COMMENTARY NOTES

spacer3.8 L’Estoile transcribed parabat, corrected by the editors of the 1871 edition.

spacer3.14 The reference is to the pontoon bridge Xerxes constructed over the Hellespont to transport his army into Greece (for the verb constravit cf. the vulgate Song of Songs 3:10).

spacer3.18 At first sight it might seem like Phariae is an error for Phario, but Augustus could not gain control of Egypt until after defeating Antony at Actium in 31 B. C. Rather, Pharia was the ancient name of Hvar, an island off the coast of Croatia, and the allusion is to his successful previous campaign to pacify Illyrium and deny it to Antony.

spacer3.25ff. Cf. Christopher Durston and Jacqueline Eales, The Culture of English Puritanism, 1560 - 1700 (London, 1966) p. 21, “The Protestant reformers of the sixteenth century had objected to the routinised nature of these Catholic fasts, but had nonetheless continued to regard fast-days organized for specific purposes as legitimate and valuable. The Elizabethan church settlement, therefore, made provision for the holding of occasional public fast-days at times of particular crisis, and a number of such days were called by the authorities during Elizabeth I’s reign, for example during the serious plague visitations of 1563 and 1593 and the Armada crisis of 1588.”

spacer3.27 L’Estoile transcribed testatur, retained in the 1871 edition. In view of the plural subject, testantur seems preferable.

spacer3.41 Poetic license, of course: although the Spanish brought along some galleys (which proved useless), the English scarcely employed any oar-driven ships in the fight.

spacer3.59ff. Beza is writing of the various conspiracies against Elizabeth’s life which had been disclosed in the preceding years (the Babington Plot and so forth).

spacer3.69 So far, what Beza has said or implied about these conspiracies and the Spanish attempt being part and parcel of the same Rome-inspired campaign to destroy Elizabeth and English Protestantism dovetails with contemporary English propaganda (as embodied, for example, in Christopher Ocland’s Elizabetheis). But, at least under Elizabeth, English anti-Catholic propagandists did not pay very much attention to the Jesuits.

spacer3.73 Munere probably encompasses both the ideas of financial payment in this life and heavenly reward in the next

spacer3.78 In 1584 William the Silent, Prince of Orange, was murdered by the paid Catholic assassin Balthasar Gérard. This imparted extra credibility to allegations of Catholic plots against Elizabeth.

spacer134 The Spanish are compared to the mythological Gods who waged war against the Olympian gods: both acted out of hubris.