COMMENTARY NOTES

spacerDedicatio in ea qua Plancum defendit oratione The author is citing Cato ap. Cicero, Pro Plancio lxvi.12.

spacerDedicatio ut Papinius in Achille (Publius Papinius Statius) André appears to have thought, wrongly, that Statius’ Achilleid was written prior to his Thebais, as a kind of preliminary exercise.

spacerDedicatio ut caecus in tenebris ambulans André hints at his blindness, about which he is more candid below.

spacer1 ut Plutarchus Graecus historiographus He quotes from the first paragraph of Plutarch’s Life of Alexander.

spacerPraefatio 1 malo Homeri Thersites This statement is recorded, among others, by Porphyrius in his commentary on Horace, Ars Poetica 357 (Choerilus was a poet of small ability in Alexander’s retinue, and Thersites is the meanest character in the Iliad).

spacerPraefatio 1 Valerius idoneus testis est Although plenty of writers both Greek and Roman mention Homer’s blindness, I do not find a reference to this in Valerius Maximus’ Facta et Dicta Memorabilia.

spacerPraefatio 2 ut idem Plutarchus narrat Cf. Life of Alexander iv.1 - 7.

spacerPraefatio 2 Quid Hector ille fortissimus apud Naevium? The allusion is to a statement in a play featuring Hector written by the early Roman poet Naevius: cf. Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares V.xii.7, placet enim Hector ille mihi Naevianus, qui non tantum ‘laudari’ se laetatur sed addit etiam ‘a laudato viro’ (also ib. XV.vi.2 and Tusculan Disputations IV.lxvii.4). I. e., he said he took pleasure in being praised by praiseworthy men.

spacerPraefatio 2 Hieronimianum illud Epistola lx.1 (vol. 331, col. 0529 Migne).

spacerPraefatio 2 ut inquit beatus Augustinus The quote is from the Preface to The City of God.

spacerPraefatio 3 id quod Sallustius Bellum Catilinae iii.2.

spacer1 a Katherina Franciae She was descended from Katherine (de Rouet) Swynford, the daughter of a Flemish herald from Hainault, not to be confused with Henry V’s consort Catherine, who subsequently married Henry’s grandfather Owen Tudor.

spacer2 Britanniae Minoris I. e., Brittany.

spacer2 Arturus secundus He was the second of that name after the original King Arthur.

spacer2 ab angularibus Saxoniae populis denominaverunt It is unclear exactly what André is saying here: either he is merely repeating some naive volksetymologie that the Angles were so called because they came from some corner or angle of Saxony, or a more serious one that they came from some district of Saxony such as the Jutlandic district of Anglen (a view already held by William Camden in his Britannia and still regarded as tenable).

spacer3 postea Eduyno Gairdner has a note, “There are two errors here. Henry VII’s grandfather was named Owen, not Edwin, and is not previously mentioned in this work.” But it is not, perhaps, entirely clear whether the substitution of “Edwin” for “Owen” was Andrés fault or a copying error.

spacer4 <Calixto tertio> The first of a number of places where André left a blank for a proper name he did not know. This time, the gap was filled by Gairdner.

spacer4 die quidem Agnetis secundae faustissima Gairdner’s note: “There is a discrepancy here. The 17th calends of February should correspond to the 16th of January, but the day of St. Agnes the Second was the 28th of the that month.”

spacer10 clarissimum dominum comitem de Pembrouc Henry’s uncle Jasper Tudor.

spacer11 sibi principatum effinxit Clearly, Edward IV is under discussion.

spacer11 domini mariti mei After the death of Henry’s father she had married Lord William Stanley.

spacer15 et sibi In a note Gairdner remarks on the incorrect use of the reflexive pronoun. But such confusion of pronouns is common in Neo-Latin, and André repeatedly employs reflexives were a purist would find them objectionable.

spacer16 pallida Tisiphone One of the avenging Furies.

spacer16 Fata nolentem trahunt, volentem ducunt Seneca, Epistle cvii.11.

spacer19 coelesti diademate cum supernis regibus coronatur André writes as if he assumes King Henry’s petition to have Henry VI canonized will be successful.

spacer20 paulo ante Bernardi campum André wrongly thought that Tewkesbury was fought before Barnet: as Gairdner pointed out, Tewkesbury occurred twenty days later.

spacer21 Genitoris autem mei Henry V, of course.

spacer24 Tyrannus in arce Londinia It of course comes as no surprise to find the official Tudor account squarely blaming Richard for the death of the two boys in the Tower. But it may be worth pointing out that André gives this accusation literary form earlier than the more familiar accusations of Polydore Vergil and Thomas More.

spacer25 Karolo Franciae regi septimo Gairdner pointed out this is an error for Charles VIII.

spacer25 dominus de Chandea Gairdner’s note: “Philobert de Shaundé, afterwards Earl of Bath.”

spacer26 vincebatur Amalech 1 Exodus 17:8 - 17.

spacer28 sic Lucius Catilina The reference is to the speech put in Catiline’s mouth at Sallust, Bellum Catilinae lviii. But it is strange to see Cataline characterized as an optimus dux.

spacer28 Epulit hinc Lucan, Bellum Civile I.265f.

spacer29 cum Curione Ib. I.281f. (Curio is addressing Caesar).

spacer29 Veras expromere voces Ib. I.360ff. (Laelius is the speaker — in the ms. this and the following long quotation are written out as prose).

spacer30 Cunctae assensere cohortes Ib. I.386ff. (with Princeps substituted for Caesar in the penultimate line).

spacer32 ex portu Walliae Henry had landed at Mill Bay in Pembrokeshire.

spacer34 praepetibus...pennis transvolans Cf. Aeneid III.361 and VI.15.

spacer34 Hyrcana tigris aut Marsus aper Hyrcania was a land to the southeast of the Black Sea famous (if to nobody else, at least to Roman poets) for the ferocity of its tigers (Aeneid IV.367, Statius, Thebais IX.16, XII.170, etc.). For the equally fierce Marsian boar see Horace, Odes I.i.28.

spacer35 cubicularie mi fidissime Richard III’s chamberlain was the relatively obscure John Pilkington. If André had anybody specific in mind, he probably assumed that some better-known personality held this office, such as Sir William Catesby, Sir Richard Ratcliffe, or Francis Viscount Lovell.

spacer36 hoc in albo relinquo A space of a page and a half is left blank after these words.

spacer37 privati sigilli custos et Wyntoniensis praesul Bishop Richard Foxe, who assumed that bishopric in 1501 and occupied it until his death in 1528.

spacer37 fratre Michaele Dyaconi Assavensi episcopo Franciscan0 The ms. has Francicastro. Especially because there is no town named Francaster, it is difficult to imagine what this should mean, and Franciscano readily suggests itself as a plausible emendation, both because of the preceding fratre and because, since André himself was a Franciscan, it is natural to suppose he would have been glad to include the information that Bishop Michael Deacon or Dyacon was a member of his own Order. Nonetheless, I would be more confident in this emendation if I could find any corroborative testimony that Deacon was in fact a Franciscan.

spacer38 Praesules sacri celebres Although André does not claim them, it is easy enough to suppose that he himself wrote these verses. Meter: Sapphic stanza.

spacer38 Imprimis ipsius Richardi regis André was well advised to leave a blank here, since sources are divided on Richard’s burial place: some say the friary of Greyfriars in Leicestershire, others the church of the Annunciation of Mary the Virgin at Newarke.

spacer39 Capti sunt autem eo bello principes The most prominent captives were Sir William Catesby and Sir Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey.

spacer40 Ultimos iamiam videat Gelonos The Geloni were a remote nation in northwestern Scythia first mentioned by Herodotus (IV.102, 108) and also by such Roman poets as Vergil, Horace, Statius, Lucan, and Seneca. They are the kind of people who could now be reached by an English ship free to sail the Caspian Sea.

spacer41 Quare hic spatium quoque praetermittere consilium fuit Another large blank space left by the author (likewise at the end of the next paragraph).

spacer45 consulto praetermisi Another deliberate blank space follows.

spacer47 REGINAE CORONATAE PRAENOSTICUM Meter: Alcaic stanzas.

spacer47 (v. 1ff.) Cf. the first stanza of Horace, Ode III.iv,

Descende caelo et dic age tibia
Regina longum Calliope melos,
spacerSeu voce nunc mavis acuta,
spacerspacerSeu fidibus citharave Phoebi.

(In the second line, Cynthius is a cult-title of Apollo).

spacer47 (v. 5) There is of course an allusion here to the Yorkist white rose.

spacer47 (v. 19) I have not emended to Aeterno because André unambiguously handles amor as a feminine noun at PRO EODEM, AD URBEM LONDINUM 28.

spacer48 sacrosancto fonte regnato I have not previously seen regnatus = “baptized.” I suppose the idea is by this act the child is placed under God’s regimen.

spacer48 Meter: dactylic hexameters.

spacer48 (vv. 32ff.) Gairdner compared Tibulus II.ii 3ff.:

Urantur pia tura focis, urantur odores,
spacerQuos tener e terra divite mittit Arabs.
Ipse suos genius adsit visurus honores,
spacerCui decorent sanctas mollia serta comas.
Illius puro destillent tempora nardo.

spacer50 magistro Johanne Red See David R. Carlson “Royal Tutors in the Reign of Henry VII,” Sixteenth Century Journal 22 (1991) 253 - 79, who also provides interesting information about André in that capacity.

spacer50 illud apostolicum 1 Corinthians 3:6.

spacer50 illa aetate qua sextumdecimum nondum attigerat annum in grammatica Garinum In the course of his article (pp. 257ff.) Carlson studies this passage and the curriculum André outlines.

spacer50 creatio André is of course describing Arthur’s investiture as Prince of Wales.

spacer50 DE ARTHURI PRINCIPIS CREATIONE This poem (or, more accurately, miniature cycle of poems) begins with lines written in dactylic hexameters.

spacer50 (vv. 1f.) Cf. Horace, Odes I.i.1f.:

Maecenas atavis edite regibus,
o et praesidium et dulce decus meum

spacer50 (v. 4) Cf. Aeneid I.457, bellaque iam fama totum vulgata per orbem.

spacer50 (vv. 7f.) quem lucida partu / Pleias enixa est = Ovid, Metamorphoses I.669f.

spacer50 (v. 8) Paestum was a town in Campania famous for its roses in antiquity. Again, the fact that these are white roses is meant to allude to the Yorkist white rose emblem.

spacer50 (v. 19) Cf. Martial VIII.iii.9, Finieram, cum sic respondit nona sororum.

spacer50 (v. 21) Xanthe was a sea-nymph.

spacer50 (v. 22) The Dryopes and Agathyrsi were tribes of Greece and Scythia respectively. They are linked for no better reason than they also are at Aeneid IV.146, Dryopesque fremunt pictique Agathyrsi.

spacer50 (vv. 23f.) Cf. Tibullus, III.iv.39f.:

Hanc primum veniens plectro modulatus eburno
spacerFelices cantus ore sonante dedit.

spacer50 (vv. 26 - 36) Meter: elegiac couplets.

spacer50 (v. 32) Cf. Aeneid VIII.274, cingite fronde comas et pocula porgite dextris, Horace, Odes III.xxx.16, lauro cinge volens, Melpomene, comam, and Martial IV.liv.2, Et meritas prima cingere fronde comas.

spacer50 (v. 33) Cf. Aeneid III.81, vittis et sacra redimitus tempora lauro.

spacer50 (vv. 37 - 64) Meter: Sapphic stanzas.

spacer50 (vv. 47f.) The superbus rex is of course King Arthur.

spacer53 quia regis partes agebat In April 1498 Henry Percy, fourth Earl of Northumberland, was in Yorkshire collecting taxes to fund King Henry’s projected war against France, when he was overcome and killed by rioters led by Sir John Egremont.

spacer53 DE NORTHUMBRORUM COMITIS NECE Meter: Sapphic stanzas.

spacer53 (v. 1) Quirinus was an ancient Roman god whose cult had lapsed into disuse by historical times. André permits himself the assumption that he was a god of war.

spacer53 (v. 32) For sospite cursu cf. Horace, Carmen Saeculare 40.

spacer53 (v. 33) For aprica rura cf. Horace, Odes III.xviii.2.

spacer53 (vv. 35f.) For tendunt carbasa venti cf. Lucan, Bellum Civile IX.77.

spacer53 (v. 41) Haedi are called petulci at Vergil, Georgics IV.10.

spacer53 (v. 43) This line = Horace, Ode III.xviii.14.

spacer56 praecipites atra ceu tempestate columbae He is quoting Aeneid II.516.

spacer57 (vv. 1ff.) Nocturnas alii Phrygum ruinas Meter: hendecasyllables. This and the following poem draw so heavily on Statius, Silvae II.vii. For the beginning of this poem cf. ib. 48ff.:

Nocturnas alii Phrygum ruinas
Et tardi reducis vias Vlixis
Et puppem temerariam Minervae spacer

Trita vatibus orbita sequantur:
Tu carus Latio memorque gentis
Carmen fortior exeris togatum.
Ac primum teneris adhuc in annis
Ludes Hectora Thessalosque currus spacer

Et supplex Priami potentis aurum,
Et sedes reserabis inferorum;
Ingratus Nero dulcibus theatris
Et noster tibi proferetur Orpheus.
Dices culminibus Remi vagantis
spacer
Infandos domini nocentis ignes.
Hinc castae titulum decusque Pollae
Iucunda dabis adlocutione.
Mox coepta generosior iuventa
Albos ossibus Italis Philippos spacer

Et Pharsalica bella detonabis,
Quo fulmen ducis inter arma divi,
Libertate gravem pia Catonem
Et gratum popularitate Magnum.
Tu Pelusiaci scelus Canopi
spacer70
Deflebis pius et Pharo cruenta
Pompeio dabis altius sepulcrum.
Haec primo iuvenis canes sub aevo,
Ante annos Culicis Maroniani.
Cedet Musa rudis ferocis Enni
spacer
Et docti furor arduus Lucreti,
Et qui per freta duxit Argonautas,
Et qui corpora prima transfigurat.

The general idea, of course, is “let other poets write their Iliads and poems like Lucan’s Bellum Civile.”

spacer57 (v. 19) Cf. ib. 21f. (which make it clear that André means poetry and prose):

Dum qui vos geminas tulit per artes,
Et vinctae pede vocis et solutae
.

spacer57 (vv. 45f.) Melampus, the son of Amythaon, was a famous seer in mythology (Vergil, Georgics III.55o Amythaoniusque Melampus points the way to the successful restoration of this line) I do not know what, if any, specific myth about him and some hero André had in mind.

spacer58 summi pontificis legatus Adriano Cardinal Castellesi, of whom Bacon wrote in The History of the Reign of Henry the Seventh (iv.4):

As for the Pope’s ambassy, which as went by Adrian de Castello an Italian legate, (and perhaps as those times were might have prevailed more,) it came too late for the ambassy, but not for the ambassador. For passing through England and being honourably entertained and received by King Henry (who ever applied himself with much respect to the see of Rome), he fell into great grace with the King, and great familiarity and friendship with Morton the Chancellor. Insomuch as the King taking a likeing to him and finding him to his mind, preferred him to the bishoprick of Hereford, and afterwards to that of Bath and Wells, and employed him in many of his affairs of state that had relation to Rome. He was a man of great learning, wisdom, and dexterity in business of state; and having not long after ascended to the degree of cardinal, payed the King large tribute of his gratitude in diligent and judicious advertisement of the occurrents of Italy.

Castellesi was an eminent Latinist, the author of, inter alia, De Sermone Latino (Basel, 1513) and the poem De Venatione (Venice, 1534). Hence the respect he earned from his fellow-Humanist André evidenced in the following verses.

spacer58 AD LEGATUM SUMMI PONTIFICIS Meter: hendecasyllables. For the first four lines cf. Statius, Silvae II.vii.41ff. (this poem waas written in praise of the Roman poet Lucan, and according to André in this poem, the Cardinal came from Lucca):

Et dixit, “puer o dicate Musis,
Longaevos cito transiture vates,
Non tu flumina nec greges ferarum
Nec plectro Geticas movebis ornos.

spacer58 (vv. 7f.) Cf. ib. 75f.:

Cedet Musa rudis ferocis Enni
Et docti furor arduus Lucreti.

spacer58 (v. 10) Cf. Statius, Silvae IV.iv.54, Maroneique sedens in margine templi.

spacer58 (v. 11) Cf. Silvae II.vii.21f., quoted above.

spacer58 (vv. 12ff.) Cf. ib. 24ff.:

Felix heu nimis et beata tellus,
Quae pronos Hyperionis meatus spacer

Summis Oceani vides in undis

spacer58 (v. 18) Carminum nitore comes from ib. 81.

spacer58 (vv. 19f.) Cf. ib. 85f.:

Forma, simplicitate, comitate,
Censu, sanguine, gratia, decore,

It is not clear whether Fama for Forma and Sensu for Censu are changes deliberately introduced by André or copying errors.

spacer59 cardinalis Cantuariensis Cardinal John Morton, also Henry’s Lord Chancellor, who died in 1500.

spacer59 Non longe post See the discussion of this episode in the Introduction with references cited.

spacer61 quas alio in loco opportunius commemorabimus Maximilian was a supporter of the pretender Perkin Warbeck.

spacer64 dominum de Cordis Philip de Crèvecoeur, Sieur d'Esquerdes (known to the English as Lord Cordes), Marshal of France.

spacer66 posthac quum Another deliberate blank space left by the author.

spacer67 Ad Musam Meter: hendecasyllables.

spacer67 (v. 1) Cf., perhaps, Martial III.lxvi.3,

spacer67 (v. 4) In Anglo-Latin writing, senatus normally designates Parliament.

spacer67 DE EODEM Meter: elegiac couplets.

spacer67 (v. 1) Pallantias was a patronomyic for Aurora, goddess of the dawn and mother of the hero Memnon. Cf. Aeneid VI.545f.:

spacerroseis Aurora quadrigis
iam medium aetherio cursu traiecerat axem.

spacer67 (v. 2) The Morini were a Celtic tribe inhabiting the northwestern part of the region between the Seine and the Rhine. Mention of them here is merely André’s poetic way of referring to France.

spacer67 (vv. 3f.) Cf. Ovid, Metamporphoses II.112ff.:

spacerecce vigil nitido patefecit ab ortu
purpureas Aurora fores et plena rosarum
atria: diffugiunt stellae, quarum agmina cogit
Lucifer et caeli statione novissimus exit.

spacer67 (vv. 5f.) Matuta is the Roman equivalent of Aurora and Phosphorus is the sun.

spacer67 (v. 12) As punishment for killing Delphyne, Apollo was obliged to serve as King Admetus’ herdsman for a year. Cf. Tibullus II.iii.11, Pavit et Admeti tauros formosus Apollo.

spacer67 PRO EODEM, AD URBEM LONDINUM Meter: dactylic hexameters.

67 (v. 3) The ms. has Arctoris, which Gairdner emended to Arctois. This would be non-problematical, had this poem been written to celebrate Henry’s earlier victory over the Yorkist forces of Lambert Semnel at the Battle of Stoke Field, fought alongside the river Trent. But finibus Arctois seems a strange way of designating France, especially because the previous poem in this cycle is about a new day dawning for England as Henry returns home from France (i. e., he is coming home from the east, not the north). Either the true reading is something else, or this poem indeed was originally written for the earlier occasion and Andreas chose to recycle it for use at this time, but did not think to make the necessary change to adapt it to its new context (speaking in favor of Finibus Arctois as the right reading is the appearance of this phrase at Lucan, Bellum Civile I.482).
spacerCf. magna comitante caterva at Aeneid II.40 and 370,

spacer67 (v. 1) See the note on 50 (v. 33).

spacer67 (v. 5) Cf. Lucan, Bellum Civile I.237f.:

Constitit ut capto iussus deponere miles
signa foro.

spacer67 (vv. 7ff.) André is evidently describing the triumph celebrated by the emperor Domitian in the year 82, at which time he assumed the title Germanicus. Cf. Martial VII.vi, written to celebrate the occasion:

Ecquid Hyperboreis ad nos conversus ab oris
spacerAusonias Caesar iam parat ire vias?
Certus abest auctor, sed vox hoc nuntiat omnis:
spacerCredo tibi, verum dicere, Fama, soles.
Publica victrices testantur gaudia chartae,
spacerMartia laurigera cuspide pila virent.
Rursus, io, magnos clamat tibi Roma triumphos
spacerInvictusque tua, Caesar, in urbe sonas.
Sed iam laetitiae quo sit fiducia maior,
spacerSarmaticae laurus nuntius ipse veni
.

spacer67 (v. 9) For ordine longo cf. Aeneid I.395 and Statius, Silvae II.ii.42.

spacer67 (v. 10) For coronatiis...iuvencis cf. Ovid, Fasti I.663.

spacer67 (vv. 19ff.) Gairdner thought that lines are missing after Te mitte repostum, but if we read Sidus hebet for Sidus eras in line 23, that is not really necessary. The general idea seems to be that, thanks to the baleful influence of Scorpio, Mars overwhelmed the other planets and came to dominate the heaven, with the help of his henchman Orion, with the result that warfare prevailed on earth, until God intervened to set things right. It is based on Lucan, Bellum Civile I.658ff. (where there is no similar rescuing divine intervention):

spacerspacerTu, qui flagrante minacem
Scorpion incendis cauda chelasque peruris,
quid tantum, Gradive, paras? Nam mitis in alto
Iuppiter occasu premitur, Venerisque salubre
sidus hebet, motuque celer Cyllenius haeret,
et caelum Mars solus habet. Cur signa meatus
deseruere suos mundoque obscura feruntur,
ensiferi nimium fulget latus Orionis?
Inminet armorum rabies, ferrique potestas
confundet ius omne manu, scelerique nefando.

In the light of this passage, it is tempting to think that in line 23 André wrote Sidus hebet Ioviale, and that something is wrong in lines 20ff.: at minimum, flagrante minaci cannot be right because we have two modifiers rather than a modifier and a noun, and both the Lucan passage and the astrological consideration that Mars is the ruler of Scorpio suggest that Mars should be doing the infecting rather than suffering the infection.

spacer67 (v. 24) Mercury.

spacer67 (v. 28) See the note on 47 (v. 19).

spacer67 (v. 31) Cf. Lucan, Bellum Civile I.62, ferrea belligeri conpescat limina Iani. The reference is of course to the gate of the temple of Janus at Rome, closed in peacetime and opened during war.

spacer67 (vv. 32f.) Cf. Ovid, Amores III.ii.43f.:

Sed iam pompa venit – linguis animisque favete!
Tempus adest plausus – aurea pompa venit.

spacer67 (v. 34) For Tyrio conspectus in ostro cf. Vergil, Georgics III.27.

spacer67 (v. 35) For de more vetusto cf. Aeneid XI.142, Lucan, Bellum Civile I.584, and Ovid, Fasti VI.309 (all used in religious contexts).

spacer67 (vv. 37f.) For arte...Apollinea cf. Ovid, Ibis 264 and Tristia III.iii.10. Cf. expromere voces at Aeneid II.280, Lucan, Bellum Civile I.360, and Statius, Thebais II.101 (all at line-end).

spacer67 (v.40) Cf. Ovid, Amores II.v.37, quale rosae fulgent inter sua lilia mixtae.

spacer67 (v. 48) Cf. Ovid, Tristia IV.ii.51f.:

Tempora Phoebea lauro cingetur ‘io’ que
spacermiles ‘io’ magna voce ‘triumphe’ cane
.

spacer69 (vv. 49ff.) Cf. ib. III.i.41f. (the “Leucadian god” is Apollo):

Num quia perpetuos meruit domus ista triumphos,
spaceran quia Leucadio semper amata deo est?

Cf. also Aeneid I.457, iam fama totum vulgata per orbem.

spacer67 (vv. 53f.) Cf. Ovid, Tristia III.i.45f.:

utque viret semper laurus nec fronde caduca
spacercarpitur, aeternum sic habet illa decus?

spacer67 (v. 55) For turbine ventorum at line-beginning cf. Lucretius VI.153.

spacer67 (v. 57) Cf. Lucan, Bellum Civile I.83, terrae pelagique potentem.

spacer67 (v. 58) Cf. Vergil, Georgics I.396, nec fratris radiis obnoxia surgere Luna.

spacer67 (v. 59) For Aeternum...aevum cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses I.663.

spacer67 PRO EODEM Meter: Sapphic stanzas.

spacer67 (v. 5) For vani tumultus cf. Statius, Thebais III.426.

spacer68 Legimus itidem Herculi evenisse Hercules’ wife Deianeira became suspicious of his interest in another woman, named Iole, so she smeared some of the carefully-saved blood of the centaur Nessus on a tunic and gave it to Hercules, trusting that it would act as a love potion and return him to her. Unfortunately, the centaur had lied. The blood contained not a love potion, but a powerful poison. When Hercules put on the tunic, it burned. He was in such excruciating pain that he wanted to die and had a funeral pyre built for himself. He then mounted it and had it lit. He died, but was taken up to heaven, so he quite literally was “tested, like gold in a furnace.”

spacer69 Iuno quondam huic regi altera Duchess Margaret of Burgundy (the sister of Edward IV and Richard III) was a diehard Yorkist and the sponsor of both Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck. Because she was Henry’s inveterate enemy, always stirring up trouble, beginning here André repeatedly identifies her as “Juno”: i. e. he equates her with Aeneas’ great opponent in the Aeneid.

spacer70 sed ab N. As in The Book of Common Prayer, “N.” here and elsewhere means “name to be supplied later,” and a corresponding blank is left in the text.

spacer72 Troianus ille Duchess Margaret herself acknowledges the Vergilian equation by identifying Henry as her Trojan Aeneas. As a descendent of Cadwallader, Henry is ultimatedly descended from the Trojan refugee Brutus, the eponymous founder of Britain.

spacer73 Inter quos quia excellenti sacrarum litterarum scientia These individuals were William Richeforde, provincial of the Blackfriars, Dr. William Sutton, a London theologian, and William Worsley, Dean of St. Pauls (André did not know his name, and so left a blank here).

spacer73 ut inquit apostolus Romans 9:21.

spacer74 domina Katherina Gordon Andre left a blank for her name. She was a daughter of George Gordon, Earl of Huntly.

spacer78 litterarum monumentis rex imprimi demandavit The reference is to his gallows confession.

 

 

 

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