see to, a little beyond the towne which now is called Suniggewelle, betweene two most pleasant riverets, which, enclosing within them the place it selfe (as it were a certaine nooke), yeeld a delightsome sight to the beholders, and a meete succour to the Inhabitants. The very same was in times past called Sheovesham, a City famous, goodly to behold, full of riches, compassed about with most plentuous fields, with greene medowes, spatious pastures, and flockes of cattell spinning forth milke abundantly. Heere was the Kings seat, hither resorted and assembled the people when soever there was any treaty about the chiefe and higher affaires of the kingdome. But so soone as Cissa King of the West Saxons had built the Abbay, it beganne by little and little to lay down the old name and to be called Abbandun and Abbington, that is, Abbay-towne. This Abbay had not long flourished when all of a sodaine in a tempestuous fury of the Danes it was subverted. Yet soone after it was reared againe through the bounty of King Edgar, and afterwards by the meanes and travaile of the Norman Abbats grew by little and little to such magnificence that among all the Abbaies of Britaine for richeness and statelinesse it would hardly give place to any. Which the very rubble and ruines at this day doe testifie. As for the towne, albeit a long time it had a great stay of the Abbay, yet since the yeare of our salvation 1416, in which King Henrie the Fifth built a bridge over the river (as witnesseth a verse written in a window of Saint Helens church there) and turned the kings high way hither for to make a shorter passage, it beganne to bee frequented and traded so that among all the townes of this shire it goes for the chiefe, hath a Major in it, and maketh great gaine by that steeped barly sprouting and chitting againe which the Greekes terme byne and wee Malt: and besides, hath a Crosse of singular workemanship in the mids of their mercate place, which by report in the reigne of King Henrie the Sixth the Brotherhood of Saint Crosse, instituted by him, did erect.
4. As Cissa founded this monasterie for Monkes, for Cilla (out of an old booke I speake), the sister of King Cedwalla, built the Nunnerie at Helnestowe nere the Tamis, where her selfe was Ladie Abbasse over the Virgins, who afterwards were translated to Witham. And whiles the warre grew hote betweene Offa and Kinulphe, when a Castle was there built, the Nunnes retired themselves out of the way. For after that Kinulph was overthrown, whatsoever lay under his jurisdiction from the towne of Wallingford in the South part from Ichenildstreete unto Essebury, and in the North side to the river Tamis, King Offa usurped and seized into his owne hands.
Neere unto it Northwest lieth Lee, which by the daughter of a certaine worshipfull knight surnamed thereupon de Lee fell into the familie of Besiles, and thereof it came to be called Besiles Lee: and from that house in right of marriage, to Richard Fetiplace, whose progenitor Thomas brought some honor to his posterity by matching with Beatrice the base daughter of John the First, King of Portugall and widdow to Gilbert Lord Talbot, of whom they are descended. But now let us returne. Hard by Abendon, Ocke, a little river that runneth by the South side of the towne (over which in times past Sir John of Saint Helenes, knight, built a bridge), gently falleth into Isis. This Ocke springeth in that vale of Whitehorse scarce a mile or two from Kingston Lisle, in old time the possession of Warin de Insula or Lisle, a noble Baron. From whom, when a Sir John Talbot, the younger sonne of that renowmed warrier John Earle of Shrewsburie, was descended by his mother, hee was created by King Henrie the Sixth Lord Lisle, like as Warin de Insula in times past in regard of the possession of this place (as if that dignity were annexed thereto), and afterwards Vicount Lisle by a Patent without any such regard. This title, through the gratious favor of kings, flourished still in his posterity one after another successively. For, briefly to knit up their succession, when Sir Thomas Talbot, sonne of the said John, departed this life without issue, beeing deadly shot into the mouth with an arrow in a skirmish defending his possessions against the Lord Barkley, Sir Edward Grey, who had married his sister, received the same at the hands of King Richard the Third, and left it to John his sonne and successour. Whose onely daughter and heire King Henrie the Eighth assured to Sir Charles Brandon, and thereupon created him Vicount Lisle. But when as shee died in tender yeares before the marriage was solemnised, hee also relinquished that title. Which King Henrie afterward bestowed upon Sir Arthur Plantagenet, base sonne to King Edward the Fourth, who had wedded Elizabeth, sister to Sir John Grey Vicount Lile and widdow to Edmund Dudley. And when hee deceased without heires male, the said king honoured therewith Sir John Dudley, sonne of Edmund by the same Elizabeth Grey, who in the time of King Edward the Sixth was created Duke of Northumberland and afterward attained by Queene Marie. His sonne Sir Ambrose Dudley, being restored in bloud, was by Queene Elizabeth on one and the selfe same daie created Lord Lisle and Earle of Warwicke, who ended his life issuelesse. And now lately Sir Robert Sidney his sisters sonne was honoured with the stile of Vicount Lisle by King James, who had before created him (beeing Chamberlane to the Queene his wife) Baron Sidney of Pensherst.
5. Then runneth the river Ock aforesaid betweene Pusey, which they that are named de Pusey hold it yet by the horn from their ancestors, as given unto them in ancient time by King Canutus the Dane, and the two Dencheworths, the one and the other, wher flourished for a long time two noble and auncient houses, to wit, de Hide at the one and Fetiplace at the other, which families may seeme to have sprung out of one and the same stocke, considering they both beare one and the same coat of armes. Then entertaineth Ock a namelesse river which issueth out of the same vale at Wantage, called in the English Saxon tongue Wanating, where some time there was a Manour house of the kings, and the place wherein Aelfred, that most noble and renowned king, was borne and bred, which at his death hee bequeathed to Alfrith. Long time after, it became a mercate towne by the meanes and helpe of Sir Fulk Fitz-warin that most warlike knight, upon whome Roger Bigod Mareschall of England had bestowed it for his martiall prowesse, and at this daie it acknowledgeth for Lords thereof the Bourchiers Earles of Bath, descended from the race of the Fitzwarins, of whose familie some were here buried.
6. Isis, being departed once from Abbendon, straitwaies receiveth into it out of Oxfordshire the river Tame (of which elsewhere), and now by a compound word being called Tamisis, first directed his course to Sinodun, an high hill and fensed with a deepe trench, where stood for certaine in old time a fortresse of the Romanes: for the ground, being now broken up with the plough, yeeldeth otherwhiles to the ploughmen store of Romane peeces of coine, as tokens of antiquitie. Under it at Bretwell there was a Castle (if it were not upon this hill) which King Henrie the Second wonne by force a little before that he made peace with King Stephen. From hence Tamis holdeth on his way to the chiefe citie in times past of the Attrebatians, which Antoninus termeth Galleva of Attrebats, Ptolomee Galeva, but both of them through the carelesnesse of the Scriveners name it wrong for Gallena, and they likewise in their Greeke copies have thrust upon us Νάλκυα for Gallena by transposition of letters. I have thought it was so named in the British tongue, as if it were Guall hen, that is, The old rampire or fort. Which name being still kept, and ford added thereto, which is a shallow place in the river, the Englishmen in old times called it Guallengaford and Wallengaford, and we at this day, shorter, Wallengford. In King Edward the Confessors time it was counted a burgh and contained (as we find in that Book wherin King William the First took the Survey of all England) two hundred threescore and sixteene hages, that is to say, Houses, yeelding nine pounds de Gablo, and those that dwelt there did the King service on horsebacke, or by water. And of those Hages eight were destroied for the Castle. In old time it was compassed about with walles which, as men may see by their tract, tooke up a mile in circuit. It hath a Castle situate upon the river, verie large (I assure you) and stately: so fortified in times past that the hope in it (as imprenable and invincible) made divers over-bold and stowt. For when England burned (as a many may say) in a generall flame of warres, we read that it was by King Stephen belaied once or twise with sieges, but all in vaine. The greatnesse and magnificence thereof I much wondered at when I was young and remooved thither from Oxford (for a place it is now for the Students there of Christchurch to retire unto), as having a double range of walles about it, and being compassed round likewise with a duple rampire and ditch: and in the mids of it there standeth a tower or Keepe, raised upon a mightie high mount, and in the steep ascent whereof by steps we saw a Well of an exceeding depth. The Inhabitants are verily perswaded that it was built by the Danes, but I should rather judge that some thing was heere erected by the Romanes and afterwards rased by Saxons and Danes, what time as Sueno the Dane, ranging and roving this way, spoiled and harried the countrey. That it was at length reedified under King William the First we know assuredly by Domesday book, seeing that it yeeldeth record (as even now I noted) of eight Hages or Houses destroyed for the Castle. Yet William Gemeticensis makes no mention of this castle when he writeth that William of Normandie, having defeited Harold, led his armie forthwith to this citie (so he termeth it), and after he had passed over the Tamisis at the ford, pitched his tents heere before he came to London. At which time Wigod an Englishman was Lord of Wallenford, who had one onely daughter given in marriage to Robert D’ Oyley, of whom hee begat Mawd his sole heire, first wedded to MIles Crispin, and after his death, through the goodnesse and favour of King Henrie the First, maried unto Brient, called Fitz Counte. Who being brought up in warlike feats, and taking part with Mawd the Empresse, most manfully defended this Castle against King Stephen, who had raised a fort just over against it at Craumesh: and he made it good, untill that peace so much wished of all England was concluded in that place, and that most grievous dissention about the crowne between King Stephen and Henrie the Second ended. For then the love of God tooke such place in the hearts of the said Brient and his wife that they cast off this fraile and transitorie world and devoted themselves in religious life unto Christ. so was this Honour of Wallengford escheated into the Kings hand. Which appeareth out of an old Inquisition in the Exchequer, by these words: To his most beloved Lords, the King our soveraigne Lord, his Justices and Barons of the Exchequer, the Constable of Wallengford sendeth greeting. Know ye that I have made diligent Inquiry by the Knights of my Bailiwicke, according to a commandement of my Lord the King, directed unto me by the Sheriffe: and of the Inquisition thus made, this is the summe. Wigod of Wallingford held the honour of Wallingford in King Harolds time, and afterwards in the daies of King William the First. He had by his wife a certaine daughter whom hee gave in marriage to Robert D’ Oyly. This Robert begat of her a daughter named Mawd, who was his heire. Miles Crispin espoused her, and had with her the honour aforesaid of Wallingford. After the decease of MIles, our soveraigne Lord King Henrie the First bestowed the foresaid Mawd upon Brient Fitz Count, who both tooke themselves to a religious life, and King Henrie the Second seised the honour unto his hand, &c. Yet afterwards in the time of King Henrie the Third it belonged to the Earles of Chester, and then to Richard King of the Romans and Earle of Cornwall, who repaired it , and unto his sonne Edmond, who within the inner Court founded a collegiate Chappell, who dying without issue, it fell againe to the crowne and was annexed to the Dukedome of Cornwall, since which time it hath by little and little decaied. And verily about the time when that most mortall Plague which followed the conjunction of Saturne and Mars in Capricorne reigned hotely throughout all Europe in the yeere of our Lord 1348, this towne was so dispeopled by reason of continuall mortalitie there, that whereas before time it was passing well Inhabited and had twelve Churches in it, it can shew now no more than one or two. But the cause of this desolation the Inhabitants lay rather upon the bridges of Abbindon and Dorchester, whereby London portway [traffic] was turned from thence.
7. From hence Southward the Tamisis passeth most mildly between verie rich and fertile fields on both sides, by Monks-ford, which King Henrie the First gave unto Girald Fitz-Walter, from whence the Noble family of the Carewes is descended. To this house much lands, honour, and reputation accrewed in Ireland by descent, and in England by matching in mariage with right noble families of the Mohuns, Dinhams, and others. Not farre from hence is Aldworth, where be certaine tombes and portraictures bigger than the ordinary proportion of men, which thereupon the unlearned multitude keeps a-wondering at, as if they had been giants, whereas indeed they were but of certaine Knights of the Family de la Beche, which here had a Castle, and is thought in the raigne of King Edward the Third to have beene extinguished for default of issue male. And now at length Tamisis meeteth with Kenet, which River, as I said ere-while, watering the South part of this shire, at his first entry when he hath left Wilshire behind him, runneth under Hungerford, named in old time Ingleford Charnam-street, a very small towne, and seated in a moist place, howbeit it hath given name and title to the honorable family of the Barons of Hungerford, which was first raised to greatnesse by Walter Hungerford, who under King Henrie the Fifth, being Seneschall or Steward of the kings house, was for his warlike prowesse liberally rewarded by the said king and infeoffed in the Castle and Barony of Homet in Normandie, To have and to hold unto him and his heires males by homage and service, to find the King and his heires at the Castle of Roan one Launce with a Fox taile hanging downe thereat, which pleasant conceit I thought not amisse to insert here among serious matters. The same Walter in the raigne of Henrie the Sixth, being high Treasurer of England and created withall Baron Hungerford, as well by his singular wisedome as his marriage with Catherine Peverell (descended from the Moels and Courtneys), mightily augmented his state. His sonne Robert, who wedded the daughter and heire of the Lord Botereaux, enriched the same house verie much, Sir Robert likewise his sonne, who matched with Aeleanor, the daughter and heire of William Molines (whereupon he was summoned among the Barons of the Realme by the name of Lord Molines), and during the civill warre betweene the two houses of Lancaster and Yorke was beheaded at Newcastle, advanced the name not a little. His sonne Thomas, slaine at Salisbury while his father was living, left his only daughter, named Marie, whom Edward Lord Hastings tooke to wife with a great and rich inheritance. But Walter, brother to the said Thomas, begat Edward Hungerford, father of that Walter whom King Henrie the Eighth created Baron Hungerford of Heitesbury, and condemned him afterwards for a crime not to be spoken of: howbeit, Queen Marie restored his children unto all his estate, save onely the name and title of Barons. Not farre from hence Southward is Widehay, the seat for a long time of the Baron Saint Amand, whose inheritance Gerard Braybrooke entred upon in right of his wife, whose eldest Niece by his sonne Gerard, named Elizabeth, by her mariage brought the same unto William de Beauchamp, who being summoned to the Parliament by the name of William Beauchamp de Saint Amando, flourished among other Barons, like as his sonne Richard, who left no issue lawfully begotten.
8. Kenet, keeping on his course downward from thence between Hemsted Marshall, which sometimes was held by the rod of Marshalsee, and appertained to the Mareschals of England, where Sir Thomas Parry Treasurer of Queene Elizabeths houshold built a very proper house, and Benham Valence, in a Parke so called because it belonged to William de Valencia Earle of Pembroch. But Queen Elizabeth gave it to John Baptista Castilion, a Piemontes, of her privie chamber for faithfull service in her daungers. So the river passeth on to that old town Spinae whereof Antonine made mention: which retaining still the name as at this day called Spene, but now in sted of a towne it is a very little village standing scarce a mile off from Newbury, a famous towne that arose and had beginning out of the ruins of it. For Newbury with us as is much to say as The new burgh, in respect, no doubt, of that more ancient place of habitation which is quite decayed and gone, and hath left the name also in a peece of Newburie it selfe which is called Spinham Lands. And if nothing else, yet this verily might prove that Newburie sprang out of Spine, because the inhabitants of Newbury acknowledge the village Spene as their mother, although in comparison of Spene it be passing faire and goodly, as well for buildings as furniture: become rich also by clothing, and very well seated in a champion plaine, having the river Kenet to water it. this towne at the time that the Normans conquered England feel to Emulph de Hesdin Earle of Perch, whose successour Thomas Earle of Perch being slaine at the siege of Lincolne, the Bishop of Chalons his heire sold it unto William Marescall Earle of Pembroke, who also held the Manore of Hemsted hard by (whereof I have spoken), and his successors also Mareschals of England, untill that Roger Bigod for his obstinacie lost his honor and possessions both, which notwithstanding by intreaty he obtained againe for his life time.
9. Kenet passeth on hence and taketh into him Lamborn, a little river, which at the head and spring therof imparteth his name to a small mercate towne that in old time, by vertue of King Aelfreds testament, belonged unto his cousin Alfrith, and afterward to the Fitz Warins, who of King Henry the Third obtained libertie of holding a mercate, but now appeartaineth unto the Essexes, Knights: a familie that fetcheth their pedigree from William Essex Under-treasurer of England under King Edward the Fourth, and from those who in times past carried the same surname and flourished as men of very great fame in Essex. From thence he runneth under Dennington, which others call Dunnngton, a little castle but a fine and proper one, situate with a faire prospect upon the brow of a prety hill full of groves, and which inwardly for the most part letteth in all the light. Built, they say, it was by Sir Richard de Abberbury, Knight, who also under it founded for poore people a Gods-house. Afterward it was the residence of Chaucer, then of the De la Poles, and in our fathers daies of Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolke.
10. Kenet, having now finished a long course by Aldermaston, which King Henrie the First gave unto Robert Achard, from whose posterity by the Delamares it came at length in right of mariage to the Fosters, a familie of Knights degree, falleth at the last into Tamis, presently after it hath with his winding branches compassed a great part of Reading. This towne Reading, called in the English Saxon tongue Rheadyge, if Rhea, that is, The River, or of the British word redin, that signifieth fearne (which groweth heere in great plentie) excelleth at this day all other townes of this shire in faire streets and goodly houses: for wealth also of the townsmen and their name in making of cloth, although it hath lost the greatest ornaments it had, to wit, a beautifull Church and a most ancient Castle. For this the Danes kept as their hold (so Asserius writeth) when they made a rampier betweene Kenet and Tamis, and into this they retired themselves for safety when at Inglefield (a village neere unto it, which gave name to an ancient familie) they were by King Aethelwolfe discomfited and put to flight. But King Henrie the Second so rased it (because it was a place of refuge for King Stephens followers) that nothing now remaineth of it but the bare name in the next street. Nigh whereunto King Henrie the First, having plucked downe a little Nunnerie that Queene Alfrith had founded in former times to make satisfaction for her wicked deeds, built for Monks a stately and sumpteous Abbay, and enriched it with great revenewes. Which Prince, to speake out of his very Charter of the foundation, Because three Abbaies in the Realme of England were in old time for their sinnes destroied, to wit, Reading, Chelseie, and Leonminster, which a long time were held in Lay mens hands, by the advise of the Bishops, built a new Monasterie of Reading and gave unto it Reading, Chelseie, and Leonminster. In this Abbay was the founder himselfe, King Henrie, buried with his wife, both vealed and crowned for that shee had beene a Queene and a professed Nunne, and with them their daughter Mawde, as witnesseth the private Historie of this place, although some report that she was enterred at Becc in Normandie. this Mawde, as well as that Lacedemonian Ladie Lampido whom Plinie maketh mention of, was a Kings daughter, a Kings wife, and a Kings mother: that is to say, daughter of this Henrie the First, King of England, wife of Henrie the Fourth, Emperour of Almaine [Germany], and mother to Henrie the Second, King of England. Concerning which matter have you here a Distichon engraven on her tombe, and the same verily in my judgment conceived in some gracious aspect of the Muses:
The daughter, wife, the mother eke of Henrie, lieth heere,
Much blest by birth, by mariage more, but most by issue deere.
11. And well might she be counted greatest by her issue. For Henrie the Second her sonne, as John of Saliburie, who lived in those daies, wrote, was the best and most vertuous King of Britaine, the most fortunate Duke of Normandie and Aquitain, and as well for valiant exploits as for excellent vertues highly renowned. How courageous, how magnificent, how wise and modest he was even from his tender yeeres, envy it selfe can neither conceale nor dissemble: seeing that his acts be fresh and conspicuous; seeing also that he hath extended forward and held on a continued traine the titles of his vertue from the bounds of Britaine unto the marches of Spaine. And in another place of the same King, Henrie the Second, the most mighty King that ever was of Britaine, shewed his puissance about the river Garumna, and laying siege to Tolose, with fortunate successe terrified not onely those of Provinces as farre as to Rhosne and the Alpes, but also by raising fortresses and subduing nations, he made the princes of Spaine and France to quake for feare, as if he had beene ever more at the point to set upon them all. I will also, if it please you, adjoine heereto a word or two concerning the same King out of Giraldus Cambrensis. From the Pyrenean mountaines, saith hee, unto the Westerne bounds and furthest limits of the North Ocean, this our Alexander of the West hath stretched forth his arme. As farre therefore as nature in these our parts hath enlarged the land, so farre hath hee marched with Victories. If the bounds of his expeditions were sought for, sooner would the globe of earth faile than they end. For where there is a valiant and courageous minde, howsoever earth and land faile, victories cannot faile; well may there be wanting matter of triumph, but triumphs will never be wanting. How great an addition to his glorious titles and triumphs was Ireland! With how great valour and praise-worthy prowesse pearced he through the very secrets and hidden places of the Ocean! But lo heere an old verse of his death, which briefely in one word containeth fully both all this and also the renowne of his sonne King Richard the First:
A wounder great, the sunne was set, and night there followed none.
12. For so farre was King Richard his sonne from bringing darknesse with him that, with the beames of his victories atchieved in Cypres and Syria, he made our countrey of England most famous and renowned through the world. But these are things without our Element. Let us returne againe from persons to places. This Monastery wherein that noble King Henry the First was buried is now converted to be the Kings house, which hath adjoining unto it a very goodly stable stored to the full with princelike and most generous steeds. But as touching this place, listen also the Poet describing the Tamis as he passeth heereby:
From hence he little Chawsey seeth, and hastneth for to see
Faire Reading towne, a place of name, where Cloths ywoven be.
This shewes our Aelfrids victorie, what time Begsceg was slaine
With other Danes, whose carcasses lay trampled on the plaine,
And how the fields ydrenched were with bloud upon them shed.
Whereas the Prince in Stable now hath standing many a stede
Of noblest kind, that neigh and snort into the aire alowd,
Tracing the ring and keeping pace that stately is and prowd,
Whiles they desire to learne withall in our warres for to serve.
But where (alas) is piety? Such cursed deeds deserve
Purged to be by sacrifice. A King of Normans Race,
Henry the First, enterred heere, now turn’ d out of his place,
An outcast lies dishonoured. Who seekes his tombe shal misse.
For Covetise envied that King the small mould which was his.
But see how Princes monuments it ransacks where it is.
13. Scarce halfe a mile from Reading, betwixt most greene and flowring medowes, the Kenet is coupled with the Tamis, who now runneth with a broader streame by a small village called Sunning, which a man would mervaile to have beene the Sea of eight bishops who had this shire and Wiltshire for their Diocese (yet our Histories report is much); the same afterwards by Herman was translated to Shirburne, and in the end to Salisburie, unto which Bishopricke this place still belongeth. ‡Heereby falleth Ladden, a small water, into the Tamis,‡ and not farre off standeth Laurents Waltham, where are to be seene the foote foundations of an old fort and divers Romane coines often times digged up, ‡ and next to it Billingsbere, the inhabitation of Sir Henry Nevill issued from the Lords Abergeveney.‡ From Sunning the Tamis passeth by Bistleham, now called short, Bisham, at first a Lordship of the Knights Templars, them of the Montacutes ‡and amongst them William, the first Earle of Salisburie of his familie, founded a Priory, wherein some say hee was buried. Certes his wife, the daughter of the Lord Grandison, was buried there, and in the inscription of her tombe it was specified that her father was descended out of Burgundie, cosin-german to the Emperour of Constantinople, the King of Hungary, and Duke of Bavare, and brought into England by Edmund Earle of Lancaster.‡ Now it is the possession of Sir Edward Hoby, Knight, of me especially to be observed, whose singular kindnesse toward me the often consideration thereof shall keepe so fresh that it shall never vanish out of my remembrance.
Thamis, having now left Bisham behind it, fetcheth it selfe with a compasse about to a little towne named in the former ages Southealington, afterward Maidin-hith, and at this day Maidenhead, of the superstitious worshipping of I wote not what British Maidens-head, one of those eleven thousand Virgins who, as they returned from Rome into their country with Ursula their leader, suffered as Martyrs at Colein in Germaine, under that scourge of God Atilla. Neither is this towne of antiquity, for no longer agoe then in our great Grandfathers daies there was a Ferrey in a place somewhat higher, at Babhams End. But after they had built heere a bridge of timber piles, it beganne to flourish with Innes and goe beyond her mother Bray hard by, which notwithstanding is farre more ancient, as having given name to the whole Hundred, This parcell of the shire I have beene of opinion that the Bibroci, who yeelded themselves under Caesars protection, inhabited in times past. And why should I thinke otherwise? The reliques of them remaine yet most evidently in the name. For Bibracte in France is now also drawen shorter into Bray, and not far from hence Caesar passed over the Tamis with his armie, as I will shew in due place, what time as the people of that small Canton put themselves to the devotion of Caesar. Certes, if a man should hunt for these Bibroce elsewhere, he should, I beleeve, hardly find them.
14. Within this Hundered of the Bibroci, Windesore beareth a goodly shew: in the Saxon tongue, haply of the winding shore called Wyndleshora, for so it is named downe in the Charter of King Edward the Confessour, who in this forme of words made a grant unto the Monks of Westminster: To the praise of almighty God, I have granted as an endowment and a perpetuall inheritance to the use and behoofe of those that serve the Lord Windle-shore with the appertenances. And I have read nothing more ancient concerning Windsore. But the Monks had not long held it in possession when William of Normandie, by making an exchange, drew it backe to himselfe. For in this tenure [tenor] goeth his Charter: With the consent and favour of the venerable Abbot of Westminster, I have made a composition for Windlesor to be the Kings possession, because that place seamed profitable and commodious by reason of water hard adjoining to it, and the wood fit for game and many other particulars lying there meet and necessary for kings; yea, and a place very convenient to receive and entertaine the King. In lieu whereof I have granted to the Monks Wokendune and Ferings. Surely a Princes seat cannot lightly have a more pleasant site. For from an high hill that riseth with a gentle ascent, it enjoieth a most delightfull prospect round about. Fore right in the Front it overlooketh a vale lying out farre and wide, garnished with corne-fields flourishing greene with medowes, decked with groves on either side and watered with the most mild and calme river Tamis. Behind it arise hils everywhere, neither rough nor over high, attired, as it were, with woods, and even dedicated, as one would say, by nature to hunting game. With the pleasantnes of this place Princes were allured very often to retire themselves hither, and heere was Edward the Third that most puissant King borne to conquer France, who heere built new out of the ground a most strong Castle, in bignesse equall to a pretie Citie, fortified with ditches and bulwarks made of stone, and forthwith after hee had subdued the French and Scots, held at one and the selfe same time John King of France and David King of Scotland prisoners together in the same. This Castle is divided into two courts: the inner, more toward the East, containeth in it the kings pallace, than which for the order and contriving there can be no building more lightsom, nor more magnificent. On the north side, where it looketh down to the river, Queene Elizabeth adjoined a most pleasant Terrace or open walking place. The utter base court hath at the very first entrance a most stately Church consecrated by King Edward the Third unto the blessed Virgine Marie and to Saint George of Cappadocia, but brought unto that sumpteous magnificence which now we see it carrie by King Edward the Fourth and Sir Reginald Bray. In this place, King Edward the Third, for to adorne martiall prowesse with honors, the guerdon of vertue, ordained that most noble and order and society of knights whom (as some report) for his owne garter given forth as signall of a battaile that sped fortunately, hee called Knights of the Garter, who weare on their left legge somewhat under the knee a blew garter caryng this Empresse [motto] wrought with golden letters in French, Hony soit qui mal y pense, and fasten the same with a buckle of gold as with the bond of a most inward society, in token of concord and unity, that there might bee among them a certaine consociation and communion of vertues. But others there be that doe attribute it unto the garter of the Queene or rather of Joan Countesse of Salisburie, a Lady of incomparable beauty, which fell from her as she daunced, and the King tooke up from the floore: for when a number of Nobles and Gentle men standing by laughed thereat, he made answere againe that shortly it would come to passe that garter should bee in high honour and estimation. This is the common and most received report, neither need this seeme to be a base originall thereof, considering how, as one saith,
Nobility lies under love.
There be also, that would have the invention of this order to be much more ancient, father it upon King Richard the First, and are verily perswaded that King Edward at length brought it into use againe, but how truely I know not. Yet in the verie booke of the first Institution which William Dethicke Garter, principall King of Armes, a Gentleman most studious in all such things as concerne Honour, shewed unto me, thus we read. Richardo cum contrra Turcas et Agarenos &c., that is, When King Richard warred upon the Turks and Saracens, Cypres and Acon, and was wearie of so lingring delay whiles the siege continued long, in wonderful care and anxiety, at length upon a divine inspiration, by the commng in and apparition (as it was thought) of S. George, it came into his mind to draw upon the legs of certaine choise Knights of his a certaine Garter or tach of leather, such onely as he had then readie at hand, whereby they being distinguished and put in minde of future glorie promised unto them, if they wonne the victorie, they might be stirred up and provoked to performe their service bravely, and fight more valiantly, in imitation of the Romanes, who had such variety of Coronets wherewith militarie men for divers and sundry causes were rewarded accordingly, to the end that by these instigations (as it were) cowardise being shaken off, the valour of mind and courage of hart might arise and shew it selfe more resolute. But upon what occasion soever it began, the mightiest Princes of Christendome reputed it amongst their greatest honour to be chosen and admitted into this companie: and since the first institution thereof there have been already received and enrolled in this order, which consisteth of six and twentie Knights, two and twentie Kings or thereabout, besides our Kings of England, who are named Soveraignes thereof, to speake nothing of Dukes and others most high calling verie many. And here I am willing to set down their names that were first chosen into this order, and be commonly called the Founders of the Order: for their renowme is not to be abolished, who in those daies for stowt courage and warlike prowesse had few or no peeres, and were in that regard advanced to this honour.
|Edward the Third King of England||Sir Thomas Holland|
|Edward his eldest Sonne, Prince of Wales||Sir John Grey|
|Henrie, Duke of Lancaster||Sir Richard Fitz-Simon|
|Thomas Earle of Warwicke||Sir Miles Stapelton|
|The Captall de Buch||Sir Thomas Walle|
|Ralph Earle of Stafford||Sir Hugh Wrothesley|
|William de Monteacute Earle of Sarisburie||Sir Nigel Loring|
|Roger Mortimer Earle of March||Sir John Chandos|
|Sir John Lisle||Sir James Awdeley|
|Sir Bartholomaeus Burgwash||Sir Otes Holland|
|Sir John Beauchampe||Sir Henrie Eme|
|Sir John Mohun||Sir Zanchet D’ bridgecourt|
|Sir Hugh Courtney||Sir Walter Paveley|
15. On the left side of the Church are the houses of the Custos or Deane and twelve Praebendaries. On the right side standeth an house not unlike to the Graecians Pyrtaneum, wherein twelve aged militare men, Gentlemen borne, are maintained: who wearing a red or skarlet kirtle [gown] reaching downe to their ankles, with an upper mantle of purple over it, are bound daily to bee present at divine service, there to commend unto God in their prayers the knights of this Order. Betwixt the two Courts before said, there riseth up an high mount, on which is set a round tower, and and hard by it ariseth another loftie tower, called Winchester Tower of William Wickham Bishop of Winchester, whom King Edward the Third made overseer of the worke when he built the Castle. Some report that the said Wickham, after hee had built and furnished this Tower, in a certaine inner wall engraved these words, this made <and finished> Wickham, which maner of speech in the English tongue, that seldome maketh distinction of cases, carrieth such a doubtfull construction that uncertaine it is whether he made these buildings, or the buildings made him. Hereof information was given to the King by some privie back-biters for to worke him a displeasure, and that in such termes as if Wickham did arrogantly challenge to himselfe all the honour of the building. Which when the King tooke in verie evill part, and sharply rebuked him for it, he made him this answer, That he had not arrogated and ascribed to himselfe the praise of so sumptuous and princely an aedifice, but accounted this building and peece of work to have been the meanes of all his dignities and preferments. “Neither have I (quoth he) made this Castle, but this Castle hath made me, and from low estate raised me unto the Kings favour, unto wealth and dignitie.” Under the Castle toward the West and South lieth the towne of good bignesse and populous withall, which from the time of King Edward the Third began to flourish, and the other, which standeth farther off and is now called Old Windsore, fell by little and little to decay. In which (whiles William the First raigned, as we read in his booke), there were an hundred Hages, or houses, whereof two and twentie were quit from Gable, out of the rest there went thirtie shillings. No other memorable thing is here to bee found but Aeton, which is hereto adjoyned by a wooden bridge over the Tamis, and in it a faire Colledge and a famous Schoole of good literature, founded and built by King Henrie the Sixth, wherein, besides the Provost, eight fellowes, and the singing Choristers, there are threescore Scholars, instructed in Grammar, and in due time preferred to the Universitie of Cambridge. But this towne and college is in Buckinghamshire and not in Barkshire.
16. Now there remaineth nothing to say more of Windsore, but that there is an honourable family of Barons surnamed of Windsore, who fetch their originall from Walter the son of Other, Castellan of Windsore in the time of King William William the First, from whom also Master Robert Glover, most studious and skilfull in Heraldrie, and who in the company of Heralds bare the title of Somerset, hath prooved the Fitz-Giralds in Ireland, Earles of Kildare and Desmond, to bee derived. Neither thinke much of our labour to runne over these verses of Windsore taken out of the Poem entituled The mariage of Tame and Isis and penned certaine yeeres past, wherein father Tamisis endevoureth to set forth as well the dignitie of the place as the majestie of Queene Elizabeth, keeping her Court therein.
And now the tour-supporting bankes at Windsore mount on hie,
That with their loftie-headed tops reach to the cloudy skie.
Which when he saw, and had withall greeted that learned Eaton,
<Where masters too too rigorous have schollers overbeaten.>
His sea-like head he lifting up in this wise gan to say:
“Thy long discourse (o Windsor) I wish thee now to stay,
Of high-rais’ d mounts, of temples, wals that rise with stately staire,
Of yron-bound beames, of battlements, and pinnacles so faire,
Of gamefull parks, of meadowes fresh, ay spring-like pleasant fields,
Of goodly gardens clad with flowers, that wholesome Zephyrus yeilds,
Of nurseries, gilt-mariage bowers, and sumptuous tombes of Kings
Relate no more, but make an end of all such glorious things.
What though thou much renowned be by many a Georgian Knight,
And Nobles clad in mantles rich, with costly garter dight,
Doe cause thy name to shine so much, and thence to thy great praise
Through out the world are spred abrode so bright and glittering raies,
That Burgunde despiseth now his goodly Toison D’ or,
And France of colars garnisht faire with cockles set no store,
Nor Rhodes, with Alcal and Elba, regard the robes with Crosse
Sightly beset, so that they count their Orders all but drosse,
Compar’ d with Knighthood this of thine, which onely bears the name.
Cease now to joy, cease now at length to wonder at the same.
All yeeld to one, what ev’ r thou hast in one is drowned all,
For greater glorie grows to thee, and honour more doth fall,
In that there dwels upon my banke, and seated is in thee,
Elizabeth” (and therewith Tamis, seeming to bow his knee
And gently crouch, obeisance made, and then he thus went on).
“Elizabeth, of Englishmen sole Goddesse, Saint alone.
Whose praise-worth vertues if in verse I now should take in hand
For to comprize, on Meliboc, a hill that high doth stand,
I might as easily set the Alps, or number all my sand.
If some I would in silence passe, what ever I suppresse
Will greater proove than all the rest. If I my selfe addresse
Her formost acts, and travailes old to count, I then shall find
That those of present times to them will draw away my mind.
Say that of justice I relate: more shin’ s her mercies lore.
Speake I of her victorious armes? Unarm’ d she gained more.
That piety now flourisheth, that England feares no warre,
That none rules law, but unto law all men obedient are,
That neighbour Scots be not enthral’d to Frenchmen rigorous,
That Irish wild doe now cast off their fashions barbarous,
That shag-hair’ d Ulster Kern doth learne civility anew,
The praise and thanks is hers alone. What is not her due?
Those Goddesses that vices chase, and are beseeming best
A Prince so rare, are seated all and shrined in her brest.
Religion first puts her in mind to worship God aright,
And Justice teacheth to preferre before all gaine the right.
Prudence adviseth nought to doe rashly without fore-cast.
Then Temperance perswades to love all things both pure and chast,
And Constancie her resolute minde doth settle firme and fast.
Hence justly she, ALWAYS THE SAME claimes and keepes to the last.
Who can descrive in waving verse such noble vertues all?
Praise-worthy parts shee hath alone, what all yee reckon shall.
Then happinesse, long life and health, praise, love, may her betide,
So long as waves of mine shall last, or streame and banks abide,
So long may shee, most blessed Prince, all Englands scepter sway.
Let both my course and her life end in one and selfe-same day.
17. The rest of Barkshire which lieth southward from Windsor is shadowed with woods and thickets, commonly called the Forrest of Windesore, in which the townes and villages stand but thinne (whereof Ockingham is of greatest name, by reason of the bignesse thereof, and trade of clothing), but verie full it is of game in everie place. Now, for as much as we have often times made mention, and shall still, of the Forrests, what is a Forrest is, and the reason of that name, if you desire to know (but see you laugh not hereat), take it here out of the blacke booke of the Exchequer: A Forrest is a safe harbor and abiding place of deere or beasts, not of all whatsoever, but of wilde, and such as delight in woods: not in every place, but in some certaine and meet for that purpose, and hereupon a forrest hath the name, as one would say, Feresta, that is, a station of wild beasts. And incredible it is how much ground the kings of England have suffered every where to lie untilled and set apart for to empale and enclose such deere, or as they use to say, have afforested. Neither can I think that anything else was the cause thereof, but only the overmuch delight in hunting, or to maintaine the Kings houshold (although some attribute it to the infrequencie of people to inhabit the countrey), seeing that since the Danes were heere, they for a long time afforested more and more, and for the maintenance and keeping of such places ordained most straight lawes, and an overseer, whom they cal Protoforestarius, that is, Chiefe forester or Master of the Forests, who should heare causes belonging unto Forrests and punishe either by death or losse of a limb whosoever killed Deere within any parke or chase. But John of Sarisburie shal in his own words tell you these things briefely out of his Polycraticon: That which you may marvell more at, to lay gins [traps] for birds, to set snares to allure them with nooze or pipe, or by any waies laying whatsoever to entrappe or take them, is often times by vertue of an Edict made a crime, and either amerced [fined] with forfeiture of goods, or punished with losse of limme and life. You have heard that the fowles of the aire and fishes of the sea are common. But these ywis belong unto the King which the Forrest Law taketh hold of and claimeth, wheresoever they flie. with-hold thy hand, forbeare, and abstaine lest thou also be punished for treason, fall into the hunters hands as a prey. Husbandmen are debarred their fallow fields whiles Deere have libertie to stray abroad, and that their pastures may be augmented, the poore farmer is abridged and cut short of his grounds. What is sowen, planted, or graffed [grafted], they keepe from the husbandmen that be tenants, both pasturage from heardsmen, drover and graziers, and Bee-hives they exclude from floury plots; yea, the verie Bees themselves are scarcely permitted to use their naturall libertie.Which courses, seeming too inhumane, were the occasion otherwise of great troubles and uproares, so long unto in the end by the rising and revolt of the Barons there was wrested from King Henrie the Third the Charter de Foresta, wherein those rigorous lawes being made void, he granted others more indifferent, whereunto they are bound even at this day who dwell within compasse of the Forrests. And from that time, two Justices were appointed for these causes, whereof the one overseeth all Forrests on this side the river Trent, the other all the rest beyond Trent as farre as Scotland, with great authoritie. Throughout all this Province or country (as wee find in the Survey booke of England), The Taine or Kings Knight, holding of him as Lord, whensoever he died, left unto the King for a reliefe all his armour, one horse with a saddle, and another without a saddle. And if he had either hounds or hawkes, the were tendred and presented unto the King, that hee might take them if he would. When Gelt was given in the time of King Edward the Confessour generally throughout all Barkshire, an Hide of Land yeelded three pence halfepenny before Christmas, and as much at Whitsontide. Thus much of Barkshire, which (as yet) hath given the title of Earle to no man.
Within this shire are Parishes 140.
18. These Regions which hetherto we have travailled thorow, that is to say, of the Danmonii, Durotriges, Belgae, and Attrebatii, what time as the Saxons bare Soveraigne rule in Britane, fell to the Kingdome of the West-Saxons, which they in their language called Weast Seaxanric, and themselves Geguysis of Cerdics Grandfather, who first erected this Kingdom. Whence they were termed Gervissi, and by others also Visi-Saxones from their West-situation, like as the Westerne Gothes are named Visi-Gothi. These at the length in the best and flourishing time of the Empire reduced the English Heptarchie into the Saxons Monarchie; which notwithstanding afterward, through the lither [weaker] cowardise of their Kings, quickly aged and soone vanished. So that herein that may be verified which we daily see. The race or issue of the most valiant men and noblest Families, like as of the of-spring of plants, hath their springing up, their flowring and maturitie, and in the end begin to fade, and by little and little to die utterly.
EXT unto the Attrebati Eastward, called the people in Latin Regni, by Ptolomee Ῥήγνοι, inhabited those Regions which wee at this day doe commonly terme Surry and South-sex, with the Sea coast of Hantshire. As touching the Etymologie of this name, I will passe over my conceits in silence, because peradventure they would carrie no more truth with them, that if I should think they were by Ptolomey called Ῥήγνοι for that it was regnum, that is, a Kingdome, and the Romans permitted the people thereof to remaine under a regall government. for in this tract it was that, as Tacitus writeth, certain Cities, according to an old Custome of the people of Rome, were given to Cogidunus, a British king, that they might have even Kings also as instruments to draw others into bondage and servitude. But this conjecture seeming to my selfe not probable, and haply to others absurd, I utterly reject, and willingly embrace the Saxon originall of these latter names, to wit, that South-sex taketh denomination of the South-Saxons, and Suthrey of the South situation upon the River, for no man may denie that Suthr-rey importeth so much, considering that Over-rhey in the old English tongue signifieth Over or beyond the river.
URRIA, which Bede named Suthriona, commonly called Suthrey and Surrey, and by the Saxons, of bordering South (upon the river) Suth-rea, for suth with them betokeneth the South, and rea a river of floud, from the West bounded partly upon Barkshire and Hantshire, from the South upon Sussex, and from the East on Kent; toward the North it is watered with the river Tamis, and by it divided from Middlesex. A country it is not very large, yet wealthy enough where it beareth upon Tamis, and lieth as a plaine and champion [lowland] country: it yeeldeth corne meetely well, and forrage abundantly, especially toward the South, where a continuall valley falling lowe by little and little, called in times past Holmesdale of the woods therein, runneth downe, very pleasant to behold by reason of the delectable varietie of groves, fields, and medowes. On each side there bee prety hills rising up a great way along in the country, parkes every where replenished with Deare, rivers also of fish, whereby it affordeth for pleasure faire game of hunting, and as delightsome fishing. Likened it is by some unto a coarse freese garment with a greene gard, or to a cloath of a great spinning and thin woven, with a greene list [border] about it, for that the inner part is but barraine, the outward edge or skirt more fertile. In my perambulation through this shire I will follow the Tamis and the rivers running into it as guides of my journey: so shall I bee sure to omit no memorable thing, seeing that the places which are of greater marke and antiquitie doe all abutte upon these rivers.
2. The Tamis (that we may follow his course with the streame, as it runneth downe), so soone as hee hath taken his leave of Barkshire, passeth hard by Chertsey, which Beda calleth the Isle of Cerotus. Now scarce halfe an Island, unlesse it bee by winter waters, wherein, as a place severed from all intercourse and commerce with men, Firthwald, as hee calleth himselfe in the charter of the foundation, a petty Prince or regent of the Province of Surrey under Woilpher King of the Mercians, and Erchenwald, Bishop of London in the first rising of the English primitive church, founded a little monasterie, wherein for a time that most devout king Henrie the Sixt lay interred, whom being deposed from his regal dignity, the house of Yorke, to establish their kingdome securely, deprived also of his life, and here without any honour buried him. But King Henrie the Seaventh afterwards having translated his bodie to Windesor and bestowed in in a new tombe, solemnized his funeralls after a princely manner, and so much admired his Godly and holy vertues (for hee was the lively patterne of Christian pietie and pacience) that hee dealt with Pope Julius to have him made a Saint. But the reason why this tooke no effect was the Popes covetousnesse, who demaunded too great a summe of money for a kings Canonization, as they terme it, so that hee might seeme ready to graunt those kind of honours not for the Princes holinesse sake, but for gold. A little beneath this, the river Wey runneth into Tamis, which flowing forth out of Hantshire, so soone as it is come into Suthrey visiteth Feornham, commonly termed Farnham, so named of much ferne growing in that place: which Aethelbald king of the West Saxons, to use his own words, Gave unto the Bishop and congregation of Winchester church. Here abut the yeare of our Lord 893 king Aelfred with a small powre put to flight the Danes as they spoiled and harried the country, and afterwards, when King Stephan had granted leave to as many as sided with him to build Castles, Henrie of Bloys, brother to King Stephen, erected a spatious Castle upon an hill that overtopped the towne, which being a refuge for rebellious and seditious persons, King Henrie the Third cast it downe, howbeit the Bishops of Winchester unto whom it belonged built it up againe. And not far from hence at Waverley William Giffard Bishop of Winchester founded an Abbay for Monkes of the Cistercian order ‡commonly called White Monkes. which Abbay being a grand-child, as they termed it, from Cisterce in Burgundy, was so fruitfull here in England that was mother to the Abbaies of Gerondon-Ford, Tame, Cumb, and grandmother to Bordesley, Bidlesden, Bruer, Bindon, and Dunkeswell. For so religious orders were wont to keepe in pedegree manner the propagation of their orders as a deduction of Colonies out of them.‡ From thence Wey, holding on his course by Godelming, which King Aelfred bequeathed unto Athelweld his brother sonne, not farre from the Mannor of Cateshull, which Hamon of Catton held to bee the Maresitum of harlots when the king came into those part. Not farre from Loseley, where wee saw a large faire house belonging to the familie of the Mores, Knights, within a parke, it commeth to Guilford, in the Saxon tongue Gulthe-ford, and in some copies written Gegldford. A mercate towne it is now, well frequented and full of faire Innes, but in old time it was a roiall mansion of the English Saxon kings, which also that noble Aethelwald held as a legacie from his Unkle by his fathers side. The king hath now thereby a decaying house, and not farre from the river are to be seene the broken walles of an old large castle. But in the mids of the towne there is a church, the west end whereof made of ariched [arched] worke, and embowed over head, seemeth to bee very ancient. Heere, as is to be seene in William the First his booke, the king had seaventy five hages, that is, houses, wherein remained one hundred seaventy and five men. But for nothing is it so famous as for the treacherie and cruelty of Godwin Earle of Kent, who in the yeare of Christ 1036, when Aelfred king Etheldreds son and heire apparent to the crowne of England, came out of Normandie to claime his right, entertained him with faithfull promise of safety, but forthwith hardly entreated [treated] him contrary to his word. For sodainly in the dead of the night hee surprised and put to death in this place sixe hundred Normans who had accompanied the young Prince, by tithing them, as our writers report. Neither slew hee every tenth man of them drawne by lot according to the old militarie custome, but even as hee had killed nine, hee let the tenth man goe by, and even these tenth men thus reserved hee went over againe and most cruelly retithed them. As for Aelfred him selfe, hee delivered him into the hands of Harold the Dane, who after hee had pulled both eyes out of his head, over-layed him with irons and kept him in close prison even unto his dying day.
3. Wey being passed from hence with a long course Northward, sheweth nothing memorable besides Sutton, the residence of the Westons, an ancient familie of knights degree bettered by an heire of Thomas Camel.‡Oking, where King Henrie the Seaventh repaired and and enlarged the Mannor house, beeing the inheritance of the Lady Margaret Countesse of Richmont his mother. Newark, sometime a small Priory invironed with divided streames.‡ Pyriford, where in our remembrance Edward Earle of Lincoln, Lord Clinton and Admirall of England, built him an house, and Ockham hard by, where that great Philosopher and father of the Nominals William de Ockham was borne and whereof hee tooke that name, ‡as of the next village Ripley, Richard de Ripley, a ringleader of our Alchimists and mystical impostor.‡ But where this Wey is discharged into Tamis at a double mouth, Otelands, a proper house of the King, offereth it selfe to be seene within a parke. Nere unto which Caesar passed over Tamis into the borders of Cassivelaunus. For this was the onely pace where a man might in times past goe over the Tamis on foote, and that hardly too, which the Britains themselves improvidently bewraied unto Caesar. For on the otherside of the river there was a great power of the Britains well appointed and in readinesse, and the very banke it selfe was fensed with sharpe stakes fastned affront against the enemy, and others of the same sort pitched downe in the Chanell, stucke covered with the river. The tokens whereof, saith Beda, are seene this day, and it seemeth to the beholders that every one of them carrying the thicknesse of a mans thigh and covered over with lead, sticke unmoveable, as beeing driven hard into the bottome of the river. But the Romanes entred the river with such force, when the water reached up to their verie chinnes, that the Britains could not abide their violence, but left the banke and betooke themselves to flight. In this thing I cannot bee deceived, considering that the river heere is scarce six foote deepe, the place at this daye of those stakes is called Coway-stakes, and Caesar maketh the borders of Cassivelaunus were hee setteth downe his passage over the river to bee about fourescore Italian miles from the sea which beateth upon the East-coast of Kent where hee landed, and at this very same distance is this passage of ours.
4. Within some few miles from thence the river Mole, having from the South side passed through the whole country, hasteneth to joine with the Tamis, but at length beeing letted [obstructed] by overthwart hils, maketh him selfe a way under the ground in manner of a mouldwarp [mole], like unto that famous river Anas in Spaine, whereof it may seeme that it tooke name, seeing that creature living within the ground is called also in English a Mole. But upon this river there is not any thing of note, save onely a good way off from the spring and head of it and neere unto an old port way of the Romanes making (which men call Stanystreet) there stands the towne Aclea, commonly Ockley, so named of Okes, where Aethelwolph the sonne of Egbert, who having beene professed in the holy orders and released by the Popes authority, when hee had possession of his fathers kingdome by right of inheritance, joined battaile with the Danes, fought with good successe, and slew all the valiantest men among them. Yet did hee little or no good to his native country, the Danes evermore renewing their forces still as they were overthrowne, like unto that serpent Hydra. A little from the fountaines where this river springeth standeth Gatton, which now is scarce a small village, though in times past it hath beene a famous towne. To prove the antiquity whereof it sheweth Roman coines digged forth of the ground, and sendeth unto the Parliament two Burgesses. Lower than that is seated Rhei-gat (which if a man interprete according to our auncient language, is as much as The Rivers course), in a vale running out farre into the east called Holmesdale. The Inhabitants whereof, for that once or twise they vanquished the Danes as they wasted the country, are wont in their owne praise to chaunt this rhyme:
The vale of Holmesdall
Never wonne, ne never shall.
5. This Rhie Gate carrying a greater shew for largenesse than faire buildings, hath on the South side a Parke thicke sette with faire groves, wherein the right Noble Charles Earle of Nottingham, Baron of Effingham, and Lord Admirall of England hath a house where the Earles of Warren and Suthrey had founded a prety monasterie. On the East side standeth a castle mounted aloft, now forlorne and for age readie to fall, built by the same Earles and of the vale wherein it standeth, commonlie called Holmescastell. Under which I sawe a wonderfull vault carried under the ground of arch worke over head, hollowed with great labour out of a soft gritte and croumbling stone, such as the whole hill standeth of. These Earles of Warren, as wee finde in the Offices of Inquisitions, held it in chiefe of the King in their Baronie, from the conquest of England. Hence runneth this river downe by Bechworth Castle, for which Sir Thomas Browne obtained of King Henrie the Sixth the libertie of holding a Faire. For it is the habitation of the Brownes, Knights, out of which familie since our grand-fathers can remember, when Sir Antonie Browne had married Ladie Lucie, the fourth daughter of John Nevil Marquesse Mont-a-cute, Queene Marie honoured his sonnes sonne with the title of Vicount Mont-acute. Some few miles from hence Westward Effingham sheweth it selfe, the possession not long since of William Howard (sonne to that Noble Thomas Duke of Norfolke that triumphed over the Scots), who being created by Queene Marie Baron Howard of Effingham and made Lord High Admiral of England, was first Lord Chamberlaine unto Queene Elizabeth of most happy memorie, and then Lord privie Seale: whose sonne Charles now flourisheth, Lord great Admirall of England, whom in the yeere of our Lord 1597, the same Queene Elizabeth honoured also with the title of Earle of Notingham, of whom more in my Annales, but now returne we to the river.
The Mole now being come as farre as Whitehill, whereon the Box tree groweth in great plentie, at the foote thereof hideth himselfe, or rather is swallowed up, and thereof the place is called The Swallow, but after a mile or two neere unto Letherhed bridg boiling up and breaking forth, taketh joy to spring out againe, so that the inhabitants of this tract may boast as well as the Spaniards that they have a bridge feedeth may flockes of sheepe. For this is a common by-word most rife in the Spaniards mouthes as touching the place where there river Anas, now called Guadiana, hideth himselfe for ten miles together. Thus our Mole, rising up afresh, hasteneth faire and softly by Stoke Dabernoun, so named of the ancient possessors the Dabernouns, gentlemen of great good note, afterward by inheritance from them the possession of the Lord Bray; and by Aescer, sometime a retiring place belonging to the Bishops of Winchester. And then very neare Molesey, whereunto it giveth name, sheadeth himselfe into the Tamis.
6. After Tamis hath taken unto him the Mole hee carrieth his streame Northerly and runneth fast by Kingstone, called in times past Moreford, as some will have it, a very good mercate towne for the bignesse, and well frequented; well knowne also in old time by reason of a Castle there belonging to the Clares Earles of Glocester. Which towne had beginning from a little towne more ancient than it of the same name, standing upon a flat ground and subject to the inundation of Tamis. In which, when England was almost ruinated by the Danish wars, Athelstan, Edwin and Etheldred were crowned Kings ‡upon an open stage in the Marke place,‡ and of these Kings heere crowned it came to be named Kingston, as if one would say, The Kings towne. Tamis, now turning his course directly Northward, visiteth another place, which the Kings chose for themselves sometime to sojourne at, which of the shining brightnesse they called Shene, but now it is named Richmond, wherein the most mighty Prince King Edward the Third, when he had lived sufficiently both to glorie and Nature, died, with sorrow that he hee conceived for the death of that most valiant and Martiall Prince his sonne, which sorrow pierced so deepe and stucke so neere to him and all England beside, that it farre exceeded all comfort. And verily at this time if ever else England had good cause to grieve. For within one yeere after, it lost the true praise of militarie prowesse and of accomplished vertue. For both of them by bearing their victorious armes through all France strucke so great a terror wheresoever they came that, as the father might most worthily with King Antiochus carrie the name of thonder-bolt, so his sonne with Pyrrhus deserved to be named the Aegle. Heere also departed Anne wife to King Richard the Second, sister of the Emperor Wenzelaus, and daughter to the Emperour Charles the Fourth, who first taught English women that manner of sitting on horsback which now is used, whereas before time they rode very unseemly astride, like as men doe. Whose death also her passionate husband tooke so to the heart that he altogether neglected the said house, and could not abide it. Howbeit King Henry the Fifth readourned it with new buildings, and Shene, a prety village hard by, he joined thereto a little religious house of Carthusian Monks, which he called The house of Jesu of Bethelem. But in the raigne of Henrie the Seventh this princely Palace was with a wofull sudden fire consumed all most to ashes, howbeit rising up againe forthwith farre more beautifull and glorious, as it were a Phaenix out of her owne ashes, by the meanes of the same King Henrie. It tooke this new name Richmond of the title he beare, being Earle of Richmond before he obtained the Crowne of England. Scarce had that noble King Henry the Seventh finished this new worke, when in this place he yeelded unto nature and ended his life; through whose care, vigilancy, pollicy and fore-casting wisdome for times to come the State and common-weale of England hath to this day stood established and invincible. From hence likewise his sonnes daughter Queene Elizabeth, a most gracious Ladie, ninetie and foure yeere after having lived fully to the contentment of nature (for 70 yeere old she was or much thereabout) when it pleased God to call her out of this world, was received into the sacred and celestiall societie. A prince above her sex of a manly courage and high conceit, who lively resembled as well the roiall qualities of her Grandfather as she did his princely presence and countenance, the Worlds love and joy of Britaine. And so farre was she, a woman though she were, from degenerating and growing unlike her noble Progenitours in that continued course of their vertues, that if she surmounted them or not, surely she equalled them to the full. Well posterity may one day heereafter be so thankfull as to yeeld heereto a gracious credite (neither doe I heere by way of flatterie set a false colour and glosse upon the truth), that a Virgine for the space of forty foure yeeres so ruled the roiall Scepter as that her subjects loved her, enemies feared her, and everyone with admiration honored her, a thing in all foregoing ages of rare example. For whose death England throughout, running all to teares amid mones and grones, should have lien forlorne in most piteous case comfortlesse, had not presently upon her departure out of the world the most mild and gratious King James (on whom as the true and undoubted heire to her Crowne all mens minds were set and eies fixed) with his sacred and bright beames shone unto us, and thereby put us in most comfortable hope of endlesse joy. Whom so long as we behold heere, we beleeve not that she is deceased. And why should we once say that she is deceased, whose vertues live still immortall, and the memoriall of whose name consecrated in mens hearts and in eternity of times shall survive for ever?
7. Thus farre swelleth the Tamis with the accesse of the flowing tide of the sea, about LX Italian miles by water from his mouth. Neither to my knowledge is there any other river in all Europe that for so many miles within land feeleth the violence of the Ocean forcing and rushing in upon it, and so driving backe and withholding his waters, to the exceeding great commodity of the inhabitants bordering thereupon. Whither this commeth by reason that from hence he hath in maner no crooked turnings and winding reaches, but with a more streight and direct channell carrieth his currant into the East, as being for the most part restreined and kept in with higher bankes, and dilating himselfe with a wider mouth than all other rivers, lieth more exposed and open to the Ocean, which by that most swift whirling about of the celestiall Spheres from East to West is forceably driven and carried that way (as sometimes I have beene of opinion), let Philosophers dicusse, unto whom I willingly leave these matters and such like to handle. Yet some few verses as touching these places and this argument, have heere out of the Marriage betweene Tame and Isis, if haply they may content your tast:
Then on the right hand Richmond stands, a faire and stately thing,
So cal’ d of us (but Shene of old), which name that prudent King
Henrie it gave, because to him it brought in fathers right
The Honor and the Stile whereby he Earle of Richmond hight.
But it of Edward King (helas), our Hector, wailes the death,
Whose soule heere freed from body which it skorn’ d, with vitall breath,
Departed hence right willingly, in heaven to live for ay.
Whom had not cruel-sudden death untimely fetcht away,
He would by sword have thee be reft, o France, of Valois line,
Or them of thee.
And a few verses set betweene:
Tamis here by turnes alternative doth feele both ebbe and flow
Of Sea, by course of wandring Moon that rules tide heere blow.
As oft as she with ech eight point of heaven above doth meete,
Or holds the points full opposit, as lights doe change and fleete,
He growes more full, and sooner hath recourse to flowing tide.
And then in pride of heart he saith, “All rivers else beside
Vaile [defer] unto me. No streame so farre through Europe keepes againe
His tide so just, unlesse the Scheld and Elb my brethren twaine.”
8. About foure miles from the Tamis within the Country, Nonesuch, a retiring place of the Princes, putteth downe and surpasseth all other houses round about: which the most magnificent Prince King Henrie the Eighth, in a very healthfull place called Cuddington before, selected for his owne delight and ease, and built with so great sumpteousnesse and rare workmanship that it aspire to the very top of ostentation for shew; so as a man may thinke that all the skill of Architecture is in this one peece of worke bestowed and heaped up together. So many statues and lively images there are in every place, so many wonders of absolute workmanship, and workes seeming to contend with Romane antiquities, that most worthily it may have and maintaine still this name that it hath of Nonesuch, according as Leland hath written of it:
The Britans oft are wont to praise his place, for that through all
The realme they cannot shew the like, and Nonesuch they it call.
As for the very house it selfe, so environed it is about with Parkes full of Deare, such dainty gardens and delicate orchards it hath, such groves adorned with curious Arbors, so prety quarters, beds, and Alleys, such walkes so shadowed with trees, that Amenitie or Pleasantnesse it selfe may seeme to have chosen no other place but it where she might dwell together with Healthfulnesse. Yet Queene Marie made it over to Henrie Fitz-Alan Earle of Arundell for other Lands, and he, when he had enlarged it with a Librarie passing well furnished, and other new buildings, passed over all his right when he died to the Lord Lumley, who for his part spared no cost that it might be truly answerable to the name; and from him now it is returned againe by compositions and conveiances to the Crowne. Neere heereunto (and worth the noting it is) there is a vaine of potters earth highly commended and therfore the deerer sold, for the making of those crucibles and small vessels which goldsmiths use in melting their gold.
9. Not farre from hence the cleere riveret Wandle, in Latin Vandalis, so full of the best trouts, issueth forth from his head neare Cashalton.Wandle while it is yet small receaveth his first increase by a rill springing at Croidon, in times past called Cradidin: which standing under the hils is very wel knowne, as well for the house of the Archbishops of Canterburie, unto whom it hath belonged now this long time, as for Char-coles which the townesmen make good chaffer [commerce] of. The inhabitants report that in old time there stood an house of the Kings in the West part of the towne neere unto Haling, where the husbandmen dig up otherwise rubble stone, which house the Archbishops having received it by the gift from the King, translated unto their owne neerer the river. And neere unto this, the right reverend father in God Dominus John Whitgift Archbishop of Canterburie of most praiseworthy Memorie in his most pious affection founded and endowed with living a very faire Hospitall for the releefe of poore people, and a schoole for the furtherance of learning. As for that sudden swelling water or Bourne which the common people reports to breake foorth heere out of the ground, presaging, I wote not how, either dearth of corne or the pestilence, <it> may seeme not worthy once the naming, and yet the eventes sometime ensuing have procured it credit. Neere unto this place stands Beddington, wherein is to be seene a very faire house beautified with a delightful shew of right pleasant gardens and orchards by Sir Francis Carew, Knight. For the ancient seat it is of the Carews, who being descended from the Carews of Moulesford (of whom also are come the Carews of Devonshire), having for a long time flourished in this country, but especially since Sir James Carew matched in marriage with the daughter and one of the coheires of the Baron Hoo and Hastings. ‡To digresse a little from the river, Eastward from Croiden standeth Addington, now the habitation of Sir Oliff Leigh, wherby is to be seene the ruble of a Castle of Sir Robert Aguilon, and from him of the Lords Bardolph, who held certaine lands here in fee by Serjainty to find in the Kings Kitchen at the coronation one to make a dainty dish which they called mapigernoun and dilgerunt. What that was I leave to the skillfull in ancient Cookerie, and returne to the river.‡ Wandle, increased with Croidon water, passing by Morden, divideth it selfe to water Merton, in the old English tongue Meredun, situate in a most fruitfull soile. A town made famous in times past by the death of Kinulph King of the West Saxons, who was by Clito, that is, a Prince of the bloud, slaine heere in a small cottage of an harlot upon whom he was enamoured, and Clito himselfe, by King Kinulphes followers immediately stabbed, suffred condigne punishment for his disloiall treachery.‡Now it sheweth onely the ruines of a Monastery that King Henry the First founded for blacke Canons by the procurement of Gilbert High Sheriffe of Surry in the yeere 1117, which was famous for the Statute of Merton enacted heere in the 21 of King Henrie the Third, and also for Walter de Merton, founder of Merton College in Oxford, borne and bred here.‡ Above Merton farther from the river is seated Wibandune, now commonly Wimbledon, where when overmuch prosperity had hatched civill broiles among the English Saxons after the British warres were now ceased, Ethelbert King of Kent struck up the first Alarme of civill warre against his own countrimen. But Caulin King of the West Saxons discomfited him in this place with a mighty great slaughter and losse of men, having slaine his principall leaders Oslan and Kneben, of whom peradventure that entrenched rampier or fort we have heere seene, of a round forme, is called Bensbury of Knebensbury. But now the greatest ornament of this place is that goodly house so beautifull for building, and so delectable for faire prospect and right pleasant gardens, which Sir Thomas Cecil, Knight, sonne to that most prudent Counsellor of state Lord Burghley, built in the yeare 1588 when the Spanish Armada made saile upon the coast of England.
10. Two miles to the South lies Woodcot, where by a tuft of trees upon an hil-top there are to be seene manifest signes of a prety towne and diverse wals built of flint stones. Concerning the populousnesse and wealth whereof, the neighbour inhabitants report very much. This in my conceit was that Citie which Ptolomee called Niomagus, and the Emperour Antonine Noviomagus. Neither neede we to seeke from elsewhere proofe hereof, but from the correspondency of distance. For as the old Itinerary noteth, it is ten miles from London and twenty eight from Vagmiaci, now Maidston. Many a mile therefore went they out of the way that placed Noviomagus either at Buckingham or at Guildford. This was a principall Citie of the Regni, not unknowne to Marinus Tyrius a most ancient Geographer, whom Polemee taking upon him to censure, taxeth for that he had set Noviomagus of Britaine by Climate more North, and by accoumpt of miles more South than London.
11. Wandle now after a few miles entreth the Tamis, when it hath given name to Wandlesworth between Putney, ‡the native soile of Thomas Cromwell, one of the flowting-stocks of fortune,‡ and Batersey, some times in the Saxons tongue called Patyryks-ea and in Latine Patricii Insula, that is, Patricks Isle, and, which now we seeke, an house of the Kings termed Kennington, whereunto the Kings of England in old time were wont to retire themselves, but now finde wee neither the name nor the rammell [remains] thereof. Then is there Lambith or Lomebith, that is to say, a Lomy or clayish rode or hith, famous in former times for the death of Canutus the Hardie, King of England, who there amidst his cups yeelded up his vitall breath. For hee, being given wholly to banquetting and feasting, caused roiall dinners foure times every daie (as Henrie of Huntingdon reporteth) to be served up for all is court, choosing rather to have his invited guests to send away whole dishes untouched, than other commers unbidden to call for more viands to bee upon his table. But now this place is of the greater name and more frequented by reason of the Archbishop of Canturburie his pallace. For Baldwine Archbishop of Canturburie about the yeare of Christ 1183, having made an exchange with the Bishop of Rochester, purchased a manour in this place wherein hee beganne to build a palace for him selfe and his successors, which they by little and little encreased. But when they went about to erect a collegiat Church here also, good God, what posting there was to Rome with complaints and appeales from the Monkes of Canterburie, how many fiery thunderbolts, menaces and censures were sent out from the Bishop of Rome against these Archbishops! For these Monkes were in bodily feare least this would bee their utter undoing, and a prejudice unto them in the Elections of the Archbishops. Neither were these blustering stormes allaied untill the said church newly begunne was laid levell with the ground. Adjoyining hard to this is the most famous mercate towne and place of trade in all this shire, which at this daie they call The Burrough of Southwarke, in Saxon speech Suthwerke, wich is the South worke or building, because it standeth South over against London, the Suburbs whereof it may seeme in sort to bee, but so large it is and populous that it gives place to few Cities of England. Having beene as it were a corporation by it selfe, it had in our fathers daies Baliffes, but in the reigne of King Edward the Sixth it was annexed to the Citie of London, and is at this day taken for a member, as it were, of it, and therefore when wee are come to London wee will speake more at large thereof.
12. Beneath this Burrough the Tamis forsaketh Surrie, the East bound whereof passeth in a manner directly downe from hence Southward neere unto Lagham, which had their Parliamentarie Barons called Saint John de Lagham in the reigne of Edward the First, whose Inheritance came at length by an heire generall to John Leddiard, and some-what lower in the verie angle well nere, where it bendeth to Southsex and Kent, stands Sterborrow Castle, the seat in ancient times of Lord Cobham, who of it were called of Sterborrow, where the issue proceeding from the bodies of John Cobham Lord of Cobham and Cowling and the daughter of Hugh Nevil flourished a long time in glory and dignity. For Reginald Cobham in King Edward the Thirds daies being created Knight of the Garter, was Admirall of the sea coasts from Tamis mouth West-ward. But Thomas the last male of that line wedded Lady Anne, daughter to Humfrey the Duke of Buckingham, of whom he begat one onely daughter named Anne, married unto Edward Burgh, who derived his pedigree from the Percies and Earles of Athole: whose sonne Thomas, made by King Henrie the Eighth Baron Burgh, left a sonne behind him named William. And his sonne Thomas, a great favourer of learning and Lord Governor of Briell, Queene Elizabeth made Knight of the Garter and Lord Deputy of Ireland, where hee honorably ended his life pursuing the rebelles. As touching Dame Aeleoner Cobham descended out of this familie, the wife of Humfrey Duke of Glocester, whose reputation had a flawe, I referre you to the English Historie, if you please.
13. Now are wee to reckon up the Earles of this shire. William Rufus King of England made William de Warrena, who had married his sister, the first Earle of Surrey. For in that Charter of his by which hee founded the Priory of Lewis, thus we read: Donavi &c.,that is, I have given and graunted &c. for the life and health of my Lord King William, who brought me into England, and for the health of my Lady Queene Mawd, my wives mother; and for the life and health of my Lord King William her sonne, after whose comming into England I made this charter, who also created me Earle of Surry &c., whose sonne William succeeded and married the daughter of Hugh Earle of Vermandois, whereupon his posteritie (as some supposed) used the Armes of Vermandois, viz., Chequy Or and Azure. His sonne William dying in the Holy-land about the yeare 1148, had issue, a daughter onely, who adorned first William, King Stephens sonne, and afterward Hamelin the base sonne of Gefferey Plantagenet Earle of Anjou, both her husbands, with the same title. But whereas her former husband died without issue, William her sonne by Hamelin was Earle of Surrie, whose posterity, assuming unto them the name of Warrens, bare the same title. This William espoused the eldest daughter and a coheire of William Marescall Earle of Pembroch, the widow of Hugh Bigod, who bare unto him John, ‡who slew Alan de la Zouch in presence of the Judges of the Realme.‡ This John, of Alice the daughter of Hugh le Brune, halfe sister by the mothers side of King Henrie the Third, begat William, who died before his father; and hee of Joan Vere the Earle of Oxfords daughter begat John Posthumus, borne after his decease and the last Earle of this house, who was stiled, as I have seene in the circumscription of his seale, Earle of Warren, of Surry and of Strathern in Scotland, Lord of Bromfield and of Yale, and Count-palatine. But hee dying without lawfull issue in the twelfth yeare of Edward the Thirds reigne, Alice his sister and heire, wedded unto Edmund Earle of Arundell, by her marriage brought this honour of Surrey into the house of Arundells. ‡For Richard their sonne, who married in the house of Lancaster (after his father was wickedly beheaded for siding with his Soveraigne King Edward the Second, by the malignant envie of the Queene) was both Earle of Arundell and Surrey, and left both Earledomes to Richard his sonne, who contrari-wise lost his head for siding against his soveraigne King Richard the Second. But Thomas his son, to repaire his fathers dishonour, lost his life for his Prince and countrie in France, leaving his sisters his heires for the lands not entailed, who were married to Thomas Mowbraie Duke of Norfolke &c. to Sir Rowland Lenthall and Sir William Beauchampe Lord of Abergeveny.‡ After by the Mowbraies the title of Surry came at length to the Howards. Howbeit in the meane while after the execution of Richard Earle of Arundel, King Richard the Second bestowed the title of Duke of Surry upon Thomas Holland Earle of Kent, which honour hee enjoied not long. For while hee combined with others by privie conspiracies to restore the same King Richard to his libertie and kingdome, the conspiracie was not carried so secretly, but contrarie to his expectation brake forth and came to light. Then fled hee, and by the people of Cirencestre was intercepted and cutte shorter by the head. After him Thomas Beaufort, Chancellour to the King (if wee give credit to Thomas Walsingham) bare this dignity. For in the yeare of our Lord (as hee saith)1410 the Lord Thomas Beaufort Earle of Surrey left this world. Now let Walsingham to this point make good that which hee writeth: for in the Kings Records there is no such thing found, but onely this, that Thomas Beaufort about that time was made Lord Chancellour. But certaine it is, and that out of the Recordes of the kingdome, that King Henrie the Sixth in the nine and twentie yeare of his reigne created John Mowbray, the sonne of John Duke of Norfolke, Earle Warren and of Surrie. And Richard, second sonne of King Edward the Fourth, having married the heire of Mowbray, received all the titles due to the Mowbraies by creation from his father. Afterward King Richard the Third having dispatched the said Richard and by impious cruell meanes usurped the kingdome, that hee might by his benefits oblige unto him the house of the Howards, created in one and the same day John Lord Howard Duke of Norfolke, as next cosin and heire to the Mowbraies, and his sonne Thomas Earle of Surrie, in whose of-spring this honour hath ever since bene resplendent, and so continueth at this day.
This County hath in it Parish Churches 140.
NDER Suth-rey toward the South lieth stretched out in a great length Suth-sex, which also in times past the Regni inhabited, in the Saxon tongue called Suth-sex, and at this day Sussex, which is as much to say as the Region of the South Saxons, a word compounded of the site thereof Southward and of the Saxons, who in their Heptarchie placed here the second kingdome. It lieth upon the British Ocean all Southward with a streight shore (as it were) farre more in length than bredth. Howbeit it hath few harbours by reason that the sea is dangerous for shelves, and therefore rough and troublous, the shore also it selfe full of rocks, and the South-west wind doth tyrannize thereon, casting up beach infinitely. The sea coast of this countrie hath greene hils on it mounting to a greater height, called the Downes, which, because they stand upon a fat chalke or kind of marle, yeeldeth corne aboundantly. The middle tract, garnished with medowes, pastures, corne-fields, and growes [groves] maketh a very lovely shew. The hithermore and Northren side thereof is shaded most pleasantly with woods, like as in times past the whole country throughout, which by reason of the woods was hardly passable. for the wood Andradswald, in the British language Coid Andred, taking the name of Anderida the Citty next adjoining, tooke up in this quarter, a hundered and twentie miles in length and thirtie in bredth, memorable for the death of Sigebert King of the West Saxons, who, beeing deposed from his roiall throne, was in this place stabbed by a Swineheard and so died. Many prety rivers it hath, but such as springing out of the North side of the shire forthwith take their course to the Ocean, and therefore not able to beare any vessell of burden. Full of iron mines it is in sundry places, where for the making and fining whereof there bee furnaces on every side, and a huge deale of wood is yearely spent, to which purpose divers brookes in many places are brought to runne in one chanell, and sundry medowes turned into poles and waters, that they might bee of power sufficient to drive hammer milles, which beating upon the iron resound all over the places adjoyning. And yet the iron here rought is not in every place of like goodnesse, but generally more brittle than is Spanish iron, whether it bee by the nature or tincture and temper thereof. Howbeit, commodious enough to the iron Maisters who cast much great ordinance thereof, and other things to their no small gaine. Now whether it bee as gainefull and profitable to the common-wealth may be doubted, but the age ensuing will bee better able to tell you. Neither want here glass-houses, but the Glasse there made, by reason of the matter of making, I wot not whether, is likewise nothing so pure and cleare, and thereof used of the common sort onely.
2. This whole region throughout, after the civill maner of partition, is divided into sixe parts, which by a peculiar name they call Rapes, to wit, of Chichester, Arundel, Brembre, Lewis, Pevensey, and Hasting: every of which besides their hundreds hath a castle, river, and forrest of their owne. But for as much as the limits within which they are bounded bee not so well knowne unto mee, I am determined to take my way along the shore from West to East. For the inner parts, besprinkled with villages, have in manner nothing therein worth relation. In the very confines of Hantshire and this country standeth Bosenham, commonly called Boseham, a place environed round about with woods and the sea together, where (as Bede saith ) Dicul the Scotish Monke had a verie small Cell, and in it five or sixe religious men living poorely, in service of the Lord, which many yeeres after was converted into a retyring place of ease for King Harold. Whence hee, when upon a time for his recreation he made out with a little barke into the maine sea, was with a contrary pirrie [breeze] carried violently into Normandie, and there deteined in hold untill he had by oth assured the Kingdome of England unto William of Normandie, after the death King Edward the Confessor. Whereby he presently drew upon himselfe his owne ruine and upon England the danger of finall destruction. But with what a crafty Amphibolie or Aequivocation that subtill and captious catcher of syllables Goodwin Earle of Kent this Harolds father caught this place, and how with a wily word-trap hee deceived the Archbishop of Canterbury, Walter Mapaeus, who lived not many yeares after shall out of his booke entituled Of Courtieres Toies tell you in his owne verie words. This Boseham underneath Chichester, saith hee, Goodwin saw and had a minde to it: beeing accompanied therefore with a great traine of Gentlemen, hee comes smiling and jesting unto the Archbishop of Canterburie, whose towne then it was, “My Lord,” saith hee, “Give you me Boseam?” The Archbishop mervailing much what he demaunded by that question, “I give you,” answered, “Boseam.” Then he forthwith with that company of his knights and Souldiours fell downe (as hee had before taken order) at his feete, and kissing them with many thankes went backe to Boseham, kept possession of it as Lord by strong hand, and having the Testimony of his friends and followers, praised in presence of the King the Archbishop as Donor thereof, and so held it peaceably. Afterwards, as we read in Testa Nevilli (which was an Inquisition of Lands made in King Johns time) King William, who attained to the conquest of England, gave this unto William Fitz Aucher and to his heires in fee farme, paying out of it yearlie into the Exchequer fortie pounds of silver tried and weighted, and after that William Marescall held it as his inheritance.
3. Chichester, in the British tongue named Caercei, in the English Saxon language Cirran-ceaster, in Latine Cicestria, lieth farther within, at the same nooke in a Champion plaine. A Cittie large enough and walled about, built by Cissa, a Saxon the second king of this Province and of him so named. For Cissan-Ceaster is nothing els but The Cittie of Cissa: whose father Aella was the first Saxon that here erected a kingdome. Yet it was before the conquest of small or no name, and knowne onely by a monasterie of Saint Peter and a little Nunnerie. But in the reigne of William the First, as we read in the Domes-day-booke, there were in this one hundred Hages, and this cittie was in the hand of Earle Roger, and there are in the said three-score Mansion houses more than had beene before. It paid fifteene pounds to the King, and ten to the Earle. After this, when during the reigne of the said William the First a decree was enacted that Bishops Seas should bee translated out of small townes unto places of greater name and resort, it was graced with the Bishops residence which was before at Selsey, and beganne to flourish. Not many yeares after Bishop Raulfe built there a Cathedrall church, which before hee had fully finished it, was sodainly by mishap of a fearce fire burnt downe. Yet by his endeavor and the bounteous liberality of King Henrie the First, it was raised up againe, and now, beside a Bishop, it hath also a Deane, a Chaunter, a Chancellor, a Treasurer, two Archdeacons and thirty Prebendaries. And at the same time the verie Cittie it selfe beganne to flourish, and had growne in deede to a most wealthie estate, but that the haven is badde and somewhat to farre off, and in that regard not so commodious: which neverthelesse the Cittizens goe now in hand to make more convenient by digging of a new chanell. It is wall about in a circular round form, the Lavant, a pretty riveret, running hard by it on the West and South sides. Foure gates it hath opening to the foure quarters of the world: from whence the streets lead directly and crosse themselves in the mids where the market is kept, and where Bishop Robert Read erected a faire stone market place, supported with pillars round about. As for the Castle that stood not farre from the North gate, it was in times past the habitation of the Earles of Arundell, who hereupon stiled themselves Earles of Chichester, but afterwards it became converted into an house of the Franciscan Friers. All that space which lieth between the West and South gates is taken up with the Cathedrall Church, the Bishops palace, and the Deanes and Prebendaries houses. All of which about King Richard the First his time were burnt againe. And Seffride the second Bishop of that name reedified all anew. The Church it selfe truly is not great, but verie faire and neat, having a spire steeple of stone rising up passing high, and in the South Crosse-Isle of the Church of the one side is artificially portraied and depainted the historie of the Churches foundation, with the Images of the Kings of England; on the other, the Images of all the Bishops as well of Selsey as of Chichester, at the charges of Robert Shirburne Bishop, who greatly adorned and beautified this Church, and everywhere for his Empresse [motto], set these Mots, CREDITE OPERIBVS, that is, TRVST MEN ACCORDING TO THEIR DEEDS, and DILEXI DECOREM DOMVS TVAE DOMINE, that is, I HAVE LOVED (O LORD) THE BEAVTIE OF THY HOVSE. Neither hee onely adorned the Lords house, but repaired also the Bishops houses. But that great high tower which standeth nere to the west dore of the Church was built by R. Riman, as the report goeth (when he was forbidden to erect a castle at Aplederham, his habitation hard by) of those stones which for that Castle hee had provided afore. ‡Neere the haven of Chichester is W. Withering, where, as the monuments of the Church testifie, Aella, the first founder of the Kingdome of Suth-sex, arrived.‡
4. Selsey before said is somewhat lower in the Saxon tongue, Seal-sey, that is to say, The Isle of Sea-calves (for these in our language wee call Seales, which alwaies seek to Islands and to the shore, for to bring forth their yong), but now it is most famous for good cockles and full Lobsters. A place (as Beda saith) compassed round about with the Seas, but onely in the West side, where it hath an entrie into it by land as broad as a slings cast. It was reckoned by Survey taken to containe fourscore and seven Hides of Land when Edilwalch King of the Province gave it to Wilfride Bishop of Yorke, whiles hee was in exile: who first preached Christ unto this people and, as he writeth, not only by baptisme saved from thraldome under the Divel two hundred and fiftie bond men, but also by giving freedom, delivered them from the yoke of bondage under man. Afterwards King Cedwalla, who vanquished Edilwalch, founded here a Minster and beautified it with an Episcopall See, which by Stigand the two and twentieth Bishop was translated to Chichester, where it now flourisheth and doth acknowledge Cedwalla to be the founder. In this Isle remaineth onely the dead carkasse, as it were, of that antient little citie wherein those Bishop sat, and the same quite hidden with water at everie full sea, but at a low water evident and plaine to be seene.
5. Then maketh the shore way for a river, which out of Saint Leonards Forest runneth downe, first by Amberley, where William Read Bishop of Chester in the raigne of Edward the Third built a castle for his successours, and so from thence by Arundell, seated on the hanging of an hill, a place greater in name than deede, and yet its not that name of great antiquitie: for before Aelfreds daies, who bequeathed it by testament to Antheleme his brothers sonne, I have not read it so much as once named. Unlesse perhaps I should thinke that Portus Adurni is corruptly so called by transposition of letters for Portus Arundi. The reason of this name is fetched neither from that fabulous horse of Sir Beavois of Southampton, nor of Charudum, a promontorie in Denmarke, as Goropius Becanns hath dreamed, but of the valley or dale which lieth upon the river Arun, in case Arun bee the name of the river, as some have delivered, who thereupon named it in Latine Aruntina vallis, that is, Arundale. But all the fame it hath is of the Castle that flourished under the Saxon Empire, and which (as we read) presently upon the comming in of the Normans Roger Montgomerie repaired, who thereupon was stiled Earle of Arundell. For a stately place it is, both by naturall situation and also by mans hand verie strong. But his sonne Robert de Belismo, who succeeded his brother Hugh, being by King Henrie the First proscribed, lost that and all his other dignitie. For when he had perfidiously raised warre against the King, he chose this Castle for his surest hold whiles the warre lasted, and fortified the place with many munitions, but spedde no better than traitours use to doe. For the Kings forces, environing it everie way, at the last wonne it. When as Robert had now forfeited his estate and was banished, the King gave this castle and all his Lands besides unto Adeliza daughter to Godfrey Barbatus of Lovaine, Duke of Loraine and Brabant, for her Dowrie, whom he tooke to be his second wife. In whose commendation a certaine English man that unlearned age wrote these not unlearned verses:
When Muses mine thy beauties rare (faire Adeliza Queen
Of England) readie are to tell, then starke astonied been.
What booteth thee so beautifull, gold crown or pretious stone?
Dimme is the Diademe to thee, the gemme hath beautie none.
Away with trimme and gay attire: nature attireth thee,
Thy lovely beautie naturall can never bett’ red be.
All Ornaments beware, from them no savour thou do’ st take,
But they from thee their lustre have, thou doest them lightsome make.
I shamed not on matters great to set small praises here,
Bash not, but deigne (I pray) to be my Soveraigne Ladie deere.
6. She after the Kings death matched in marriage with William de Alibiny, who, taking part with Maud the Empresse against King Stephen and defending this Castle against him, was in recompense of his good service by the said Maude the Empresse and Ladie of Englishmen (for this title she used) created Earle of Arundell, and her sonne King Henrie the Second gave the whole rape of Arundell to that William, to hold him by the service of fourescore and foure Knights fees and one halfe. And to his sonne William King Richard the First granted, in such words as these, the Castel of Arundell with the whole Honor of Arundell, and the Third peny of the Plees out of Sussex, whereof hee is Earle. And when after the fifth Earle of this surname the issue male failed, one of the sisters and heires of Hugh the fifth Earle was married to Sir John Fitz-Allen, Lord of Clun, whose great grand sonne Richard, for that he stood seised of the Castle, Honour and Lordship of Arundell in his owne demesne as of Fee, in regard of this is possession of the same Castle, Honour and Seignorie, without any other consideration or Creation to be an Earle, was Earle of Arundell, and the name, state and honor of the Earle of Arundell &c. peaceably he enjoied, as appeareth by a definitive judgement given in Parliament in the behalfe of Sir John Fitz-Alan, chalenging the Castle and title of Arundell by force of an entaile against John Mowbray Duke of Norfolke, the right Heire in the neerest degree. Whereby it was gathered that the name, state and dignitie of Earle, was annexed to the Castle, Honour and Seignorie of Arundell, as it <is> to be seene in the Parliament Rolls of King Henry the Sixth, out of which I have copied forth these notes word for word. Of these Fitz-Alans, Edmund second Earle, sonne to Richard, married the heire of the Earle of Surry and was beheaded through the malicious furie of Queene Isabell, not lawfully convicted, for that hee opposed himselfe in King Edward the Seconds behalfe against her wicked practises. His sonne Richard petitioned in Parliament to be restored to bloud, lands, and goods, for that his father was put to death not tried by his Peeres according to the lawe and great Charter of England: nevertheless, whereas the attainder of him was confirmed by Parliament, he was forced to amend his petition, and upon the amendment thereof he was restored to the Kings mere grace. Richard his sonne, as his grandfather died for his Soveraigne, lost his life for banding against his Soveraigne King Richard the Second. But Thomas his sonne more honourably ended his life serving King Henrie the Fifth valerously in France, and leaving his sisters his heires generall; Sir John of Arundell Lord Maltravers, his next cosin and heire male, obtained of King Henrie the Sixt the Earldome of Arundell, as we have now declared, and also was by the said King for his good service created Duke of Touraine. Of the succeeding Earles I find nothing memorable.‡ Henrie Fitz-Alan, the eleventh and last Earle of that surname, lived in our daies in great honor, as you shall see. After whom leaving no issue male, Philip Howard his daughters sonne succeeded, who not able to digest wrongs and hard measure offered unto him, by the cunning sleights of some envious persons fell into the toile and net pitched for him, and being brought into extreame perill of his life, yeelded up his vitall breath in the Tower. But his sonne Thomas, a most honorable young man (in whom a a forward spirit and fervent love of vertue and glorie, most beseeming his nobility, and the same tempered with true courtesie shineth very apparently) recovered his fathers dignities, being restored by King James and Parliament authoritie.
7. Beside the Castle and the Earles, Arundell hath nothing memorable. For the Colledge built by the Earles which there flourished, because the revenue or living is alienated and gone, now falleth to decay. Howbeit in the Church are some monuments of Earles there enterred, but one above the rest right beautifull, of Alabaster, in which lieth in the mids of the Quire Earle Thomas and Beatrice his wife, the daughter of John King of Portugall. Neither must I overpasse this Inscription so faire guilt, set up heere in the Honor of Henrie Fitz-Alan, the last Earle of this line, because some there be whom it liketh well.
CONSECRATED TO VERTUE AND HONOUR
THE MAGNANIMOUS AND WORTHY KNIGHT WHOSE PERSONAGE IS HERE SEENE, AND WHOSE BONES HERE UNDERNEARTH LY ENTERRED, WAS EARLE OF THIS TERRITORIE: ACCORDING TO HIS HOUSE AND LINAGE SURNAMED FITZALAN, LORD MALTRAVERS, CLUN, AND OSWALDESTRE, HONOURS: OF THAT MOST NOBLE ORDER OF THE GARTER THE AUNCIENTEST COMPANION WHILES HE LIVED: OF WILLIAM EARLE OF ARUNDELL THE ONELY SONNE AND SUCCESSOR, COMPARTNER ALSO OF ALL HIS VERTUES: WHO BEING OF THE PRIVY COUNSEL TO KING HENRIE THE EIGHT, KING EDWARD THE SIXT, MARIE, AND ELIZABETH, KINGS AND QUEENES OF ENGLAND, WAS GOVERNOR ALSO OF THE TOWNE OF CALES: AND WHAT TIME AS THE SAID KING HENRY BESIEGED BULLEN WAS HIGH MARSCHEL OF HIS ARMY, AND AFTER THAT LORD CHAMBERLAIN TO THE KING; ALSO WHEN EDWARD HIS SONE WAS CROWNED KING, HE BARE THE OFFICE OF LORD MARESCHAL OF THE KINGDOME: AND UNTO HIM LIKE AS BEFORE UNTO HIS FATHER BECAME LORD CHAMBERLAINE. MOREOVER IN THE REIGNE OF QUEENE MARIE DURING THE TIME OF HER SOLEMNE CORONATION HE WAS MADE LORD HIGH CONSTABLE, AFTERWARD STEWARD OF HER ROYAL HOUSE AND PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCEL: EVEN AS TO QUEENE ELIZABETH ALSO HE WAS LIKEWISE LORD HIGH STEWARD OF HER HOUSHOLD.
THUS THIS MAN, NOBLE BY HIS HIGH PARENTAGE, MORE NOBLE FOR WEL PERFORMING THE PUBLICKE OFFICES OF STATE, MOST NOBLE AND RENOUNED BOTH AT HOME AND ABROAD, FLOURISHING STIL IN HONOUR, BROKEN WITH TRAVEL, MUCH WORNE WITH YEERES, AFTER HE WAS COME INTO THE XLVII OF HIS AGE, AT LONDON THE XXV DAY OF FEBRUARY IN THE YEERE OF OUR SALVATION BY CHRIST MDLXXIX GODLY AND SWEETLY SLEPT IN THE LORD,
8. As for the river Arun, which springing out of the North part of the Shire runneth heereby, it is encreased by many brooks falling into it from all sides, but the cheefe of them is that which passeth beside Cowdrey, a very goodly house of the Vicounts Montacute; which for building oweth much to the late Vicount, and formerly to Sir William Fitz-William Earle of South-hampton. Here by is Midherst, that is Middlewood, which braggeth of the Bohunes Lords thereof, who carried for their coat of armes Crosse azur in a field Or, and from Ingelricus de Bohun under King Henrie the First flourished unto King Henrie the Seaventh his daies, who gave in marriage the daughter and heire of John Bohun unto Sir David Owen, Knight, the base sonne of Owen Theodor, with a rich inheritance. These Bohuns (to note so much by the way for the antiquity of a word now growne out of use) were by inheritance for a good while the kings Spigurnells, that is, The Sealeres of his writs, which office together with serjeancie of the kings chappell, John de Bohun the sonne of Franco resigned unto King Edward the First, as wee read in an old Charter made as touching that matter.
9. Then this river leaveth about a mile off Petworth, which together with one and twenty knights sees William de Albeney Earle of Arundell bestowed upon Joscelin of Lovaine the Brabander, brother to Queene Adeliza and the younger sonne of Godfrey Duke of Brabant, descended from the stocke of Charles the Great, what time as hee tooke to wife Agnes the onely daughter and heire of the Percies. Since which time the posterity of that Josceline, having assumed the name of Percie (as i will els where shew) held it. A Familie, I assure you, verie ancient and right noble, which deriveth their pedigree from Charles the Great more directly, and with a race of Ancestors lesse interrupted, than either the Dukes of Loraine or of Guise that so highly vaunt themselves thereupon. Josceline aforesaid, as I have seene it in his Donations, used this title: Joscelin of Lovain, brother to Queene Adeliza and Castellan of Arundell. ‡And here about the Familie of Dautry or De Alta Ripa, hath beene of right worshipfull aesteeme, as on the other side of the river the name of goring at Burton, who were acknowledged founders of Hardham or Heredham, a Priory of blacke Canons a little off. Where this Arun meeteth with an other river of a deeper and bigger streame, which springeth neare Horesham an indifferent mercat, which some suppose to have taken name from Horsa the brother of Hengist, who were the first leaders of the English Saxons into this isle of Britaine. Thus Arun, increased with sundry creekings, by Arundell before mentioned holdeth on his course to the sea.
‡As the shoare giveth backe from the mouth of Arun, inwardly is Michel-grove, that is Great Grove, the heire general whereof so surnamed, was married to John Shelley, whereby with the profession of the law, and a marriage with one of the coheires of Belknap, the familie of Shelley was greatly enriched.‡ Offington is not farre off, well known by his antient possessours the Wests Barons De la Ware. This of the Wests is a noble and ancient Familie, whose state beeing bettered by marriage with the heires of Cantlow of Hempston and Fitz-Reginald Fitz Herbert, was adorned also with the title of Baron by the heire generall of the Lord De la Ware. Hard by there is a fort compassed about with a banke rudely cast up, wherewith the Inhabitants are perswaded that Caesar entrenched and fortified his camp. But Cisburie the name of the place doth plainely shew and testifie that it was the worke of Cissa: who beeing of the Saxons line the second king of this pety kingdom, after his father Aella, accompanied with his brother Cimen and no small power of the Saxons, at this shore arrived and landed at Cimonshore, a place so called of the said Cimen, which now hath lost the name; but that it was neere unto Wittering, the charter of the donation which King Cedwalla made unto the Church of Selsey most evidently prooveth. Another fort likewise two miles from Cisiburie is to be seene, which they used to call Chenkburie.
10. As you goe forward, standeth neere unto the sea Broodwater, the Baronie of the Lords of Caois, who from the time of King Edward the First flourished unto the daies of King Henrie the Sixt, what time the inheritance came by heires generall unto the Lewknors and Radmilds. Out of this familie (a thing neither in that age nor in ours ever heard of or exampled before) Sir John Camois the son of the Lord Raulph Camois, of his owne free-will (the verie woords these be in effect, exemplified out of the Parliament Records) gave and demised his owne wife Margaret, daughter and heire of John de Gaidesden, unto Sir William Panell, Knight, and unto the same William gave, granted, released and quit claimed all the goods and chattel which she hath, or otherwise hereafter might have, and also whatsoever was in his hands of the foresaid Margarets goods and chattels with their appurtenances, so that neither he himselfe nor any man else in his name might make claim or challenge any interest, nor ought forever, in the said Margaret from henceforth, or in the goods and chattels of the said Margaret. Which is as much, as in one word they said in old time, ut omnia sua secum haberet, that she should have away with her all that was hers. By which graunte, when she demanded her dowrie in the Manour of Torpull which had been the possession of Sir John Camois her first husband, there grew a memorable suite and controversie in Law: but wherein she was over throwen and sentence pronounced, That she ought to have no dowrie from thence, upon a Statute made against women absenting themselves from their husbands, &c. These matters I assure you, it goes against my stomacke to relate, but yet I see it was not for nought that Pope Gregorie long since wrote unto Lanfranck Archbishop of Canterburie, how he herd say there were some among the Scots that not onely forsooke but also sold their wives, whereas in England they so gave and demised them.
11. Some what lower upon the shore appeareth Shoreham, in times past Score-ham, which by little and little fell to bee but a village, at this day called Old Shoreham, and gave encrease to another towne of the same name, whereof the greater part also beeing drowned and made even with the sea is no more to bee seene, and the commodiousnesse of the haven by reason of bankes and barres of sand cast up at the rivers mouth quite gone, whereas in foregoing times it was wont to carrie ships with full saile as farre as to Brember, which is a good way from the sea. This Brember was a castle sometime of the Breoses. For King William the First gave it unto William de Breose, from whom those Breoses are descended who were Lords of Bower and Brechnock, and from them also, both in this County and in Leicestershire, are come the Families of the Shirelys, Knights. But now in steed of a Castle there is nothing but an heape of ruble and ruines. A little from this Castle lieth Stening, a great mercate, and at certaine set daies much frequented, which in Aelfrids will, unless I be deceived, is called Steningham; ‡in later times it had a Cell of Black-monkes wherein was enshrined S. Cudman, an obscure Saint and visited by pilgrimes with oblations.‡
That ancient place also called Portus Adurni, as it seemeth, is scarce three miles from this mouth of the river: where when the Saxons first troubled our sea with their piracies, the Band called exploratorum under the Romane Emperours kept their Station, but now it should seeme to be choked and stopped up with huge heapes of beach gathered together. For that this was Ederington, a prety village which the said Aelfred granted unto his younger sonne, both the name remaining in part and also certaine cottages adjoining, now called Porslade, that is, The way to the Haven, doe after a sort perswade; to say nothing how easily they might land heere, the shore being so open and plaine. And for the same cause, our men in the reigne of King Henrie the Eighth did heere especially wait for the Frenchmens gallies all the while they hovered on our coasts, and upon the sudden set one or two cottages on fire at Brighthelmsted, which our ancestors the Saxons tearmed Brighthealmes-tun, the very next road or harbour thereunto.
Some few miles from hence there dischargeth it selfe into the sea a certaine river that hath no name, arising out of S. Leonards forest nere unto Slaugham, the habitation of the Covers, who in King Henrie the Third his daies flourished in this quarter with the degree of knight-hood.
12. ‡Thence by Cuckfeld to Linfeld, where in former ages was a small Nunnery; and so by Malling, some-time a Mannour appertaining to the Archbishops of Canterbury‡, to Lewis, which peradventure hath his name of pastures called by the English Saxons leswa. ‡This for frequencie of people and greatnesse is reputed one of the chiefest townes of the County. Seated it is upon a rising almost on every side. That it hath beene walled there are no apparent tokens. Southward it hath under it, as it were, a great suburb called South-over, an other Westward, and beyond the river a third Eastward called Cliffe because it is under a chalkie cliffe. In the time of the English Saxon government, when King Athelstan made a Law that money should not be coyned but in good townes, hee appointed two minters or coyners for this place. In the reigne of King Edward the Confessor it paid sixe pounds and foure shillings de gablo et theloneo. The king had there one hundred twenty seaven Burgers. Their custome and manner was this, If the king minded to send his souldiers to sea, without them: of all them whose lands soever they were was collected twenty shillings, and al those had they that in the ships kept armour. Who selleth an horse within the Burgh giveth to the Provost one penny, and the buier another. For an oxe or cow one halfe penny, in what place soever he buieth within the Rape. Hee that sheddeth bloud maketh amends for seaven shillings. He that commiteth adulterie or a rape, for eight shillings and foure pense, and the woman as much. The King hath the Adulterer, the Archbishop the woman. When the mint or money is made new, everie minter giveth twentie shillings. Of all these paiments two third partes went to the King, and one third part to the Earle. William de Warren the first Earle of Surrie built here a large castle on the highest ground for most part with flint and chalke. In the bottom of the towne called South-over hee founded to the honour and memorie of Saint Pancrace a Priorie, and stored it with Cluniack Monkes, In regard of the holinesse, religion, and charity which hee found in the Monasterie of Clugni in Burgundie (for these bee the words taken out of the verie originall instrument of the foundation). Whiles going in pilgrimage together with his wife for religion, hee turned in and lodged there. But this is now turned into a dwelling house of the Earle of Dorset. Howbeit their remaine still in the towne six Churches, amongst which not farre from the Castle there standeth one little one all desolate and beset with briers and brambles, in the wals whereof are engraven in arched worke certaine rude verses in an old and overworne character which implie thus much, that one Magnus descended from the bloud roiall of the Danes, who embraced a solitarie life, was there buried. But behold the verses themselves, imperfect though they bee, and gaping, as I may so say, with the verie yawning joints of the stones.
Which peradventure should be thus read:
Clauditur hic miles Danorum regia proles,
Magnus nomen ei, magnae nota progeniei,
Deponens Magnum prudentior induit agnum,
Praepete pro vita fit parvulus anachorita.
A noble Knight
Sir Magnus hight,
a name of great of-spring.
Is shut up here,
Though borne he were
in line of Danish King.
He, wiser man,
Put Agnus on,
And laies downe Magnus quite.
For swift life this,
Become he is
a little Anchorite.
13. About 347 yeeres since this place became famous for the mortall and bloudie battaile between King Henrie the Third and the Barons, in which the prosperous beginning of the fight on the kings side was the overthrow of the kings forces. For whiles Prince Edward the kings son, breaking by force through certain of the Barons troups, carelessly pursued the enemies over far, as making sure account of the victory, the Barons, having reenforced themselves, giving a fresh charge so discomfited and put to flight the kings armie that they constrained the king to accept unequall conditions of peace, and to deliver his sonne Prince Edward with others into their hands. ‡From Lewis the river, as it descendeth, so swelleth that the bottom cannot containe it, and therefore maketh a large mere, and is fed more full with a brooklet falling from Laughton, a seat of Pelhams, a family of especiall respect, by Gline, that is in the British tongue The vale, the inhabitation of Morleyes, whose antiquitie the name doth testifie. And afterward, albeit it gathereth it selfe into a chanell, yet often times it overfloweth the low lands about it to no small detriment.‡ Not far from the said mere, Furle sheweth it selfe, a principall mansion of the Gages, ‡who advanced their estate by the marriage of one of the heires of Saint Clare, Princes favour, and Court Offices.‡ The shore next openeth it selfe at Cuckmere, ‡which yet affordeth no commodious haven though it be fed with a fresh, which insulateth Michelham, where Gilbert de Aquila founded a Priory for black Chanons [canons, monks]. And then at East-bourn the shore ariseth into so high a Promontory, called of the beach Beachy-points and Beau-cliffe) for the faire shew being interchangeably compounded with rowes of chalke and flint) that it is esteemed the highest cliffe of all the South coast of England. As hitherto from Arundell and beyond, the countrey along the coast for a great breadth mounteth up into high hilles, called the Downes, which for rich fertilitie giveth place to few valleys and plaines, so now it falleth into such a low levell and marsh that the people think it hath been over-flowed by the sea.‡ They call it Pevensey Marsh, of Pevensey the next towne adjoyning, which lieth in the plaine somewhat, within the land upon a small river which often times overlaieth the lands adjacent. In the old English-Saxon Language it was called Peowensea, in the Norman speech Pevensell, now commonly Pemsy. ‡It hath had a meane haven and a faire large castle, in the ruinous walles whereof remaine great bricks such as the Britans used, which is some argument of the antiquitie thereof.‡ It belonged in the Conquerours time to Robert Earle of Moriton, halfe brother by the mothers side to the Conquerour, ‡and then had fiftie and six Burgesses. After the attainder of his Sonne William Earle of Moriton it came to King Henrie the First by escheat. In the composition between Stephen and King Henrie the Second both towne and castle with whatsoever Richard de Aquila had of the Honor of Pevensey, which after his name was called Honor de Aquila and Baronia de Aquila, or of the Eagle, was assigned to William Sonne to King Stephen. But he surrendred it with Norwich into King Henrie the Seconds hand in the yeere 1158, when he restored to him all such Lands as Stephen was seased of before hee usurped the crowne of England. After some yeeres King Henrie the Third, over favouring forrainers, granted the Honor de Aquila (which had fallen to the crowne by Escheat, for that Gilbert de Aquila had passed into Normandie against the Kings good will, to Peter Earle of Savoy the Queens uncle. But he, fearing the envie of the English against forrainers, relinquished it to the King, and so at length it came to the Dutchy of Lancaster.‡ Inward from Pevensey is seated Herst in a Parke among the woods, which name also it hath of the woody situation. For the ancient Englishmen called a wood hyrst. This was immediately after the Normans entry into England the seat of certaine noble gentlemen who of that place were a good while named de Herst, until William the sonne of Walleran de Herst tooke unto him the name Monceaux, of the place haply where he was borne, an usuall thing in that age, whereupon the name also was adnexed unto this place, which ever since was of the Lord termed Herst Monceaux. From whose Posteritie by heire generall it descended haereditariliy to the Fienes. These Fienes, called likewise Fenis and Fienles, derive their pedigree from Ingelram de Fienes, who had wedded the heire of Pharamuse of Boloigne of the house of the Earles of Boloigne in France. ‡About the time of King Edward the Second Sir John Fienes married the heire of Monceaux, his sonne William married one of the heires of the Lord Say, his sonne likewise the heire of Batisford, whose sonne Sir Roger Fienes married the daughter of Holland, and in the first yeare of King Henrie the Sixt built of bricke a large, faire, uniforme and convenient house heere Castle-like within a deepe mote.‡ The said King Henrie the Sixt accepted, declared and reputed Sir Richard Fienis sonne of the said Sir Roger, to be Baron of Dacre. And the same title King Edward the Fourth, chosen Arbitratour and Umpire betweene him and Sir Humfrey Dacre, awarded and confirmed to the said Sir Richard Fienis and to the heires of his bodie lawfully begotten, for that he had married Joan the cousin and next heire of Thomas Baron Dacre, and to have praecedence before the Lord Dacre of Gilesland, heire masle [masculine] of the familie. Since which time the heires lineally descending from him, being enriched by one of the heires of the Lord Fitz-hugh, have enjoyed the honor of Baron Dacre, until that very lately Gregory Fienis Lord Darcre, sonne to the unfortunate Thomas Lord Dacre, died without issue, whose onely sister and heire Margaret, Samson Lennard Esquier, a man both vertuous and courteous, tooke to wife, and by her had faire issue. In whose behalfe it was published, declared, and adjudged by the Lords Commissioners for Marital causes in the second yeere of the raigne of King James, with his privitie and assent Roiall, That the said Margaret ought to beare, have, and enjoy the name, state, degree, title, stile, honor, place, and precedency of the Baronie of Dacre, to have and to hold to her and the issue of her bodie in as full and ample maner as any of her ancestors enjoied the same. And that her children may and shall have, take, and enjoy the place and precedence respectively, as the children of her ancestors Barones Dacre have formerly had and enjoyed.
14. Now to returne to the Sea-coast, ‡about three miles from Pevensey is Beckes-hill, a place much frequented by Saint Richard Bishop of Chichester and where he died. Under this is Bulver-hith in an open shore, with a rooflesse Church, not so named of a bulles hide which, cut into thongs by William the Conquerour, reached to Battaile (as they fable), for it had that name before his comming.‡ But heere he arrived with his whole fleete, landed his armie, hand having cast a rampier before his campe, set fire on all his ships that their onely hope might been in manhood, and their safety in victorie. ‡And so after two daies marched to Hastings, then to an hill neere Nenfield now called Standard Hill because (as they say) he there pitched his Standard,‡ and from thence two miles farther where in a plaine the Kingdome of England was put upon the hazard and chance of a battaile, and the English-Saxon Empire came to a full period and finall end. For there King Harold, in the yeere of our Lord 1066, the day before the Idea of October, albeit his forces were much weakened in a former fight with the Danes, and his soldiers wearied besides with a long journey from beyond Yorke, encountred him in place named Epiton. When the Normans had sounded the Battaile, first the skirmish continued for a prety while with shot of arrowes from both sides; then, setting foote to foote as if they fought man to man, they maintained fight a longer time. But when the English men had most valiantly received their first violent onset, the Norman horsmen with full carrier put forward gave an hoter charge. But seeing they also could not breake the battaile, they retired for the nonce and yet kept their rankes in good order. The Englishmen, supposing them to fly, presently disranged themselves and in disray preassed hard upon the enemies: but they, all on a sudden bringing backe their companies, charged them afresh on every side with all their joint forces thicke united together and so, enclosing them round about, drove them backe with great slaughter: who notwithstanding having gotten the higher ground withstood the Normans a long time, untill Harald himselfe was shot through with an arrow and fell down dead, for then straightwaies they turned their backes and betooke themselves every man to flight.
15. The Duke, lofty and hauty with this victorie, and yet not unmindfull of God the giver thereof, erected in memoriall of this battaile an Abbay to the glorie of God and S. Martin, which he called de Bello, or Bataile Abbay, in that very place where Harald after many a wound and stab among the thickest of his enemies gave up the ghost, that the same might be as it were an everlasting monument of the Normans victorie: ‡and therein he offered his sword and roiall robe which he ware the day of his Coronation. These the Monkes kept untill their suppression, as also a table of the Normans gentry which entred with the Conquerour, but so corruptly in later times that they inserted thereinto the names of such as were their benefactours, and whosoever the favour of fortune or vertue had advaunced to any eminency in the subsequent ages.‡ About this Abbay there grew afterwards a towne of the same name, or (that I may use the words of the private Historie of this Abbay), As the Abbay encreased, there were built about the compasse of the same one hundred and fifteene houses of which the towne of Battell was made. Wherein there is a place called by a French word Sangue lac, of the blood there shed, which by nature of the ground seemeth after raine to wax red. Whence William Newborough wrote, although untruly, thus: The place in which there was a very great slaughter of the English men fighting for their country, if peradventure it should be wet with any small showre, sweatteth forth very fresh bloud indeed, as if the very evidence thereof did plainly declare that the voice of so much Christian bloud there shed doth still cry from the earth to the Lord. but to the said Abbay King William the Conquerour granted many and great privilidges. And among other, to use the very words of the Charter, If any theefe, murderer, or felon for scare of death fly and come to this Church, let him have no harme but be dismissed and sent away free from all punishment. Bee it lawfull also for the Abbat of the same Church to deliver from the gallows any theefe or robber whatsoever, if he chance to come were such execution is in hand. Henrie the First likewise (that I may reherse the words of his Charter) instituted a mercate to be there kept on the Lords day, free from all tol and tallage. But Sir Anthonie Broton Lord Vicount Mount-acute, who not long since in that place built a goodly house, obtained of late by authority of parliament that this mercate should bee held upon another day. And as for the privileges of Sanctuary in those more hainous and grievous crimes, they are here and every where els by Parliamentary authority quite abolished. For they perceived well that, the feares of punishment being once removed, stout boldnesse and a will to commit wickednesse grew still to greater head, and that hope of impunity was the greatest motive of ill-doing. Neither here or in that quarter nere adjoining saw I any thing worth relation but only Ashburnham, that gave the name to a familie of as great antiquity as any one at all in this tract.
16. Hastings, which I spake of, called in the English Saxon tongue Hasting-ceaster, is situate somewhat higher upon the same shore. Some there bee that ridiculously derive this name from out of our tongue from hast or quicknesse, for sooth, because, as Mathew Paris writeth, Wiliam Conquerour at Hasting did set up hastily a fortresse of timber. But it may seeme to have taken this new name of Hastings a Danish Prate, who where soever he landed, with intent to spoile and raise booties, built often times fortresses, as wee read in Asserius Menevenis of Beomflote castle built by him in Essex, as also of others at Appledor and Middleton in Kent. ‡The tradition is that the old towne of Hastings is swallowed up by the sea. That which standeth now, as I observed, is couched betweene a high cliffe sea-ward and as high an hill land-ward, having two streates extended in length from North to South, and in each of them a parish church. The haven, such as it is, beeing feede but with a poore small rill, is at the South end of the towne, and hath had a great castle upon the hill which over commanded it, but now there are onely ruins thereof, and on the said hill Light-houses to direct sailers in the night time.‡ Here in the reigne of King Athelstan was a mint-house. Afterward it was accounted the first of the Cinque Ports, which with the members belonging to it, namely Seford, Pevensey, Hodney, Bullverhith, Winchelsey, Rhy &c., was bound to find one and twenty ships for warre at sea. In what manner and forme (if you desire to know) both this Port and the rest also were bound to serve the king in his warres at sea, for the immunities that they enjoy in most ample manner, have heere in those verie same words whereby this was in times past recorded in the Kings Exchequer. Hastings with his members ought to finde at the Kings summons one and twentie ships. And in every shippe there must bee one and twenty tall and able men, well armed and appointed for the Kings service. Yet so as that summons bee made thereof on the Kings behalfe fortie daies before. And ten the foresaid ships and men therein are come to the place whereunto they were summoned, they shall abide there in the kings service for fifteene daies at their owne proper costs and charges. And if the King shall have farther neede of their service, those ships with the men therein beeing, whiles they remaine there, shall be in the Kings service, at the kings cost and charges, so long as it shall please the king, to wit, the Maister of every ship shall receive six pence by the day, the Constable six pence a daie, and every one of the rest three pence by the daie. ‡Thus Hastings flourished long, inhabited with a warlike people and skilful sailers, well stored with barkes and craies, and gained much by fishing, which is plentifull along the shore. But after that the peere made of timber was at length violently carried way by extreame rage of the sea, it hath decaied, and the fishing lesse used by the reason of the daungerous landing, for they are enforced to worke their vessels to land by a Capstall or Crane. In which respect for the bettering of the towne, Queene Elizabeth granted a contribution toward the making of a new harbour, which was begunne, but the contribution was quickly converted into private purposes and the publicke good neglected. Nevertheless both Court, the Country, and Citty of London is served with much fish from hence.‡
17. The whole Rape of Hastings and the Honour was holden by the Earles of Ew (commonly called de Augi) in Normandie, descended from the base sonne of Richard the First Duke of Normandie, untill the daies of Alice the heire of the house, ‡whom in the reigne of Henrie the Third Ralph de Issodun in France tooke to wife, whose posterity lost a faire patrimonie in England for that, as our Lawiers spake in those daies, they were ad fidem regis Franciae, that is, under the king of France his allegiance. When King Henrie the Third had seazed her lands into his hands, hee granted the Rape of Hastings first to Peter Earle of Savoy, then to Prince Edward his sonne, and after upon his surrender to John sonne of the Duke of little Britaine upon certaine exchanges of lands pertaining to the Honour of Richmond, which Peter Earle of Savoie had made over for the use of the Prince.‡ Long time after when the Dukes of Britaine had lost there lands in England for adhering to the French King, King Henrie the Fourth gave the Rape of Hastings with the Manours of Browhers, Burgwash &c. to Sir John Pelham the elder, upon whose loialtie, wisdome and valour he much relied. Before we depart from Hastings, as it shal not be offensive, I hope, to remember that in the first daies of the Normans there were in this shire great gentlemen surnamed Hastings and de Hastings, of whom Matthew de Hastings held the Manour of Grencocle in this service, that he should find at this haven an oare, when the kings would crosse over the seas; so now the honorable house of the Hastings that are Earles of Huntingdon enjoy this title of Hastings. For King Edward the Fourth bestowed this title with certaine Roialties (as they terme them) upon Sir William Hastings his Chamberlaine. Who is by Cominaeus commended, for that having received a yearely pension of Lewis the Eleaventh the French King hee could not for any thing bee brought to give unto the French king an acquittance of his owne hand writing. “I will in no case (saith hee) that my hand writing be seene amongst the accounts of the French Kings Treasurie.” But this man by diving so deepe into the friendship of kings overwhelmed and drowned himselfe quite. For whiles hee spake his minde and reasoned over franckly at a private consultation with the Usurper King Richard the Third, all of a sodaine and unlooked for had hee was away and, without pleading for him selfe, presently made shorter by the head upon the next blocke. Neither is this to be passed over in silence that King Henrie the Sixth adored Sir Thomas Hoo, a worthy knight whom hee also chose into the order of the Garter, with the title of Baron Hoo and Hastings, whose daughters and heires were married to Sir Gefferie Bollen (from whence by the mothers side Queene Elizabeth was descended) to Roger Coplie, to John Carew, John Devenish.
18. From thence the shore ‡passing under Farley Hille, farre seene both by sea and land, whereon standeth a solitarie church full bleakly and a beacon,‡ is hollowed with an in-winding Bay, and upon it standeth Winchelsey, which was built in the time of King Edward the First, when a more ancient towne of the same name, in the Saxons tongue called Winchels-ea, was quite swallowed up with the rough and raging Ocean in the yeare of our Lord 1250 (what time the face of the earth both here and also in the coast of Kent neere bordering, became much changed). The situation thereof I will set before your eyes in the verie words of Thomas Walsinghams. Situate it is upon an high hill, verie steepe on that side which either looketh toward the sea or over looketh the rode where ships lie at anchor. Whence it is that the way leading from that part to the haven goeth not streight forward, least it should by an over sodaine and downe right descent force those that goe downe to fall headlong, or them that goe uppe to creepe rather with their hands then to walke, but lying side waies it windeth with curving turnes in and out, to one side and the other. At first it was enclosed with a rampier, after-wards with strong wals, and scarce beganne it to flourish when it was sacked by the French men and Spaniards, and by reason that the sea shrunke backe from it began sodainly (as it were) to fade and loose the beautie. And now onely beareth the countenance of a faire towne, and hath under it in the levell which the sea relinquished a Castle fortified by Henrie the Eighth, and large marshes defended from sea-rages with works verie chargeably. By the decay hereof and the benefit of the sea together Rhie, opposite unto it and as highly seated, beganne to flourish, or rather to reflourish. For in that old it time it flourished, and that William of Ipres Earle of Kent fortified it, Ipres Tower, ‡now the prison,‡ and the immunities or priviledges that it had in common with the Cinque-ports may sufficiently shew. But by occasion of the Vicinity of Winchelsey or the shrinking backe of the sea, it lay for a good while in former ages unknowne. But when Winchelsey decaied and King Edward the Third walled it where the cliffes defended it not, it beganne to breath againe and revive, and in our fathers daies the sea, to make amends aboundantly for the harmes it had done, raised with an unusuall tempest, so rushed in and insinuated it selfe in forme of a bay that it made a verie commodious haven, which another tempest also in our daies did not a little helpe. Since which time it greatly reflourished with inhabitants, buildings, fishing, and navigation, and at this daie there is an usuall passage from hence into Normandie.‡Yet now it beginneth to complaine that the sea abandoneth it (such is the variable and interchangeable course of that element), and impart imputeth it that the river Rother is not contained in his chanell, and so looseth his force to carrie away the sandes and beach which the sea doth inbeare into the haven. Notwithstanding it hath many fishing vessels and serveth London and the Court with varietie of sea-fish.‡ Now whether it have the name of rive, a Norman word which signifieth a strond or Banke, I can not easily say. But seeing that in Records it is verie often called in Latine Ripa, and they who bring fish from hence bee termed ripiers, I encline rather this way, and would encline more if the Frenchman used this word for a strond or shore, as Plinius doth ripa. ‡These two townes (neither may it seeme impertinent to note it) belonged to the Abbay of Fescampe in Normandie. But when King Henrie the Third perceived that religious men intermedled secretly in matters of state, he gave them in exchange for these two Childenham and Sclover, two Manours in Gloucestershire, and other lands, adding for the reason that the Abbot and Monkes might not lawfullie fight with temporall armes against the enemies of the Crowne.‡
19. Into this haven the River Rother or Rither sheddeth it selfe, which issuing foorth at Ritheram Fields (for so the Englishmen in antient times called that towne which wee doe Rotherfield) passeth by Burwash, in old time Burgersh, which had Lords so surnamed thereof: among whom was that Sir Bartholomew Burgwash, a mightie man in his time, who being approoved in most weightie embassages and warres in Aquitaine, for his wisdome and valour deserved to be created a Baron of the Realme, to be admitted into the the Order of the Garter at the verie first institution, even among the Founders thereof, and to bee made Constable of Dover Castle and Warden of the Cinque-ports. And his sonne carrying the same fore-name, not degenerating from his father, lived in high honour and estimation, but hee left behind him one daughter and no more issue, married into the house of Le Despenser, of which there remaineth still a goodly of-spring of Noble personages. Echingham next adjoyning had also a Baron, named William de Echingham, in the time of King Edward the Second, whose ancestours were the hereditarie Seneschals of this Rape. And their inheritance in the end, by the heires females came to the Barons of Winsor and to the Tirwhits. Then the Rother, dividing his water into three chanels, passeth under Roberts bridge, where Alured de S. Martin in King Henrie the Seconds daies founded a Monasterie, and so running beside Bodiam, a Castle belonging to the ancient Familie of the Lewknors, built by the Dalagrigs, here falleth (as I sayd) into the Ocean. Now have I passed along the Sea coast of Sussex. And as for the midland part of the shire, I have nothing more to relate thereof, unlesse I should recount of the vast wood Anderida. Among which, to begin at the West, those of greatest note are these, The forest of Arundell, Saint Leonards forest, Word forest, and not farre off East Gren-stead, anciently a parcell of the Barony of Eagle, and made a Mercat by King Henrie the Seventh. Ashdowne forrest, under which standeth Buckhurst, the habitation of the ancient house of the Sackviles, out of which race Queene Elizabeth in our daies advanced Thomas Sackvile her allie by the Bollens, a wise Gentleman, to be Baron of Buckhurst, took him into her privie Counsell, admitted him into the most honorable Order of the Garter, and made him Lord Treasurer of England, whom also of late King James created Earle of Dorset. Waterdown forest, where I saw Eridge, a lodge of the Lord Abergevenny, and by it craggie rocks rising up so thick, as though sporting nature had there purposed a sea. Here-by in the verie confines of Kent is Gromebridge, an habitation of the Wallers, whose house there was built by Charles Duke of Orleance, father to King Lewis the 12 of France, when he, being taken prisoner in the battaile of Agincourt, by Richard Waller of this place was here a long time detained prisoner.
20. As touching the Earles, Sussex had five of the line of Albiney, who were likewise called Earles of Arundell, but had the third penie of Sussex, as Earles then had. The first of them was William D’ Albiney, the sonne of William, Butler to King Henrie the First and Lord of Buckenham in Norfolk: who gave for his armes Gueules, a Lion rampant, Or, and was called one while Earle of Arundell and another while Earle of Chichester, for that in those places he kept his chiefe residence. This man, of Aedliza the daughter of Godfrey Barbatus Duke of Loraine and of Brabant, Queen Dowager or Widdow of King Henry the First, begat William the second Earle of Sussex and of Arundell, father to William the third Earle: unto whom Mabile, the sister and one of the heires of the last Raulph Earle of Chester, bare William the fourth Earle and Hugh the fifth, who both died without issue, and also foure daughters married unto Sir Robert Tateshall, Sir John Fitz-Alan, Sir Roger de Somery, and Sir Robert de Mount-hault. After this, the title of Arundell budded forth againe, as I said before, in the Fitz-Alans. But that of Sussex lay hidden and lost unto this our age, which hath seen five Ratcliffes, descended of the most Noble house of the Fitz-waters (that derived their pedigree from the Clares), bearing that honour, to wit, Robert created Earle of Sussex by King Henrie the Eight, who wedded Elizabeth daughter to Henrie Stafford Duke of Buckingham, of whom he begat Henrie the second Earle, unto whom Elizabeth the daughter of Thomas Howard Duke of Norfolk brought forth Thomas: who being Lord Chamberlaine to Queen Elizabeth, died without issue, a most worthy and honourable personage, in whose mind were seated jointly both politicke wisedome and martiall prowesse, as England and Ireland acknowledged. Him succeeded Sir Henrie his brother, and after him Robert his onely sonne, now in his flower.
This Province containeth Parishes 312.
21. Thus far of Sussex, which together with Suth-rey was the habitation of the Regni in the time of the Britans, and afterwards the kingdom of the South-Saxons, called in the Saxon tongue Suth-seaxan-ric, which in the two and thirty yere after the Saxons comming was begun by Aella, who, as Beda writeth, First among the kings of the English nation ruled all their Southern Provinces, which are severed by the River Humber and the limits adjoyning thereto. The first Christian King was Edilwalch, baptized in the presence of Wulpher King of Mercia, his Godfather, and he in signe of adoption gave unto him two Provinces, namely, the Isle of Wight and the Province of the Meanvari. But in the 306 yeere after the beginning of this Kingdome, when Aldinius the last King was slaine by Ina King of West-Saxons, it came wholly under the Dominion of the West-Saxons.