COMMENTARY NOTES

Dedicatory poem Sir Thomas Heneage of Copthall, (d. 1595), M. P. from Essex. A favorite of the Queen, he was Paymaster of the land forces mustered to resist the landing of the Armada in 1588. Sir John Fortescue (1531? - 1607), an accomplished Classical scholar, served as Chancellor of the Exchequer.
1 mea…et Lelandi epigrammata This volume was collected by Thomas Newton (d. 1607), poet, physician, divine, and translator of Cicero’s De Amicitia and Paradoxa Stoicorum. He also translated Levinus Lemnius’ treatise on plants in the Bible. His translation of the Phoenissae (under the title Thebais) is included in the 1581 Seneca His Tenne Tragedies, and in fact Newton appears to have compiled and edited that volume (at least it is prefaced by a dedicatory epistle by him, also addressed to Sir. Thomas Heneage). Earlier in 1589 he had published poetry by John Leland (d. 1552) under the title Principum, ac illustrium aliquot & eruditorum in Anglia virorum, encomia, trophæa, genethliaca, & epithalamia. A Ioanne Lelando antiquario conscripta, nunc primùm in lucem edita. A sometime rector of Prestbury, Cheshire, he succeeded Brownswerd as headmaster of the grammar school at Macclesfield.

Wynnington poem Thomas Wynnington of Cheshire matriculated from University College, Oxon., in 1578 (Joseph Foster, Alumni Oxonienses, London 1891-92, repr. Nendeln 1968, IV.1661). It is not unlikely that he and the other contributors of these gratulatory verses were former pupils of Brownswerd.

Hanford poem Hanford is unidentifiable in university records.
2 Lybtina Libitina was the ancient Roman goddess of funerals.

Briscoe poem Briscoe is unidentifiable in university records.

Barlow poem If he was a former student, like Newton, Barlow of Malpas, Cheshire (ca. 1573 - 1638), was another one of Brownswerd’s success stories: Matriculating from Jesus College, Cantab., in 1586, he went on to become a Fellow of Pembroke College in 1593, and eventually Archbishop of Tuan (Venn I.89).

1- 4 Brownswerd was good at meters and displayed his prowess by writing the same poem in for different ones; as such, poems…are only meaningful to a reader who knows Latin, and there is no point in providing individual English translations. Poem 35 is a similar stunt designed to show off the same talent.
All these poems are based on I Samuel 17:38 - 40:

And Saul armed David with his armour, and he put an helmet of brass upon his head; also he armed him with a coat of mail.
And David girded his sword upon his armour, and he assayed to go; for he had not proved it. And David said unto Saul, I cannot go with these; for I have not proved them. And David put them off him.
And he took his staff in his hand, and chose him five smooth stones out of the brook, and put them in a shepherd’s bag which he had, even in a scrip; and his sling was in his hand.

1.3 roseoque haec insuper addidit ore Cf. Aeneid II.593.
1.7 ense Assuming that adstringo (an unclassical verb) = constringo, the book’s ensi must be altered to ense. Anyway, one would assume that David is hindered by the sword, not stuck to it.
1.8 Parvum parva decent Cf. Horace, Epistulae I.vii.44. For magno molimine cf. Lucretius IV.902 and Ovid, Metamorphoses XII.357.

4.4 ore cruento For these words at the end of a hexameter line …an Adonic) cf. Aeneid I.296, IX.341, X.489, XII.8, and Tibullus I.v.49. Similarly, 12 semine cretus can be matched at Ovid, Metamorphoses XV.760 (at line end), 16 nobilis aevum at Horace, Odes III.xi.36 (cf. also ignobilis aevum at the end of Aeneid VII.776), and 20 pectore fudit by pectore fundet at the end of Lucretius I.413.

5 Riding is not mentioned in university records. I assume his home town is Tideswell in Derbyshire. Meter: Sapphic stanzas.
5.7f. inter spemque metumque Cf. spemque metumque inter dubii at Aeneid I.218 and inter spem curamque at Horace, Epistulae I.iv.12.
5.17 extremi Tanais Cf. Horace, Odes III.x.1.
5.18f. inhospitalis Caucasi Cf. Horace, Odes I.xxii.6, Epodi i.12, Seneca, Medea 43 and Thyestes 1048.
5.21 Corde vicinum, studio propinquum This seems suggested by Martial XII.xliv.2, Qui geris et studio corda propinqua meis.
5.30 Aera Dodones (Dodones is a Greek genitive) At the oracle of Zeus at Dodona the priestesses took the oracles by listening to the clinking of brazen vessels hung in trees. This is cited as another example of meaningless noise. Cf. Lucan VI.427, aere Iovis Dodona sonet.
5.38f. ut laesa silicis Cf. Vergil, Georgics I.135, ut silicisvenis abstrusum excuderet ignem.

6 “Dominus Pendelton” is probably Edward Pendleton, who spent most of his career as a schoolmaster of the grammar school at Manchester and served as vicar of Eccles (Foster III.1140). Mediolanum was the Roman name of Whitchurch, Salop. Dominus was the Latin title any for any man who had earned the B. A. Meter: Sapphic stanzas.
6.7f. variique…pericli Besides the obvious danger of ruining one’s eyesight, there existed a contemporary belief that excessive study could produce mental imbalance. This sentiment is in fact attributed to Aristotle by Cicero, De Divinatione I.xxxviii. 81, Aristoteles quidem eos etiam qui…melancholici dicerentur, censebat habere aliquid in animis praesagiens atque divinum. See more generally the long passage in The Anatomy of Melancholy (I.ii.iii.xv) places among the causes of melancholy “Love of Learning, or overmuch Study.”
6.10 vicibus…alternis For this phrase applied to the alternation of day and night cf. Seneca, Oedipus 689, nec ulla vicibus surgit alternis dies
6.21ff. Dicitur Caesar The Caesar in question was Domitian, younger brother of the conqueror of Jerusalem, Titus, mentioned in the following stanza. For his habit of amusing himself by snatching at flies, cf. Suetonius Domitian iii.1.
6.29ff. Clarus…censor For Cato’s drinking cf. Seneca, Dialogi IX.xvii.9. Cf. Horace, Odes III.xxi.12f.,

narratur et prisci Catonis
saepe mero caluisse virtus.

6.35 insignem puerum Ganymede. Cf. ib. III.xx.16f., aquosa / raptus ab Ida (no doubt in imitation of Horace, the epithet aquosa is also applied to Mt. Ida by Ovid, Fasti VI.15).
6.39f. externis…mittat ab oris Perhaps suggested by Ovid, Metamorphoses IX.19, nec gener externis hospes tibi missus ab oris.
6.45 princeps sitibundus Alexander the Great.
6.51f. comes…Caecrope cretus Theseus, born of the royal family of Athens, which traced its ancestor to the half-man, half-snake Cecrops. The printed text has Hecates (a Greek genitive), but clearly Brownswerd is thinking of the hospitality shown Theseus by the aged peasant woman Hecale.
6.53ff. Qua demum nostri Cf. Mark 12:42, Luke 21:1.
6.57 edax…livor Cf. Ovid, Amores I.xv.1, Remedia Amoris 389, Seneca, Phaedra 493, Lucan I.288, and Martial XI.xxxiii.3.
6.58 gloria altum vertice tollens Cf. Horace, Odes I.xviii.15, et tollens vacuum plus nimio gloria verticem.
6.65 caballino…fonte The Hippocrene, a fountain sacred to the Muses which sprang up when a rock was struck by Pegasus’ hoof. Cf. Persius, proem 1ff.:

Nec fonte labra prolui caballino
nec in bicipiti somniasse Parnaso
memini, ut repente sic poeta prodirem.

6.77 procaces…Musae Horace calls his Muse procax at Odes II.i.37.
6.80 haereat The subject of this verb is not made explicit in the text, but presumably is “our friendship.”
6.82 feracis…telluris Cf. Seneca, Hercules Furens 697 and 1055.

7 AD IOHANNEM BRECHGYRDLUM For the poet’s friend, mentor and former teacher John Bretchgirdle see the Introduction. Meter: third Asclepiadeans (stanzas consisting of three first Asclepiadeans + 1 glyconic).
7.6 aurem personuit Cf. crebro qui personet aurem at Horace, Epistulae I.i.7.
7.9 saeva per aequora Cf. Aeneid IV.523. For the general picture cf. Horace, Epistulae I.i.45f:

inpiger extremos curris mercator ad Indos
per mare pauperiem fugiens, per saxa, per igni.

7.13 arma… spargere Cf. Aeneid VII.551, XI.191, and Lucan VI.269.
7.15f. ut sceptrum Oceanus terminet Cf. Aeneid I.287, (Caesar), imperium Oceano, famam qui terminet astris.
7.27 Livor edax See the note on 6.57.
7.23 notarier digito Cf. Horace, Odes IV.iii.22, monstror digito praetereuntium.
7.30f. Pymplaega…Castalia Two springs with special associations with the Muses.
7.33 Samii littera Cf. Servius on Aeneid VI.136, novimus Pythagoram Samium vitam humanam divisisse in modum Y litterae, scilicet quod prima aetas incerta sit, quippe quae adhuc se nec vitiis nec virtutibus dedit: bivium autem y litterae a iuventute incipere, quo tempore homines aut vitia, id est partem sinistram, aut virtutes, id est dexteram partem sequuntur.
7.35 Astraeae The Roman goddess of Justice. For cedere nesciae cf. Horace, Odes I.vi.6.
7.41 deae fallacis Fortune.
7.44 infernas domos Cf. Aeneid V.732.
7.52 Lucernam an modius premet? Cf. Matthew 5:15, Neither do men light a candle, and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick; and it giveth light unto all that are in the house, and the similar logia at Mark 4:21 and Luke 11:33..
7.55 perfida linua Cf. Martial VII.xxiv.2.
7.57 radiis lustrat Cf Lucretius VI.737, radiis sol omnia lustrans.
7.58 ignipedes This epithet is found at the Vergilian Culex 127, Ovid, Metamorphoses II.392, and Statius, Thebais I.27.
7.63 Misenus Aeneas’ herald and trumpeter (Aeneid III.239 etc.).
7.74 Amramides Moses was the son of Amram (Exodus 6:20). So, for that matter, was Aaron, but Brownnswerd always means Moses by this patronymic appellation. The biblical allusion is to Exodus 26:14, And thou shalt make a covering for thent of rams’ skins dyed red.
7.82 Punctonensis Poynton or Pointon, a village about 12 mi. north of Macclesfield.
.7.84 Coridus Corydon is a typical shepherd’s name in pastoral (used in Vergil’s second and seventh Eclogues).
7.90ff. Tanto…pessimus omnium Cf. Catullus lxix.5f:

tanto pessimus omnium poeta,
quanto tu optimus omnium patronus.

7.100 Mygdonias opes The wealth of Midas (cf. Horace, Odes II.xii.22).
7.102 ros a superis Hermonium ruens An allusion to Psalm 133:3, As the dew of Hermon.

8 Meter: Sapphic stanzas.
8.1 laxans…curas Cf. Aeneid IX.225.
8.12 praepete penna cf. Aeneid III.361 and VI.15.
8.20 copia cornu For these words as the fourth line of a Sapphic stanza, cf. Horace, Carmen Saeculare 60.
8.32 Ilia rumpat Cf. Catullus xi.20 and Vergil, Eclogue vii.26.
8.49 coeli templa Cf. Terence, Eunuchus 590, Lucretius I.1105, and many other passages.
8.59 sanum in corpore sano Cf. Juvenal x.356, orandum est ut sit mens sana in corpore sano.
8.65 recoctae loquelae Although these poems attest that later in life Bretchgirdle functioned as a schoolmaster as well as a rector, there is no reason to think that he did so in his Stratford days. Therefore he did not spend seventeen years polishing the rhetoric of his students, but rather of his own delivery of sermons.
8.69ff. commissum fidei talentum As a pastor, and perhaps also as a teacher, he behaves like the gentleman in the parable (Matthew 25:15-16), And unto one he gave five talents, to another two, and to another one; to every man according to his several ability; and straightway took his journey. Then he that had received the five talents went and traded with the same, and made them other five talents. He is not like third man in the parable, But he that had received one went and digged in the earth, and hid his lord’s money.
8.81 fila vitae Cf. Ovid, Heroides xv.82 and Tristia V.x.46.

9 Meter: Stanzas consisting of two greater Alcaics + 1 lesser Alcaic + 1 phalaecian lines.
9.4 Noruici Not Norwich, as one would expect, but Northwich, another town in the mid-Cheshire district.
9.6 Lesbiacae…puellae Sappho.
9.10 Dyrce? Caballi an nobilis ungula Dirce is another fountain sacred to the Muses. For Caballi see the note on 6.65.
9.12 Parnassi an gemino…antro? Since Mt. Parnassus has two peaks, Brownswerd permits himself to assume each peak comes equipped with a hospitable cave.
9.14 Stagyrae alumnum Aristotle. Anytus was one of Socrates’ accusers (the phrase Anyti reum comes from Horace, Sermones II.iv.3).
9.17 Hyblaeae The honey of Mt. Hybla in Sicily was famous in antiquity. Bretchgirdle is being compared to a busy bee.
9.21 velox…animus Cf. Horace, Epistulae I.xii.13.
9.23 Impatiensque morae Cf. Seneca, Oedipus 99 and Phaedra 583.
9.30 Arteis honestas Cf. Juvenal iii.21.
9.31 Fungeris et vice cotis Cf. Horace, Ars Poetica 304, ergo fungar vice cotis.
9.34 Crasso…pollice I. e., the poet’s fat, clumsy thumb makes him an inept musician.
9.39 superante Phoebo Cf. Ovid, Fasti VI.707.
9.40 Tmolum In mythology, the mountain deity Tmolus served as umpire for a music contest between Pan and Apollo.
9.41f. Pylii…Dardani senis Nestor and Priam. For Dardani senis cf. Ovid, Tristia III.v.38.
9.43 croceo…cubili Cf. Vergil, Aeneid IV.585, IX.460, Georgics I.447, and the Vergilian Elegiae in Maecenatem i.123.
9.44 peperit decus For this idiom cf. Plautus, Truculentus 517.
9.49ff. Icaris…Laertiades Penelope, Ulysses.
9.53ff. Non sic sinistro sydere Ceyx, son of the Morning Star, was destroyed by the gods while sailing to Apollo’s oracle at Delos, leaving Halcyone to mourn him (cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses XI.410ff.).
9.55 fatigat…deos Cf. Propertius II.xx.3, Statius, Silvae V.i.73 and Thebais IV.633.
9.57ff. Non tam frequenti voce Since this is a collection of Brownswerd’s poems assembled by Newton, it contains repetitions of material that the author no doubt would have eliminated had he published his own work. In a very similar context, the present stanza duplicates (in another meter) 5.9ff. In the fourth line of this stanza vino is perhaps used because to the thirsty beast the water is as thrilling as wine, but more likely it is used because Brownswerd could not think of a metrically suitable synonym for aqua.
9.61 nox…conscia Cf. Ovid, Heroides xviii.105, Metamorphoses XIII.15, and above all Statius, Achilleis I.926, intrepidos nox conscia iungit amantes.
9.64 Aequali numero I. e., for instance, at noon they are waiting for the time to become midnight.
9.66 nec pudor aut modus Cf. Horace, Odes I.xxiv.1f.:

Quis desiderio sit pudor aut modus
tam cari capitis?

9.70 abest rei? Cf. Horace, Odes III.xxiv.64.
9.81ff. Ut membra molli victa deo iacent One cannot be quite sure of which god Brownswerd had in mind. Perhaps Jupiter, temporarily hamstrung and hidden in the Corcyrian Cave by the rebellious monstery Typhon (Apollodorus, Biboliotheca I.vi.3).
9.86 Alasque tensas Cf. Lucan V.714.
9.89ff. This and the following stanzas give two examples of young men who were destroyed by their excessive aspirations, Phaethon and Priam’s son Paris.
9.92 Eridano The Po.
9.95 Aeacidae Achilles, whose grandfather was Aeacus.
9.96 Inscribisque solum…hasta Cf. Aeneid I.478, et versa pulvis inscribitur hasta.
9.98 nec pede metior me…proprio Cf. Horace, Epistulae I.vii.98, metiri se quemque suo modulo ac pede verum est.
9.107 sat esse Cf. Propertius II.x.7, in magnis et voluisse sat est.
9.120 invisum Hateful because of the work it has cost him, and during the holiday he is in a frame of mind where he dislikes his work (similarly with exosam in the next stanza).
9.121 cuti His wineskin.
9.122 pede libero This entire stanza echoes Horace, Odes I.xxxvii.1ff.:L

Nunc est bibendum, nunc pede libero
pulsanda tellus, nunc Saliaribus
ornare pulvinar deorum
tempus erat dapibus, sodales.

9.123 Saliumque morem The Salian college of priests, dedicated to Mars, performed a peculiar dance described by Plutarch, Life of Numa xiii.

10 I have been unable to identify any possible addressee in university records, nor am I sure how Belsolus is to be Englished. Meter: Alcaic stanzas.
10.1 flammiger…Titan Cf. Lucan I.415.
10.2 Antii Rome (i. e. the Roman Church).
10.7 Pennaque…praepete See the note on 8.12.
10.12 A teneris…annis Cf. Ovid, Heroides iv.25.
10.18 Iessaei David, the son of Jesse.
10.20 ore ruens profundo Cf. Horace, Odes IV.ii.7f.
10.25f. Praevidit…Daniel The references is to the messianic prediction at Daniel 12:1.
10.28 oculoque mundi For this designation of the sun cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses IV.228.
10.31 See the note on 6.57.
10.32 volucrum…dierum Cf. Horace, Odes III.28.6 and IV.xiii.16.
10.33 Syrtis A sandbank of the coast of Libya.
10.34 Boreas fremit Perhaps suggested by Seneca, Phaedra 936, gelidi frementes liqueris Boreae minas.
10.37 celso vertice Cf. Aeneid III.679, V.335, VI.805, Seneca, Phaedra 457 and Statius, Silvae IV.iv.9.
10.41 bruta tellus Cf. Horace, Odes I.xxxiv.9.
10.50ff. Hermus…Pactolus…Tagus Gold-bearing rivers of Aeolis, Lydia, and Spain, respectively.
10.54 Sylvae Sabaeae In Scripture Sheba is repeatedly described as a rich source of spices (II Chronicles 9:9, I Kings 10
:10, Ezechiel 38:13, etc.), which Brownswerd assumes were harvested from trees.
10.58 marmoreum solum Cf. Tibulus III.iii.16.
10.59 parens rerum Cf. Lucan II.7.
10.64 ima summis Cf. Horace, Odes I.xxxiv.12.
10.66 hominum…interpres Cf. hominum divumque interpres at Aeneid X.175.
10.70 decolor India Cf. Ovid, Ars Amatoria III.130, Metamorphoses IV.21, Tristia V.iii.24, Propertius IV.iii.10, and Seneca, Phaedra 345.
10.79 intimos mentis recessus Cf. sanctosque recessus mentis at Persius ii.74f.
10.74 Sauromaten An inhabitant of the region between the Vistula and the Don.
10.86 Hyndaeus
Assuming this is not a misprint, I cannot ascertain the meaning of this word (the meter excludes emendation to Hyanteus).
10.91 denso agmine Cf. Lucretius VI.100, Aeneid II.450,
IX.788. XII.442, Tibullus III.vii.186, and Ovid, Heroides xvi.185.
10.93ff. Gaudet susurro See the note on 9.17. For susurro…levi cf. Vergil, Eclogue i.55.
10.101 doloso dono Minervae The Trojan Horse: cf. Aeneid II.31, donum exitiale Minervae.
10.102 Aeaci proles See the note on 9.95.
10.103 in deorum templa furit Cf. Lucan I.144, in sua templa furit.
10.105 Epeus Epeius son of Panopeus built the Trojan Horse.
10.109 Sed quid Minervam sus canit hispida? Brownswerd’s own version of the Roman proverb sus Minervam (used by Cicero, Academica I.xviii.9, Epistolae ad Familiares IX.xviii.4, and Porphyrio in his commentary on Horace, Epistulae I.xvii.3-4. This proverb is explained by Festus, De Verborum Significatione p.310.53, “Sus Minervam” in proverbio est, ubi quis id docet alterum, cuius ipse inscius est.
10.113 parce fasso Cf. Ovid, Heroides xvi.11.
10.126 Britannae quae die Elizabeth Although this poem is meant to be sent to its addressee as a strena or New Year’s gift (115f.), it is at least fictively being written on November 17, the anniversary of Elizabeth’s accession. The author’s realization of this coincidence inspires the patriotic effusions that conclude the poem.
10.128 diadema…verendum Cf. Statius, Thebais X.76.
10.130 Pimplaea See the note on 7.30. For fores, queis caput cingatur cf. Ovid, Fasti III.254, Seneca, Oedipus 412, and Martial VIII.lxxvii.4.
10.134 pede libero Cf. the note on 9.122.
10.135 cruenti…domini Not Mary (who would be dominae); perhaps her consort, Philip II of Spain, but more likely the Pope.
10.138ff. hic Helicon erit In academic literature of the time, the university is sometimes represented as a second Athens, the new home of the Muses. See, for example, John Sanford, Apollonis et Musarum Εὐκτικὰ Εἰδύλλια (1592). In this line Cyrrhae = “of Delphi.”
10.139 volantis…caballi See the note on 6.65.
10.144 Maeonia cythara Homer’s lyre.
10.145 diva potens For these words with a genitive specifing the place or province of life over which the goddess presides, cf. Horace, Odes I.iii.1, Ovid, Amores III.x.35, Metamorphoses IX.315, Statius, Thebais IV.753 and VI.633.
10.143 Demodocum The bard at Alcinous’ court in the Odyssey. In the next line Maeonia = “Homeric.”
10.147f. evolvas sequaces et placide diuturna filos These lines present textual problems that probably cannot be blamed on a simple typographical error. There is no masculine noun filus that = the neuter filum. One could alter the last word of the stanza to fila, and take diuturna in agreement with it, but then what would one do with sequaces? Or one could allow filos to stand under the assumption that this is an author’s
mistake. But this would be very uncharacteristic of Brownswerd (who correctly writes filum at 25.11). And then what would one do with diuturna? Take it in agreement with diva above? Write Diuturna under the understanding that Brownswerd is pressing this Roman fountain-goddess into service as one of the Fates? Interpret it as the vocative of a neologistic transitive verb diuturno? Since I am unsure of the proper interpretation of these lines I shall leave them as an unsolved textual crux.
10.149 Pylius senex Nestor. In the following line, I have no idea what Brownswerd means by “the Phoebus of Cume,” unless perhaps the ancent Sibyl described by Petronius, Satyricon xlviii.8. Or is he thinking of Apollo’s sweating statue there, mentioned by Cicero, De Divinatione I.xcviii.1? Memnon is not the familiar hero but rather an unfamiliar but attested daughter of Priam. Next are mentioned the phoenix and the eagle.
10.150 Cumaea Phoebus

11 Meter: elegiac couplets.
11.3 Castalidumque choro The Muses (see the note on 7.30).
11.5 Ennaeae…Hyblae See the note on 9.17. Enna (or Henna) is a town in central Siciliy.
11.7 Alcidae Hercules.
11.8 Dardaniusve puer Ganymede.
11.13ff. moderator Olympi Cf. Germanicus, Aratea 32. This anecdote seems like a conflation of the myth of Baucis and Philemon with the parable of the Widow’s Mite.
11.15 Muneris authorem A favorite phrase in Ovid’s Metamorphoses (II.88, V.657, VII.157 and 686, etc.). For vultu…sereno cf. Ovid, Tristia I.v.27 and Statius, Thebais VIII.242.
11.19f. Suscipit ac rapum I am unfamiliar with this story. Does it involve the poet-crusader Conon de Bethune?
11.21f. Nec setas See the note on 7.74.
11.28 verbula pondus habent Cf. Ovid, Amores III.xii.20, Propertius III.vii.44, and Statius, Thebais I.213.
11.30 regnant corpore in exiguo Cf. Thebais I.417, maior in exiguo regnabat corpore virtus.
11.31 fera nam Getula “Gaetulan” = African. The animal in question is the lion. For extremos…ungues cf. Lucretius VI.947.
11.39 moram trahere For the idiom cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses IX.767. For certamine longo cf. Lucretius V.382 and Horace, Epistulae I.x.35.
11.41 fausto…sydere Cf. Catullus lxiv.329.
11.43 fides Aegidae Aegeus’ son, friend of Pirithous; Pylades, friend of Orestes; Euryalus, friend of Nisus; Jonathan, friend of David. It is less than immediately clear why the Sicilian tyrant Hiero (whose triumph in the Pythian Games is celebrated in Pindar’s first Pythian Ode) or the Roman emperor Titus are added to this list.
11.45 gloria gentis Cf. Aeneid VI.767, Ovid, Amores III.xv.8, Metamorphoses XII.530, Statius, Silvae II.iv.24 and Thebais V.331 (all the examples from hexameters stand at the end of the line).
11.48 Musa…Parthenopaea The reference is probably to Vergil (who was educated at Naples), and to his portrait of the friendship of Euryalus and Nisus in the Aeneid.
11.52 meterie meo me pede See the note on 9.98.

12 Thomas Hyde took is B. A. in 1568 and was elected a Fellow of Baliol College, Oxon. two years later (Foster III.1140). In later life he was vicar of various places including Eccles near Manchester, and eventually became a Canon and Chancellor of Sarum Cathedral. The speaker is a papyrus reed. Meter: elegiac couplets.
12.3 septemfluus omnis This epithet is applied to the Nile by Ovid, Metamorphoses I.422 and XV.753.
12.4 ignoto…orbe Cf. Ovid, Tristia III.iii.3, Ps.-Ovid, Epicedion Drusi 457, Ps.-Seneca, Hercules Oetaeus 980 and Lucan III.310.
12.5 Littore direptum patrio Cf. Statius, Silvae III.v.6, patrio de litore raptus.
12.6 Artificis…docta manus Cf. Tibullus I.viii.12.
12.19 cures reddere Cf. curabis reddere at Horace, Ars Poetica 133.
12.21 vivere rapto For the idiom cf. Aeneid VII.749, IX.613, Ovid, Metamorphoses I.144, XI.291, Tristia V.x.16, and Martial VII.xlvii.11.

13 “Dominus Wrench” was probably the Oxford-educated schoolmaster Richard Wrench, who took his M. A. in 1580 (Foster IV.1685). Meter: Sapphic stanzas.
13.1 puerile carmen Cf. Statius, Achilleis I.240.
13.3 serena perlege fronte Cf. Martial VII.xii.1, Sic me fronte legat dominus, Faustine, serena.
13.5 Theonis Theon was a carping Alexandrian grammarian. Cf. Horace, Epistulae I.xviii.82, dente Theonino.
13.8 Lycambes At least the story goes that the satirist Archilochus had been betrothed to one of Lycambes’ daughters. Lycambes broke off the match, bringing down the poet’s bitter invective upon himself, to the extent that he and all three of his daughters hanged themselves. He is mentioned by Horace, Epistulae I.xix.25, Epodi vi.13, Ovid, Ibis 54 and Martial VII.xii.6.
13.12 ponte Here the pons is presumably the schoolmaster’s dais.
13.14 Alitis The owl. This may be a variant of “teaching grandmother how to suck eggs,” i . e., to instruct somebody who knows far more than you do.
13.15 flavae…Minervae The goddess is called flava at Ovid, Amores i.7f., Fasti VI.652, Metamorphoses VIII.275, Tristia I.x.1 and Statius, Thebais III.507.
13.18 perpetua…nocte Cf. Catullus v.6 and Seneca, Phaedra 221.
13.19f. Taciturna lingua evertit Amyclas. Amyclae was a town in Sparta, and its inhabitants were known for their silence. According to Cicero ap. Servius on Aeneid X.564, they were destroyed by their own silence when their neighbors invaded them and they failed to complain. Cf. tacitis regnavit Amyclis at Aeneid X.564.
13.21 Qui faces arcto modio malignus subdit See the note on 7.52.
13.44 nescia solvi I. e., a Muse which does not know how to be prosaic (prose was called sermo solutus).
13.50 innumeris…ictibus Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses VIII.775 and Statius, Thebais IX.555.
13.53 Iovis arbor For this designation of the oak tree cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses V.121.
13.59 Gradivo Gradivus was a cult-name of Mars.
13.62 natus…Hyperione Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses IV.192 and 241.
13.70 Inter Uxellum et monumenta Claudi Brownswerd takes a remarkably liberal view of the territory of Wales: anything to the west of a line drawn from Chester down to Saltash on the south coast of Cornwall (Essa).
13.77f. Cestriam Castro ducis By Castrum ducis Manchester (founded by the Roman general Agricola) is meant. In view of arva it is likely Brownswerd means regions of the West Midlands: Cheshire, the West Midlands, and Derbyshire and (South). I have no idea what fourth area is designated by Ebranco. (it presumably has nothing to do with Ebrancus, the mythical son of Brute, King of Britain, in Geoffrey of Monmouth). Is this a printer’s error? The iudex is the Earl of Leicester, Chancellor of the Palatine Country of Cheshire. For his authority over the West Midlands more generally, cf. Simon Adams, Leicester and the Court: Essays on Elizabethan Politics (Manchester, 2002), Chapter 15.
13.81 sis…foelix For this at the end of an address cf. Catullus c.8.
13.84 Vive superstes Cf. Statius, Thebais IX.294.

14 I have no idea how Clytervallensis is to be Englished. Meter: Sapphic stanzas.
14.
10 Alcidae Hercules.
14.19f. praeconem pariter damnat / conscia culpae The book reading culpam cannot stand unless we were to assign adjectival force to praeconem, which seems improbable. Far more likely, the sentiment is “my mind condemns this herald because it is aware of my fault”. Cf. conscia culpae at Ovid, Heroides vii.191, Metamorphoses II.593 and Statius, Silvae I.ii.59.
14.
21 meo semper pede See the note on 9.98. For severa Musa cf. Horace, Odes II.i.9.
14.
26 locuplete…penu Cf. Persius iii.74. For divum…genitor cf. Catullus lxiv.27.
14.
28 divite corny Cf. Seneca,. Medea 65.
14.
30 scioli A Neo-Latin neologism of Italian derivation.
14.
34 decentes Gratiae Cf. Horace, Odes I.iv.6.
14.
35 chorus et sororum Cf. Martial I.lxxvi.3.
14.
37 hederae sequaces Cf. Persius, proem 6.
14.
45 doctae…turbae Cf. Ovid, Tristia III.ii.4.
14.
48 Pavit Atherton They had attended some kind of honorific banquet at Atherton, a town about twelve miles west of Manchester.
14.
50 simile aut secundum Cf. Horace, Odes I.xii.18.
14.
54 Ros Amyclaeus No ancient writer mentions the dew of the Spartan town Amyclae (for which see the note on 13.19). An early owner of the 1590 copy (a veritable fund of misinformation) wrote a marginal gloss Apollo dictus est Amyclaeus, but on what authority ? Perhaps more likely, this phrase somehow has to do with the fact there was a cult of Hyacinth at this town, but I must confess myself baffled. For Siculumque nectar see the note on 9.17.
14.
55 nemus fragrans Arabum See the note on 10.54.
14.57ff. Sordet et Lydae See the note on 10.50ff.
14.
59 Phoebi…cubile Cf. occidui…cubilia Phoebi at Statius, Thebais V.477.
14.61
ter et foelix quater Cf. Propertius III.xii.15, ter quater in casta felix, o Postume, Galla!
14.
65 inopina…gaudia Cf. Statius, Silvae I.ii.46 and Thebais V.711.
14.
69 fauces…torsit Cf. Thebais X.45.
14.
73 Capharaea A headland of Euboea, likely to be the first place in his native land a Greek would strike while sailing homeward from Troy.
14.
78 Trasumenus A lake in Umbria, where Hannibal won a significant victory in 217 B. C. Looking ahead to its future empire, Brownswerd calls Rome the arx mundi (a phrae used to describe the heaven by Ovid, Amores III.x.21 in the singular and by Propertius III.v.31 in the plural).
14.
83 punctum pertulit omnem Cf. omne tulit punctum at Horace, Ars Poetica 343.
14.
86 cura…angit Cf. Terence, Phormio 160, Ovid, Metamorphoses XIII.578, and Lucan II.64.
14.
91 cupiens vestri semper honoris It was very common for the author of a dedicatory epistle written in Latin to sign himself CUPIDISSIMUS TUI HONORIS.
14.
91 Ianum…Vertumnum Students should not abuse their education by employing it to be two-faced like Janus (e. g., by becoming pettifogging lawyers), or by going into trade (Vertumnus was the Roman god of exchanges of all kinds). For Ianum . . . bifrontem cf. Aeneid VII.180 and XII.198.
14.
99 Quae deus mensa Cf. Vergil, Eclogue iv.63, nec deus hunc mensa, dea nec dignata cubili est.

15 Meter: Sapphic stanzas.
15.20 Iussa verenda Cf. Statius, Thebais III.702.
15.24 Pectoris aestu Cf. Horace, Sermones I.ii.110, Ovid, Heroides xvi.25 and Lucan VIII.166.
15.29 penu…locuplete See the note on 14.30. For dira…fames cf. Aeneid III.256, Ovid, Metamorphoses VIII.845 and XI.371.
15.31 cassis manibus Cf. Statius, Thebais II.670 and IX.770.
15.34 imis…medullis Cf. Catullus lxiv.93, Ovid, Ars Amatoria III.793, Tristia I.v.9, Seneca, Medea 818, and Statius, Silvae II.vii.127.
15.35 The book has fidemque, but I assume that Brownswerd is saying that the coming of Jesus freed the Jews from the necessity of the Law. Hence an ablative of separation is wanted.
15.37 heros Abraham.
15.38 fessus senio Cf. Seneca, Hercules furens 1309, Statius, Silvae II.iv.36 and Thebais IV.358.
15.39 avida…aure Cf. Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto III.iv.19.
15.41 princeps generosus Cf. Juvenal viii.224.
15.43 seros…nepotes Cf. Catullus lxviii(b).120, Vergil, Georgics II.58, Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto III.ii.35, Propertius III.i.35 and Statius Thebais I.185.

16 John Hallsall was perhaps a kinsman of Cuthbert Hallsall (B. A. from Hart Hall, Oxon., prior to 1568), rector of Hallsall, Lancs. (Foster II.636). Poems 16 - 21 are written in elegiac couplets.
16.3 Magna fuit Cf. Ovid, Fasti V.57, magna fuit quondam capitis reverentia cani (obscenely parodied at Martial IX.xxxvii.7).
16.5 scripta Lycurgi The Spartan lawgiver. The following allusion to Moses refers to the Fourth Commandment.
16.8 talia verba refert Cf. Ovid, Fasti IV.580, Metamorphoes I.700 and XIV.28.
16.9 graendaevum…patrem Cf. Fasti II.815, Metamorphoses VII.160, VIII.520, and Statius, Achilleis I.50.
16.13 proles…Diones Aeneas, who carried his ancient father out of burning Troy. For Aeternumque…decus cf. Horace, Odes III.xxv.5, Ovid, Tristia III.i.46, Ps-Seneca, Octavia 281, and Lucan III.389.
16.16 Ne caecus dux sit caeco Cf. Matthew 15:14 (also Luke 6:39), And if the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch.
16.18 pulvis et umbra fugax Cf. Horace, Odes IV.vii.16, pulvis et umbra sumus.
16.20 tetrica verba Cf. Ovid, Ars Amatoria I.721.
16.21 sanctus Ioel Cf. Joel 2:28-29, And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out My spirit upon all flesh; and your sons and your daughters ahll prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions, And also upon the servants and upon the handmaids in those days will I pour out My spirit.
16.22 arce poli Cf. Martial, Spectacula xv.4.
16.23 rapido…gurgite Cf. Seneca, Thyestes 175 and Lucan V.234.
16.29 vastum…orbem Cf. Ovid, Ars Amatoria II.18.
16.30 tenero…ore Cf. Ovid, Amores III.vi.60, III.x.22, Heroides xvi.256, Persius iii.113, Martial VIII.l.14 and XI.xci.6.
16.31f. Tristis at ille senex Perhaps Brownswerd is thinking of Menedemus in the Heauton Timorumenos..
16.35 tremulo…loro Cf. Lucan IV.444.

17.1 furor…barbarus Cf. Martial IV.xiv.2.
17.11 Omnia non cernit Bernardus This would appear to be a proverb.17.13 discernere rectum Cf. Persius iv.11f., rectum discernis ubi inter / curva subit.
17.15 Charus erit Socrates Cf. John Case, Speculum Moralium Quaestionum (1585), I.vi.1, Sit ergo amicus Plato, sit enim amicus Socrates, magis tamen amica veritas omnibus et singulis esse debet, and the same author’s 1588 Sphaera Civitatis III.vii.9, Philosophus es, et tibi amicus Socrates, amicus Plato, sed magis amica veritas esse debet. Had Brownswerd read Case, or do both writers echo some proverb or quotation with which I am not familiar?
17.18 Salathiaele satus Jesus (see the genealogy at Luke 3:27). The allusion probably to John 8:32, And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.

18 Theophrastus was Aristotle’s successor as head of the Peripatetic school. Cf. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations III.lxix.8, Theophrastus autem moriens accusasse naturam dicitur, quod cervis et cornicibus vitam diuturnam, quorum id nihil interesset, hominibus, quorum maxime interfuisset, tam exiguam vitam dedisset.
18.8 bene qui vixit This old Roman saying can be found as early as Plautus, Trinummus 65, Edepol proinde ut diu vivitur, bene vivitur.

19f. At least at the Cambridge college of which I was a member, it was the custom to say grace both before and after a meal. Possibly Brownswerd wrote these for a similar institutional use.
19.3 copia cornu Cf. Horace, Carmen Saeculare 60, Epistulae I.xii.29, and Ovid, Metamorphoses IX.88.
19.4 penu…locuplete See the note on 14.30.
19.5 pandens…patentem This sounds a little too much like John Lennon’s “magically, as if by magic,” and one wishes that Brownswerd had written tendens.

20.1 a tenero…ungui This phrase is suggested by de tenero…ungui at Horace, Odes III.vi.24.

21 According to William Camden in his Annales for the year 1560,

Elizabetha iam securior, ut ecclesia incorrupta perstaret atque propagaretur, et respublica gloria et opibus magis floreret, duo salutaria edicta promulgavit. Altero anapabtistas et id genus haereticos qui in maritima Angliae oppida ex transmarinis regionibus specie declinandae persecutionis convolarant, et saectarium virus in Angla sparserant, e regno intra viginti dies excedere imperavit, sive illi indigenae sive exteri, sub poena incarcerationis et bonorum amissionis. Altero sacrilegum hominum genus coercuit, qui superstitionis tollendae obtentu antiqua sepulchra demoliri, epitaphia et digmata clarissimarum familiarum, caeteraque venerandae antiquitatis monumenta, qua prophanorum furori sub Henrico VIII et Edwardo VI supererant, denuo delere, campanas e templis tollere, et templorum tecta plumbo devestire coeperunt.

Queene Elizabeth being now more secure, to the end that the Church might both continue uncorrupted, and also be propagated, and that the Common-wealth might the more flourish in glory and riches, set forth two wholesome Proclamations. By the one she commanded the Anabaptists and such like heretikes, which had flocked to the coast Townes of England from the parts beyond the sea, under colour of shunning persecution, and had spred the poyson of their sects in England, to depart the Realme within twenty dayes, whether they were naturall borne people of the Land or foreigners, upon paine of imprisonment and losse of goods. By the other she restrained a sacrilegious kinde of people, which under pretence of abolishing superstitions, began to demolish ancient Tombes, to raze and deface the Epitaphs, and Coat-armours of most noble families, and other monuments of venerable Antiquity, which had remained after the furie of prophane men under King Henry the eighth and Edward the sixth, and take the Bells out of the Churches, and to pluck off the lead from the Church roofes.

Although the incident in Manchester that scandalized Brownswerd is not recorded in Church histories such as John Strype’s Annals of the Reformation and Establishment of Religion and Various Other Occurrences in the Church of England during Queen Elizabeth’s Happy Days (Oxford, 1824), clearly the poet is describing one of the outbreaks that inspired her second edict.
21.4 Civilis…furor Cf. Horace, Odes IV.xv.18.
21.5 verba minantia Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses I.91 and XV.793.
21.6 Cum pede pes pugnans Fighting at such close quarters that their feet are togeter (cf. Aeneid X.361, imitated by Statius, Thebais VIII.399).
21.7 Cur tunicam Cf. Aeneid X.818, et tunicam molli mater quam neverat auro.
21.9 villosus…ursus Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses XII.319, XIII.836, Seneca, Oedipus 151 and Statius, Thebais VI.869.
21.10 Hircanae…tygres For the proverbially fierce Hyrcanian tiger cf. Aeneid IV.366f.
21.11 Marmaricos = “African.”
21.15 Pluti Plutus was the Greek god of wealth. For dira libido cf. Seneca, Phaedra 206, 981, Ps.-Seneca, Octavia 299, and Persius iii.36.
21.18 Livor edax See the note on 6.57.
21.19 dire Typhon Typhon was one of the Titans who rebelled against Zeus.
21.20 lucis inops Cf. Seneca, Oedipus 301. For ambitione furens cf. Lucan X.157.
21.23 avido…pectore Cf. Ovid, Heroides ix.161 and Ps.-Seneca, Hercules Oetaeus 1669.
21.25 prona hauserat aure Cf. Statius, Silvae V.ii.58f., bibe talia pronis / auribus.
21.26 Mene labat Cf. mente labantem at Lucan II.244. Cf. also genua aegra trahentem at Aeneid V.468 (imitated by Statius, Thebais IX.43).
21.27 septeno bis gurgite Because the Nile and the Danube both have seven mouths (for the Danube cf. Statius, Silvae V.ii.137).
21.29 Latius…tyrannus Latian = Roman. The Pope, of course. It is an interesting argument that Puritan dissension only helps further the Catholic cause.
21.31 obliquo spectet lumine Cf. Lucretius V.693, Ovid, Metamorphoses II.787, Lucan I.154 and Statius, Thebais X.887.
21.32 tacito…sinu Cf. Tibullus III.xix.8, Propertius II.xxv.30 and III.xxi.32.
21.33 laniata sinus Cf. Ovid, Heroides xiv.51, purpureos laniata sinus, laniata capillos.
21.40 pia iura Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses VIII.499 and Statius, Thebais XI.165.

22 Meter: Sapphic stanzas. Aletheia is the Greek word for “truth.”
22.4 occupat artus For these words (always at the end of a hexameter line) cf. Vergil, Aeneid VII.446, XI.424, Georgics IV.90, Tibullus III.x.5, Ovid, Metamorphoses I.548, III.40, V.632, XIV.757, XV.166, Lucan I.246, and Statius, Achilleis I.930.
22.6 menteis…arrectas Cf. Aeneid V.643.
22.15 tremefacta…pectora Cf. ib. II.228.
22.21 praestans animi Cf. ib.
XII.19 and Statius, Thebais I.605.
22.23f. proles Salathielis See the note on 17.18.
22.25 maximum…decus Cf. Seneca, Oedipus 250, Phaedra 1189, Troades 311 and 876.
22.28 Nescia vinci Cf. Aeneid XII.527 and Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto II.ix.45.
22.29 terrae…orbis Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses V.481 and the Vergilian Aetna 94.
22.32 Lumine lustrans Cf. Lucretius V.575 and V.693 (both at line-end).
22.37 vertice…generoso Cf. Lucan I.604.
22.45 foetae…terrae Cf. Lucretius II.994, Ovid, Fasti IV.88 and Propertius IV.ix.22
22.49 Plato…numerosus Probably the philosopher is given this epithet with regard to the notice on the gate of the Academy that only those familiar with geometry should enter within. The other philosophers mentioned in this stanza are Socrates (see the note on 9.14) and Zeno.
22.53 Quique cognomen Aristotle the Peripatetic. Next to be mentioned is Epicurus.
22.57f. saltus pulicis rotundi These are the activities of the inmates of the Phrontisterion when first encountered in Aristophanes’ The Clouds.
22.62 fragilique testa Cf. L
ucan VI.49.
22.63 coeli…arce Cf. Aeneid I.250 and Ovid, Fasti V.41.
22.69 Tempori Here (quite illegitimately) tempori is used as an ablative.
22.82 Stygia…nocte Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses III.695 and Lucan VII.817.
22.84 munere lucis Cf. munera lucis at Statius, Thebais III.66 (at line-end).
22.87 Gades Gades was, so to speak, at the end the earth, and therefore a limit.
22.88 Mentis honestae Cf. Seneca, Phoenissae 97.
22.89 Arctois…pruinis Cf. Lucan VIII.363 and Statius, Silvae III.iii.71.
22.92 Solis iniqui Cf. Aeneid VII.227 and Lucan VII.866.
22.94 Nabathaea = “Arabian.”
22.97 totis…medullis Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses IX.484.
22.102 albo…panno Cf. Horace, Odes
I.xxxv.21f.
22.103f. Astraea virgo See the note on 7.35.
22.105 male sana Cf. Aeneid IV.8 and Ovid, Ars Amatoria III.713, Metamorphoses IV.521 and IX.600.
22.110 Longa…series Cf. Lucan I.491, III.75, Statius, Thebias I.7 and II.267. For iniqui temporis cf. Lucretius I.41 and I.183.
22.116 Lumine lumen Cf. ib. IV.189 and V.283 (both at line-end).

23 In this poem history and poetry are taken together, not opposed to each other, in the manner of literary critics such as Aristotle and Sidney. Poems 23 - 26 are written in elegiac couplets.
23.1 Pelidae Achilles. In the next line Aemathii = “Macedonian” (i. e., Alexander).
23.3 O nimium foelix Cf. Statius, Silvae V.v.59.
23.5 Smyrnaei…cygni Smyrna is one of the Greek cities that laid claim to Homer.
23.7 lyrae Maeoniae See the note on 10.144.
23.8 celsis…polis Cf. Seneca, Hercules Furens 129, Phaedra 934, and Martial IX.xxi.8.
23.10 Achaemenios The Persian ruling dynasty.
23.11 victricia signa Cf. Lucan I.347.
23.12 Regnaque…Nabathaea See the note on 29.94.
23.13 praepes…pennis See the note on 8.12.
23.14 inque gradum Cf. Ovid, Heroides xiii.102.
23.16 solis untranque domum Cf. Ovid, Heroides ix.16.
23.17 nulla mercede Cf. Propertius IV.vii.33.
23.19 Foelicis…sortis Cf. Seneca, Phaedra 436. For the idiom numeros omnes (= “in all respects”) cf., e. g., Ovid, Tristia V.xiii.10.
23.21 Rhamnusia Nemesis.
23.23 placido…lumine…vidit Cf. Horace, Odes IV.iii.2.
23.24 Chaerilus Choerilis was an epic poet of lasus in Caria, who lived in the 4th century B. C. He accompanied Alexander the Great on his campaigns as court-poet. He is well known from the passages in Horace (Epistulae, II.i 232, Ars Poetica 357), according to which he received a piece of gold for every good verse he wrote in celebration of the glorious deeds of his master. The quality of his verses may be estimated from the remark attributed to Alexander, that he would rather be the Thersites of Homer than the Achilles of Choerilus. This entire passage is in fact an embroidery upon Horace, Epistulae II.i.229ff.:

sed tamen est operae pretium cognoscere, qualis
aedituos habeat belli spectata domique
virtus, indigno non committenda poetae.
gratus Alexandro regi magno fuit ille
Choerilus, incultis qui versibus et male natis
rettulit acceptos, regale nomisma, Philippos.
sed veluti tractata notam labemque remittunt
atramenta, fere scriptores carmine foedo
splendida facta linunt. idem rex ille, poema
qui tam ridiculum tam care prodigus emit,
edicto vetuit, nequis se praeter Apellen
pingeret aut alius Lysippo duceret aera
fortis Alexandri voltum simulantia.

23.30 damna tulit Cf. Ovid Amores II.ii.50, Fasti I.60, Heroides xv.64, Ibis 220, Seneca, Agamemnon 411 and Statius, Silvae III.iii.117.
23.32 Aonides The Muses.
23.33 geminaeque sorores I am not sure who these twin sisters are supposed to be.
23.34 blanda Venus Cf. Ovid, Amores III.ii.55 and Statius, Silvae II.vii.84.
23.35 Syncereum…vas incrustare Cf. Horace, Sermones I.iii.56.
23.36 Et nebulam Cf. Horace, Odes III.xv.6, et stellis nebulam spargere candidis.
23.41 Thersitae The grotesque hunchback who appears in Book II of the Iliad. For Alexander’s saying cf Porphyrio on Horace, Ars Poetica lemma 357.5, Alexander dixisse fertur, multum malle se Thersiten iam Homeri esse quam Choerili Achillen.
23.49ff. Non Halicarnassi moles In this passage Brownswerd itemizes the Seven Wonders of the World: the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, the temple of Artemis at Ephesus, the altar of Apollo at Delos (the statue of Zeus at Olympus is usually reckoned as one of the Wonders instead), the Colossus of Rhodes, and the pyramids.
23.50 murus…mulieris opus Babylon was supposed to have been founded by Queen Semiramis.
23.54 sructa e dextris cornibus Cf. Ovid, Heroides xxi.99, miror et innumeris structam de cornibus aram, and Martial, Spectacula i.4, dissimulet Delon cornibus ara frequens.
23.57 timidi…Nili The Nile is timid because it refuses to reveal its source. Why its dwellers are called leves is less clear: perhaps because of their religious tergiversions over the ages?
23.61 diva potens numeris The Muse. Cf. Horace, Ars Poetica 407, Musa lyrae sollers et cantor Apollo.
23.62 Pieriique modi Cf. ib. 405 and Statius, Silvae II.ii.42.
23.63 res plena perili est Cf. Ovid, Heroides i.12, res est solliciti plena timoris amor.
23.66 Ephyraea = “Corinthian” (Corinth was a city known for its lavish elegance).
23.68 Carmen…exequiale Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses XIV.430 (of the swan-song) and Statius, Thebais VI.123.
23.69 lex…esto Cf. Metamorphoses X.572.
23.70 Quae gemmae Another example of the kind of duplication that came about because this anthology was not assembled by the poet himself: this praise of short epigrams comes too close to duplicating that of Laconic brevity at 11.27ff.

24 Batson took his M. A. from Christ Church, Oxon., in 1562 (Foster I.86). Nothing seems to be known of his literary activities.
24.3 Pectora quid tundis? Cf. Ovid, Amores III.ix.10, Ars Amatoria I.535, Metamorphoses VIII.536, Seneca, Troades 114 and Lucan III.733. Among the ancients breast-beating and hair-tearing was a form of mourning peculiar to women.
24.4 Quid facis…invidiam deis? Cf. Ps.-Seneca, Hercules Oetaeus 1862f., invidiam ut deis / lugendo facias.
24.7 Praestantes virtute Cf. Aeneid VIII.548.
24.11 turba sophorum Cf. the Vergilian De Est et Non 17.
24.13 vivida virtus Cf. Aeneid V.754 and XI.386.
24.14 occultae conscia laetitiae Cf. Propertius I.xv.14, longae conscia laetitiae.
24.15 Cedere…nescia Cf. Horace, Odes I.vi.6.
24.19 senex Rhudiarum The Roman poet Ennius is meant, although I have know idea what Rhudiarum means. Cf. his Varia 17f. (quoted by Seneca, Epistle xxxii), paraphrased by Brownswerd immediately below:

Nemo me lacrimis decoret nec funera fletu
Faxit. Cur? volito vivos per ora virum.

24.23 Venusia gloria gentis Horace.
Nonne supervacuos Cf. Odes II.xx.21ff.:

absint inani funere neniae
luctusque turpes et querimoniae;
conpesce clamorem ac sepulcri
mitte supervacuos honores.

24.27 Grylli…proles Xenophon (Mopsus was a mythological king of early Athens).
24.29 Audito nati…funere Cf. Valerius Maximus V.x.2, Xenophon autem, quod ad Socraticam disciplinam adtinet, proximus a Platone felicis ac beatae facundiae gradus, cum sollemne sacrificium perageret, e duobus filiis maiorem natu nomine Gryllum apud Mantineam in proelio cecidisse cognovit: nec ideo institutum deorum cultum omittendum putavit, sed tantum modo coronam deponere contentus fuit. quam ipsam percontatus quonam modo occidisset, ut audivit fortissime pugnantem interisse, capiti reposuit, numina, quibus sacrificabat, testatus maiorem se ex virtute fiii voluptatem quam ex morte amaritudinem sentire.
24.35 mentem densa in caligine mersam Cf. Statius, Thebais X.735, illi atra mersum caligine pectus.
24.37 alma fides Cf. Statius, Thebais XI.98. Cf. also fragilemque hunc corporis usum at ib. VIII.738.
24.38 sydera…ferit Cf. Aeneid II.488, XI.832 and Ps.-Seneca, Hercules Oetaeus 802.

25 Sir Edward Trafford, fourth of that name, died in 1590. Since the present epitaph stands in the both the 1589 and 1590 editions, it must have been written on the death of his father, Sir Edward the third, of the Salford Hundred (now part of Greater Manchester), who died in 1564. He was knighted by the Earl of Hertford in Scotland and was with Henry VIII at the siege of Boulogne.
25.2 Hic potius vivere dico mori I do not know how to understand this save by supplying <quam> mori.
25.7 placida…pace Cf. Lucretius I.40, VI.73, Aeneid VIII.325 and Statius I.i.16.
25.10 Stygii…Iovis Cf. Aeneid IV.638 and Ovid, Fasti V.448. For nigra caterva cf. Statius, Thebais XII.111.
25.13 metuendus et armis Cf. metuendus in armis at Statius, Thebais X.32.
25.20 placido…sinu Cf. Lucan VI.803 and VII.810.
25.21 flammantia moenia coeli Cf. ingentia moenia caeli at Ovid, Metamorphoses II.401 and extra / processit longe flammantia moenia mundi at Lucretius I.72f.
25.23 vana…ludibria Cf. Martial X.iv.7.
25.25 Luce perfruitur Cf. luce…frui at Seneca, Oedipus 854.

26.3 Amramides See the note on 7.74. The subject of discussion is the design of the sanctuary and tabernacles described at Exodus 38 - 40.
26.4 Qui nihil Cf. Ovid, Tristia IV.viii.38, mitius inmensus quo nihil orbis habet.
26.9 tremulo…murmure Cf. Statius, Thebias IX.696f.
26.16 docta…voce Cf. the Vergilian Ciris 88.
26.18 relligione sacer Cf. Aeneid VIII.598, Ovid, Fasti III.264 and Metamorphoses X.693.
26.19 Fama volat For these words at the beginning of the hexameter line cf. Aeneid III.1121, VII.392 and VIII.554. Patrios penates is a common noun-epithet combination in Latin poetry, appearing at (e. g. ) Aeneid II.717, IV.598 and V.63.
26.23 Cf. Ovid, Fasti VI.7, fas mihi praecipue voltus vidisse deorum, and Heroides xvi.63, fas vidisse fuit.
26.24 Annuaque…sacra Cf. Catullus lxiv.388, Vergil, Aeneid VIII.172 and Georgics I.339.
26.33 labentibus…seclis Instead of the more familiar labentibus annis (Aeneid II.14, Ovid, Tristia IV.x.27, Statius, Silvae IV.i.31).
26.35 tremuit…mundus Cf. Seneca, Medea 739.
26.39 gloria gentis See the note on 11.45.
26.37 divina potentia Cf. Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto IV.iii.49.
26.40 salus mundi Cf. Lucan IV.190.
26.42 animae dimidiumque meae Cf. Horace, Odes I.iii.8.
26.44 semita clara Cf. Statius, Thebais Vi.388. For semita vitae cf. Horace, Epistulae I.xviii.103 and Juvenal x.363f.
26.47 sinuosa volumina Cf. Aeneid XI.754, Germanicus, Aratea 49, and Statius, Thebais I.562.
26.48 pedibus…conteret Cf. Juvenal vi.350. For dirum . …caput cf. Seneca, Thyestes 244 and Ps.-Seneca, Octavia 227 and 861.
26.49 equos…anhelos For passages that call Phoebus’ horses anheli or anhelantes, cf. Vergil, Aeneid V.739, Georgics I.250, Tibullus II.v.60, Ovid, Metamorphoses IV.634, XV.419 Ps. - Seneca, Hercules Oetaeus 1131, Statius, Achilleis I.691 and Thebais VII.473.
26.52 oculos pascit Cf. Lucretius II.419, Ovid, Amores III.ii.6 and Juvenal vi.0x21. For amica dies cf. Statius, Thebais IV.612.
26.57 Conticeant tripodes The tripod of Apollo’s priestess at Delphi. For Phoebi…cortina cf. Aeneid VI.347.
26.59 camuram Garamantum gloria frontem The Garamantes were inhabitants of oases in the Sahara, and the reference is to the ram-oracle of Ammon. The next line refers to the oracle of Zeus at Dodona (see the note on 5.30).
26.62 Harpocraten Harpocrates was the god of silence, depicted with a finger pressed to his lips.
26.63ff. The allusion in this passage is to the account of Paul’s sermon to the Athenians at Acts 17:22ff. Cecrops was a mythical King of Athens, and is used here to represent the city as a whole.
26.64 spermologum A seer who prophesized by inspecting patterns of grains cast on the ground; ironically, the word does apply to Paul, inasmuch as he was broadcasting the seed of the Church.
26.65 doctum…Platonem Cf. Horace, Sermones II.iv.3.
26.67 Ventriloqui Certain Greek prophets who gave their responses in strange voices were called “belly talkers.” See Alciphron II.iv.15. For ranaeque loquaces cf. Vergil, Georgics III.431.
26.71 doctrina Tagetes An Etruscan prophet who made predictions on the basis lightning and similar portents (Cicero, De Divinatione ii.24).
26.73 flamen Roman priests, distinguished by their peculiar headgear, the apex. Cf. Lucan I.604, et tollens apicem generoso vertice flamen. This and the next line echo Aeneid IV.62f., pecudumque reclusis / pectoribus inhians sprantia consulit exta.
26.75 providus augur Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses XII.18.
26.77 barbara Memphis Cf. Lucan VIII.542 and Martial VIII.xxxvi.2.
26.78 monstra deum Cf. Aeneid III.59, VIII.698 and Statius, Thebais XI.143.
26.81 bibulo Phoebaeam in pulvere mensam Evidently a second allusion to the oracle of Ammon (in the desert it is so dry that anyone has a Tantalus-like relationship with water).
26.83 turpe putas Cf. Lucan I.462, et ignavum rediturae parcere vitae.
26.84 frigida membra Cf. Catullus lxviiiA.29, Tibullus I.viii.30, Ovid, Metamorphoses XIV.744 and Ps.-Ovid, Epicedion Drusi 96.
26.85 veri…nescia Cf. Ovid, Heroides i.65 and Metamorphoses I.614.
26.89 alta petens Cf. Vergil, Aeneid V.509, V.849, VII.362, and Georgics I.142.
26.90 praecipitata cadit Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses II.9.
26.91 magica…arge Cf. Ovid, Amores III.vii.35, Ars Amatoria II.425 and Remedia Amoris 250.
26.93 densa…caligine See the note on 24.35.
26.94 oculos nox premit Cf. Ps.-Seneca, Hercules Oetaeus 841.
26.100
εἰς κόρακας “(Go) to the crows,” a standard dismissive imprecation in Greek comedy. For miseris…modis cf. Lucretius III.507.
26.101 Bisaltas A people of Macedonia (mentioned by Vergil, Georgics III.461 and Ovid, Metamorphoses VI.117).
26.102 caput infandum Cf. Aeneid IV.613 and Seneca, Oediopus 871.
26.106 arce poli See the note on 16.22.
26.109 Pellaeus…tyrannus Alexander the Great (Pella was the capital of Macedonia). Brownswerd’s assessment of Alexander anticipates the famous one of H. G. Wells. For the phrase cf. Martial VI.xliii.7.
26.108 aegro…corde Cf. Juvenal vii.52.
26.113 docta…voce See the note on 26.16. For voce magistri cf. Horace, Sermones II.iii.257.
26.115 contemptor et aequi Cf. Statius, Thebais III.602 (also Ovid, Fasti III.49).
26.119 facundaque lingua Cf. Horace, Odes IV.i.36 and Ovid, Tristia III.v.29.
26.121 assiduo…verbere Cf. Seneca, Hercules Furens 801.
26.123 fera corda domans Cf. Aeneid VI.80.
26.125 animum…flectitque Cf. Ovid, Heroides iv.165, Metamorphoses II.481, Seneca, Medea 203 and Phaedra 229.
26.126 dive propheta Orpheus (who could make animals follow his music).
26.127 vera fateri For this phrase at line-end cf. Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto III.i.79, III.ix.19, Heroides xiv.47 and Metamorphoses IX.53.
26.130 laeti murmuris Cf. Statius, Achilleis I.554.
26.131 Dulcia non fundit Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses XIV.430, carmina iam moriens canit exequialia cycnus.
26.132 ore ciere Cf. Catullus lxiv.131 and Seneca, Hercules Furens 902.
26.133 placido…lumine See the note on 23.23.
26.137 doctae…lingäe Cf. Horace, Odes III.viii.5. For facundia linguae cf. Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto I.ii.67, II.iii.75, Tristia III.v.29 and IV.iv.5.
26.138 plectra moves For the idiom cf. Ovid, Heroides iii.113, Statius, Silvae I.ii.2 and III.ii.131.
26.140 Divinam…opem Cf. Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto I.ii.142 and Fasti III.22.
26.142 monstret iter Cf. Ovid, Heroides xviii.106 and Fasti II.702.

27 No suitable individual can be identified in university records, and I am unsure how Guysus is to be Englished. This and the following poem are written in hendecasyllables.
27.1 si qua fides Horatiani Horace, Sermones I.iii.1ff., a passage which begins:

Omnibus hoc vitium est cantoribus, inter amicos
ut numquam inducant animum cantare rogati,
iniussi numquam desistant.

27.17 limam…Persii A reference to the harsh things said about bad poets in the Proem to Perseus’ Satires.
27.19 Lustrans lumine Cf. Aeneid II.754 and VIII.153.

28 This entire poem is an expansion on Ovid, Tristia I.v.25ff.:

scilicet ut fulvum spectatur in ignibus aurum,
tempore sic duro est inspicienda fides.
dum iuvat et vultu ridet Fortuna sereno,
indelibatas cuncta sequuntur opes:
at simul intonuit, fugiunt, nec noscitur ulli,
agminibus comitum qui modo cinctus erat.
atque haec, exemplis quondam collecta priorum,
nunc mihi sunt propriis cognita vera malis.
vix duo tresve mihi de tot superestis amici:
cetera Fortunae, non mea turba fuit.

29 This poem is a kind of Christian meditation on Aesop’s tenth fable. It is written in dactylic hexameters.
29.2 puerilis fabula Cf. Statius, Achilleis I.947.
29.5 ne longe exempla petantur Cf. nec longe fatorum exempla petantur at Lucan I.94.
29.8 nescivit…usum Cf. Ovid, Fasti VI.704.
29.11 coelestia munera Cf. Propertius II.iii.25.
29.13 pretium virtutis Cf. Lucan II.258.
29.15 officii…honesti Cf. Horace, Epistulae I.xviii.34.
29.21ff. Idcirco sacris vindex Cf. Matthew 7:6: Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again and rend you.
29.25 morsu…cruento Cf. Statius, Thebais I.603 and VII.53.
29.27 puro…aptissima testa liquori Cf. Ovid, Tristia I.490, l
iquido testa sit apta mero.

30 Meter: elegiac couplets.
30.1f. Palladis Ausonius miles These lines seem like nothing more specific than an elaborate way of saying “the Romans, the Greeks, and the Celts.”
30.5 generoso…vertice Cf. Lucan I.604.
30.7 rotae volucri Cf. Aeneid VIII.433, Seneca, Hercules Furens 180, 750, and Statius Silvae V.i.17.
30.8 falx…acuta Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses IX.383 and Martial III.xxiv.5.
30.10 prima…fronte For this idiomatic usage cf. Ovid, Ars Amatoria III.553. For sistere…gradum cf. Aeneid VI.465, Ovid, Heroides xiii.103, Propertius IV.x. 36 and Seneca, Hercules Furens 772.
30.12 Silenum The allusion is to Plato, Symposium p. 216D, where Socrates is compared to a figure of Silenus, looking absurd on the outside but full of rich things within.
30.15 Carpe horam Suggested, of course, by Horace’s Carpe diem quam minimum credulapostero (Odes I.xi.8).
30.16 tempus…fugit Cf. Vergil, Georlgics III.284.
30.19 studium…virtutis Cf. Statius, Silvae IV.viii.58.
30.20 Aetas…florida Cf. Catullus lxviiia.16.
30.21 ratio…iusta Cf. Juvenal vi.94.
30.27 ut docto testatur Plinius ore Probably a reference to Pliny the Younger’s description of his uncle’s devotion to his studies at Epistulae III.v.9ff.
30.31 in auras…vanescunt Cf. Ovid, Amores II.xiv.41, Ista sed aetherias vanescant dicta per auras.

31 Poems 31 and 32 are written in dactylic hexameters.
31.1 Palladias…arteis Cf. Germanicus, Aratea 518.
31.3 densa…caligine Cf. Aeneid XII.466.
31.4 lumine casso Cf. Lucretius IV.368, V.719, V.757, Aeneid II.85 and Statius, Thebais II.15.
31.6 promptae…linguae Cf. Ovid, Fasti IV.310.
31.9 foelice sorte Cf. Seneca, Phaedra 436.
31.10 nihil…vilius Cf. Martial IV.lxvi.2.
31.11 quiconspicit omnia Phoebus Cf. Ovid, Heroides xv.89, quae conspicit omnia Phoebe.
31.15 maxima cura For this phrase at the end of the hexameter line cf. Vergil, Aeneid I.678, Georgics 354 and Ovid, Tristia IV.iii.17.
31.17 carpe diem See the note on 30.15.
31.18 Dum vires Cf. Ovid, Ars Amatoria II.669, Dum vires annique sinunt, tolerate labores.
31.21 defluit aetas Cf. Juvenal vii.32.
31.24 laeta iuventus Cf. Vergil, Aeneid II.394f. and Georgics III.63.
31.23 volat irrevocabilis hora Cf. Seneca, Phaedra 1141f., volat amgiguis mobilis alis / hora.
31.25 Terga dabit For the idiom cf. (e. g.) Ovid, Remedia Amoris 154, deliciae iam tibi terga dabunt.
31.26 studiis…honestis Cf. Horace, Epistulae I.ii.36.
31.28 sine fine beatis Cf. Ovid, Ibis 207.
31.29 blando…vultu Cf. Statius, Silvae I.i.31.
31.30 gratum acceptumque Cf. gratum acceptumve at Catullus xlvi.1.
31.32 Aonias…divas Cf. Statius, Silvae I.iv.20.
31.35 vastus…orbis See the note on 16.29.
31.36 Aemula Phoebaeis Cf. Silvae IV.iv.80, aemula Trinacriis volvens incendia flammis.

32 This poem reflects on Aesop, Fable 234.
32.1 monstrosus Here this word is used in its etymological sense, “worthy of being pointed out.”
32.3 Auricomum This adjective is taken from Aeneid VI.141.
32.4 Threiciiumnque…Borean Cf. Aeneid X.350, Ovid, Ars Amatoria II.431 and germanicus, Aratea 242.
32.6 Carpit iter For this common phrase cf. (e. g.) Ovid, Metamorphoses II.549 and X.709.
32.8 violento turbine Also common in Roman poetry, as at (e. g.) Lucretius V.368, V. 1231 and Lucan V.611.
32.9 vastusque…orbis See the note on 16.29. Cf. also totusque perhorruit orbis at Ovid, Metamorphoses I.203.
32.10 Horrendumque tonat Cf. the idiom horrendum intonat at Aeneid XII.700 and Juvenal vi.485.
32.12 gelidum…tyrannum Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses VI.711.
32.13 Propositamque viam Cf. Ovid, Tristia I.iii.54. For succumbere nescius cf. Heroides xii.49.
32.14 micanteis radios Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses II.40 and VII.411.
32.18 genua labant Cf. Aeneid V.432 and XII.905.
32.20 Iniecit, defecto poplite Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses XII.477, illa super terram defecto poplite labens.
32.21 cessit victoria Cf Aeneid XII.183 and Statius, Thebais VI.530.
32.24 facundo Tullius ore Perhaps a reference to Cicero’s poetic fragmen 11.1, cedant arma togae, concedat laurea laudi.
32.29 Palladis arte Cf. the note on 31.1.
32.33 Syracosii geometrae Archimedes. He taught that a boy could accomplish so much more than strong grown men by using a lever for lifting.
32.34 Qui primus Archimedes explored the relationship between a sphere and the cylinder that encloses it, giving way to the formula V= 4/3(¹)3. As noted in the following line, he also defined the volume of the sphere, and during the Roman siege of Syracuse he devised several engines for the defence of the city.
32.37 Trinacrii = “Sicilian.”
32.38 patriae…terrae Cf. Statius, Thebais XI.698.

33 Meter: elegiac couplets.
33.5 Sic divus fertur docuisse Hieronymus Epistulae lii.10.
33.8 e captis exuiviaeque feris Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses I.475f., captivarumque ferarum / exuviis gaudens.
33.11 postulat usus Cf. ib. XIII.215.
33.13 murus aheneus Cf. Horace, Odes III.iii.65.
33.18 divitiave Midae Cf. Catullus xxiv.4.
33.19 Cuncta…fluunt Cf. Ovid, Metamorphorses XV.178.
33.21 Phariis…tenebris Darkness such as would require the Lighthouse of Alexandria (which stood on the island of Pharos) to dispel.
33.29 fortunae…ictu Cf. Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto II.vii.41 and Lucan V.730.
33.30 A filo pendent Cf. ib. IV.iii.35, Omnia sunt hominum tenui pendentia filo
33.31 Apuleius esto Author of The Golden Ass, in which the hero is temporarily transformed into a donkey.

34 Meter: dactylic hexameters.
34.2 Mnemosynes The Greek goddess of memory.
34.6 expromere vireis Cf. Seneca, Troades 107.
34.7 e medio…acervo For the idiom cf. Juvenal xiii.10.
34.10 divinae…aurae Cf. Horace, Sermones II.ii.79.
34.12 Cecropiis…ab oris Athens (see the note on 26.63). This is inaccurate: the first system of mnemonics is said to have been devised by the poet Simonides of Ceos (cf. Cicero, De Oratore II.xxxli.7).
34.13ff. Ecce Themistocles The examples of Themistocles, Cyrus and Theodectes come from Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria XI.ii.50-51.
34.14 male gratae Cf. Ovid, Amores II.xviii.23 and Heroides vii.27.
34.15 duodena priusquam Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoss XIII.618f., cum sol duodena peregit / signa.
34.19 susceptus quondam Herodotus tells this story in Book I of the Histories.
34.20 signa secuti For these words at line-end cf. Aeneid VIII.52 and Lucan II.531.
34.22 Aeacidae…legatus The ambassador of King Pyrrhus of Epirus.
34.24 illustris regnator Mithridates Eupator. Virosi . . . ponti is probably suggested by Vergil, Georgics I.58f., virosaque Pontus / castorea.
34.28 premebat imperio Cf. Aeneid I.54.
34.29 populo et responsa petenti Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses III.340.
34.34 splendescit ab usu Cf. splendeat usu at Horace, Odes II.ii.4.
34.35 Colligit et vireis Cf. vires sibi colligat usu at Ovid, Ars Amatoria II.339.

35 This tale is Brownswerd’s version of Aesop’s fable of the Ass and the Lion. It is unclear why he chose to locate the incident at Cyme. For Richard Lucy see the Introduction.. Meter: hendecasyllables.
35.1 Massylae Africa (i. e., a lion).
35.12 facitque ficum “Gives them the finger” (a gesture with which Brownswerd was familiar, as can be seen from 40.3).
35.16 Phrygii tyranni Midas, whose ass’s ears were betrayed by his talkative barber. For the phrase Phrygius tyrannus cf. Aeneid XII.75.
35.17 vindicante Phoebo Because Midas had impertinently challenged him to a musical contest.
35.21ff Aesopi Brownswerd seems to be conflating two of Aesop’s fables, The Owl and the Birds and The Bird in Stolen Plumage. For Flavae …Minervae see the note on 13.15.
35.32 cane peius et colubro Cf. cane peius et angui at Horace, Epistulae I.xvii.30.
35.33 Stygii Iovis See the note on 25.10. For Artes…nefandas cf. Lucan VIII.688.
35.37 metiri pede te tuo See the note on 9.98.
35.40 Sparten In contemporary Anglo-Latin academic lingo, Sparta = “area of responsibility,” sometimes (although probably not here) with the more technical connotation “academic discipline.”

37 According to Fripp, Shakespeare Man and Artist I.85, it was the standard practice of grammar schools to allow a quarter hour recess for play at 3 p. m. It is interesting to note that Brownswerd is saying that schoolboys should be allowed their play, but, other than the formation of friendships, he makes no claim for any improving benefits of physical exercise; he was no predecessor of Matthew Arnold. Whether or not this poem is addressed to John Bretchgirdle, it reflects his genial philosophy of education and therefore the regimen under which Brownswerd received his education. Fripp (Shakespeare Studies 34f.) quotes from Bretchgirdle’s Witton School statutes:

That the scholars have not an evil opinion of the schoolmaster, nor the schoolmaster should not like the scholars’ doing, for requiring of customs and orders, I will that upon Thursdays and Saturdays in the afternoon and upon holy days they refresh themselves; and that a week before Christmas and Easter, according to the old custom, they bar and keep forth of the School the schoolmaster, in such sort as other scholars do in great schools.

Meter: elegiac couplets.
37.1 lasciva licentia Cf. Horace, Odes I.xix.3.
37.3 duris…lupatis Cf. Vergil, Georgics III.208 and Ovid, Amores I.ii.15.
37.4 lascivo…gregi Cf. Horace, Odes III.xiii.8.
37.5 Clymeneius Phaethon is so called because Clymene was one of his sisters. Cf. Ps. -Ovid, Epicedion Drusi 111f.:

Sic flevit Clymene, sic et Clymeneides, alte
Cum iuvenis patriis excidit ictus equis.

37.6 astrifero…axe Cf. astrifero …. polo at Martial IX.xx.6.
37.11 studiis…communibus Cf. Ovid, Tristia III.vii.11.
37.12 pignus amicitiae Cf. Martial IX.xcix.6.
37.15 pares animis Cf. pares annis animisque at Ovid, Metamorphoses VII.658. For viribus aequis at the end of the hexameter line cf. Aeneid V.908, X.357 and X.431.
37.16 pes premat atque pedem See the note on 21.6.
37.17 nudave palaestra Cf. Ovid, Heroides xvi.151 and Statius, Silvae III.i.146.
37.20 saxeus orbis No doubt in a contest to see who can throw it the farthest.

38 Poems 38 - 41 (excepting poem 38a, not included here) are written in dactylic hexameters.
38.5 arbiter aequi Cf. Seneca, Hercules Furens 730.
38.6 ad veniam propensus, tardus ad iram Cf. Psalm 103:8 (= Psalm 145:8), quoted by Nehemiah 9:17, Joel 2:13, and Jonah 4:2, The LORD is merciful and gracious, slow to anger, and plenteous in mercy.

38a As pointed out to me by a Philological Museum reader, John A. W. Lock, the inclusion of this this poem by Ralph Barlowe (who contributed one of the gratulatory epigrams at the front of the volume) is probably because Raphael Holinshed is often thought to have come from the the vicinity of Macclesfield: Holinsheds are particularly strong in the Prestbury area, and the family had a long association with the school in Macclesfield. So he may have been a local literary hero. The poem, written in elegiac couplets, praises Holinshed’s Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (first published in 1578):

Tempora qui loquitur, seriem qui denotat aevi,
In memores fastos qui trahit atque dies:
Temporis hic custos et dispensator habetur,
Atque illud servat, cuncta quod interemit.
At quis Holinshedo de tempora plura reclusit?
Sive quis annales fusius explicuit?
Parce ego, o tempus, fidum temerare patronum,
Cultoremque tui fac recolendo colas.
Parce, inquam curvae quae demetis omnia falci,
Hoc opus expungat ne cariosa dies.
Quin potius charum geminis amplcetitor ulnis
Praeconem, oficiis atque repende vices.
Aequo id si facias animo, tibi gratia habenda est:
Sin minus, invito tempore stabit opus.
Vivet Holinshedus cum tempore tempus in omne,
Atque ultra tempus quod Deus ipse dabit.
Cum nox atque dies, cum tempus desinet ipsum,
Tunc opus hoc clarum desinet esse simul.

39 The Italian Humanist Angelus Politianus [Angelo de’ Ambrosini da Monte Pulciano, 1454 - 94], writing to his patron Lorenzo Medici.

15 Aprilis 1589 According to this description, taken from M. I. Finney, Notes on the Antiquities of Macclesfield (fourth ed., 1871), the brass plate bearing this inscription still exists in the chancel of The Old Church of St. Michael’s, Macclesfield. Finney provided the following highly imperfect transcription: Joanni Brownswerde, Macclesfieldensi, Ludima gistro, viro, in puriten æ dacto, hic sepulto et repulverescenti. Thomas Newton, Butensis pletatis, gratitudinis et officii ergo. P. Alpha poetaruim, coryphacus grammaticorum. Fles peda - gogium hac sepelitur humo. Obit 15 April, 1589.

Epitaph 2 coryphaeus The leader of a Greek dramatic chorus.