Preface, Note 1 The poem with its dedicatory epistle occupy pp. 3 - 11 of the volume; by a printer’s mistake, the letter also appears on pp. 1f., standing before the editor’s Preface.
Preface, Note 2 The allusion is to John Whitfield of Merton College; the present volume contains two of his poems, a description of Chelsea Hospital and one praising Mary.

Montagu Letter, Note 1 This letter dedicates the present poem to Charles Montagu, Earl of Halifax [1661 - 1715], William’s Chancellor of the Exchequer and one of his most influential ministers, who also receives a compliment at poem VI.16. If the intention was to procure Montagu as a patron, it was unsuccessful.
Montagu Letter, Note 2 Addison alludes to William Congreve’s poem The birth of a muse, a poem to the right honourable Charles Montague, Chancellor of the Exchequer &c. (London, 1698).

I.1f. This poem was written to celebrate the Treaty of Rijswijk of 1697, ending William III’s Lowlands campaigning against Louis XIV in the War of the Grand Alliance. Clamorque virum, strepitusque tubarum is taken from Vergil, Aeneid XI.192.
I.2 The first part of this line is modeled after Aeneid I.154, in a description of the end of a storm: sic cunctus pelagi cecidit fragor. Throughout the poem, the royal family is written of in Roman terms: William III is called Caesar here and at 103, and the dead Mary II is called Augusta at 102 and diva at 182 (as if she were a deified empress).
I.4 Deducunt may simply mean “fetched,” as translated here, or it may contain the idea of “brought down from heaven.”
I.5 Simulacraque belli echoes Aeneid V.674 (itself a tag borrowed from Lucretius II.41 and 674).
I.9 Cf. Lucan, Bellum Civile IV.250, fervent iam castra tumultu, and Statius, Thebais II.52f., atroque tumultu / fervet ager.
I.10 Understandably, curvus is a standard epithet for a plough in ancient poetry: Lucretius V.933, XV.11, Vergil, Georgics I.170, II.189, Ovid, Metamorphoses II.11, XV.123, etc.
I.11 Castra minantia castris is an apposite phrase for a campaign that relied heavily on siegeworks.
I.13 The epithet funestos is applied to agros at Lucretius VI.1139.
I.15 Exspectata seges comes from Vergil, Georgics I.226.
I.16 The stalks are strange because, fed by human blood, they grow to an unwonted height.
I.18ff. Now that the fighting is over, the battlefields become a tourist attraction. For confusa ruinis cf. Lucretius VI.600.
I.21f. For laborum / seriem cf. Ovid, Heroides ix.5 and Lucan I.123.
I.24 James Butler, second Duke of Ormonde [1665 - 1745] was wounded and taken prisoner at the battle of Landen in 1693.
I.25 Cf. Seneca, Hercules Furens 1007, cerebro tecta disperso madent.
I.27 Honoratissimus d. Dominus Cutts, Baro de Gowran &c. written in the margin. John Cutt, Baron Cutts of Gouran in Ireland [1661 - 1707] had previously distinguished himself in the capture of Buda in 1686. The laurel is presumably called peregrina because this was such a foreign war (or did Addison believe the laurel was not native to Hungary?) Subsequently Cutts was the hero of the successful taking of Namur in 1695.
I.29ff. A Latin description of a contemporary battle: what Addison writes was accurate in an epoch prior to the invention of smokeless gunpowder.
I.33f. Cf. Aeneid II.608f., hic, ubi disiectas moles avulsaque saxis / saxa vides.
I.34 For maenia discedunt cf. Lucretius III.16f. Cf. also, perhaps, Aeneid I.162f., hinc atque hinc vastae rupes geminique minantur / in caelum scopuli.
I.36ff. A description of the climactic taking of Namur, when, under Cutts, the allied forces stormed the citadel. He appears to be describing the firing of its powder magazine, but I find no source that confirms this was done.
I.38 Addison would appear to have been thinking of Aeneid II.692, subitoque fragore / intonuit laevum, and the next line echoes Aen. XII.700, horrendumque intonat. See also the note on III.120.
I.40 Lethum is called informe at Aeneid XII.603.
I.41 For ater turbo cf. Aeneid I.511.
I.42ff. The local inhabitants are astonished by the changes the fighting has wreaked in their landscape, just as mortals marveled at the changes made in the world when Enceladus and the other giants attempted to storm Olympus by piling Pelion atop Ossa, and were defeated by Jupiter. Addison had in mind Aeneid VI.581f., hic genu antiquum Terrae, Titania pubes, / fulmine deiecti. The image may be meant to contain the political “subtext” that Louis XIV is somehow to be equated with the Giants and William with Jupiter. Elsewhere in the poem William is equated with Hercules and with Augustus Caesar.
I.43 An echo of Propertius II.xiii.3, vetuit contemnere Musas.
I.50 Cf. Aeneid III.181, seque novo veterum deceptum errore locorum.
I.52f. Britain’s important allies were the Dutch and some German principalities. For corda aspera cf. Vergil, Aeneid X.87 (imitated by Statius, I.478 and V.445).
I.53 For ferox Germanus cf. Statius, Thebais IV.642. Addison may have been thinking of Aeneid VIII.169 iuncta est mihi foedere dextra.  
I.54 Norway and Sweden were at least nominally members of the Alliance. Caelo iniquo may simply mean “inclement climate”; on the other hand, it may refer to the increasinglly unequal length of dark days as one progresses northwards.
I.55 Spain also belonged to the Alliance. In writing this line Addison may have been thinking of Aeneid II.92, vitam in tenebris luctuque trahebam. Cf. also ora perusta at Propertius III.ixiii.22
I.59f. Lucretius was fond of linking fremitus and murmura (I.276, V.1193, VI.101, 29, 410). See also Lucan, Bellum Civile VI.686f., confundit murmura primum / dissona et humanae multum discordia linguae.
I.61 Intelleg. insig. Dom. Christoph. Codrington, unus ex regii satellitii praefectis. written in the margin. Thus Addison pays a complement to the Oxford-educated soldier and poet Christopher Codrington [1668 - 1710]. For a similar poet’s apostrophe to a ductor fortissime cf. Aeneid X.185.
I.62 Si quid mea carmina possunt comes from Aeneid IX.446.
I.65 Rhedecina was allegedly an ancient name of Oxford. Cf. Lucretius I.26f. quem tu, dea, tempori in omni / omnibus ornatum voluisti excellere rebus.
I.66 Addison had in mind Aeneid VI.876f., nec Romula quondam / ullo se tantum tellus iactabit alumno.
I.79 Muscoviae Imperator (“the marshall of Muscovy”) written in the margin (the allusion is to Peter the Great).
I.88 Cf. Aeneid III.656, vasta se mole moventem.
I.89 Cf. dextrae coniungere dextram at Aeneid VIII.164 and Ovid, Metamorphoses VIII.421.
I.90 Forms of succedo are used with tectis at Aeneid I.627, XI.146, Metamorphoses II.766 and VIII.550.
I.93 Cf. corde micante at Ovid, Ars Amatoria III.722, Fasti VI.338, and Tibullus I.x.12.
I.94 Riphaeus is an adjective vaguely designating the far north. Now Peter has been schooled by William’s excellent example, his Russian territories will no longer be vexed by their neighbors.
I.96ff. A description of William’s arrival at the Hague to settle the peace (May 7, 1697). Murmura vulgi appears at the end of a hexameter line at Ovid, Heroides xvii.149. For the picture, R. D. Williams compared Aeneid VI.863f.,

quis, pater, ille virum qui sic momitatur euntem?
…qui strepitus circa comitum!

“but he applies it to a context of joy, unlike the Virgilian sorrow for Marcellus. The Virgiliam diction is immediately reinforced by a favourite word of Virgil’s — ingeminant, and suddently there is a switch to Aeneid 4, where Mercury has the phrase litora fervere and Dido sees the dawn albescere and the shore sine remige (567, 586, 588). Again a calamitous situation is adapted to an atmosphere of rejoicing.”
I.99 Solve metus appears at Aeneid I.463, V.420, and IX.90. Williams observed, “The next phrases are reminiscent of Horace. Inanes mittle querelas recalls verbally (though not in context) the last stanza of the last ode of Book 2:

absint inani funere neniae
luctusque turpes et querimoniae:
compesce clamorem ac sepulchri
mitte supervacuos honores

Then by contrast the next few lines recall in context, but not verbally, Horace’s ode (3.14) about the triumphant return of Augustus from Spain.”
I.101 Cf. fluctu…tumenti at Aeneid VII.810.
I.106 The phrase grata quies appears at Horace, Epistles I.xvii.6, Ovid, Ars Amatoria III.695, Metamorphoses XIV.52, and Martial, Epigrams XI.xxvi.1; Williams compared olli dura quies at Aeneid X.745. Pax is called tranquilla at Lucan, Bellum Civile I.171.
I.107 Addison imitates Aeneid I.591, et laetos oculis adflarat honores. “A quite deliberate quotation from the scene where Venus beatifies Aeneas” (Williams ).
I.108 A Dutch private soldier returns to the bosom of his family. The transition from William to this trooper is abrupt and unmarked, either textually or by paragraph division, which only serves to point up the parallel between the two: covered with glory, both are returning to their homeland and the bosom of their family. Denso agmine is used by various writers, including Vergil at Aeneid II.450, IX.788, and XII.442.
I.109 Cf. Aeneid II.341, lateri adglomerant nostro. Addison may have been thinking of Ovid, Tristia IV.viii.9, et parvam celebrare domum veteresque penates, a suitable description of the soldier’s humble homestead.
I.114 One is admittedly tempted to assent to Williams’ suggestion that “The description of the boy frightened at the face of the father whome he does not recognize is somewhat reminiscent of the famous scene of Hector and Astyanax in Homer (Il 6.466f.).” This is an attractive posssibiity, but 1.) proles leaves very ambiguous the number and gender of the children, and 2.) it is not, perhaps, quite clear whether nescia designates ignorance of the father’s identity, or of the nature of the warfare that has disfigured him.
I.116 For discrimina belli cf. Lucan, Bellum Civile VIII.389 (also at line-end).
I.117 For instaurat proelia cf. ib. III.615.
I.118 “The simile about the Argonautsgives a fine — and much needed — diversion from the panegyric: it removes us from the moment into another world, a world of strange monsters and distant mythology. Earlier in the poem (87f.) Addison had a comparison of William with Hercules: here the comparison is more extended and more effective because it is less obvious” (Williams).
I.120 For tortile aurum cf. Aeneid VII.352.
I.121 Cf. mixtos fumos at Ovid, Fasti I.577.
I.125ff. Having arranged the peace, William returned to England in the autumn. For erepte periclis cf. Aeneid III.711 (also at the end of the line).
“[This paragraph] is a conflated variation of two famous Virgilian passages: the description of the pictures on Aeneas’ shield which illustrate Augustus’ triumphant return to Rome after the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra in 31 B. C. (Aen. 8.714f.); and of the phrases of Anchises’ welcome to Aeneas in the Underworld when he had finally reached Italy. Compare 125 - 6 with Aen. 6.692 - 3, quas ego te terras et quanta per aequora vectum / accipio!In the description of Augustus’ return compare especially with line 128 - 9 the phrase in Aen. 8.717, laetitia ludisque viae plausuque fremebant.” (Williams).
I.126 Cf. accipiet reduces at Aeneid III.96.
I.127 Medias urbes is used by various authors, including Vergil at Aeneid VII.384 and X.41.
I.130 For fremitu denso cf. Vergil, Georgics IV.216.
I.131 Cf., perhaps, annum inversum at Horace, Sermones I.i.36.
I.132 For coelum vacat cf. Seneca, Thyestes 892.
I.133 Celsissimus Princeps Dux Glocestrensis. written in the margin. As William and Mary were childless, the heir apparent was the young William, Duke of Gloucester, son of Princess Anne and Prince George of Denmark (in the event, the boy died in 1700 and William was succeeded by Anne). For gaudia with forms of testor cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses VI.660, VIII.238, Martial, Epigrams, and Statius, Thebais IX.178.
I.135 For patrius vigor cf. Horace, Odes IV.iv.5.
I.136 For majestatemque verendam cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses III.429.
I.137 For mater formosa cf. Ovid, Fasti V.117.
I.140 Although tristia bella is used by Vergil (Eclogue vi.7, Aeneid VII.325), Addison appears to have been thinking of Horace, Ars Poetica 73, res gestae regumque ducumque et tristia bella (a line more clearly imitated at poem III.6).
I.142 Indignanti similem appears at Aeneid VIII.649.
I.143 Falsis terroribus implet comes from Horace, Epistles II.i.212.
I.147 Subito tumultu appears at Aeneid IX.397 (also at Lucan, Bellum Civile VII.184, X.372, Statius, Thebais VII.606 and VIII.636).
I.151 What poet will tell the shade of Mary (who had died in 1694) about William’s triumphal progress from Margate, where he landed in November 1697, back to London?
I.154ff. Addison describes the pyrotechnical displays put on at this time. Presumably the fictile coelum is some sort incendiary device consisting of a clay pot full of explosives that create a starburst effect. The streets are full of scraps of cartridge paper, the remnants of exploded firecrackers; pitch must have been used to seal their ends.
I.157 Statius, Thebais IX.575, wrote of attonitas noctes.
I.161f. The phrase induit figuras is used by Ovid, Metamorphoses I.88.
I.163 At Aeneid VI.277 Vergil wrote terribiles visu formae. In the book leonis is capitalized, as is 165 anguem. Since Addison capitalizes many common nouns, one cannot ascertain whether he meant to indicate just the animals in question, or constellations. Cf. hispida membra at Juvenal, Satires ii.11.
I.165 Addison recalled Seneca, Phaedra 348, Poeni quatiunt colla leones.
I.167 Vergil used the collocation ingens laetitia at Aeneid III.99f. Williams’ appreciation: “The final two paragraphs begin by recalling Horace’s poems in gratitude for Augustan peace (especially Odes 4.15) and end with an idea from Virgil’s panegyric of Augustus at the end of Georgics 1 (503 - 4, iam pridem nobis caeli te regia, Caesar, invidet…), cleverly adapted as an appeal to William’s dead (and therefore deified) queen not to grudge him a longer stay on earth.” By Addison’s day the application of the of language and imagery from the Roman Caesar cult to Protestant British sovereigns was a traditional strategy in Anglo-Latin panegyric poetry.
I.168 Positoque timore comes from Ovid, Ars Amatoria II.75 (also at the end of a hexameter line).
I.169 Ultima mundi was used at the end of the line by Lucan, Bellum Civile IV.147, V.181, and VII.580.
I.170 Licentius errant stands at the end of Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto IV.x.29.
I.172f. For the locution turgida vela cf. Horace, Odes II.ii.24 and Ovid, Amores II.xi.42.
I.175 For umbrae recentes cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses IV.434 (also at the end of a hexameter line).
I.178 Parta quies is found at Aeneid III.495, VII.598, and Lucan, Bellum Civile V.373.
I.179 Stipate catervis contains an echo of the phrase stipante caterva used at Aeneid I.497 and IV.136.
I.183f. Perhaps Addison had in mind Seneca, Hercules Furens 1258, detineam amplius.
I.184 Although pax is called longa by various classical poets, Addison may have been thinking of Aeneid VII.46, iam senior longa placidas in pace regebat.

II This poem appears on pp. 44 - 6.
II.1f. Cf. Lucan, Bellum Civile IV.458, caecisque abscondit in antris. Addison may have been thinking of Ovid, Metamorphoses X.220, At si forte roges fecundam Amathunta metallis.
II11 Subjunctive because this is what the miner thinks.
II16 The locution grata forma is used by Ovid, Ars Amatoria I.624 and Medicamina Faciei Feminieae 32.
II.20 Pluvia impendente comes from Vergil, Georgics IV.191.
II.24 Caeli facies is a phrase found at Lucan, Bellum Civile II.723 and IV.104 (also at Statius, Silvae IV.viii.30).
II.29 Et large diffuso lumine rident is taken from Lucretius III.22.
II.32 For sitiunt herbae cf. Vergil, Georgics IV.402.
II.37 The return of the herons to their marshland nesting-places heralds the onset of the rainy season.
II.38 Aetheris oras / oris is found at Lucretius II.1000, IV.215, V.143 and V.656.
II43 Cf. Vergil, Georgics II.325, tum pater omnipotens fecundis imbribus Aether.
IIFor bibulae radici cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses XIV.632f.
II.49 Cf. Vergil, Aeneid I.53, luctantis ventos tempestatesque sonoras.
II.51 Possibly Addison was thinking of Aeneid IX.32, et iam se condidit alveo
II.53 For spumantibus undis cf. Catullus lxiv.155, lxviii(a).3, Vergil, Aeneid III.268 and Lucan, Bellum Civile IX.177 (also spumantem undam at Vergil, Georgics IV.529).

III This poem was printed on pp. 57 - 63.
III.4 In lines 30ff. we are informed how the Cranes were the offended parties in the dispute.
III.6f. Addison was thinking of Horace, Ars Poetica 72f. (evidently also echoed at Addison’s poem I.140):

res gestae regumque ducumque et tristia bella
quo scribi possent numero, monstravit Homerus.

III.8 I have translated this line according to the assumption that numerorum indicates the Muses’ meters (as numeri is used in Addison’s dedicatory epistle to Montagu and at poem III.5). An alternate version could be “in the eternal procession of their (the heroes’) numbers.”
III.9 Cf. Catullus lxiv.4, cum lecti iuvenes, Argivae robora pubis. Catullus was writing of the Argonauts, and surely Addison too had them in mind. Torva tuentem comes from Vergil, Aeneid VI.467.
III.10 Pedibus velocem translates the epithet regularly applied to Achilles in the Iliad.
III.11f. Literature recounting William’s accomplishments are folded in with allusions to the three most distinguished Roman epics, the Aeneid, Statius’ Thebais, and Lucan’s Bellum Civile. Is this subtle self-congratulation for Poem I?
III.14 Untouched in the sense of not having been touched upon by any previous writer.
III15 Castra with a form of secutus at the end of a hexameter line is a familiar pattern in Roman poetry: Vergil, Eclogue X.23, Aeneid X.672, Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto II.ii.11, Metamorphoses V.128, Lucan, Bellum Civile II.519, VII.831, IX.379.
III.19 For inhospita saxa cf. Aeneid V.627.
III.21 Dum fata sinebant is suggested by Aeneid XI.701 and Ovid, Tristia V.iii.5.
III.22 Cf. Aeneid VI.663, inventas aut qui vitam excoluere per artis.
III.25 For the idea of fields white with bones, cf. Aeneid V.865, XII.36, and also Horace, Sermones I.viii.16, Ovid, Fasti I.558, III.708, Seneca, Oedipus 94, and Statius, Silvae II.vii.65.
III.31 Cf. Aeneid V.598, si nemo audet se credere pugnae.
III.33 Sternit humi occurs at Aeneid IX.754 and X.697.
III.38 For uteri onus cf. Ovid, Heroides xi.64 and Metamorphoses X.481.
III.39 Spirans immane is found at Aeneid VII.510.
III.43 Hinc causae irarum comes from Statius, Thebais I.302 (but Statius got causae irarum from Aeneid I.25, as did Lucan, Bellum Civile III.55).
III.45 For mortis imago cf. Aeneid II.368, Ovid, Amores II.ix(b).41, Metamorphoses X.726, and Tristia I.xi.23 (in all cases the phrase stands at the end of a hexameter line).
III.47 “The bard of Maeonia” is Homer (the phrase appears at Ovid, Tristia, and the allusion is to the Homeric Battle of the Frogs and the Mice. For sublimi carmine cf. Ovid, Amores III.i.29 and Juvenal vii.28.
III.49 For visu mirabile! cf. Horace, Epistulae II.ii.91, Vergil, Aeneid VII.78, XII.252, Ovid, Fasti III.31 and Statius, Thebais I.534.
III.50 For gutture rauco cf. Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto III.i.22 and Metamorphoses II.484.
III.53 Variants on iamque diesaderat appear at Horace, Sermones I.v.20, Vergil, Aeneid II.132, and Statius, Silvae III.i.55.
III.55 Aeneid I.29 begins with the words his accensa. Cf. also Aeneid VII.445, Talibus Allecto dictis exarsit in iras. (This phrase was imitated by Martial, Spectacula ix.3).
III.56 We now have a catalogue of the various homes of the Cranes. The river Strymon on the Thracian-Macedonian border was known for them: Aeneid X.265, Strymoniae dant signa grues. Cf. also Vergil, Georgics IV.508, Strymonis undam (also at line-end).
III.57 Lake Maeotis was in Egypt, and the Cayster a river in Asia Minor: Vergil, Georgics I.384, dulcibus in stagnis rimantur prata Caystri.
III.58 The marshes of Scythia are mentioned by Ovid, Heroides vi.107 and Tristia III.iv(b).49.
III.62 Here fuga designates the peculiar attack-and-retreat tactic used by the Cranes, described at 101ff. For accommodat alas cf. Ovid, Ars Amatoria II.67 and Metamorphoses VIII.209 (both at the end of the hexameter line).
III.63 Tantus amor belli appears at Lucan, Bellum Civile I.21 (cf. also ib. IX.228 and Statius, Achilleis I.412). For arrecta cupido cf. Vergil, Aeneid V.138.
III.64 Springtime is the proper time to launch a campaign. Cf. Vergil, Georgics IV.77, ergo ubi ver nactae sudum.
III.67 Addison may have been thinking of Ovid, Ars Amatoria II.87, despexit in aequora. A more important echo is Aeneid X.265, Strymoniae dant signa grues atque aethera tranant.
III.75ff. As noted in the Introduction, Macauley compared this passage with Swift’s description of the king of Lilliput, “The Emperor is taller by about the breadth of my nail than any of his court, which alone is enough to strike an awe into the beholders.” Tallness was in any event a token of majesty, but both writers may have been thinking of the especially regal Charles II.
III.76 Majestate verendus comes from Lucan, Bellum Civile VII.680.
III.83 Lucretius wrote repeatedly of the alituum genus (V.801, 1039, 1078, VI.1216), a phrase imitated by Vergil at Aeneid VIII.27.
III.84f. As he wrote these lines Addison had in mind Ovid, Metamorphoses XIII.613f., bella gerunt rostrisque et aduncis unguibus iras / exercent alasque adversaque pectora lassant.
III.93 Cf. Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto II.vii.27, et quot aves motis nitantur in aere pennis.
III.96 Patriis oris is a Vergilian phrase (Aeneid X.198, XI.281) imitated by Statius (Achilleis II.81, Silvae III.ii.37, Thebais I.312).
III.97 Lucan uses studium belli at Bellum Civile VII.695.
III.99 Horrifico lapsu appears at Aeneid III.225.
III.100 Cf. Aeneid III.248, bellumne inferre paratis. Bellum is also used with forms of infero at Aeneid VII.604 and Lucan, Bellum Civile IV.164.
III.101 For fit fragor cf. Ovid, Metamorphoss I.137.
III.104 For pendet fortuna cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses VIII.12 and Lucan, Bellum Civile II.41. For fixa cuspide cf. Metamorphoses V.124.
III.106 Torquet agens circum comes from Aeneid I.117.
III.110 Cf. Aeneid X.731, tundit humum exspirans and Ovid, Metamorphoses V.293, tundit humum moriens.
III.111 For the ground being covered with tepido sanguine cf. Ovid, Ars Amatoria III.395 and Statius, Achilleis I.86.
III.116 In media morte is a phrase used at Aeneid II.533, whence it was picked up by Statius (Silvae II.v.18, V.i.172, Thebais VIII.187, 792, XI.555).
III.120ff. The Pygmy leader’s fate is suggested by Juvenal, Satire xiii.168ff.:

Pygmaeus parvis currit bellator in armis,
mox inpar hosti raptusque per aera curvis
unguibus a saeva fertur grue.

Subito tumultu is used at Aeneid IX.397, Lucan, Bellum Civile X.372, Statius, Thebais VII.608 and VIII.636. Cf. also ita di voluere at Ovid, Ibis 209.
III.124 For densus globus cf. Vergil, Aeneid X.373 and Lucan, Bellum Civile IV.74.
III.125 Vergil uses lumine maesto at Aeneid VI.156.
III.126 Their king grows smaller as he recedes in the distance.
III.128 Cf. Statius, Thebais VIII.81, desuper urguet (also at the end of a hexameter line).
III.129 Ovid uses petit arduus at Metamorphoses I.316 and II.306.
III.130 At Aeneid V.512 Vergil has atra volans in nubila fugit. Ovid thrice uses brachia iactat to describe a swimming motion (Epistulae ex Ponto, III.vii.28, Tristia IV.i.10). For this and the next line cf. also Aeneid XI.638f. (of a wounded horse), altaque iactat / vulneris impatiens arrecto pectore crura.
III.132 For belli facies cf. Lucan, Bellum Civile III.76. Statius uses Pelion ingens at the end of a hexameter line at Achilleis I.194.
III.137 For corpora fusa cf. Vergil, Aeneid IX.371, XI.102, and Lucan, Bellum Civile VII.652.
III.138 Ovid uses viribus absumptis at Ars Amatoria II.439, Metamorphoses I.543 and XV.353.
III.139 Pars vertere terga comes from Vergil, Aeneid VI.491.
III.140f. And pars tollere vocem / exiguam from Aeneid VI.492f.
III.142 Cf. Aeneid V.168, instantem tergo.
III.143 The phrase gentem nefandam is found at Aeneid III.653.
III.144 This line echoes Aeneid II.363, urbs antiqua ruit multos dominata per annos.
III.145 At Odes III.xxvi.3 Horace has defunctumque bello.
III.146f. The phrase manet exitus is used by Vergil, Aeneid X.630, Ovid, Metamorphoses VIII.60, IX.726, Juvenal xi.39, and Martial, Epigrams VIII.lxiii.3.
III.147 The mutability of empire is a topos perhaps having its origins in Daniel 11.
III.148 This line presents a paraphrase of Horace, Sermones I.i.106f.:

est modus in rebus, sunt certi denique fines,
quos ultra citraque nequit consistere rectum.

III.156 Cf. Vergil, Aeneid IX.225, laxabant curas et corda oblita laborum, and Statius, Thebais XII.599, sic ait oblitus bellique viaeque laborum.
III.157 Cf. Aeneid IX.615, iuvat indulgere choreis.
III.158 And calle angusto at Aen. IV.405.
III.159 And gaudet cognomine terra at Aen. VII.393.

IV This poem appears on pp. 157 - 62. Although the title and contents of this poem would lead one to think that it is a description of a fresco over the chapel altar of Magdalene College, Oxon., it in fact describes the chapel’s main west window, thought to be a seventeenth century copy of a painting by Christopher Shwarz (c. 1590): cf. An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the City of Oxford (Royal Commision on Historical Monuments, England, London, 1939) 72.
IV.2 Ardentiaque ora is found at Statius, Thebais II.673.
IV.3 Simulacra modis pallentia miris comes from Lucretius I.123, and was borrowed by Vergil, Georgics I.477.
IV.13 For stellis fulgentibus cf. Lucretius VI.637.
IV.18 Cf. alienisque ignibus at Ovid, Metamorphoses VII.610.
IV.21 This line echoes Vergil, Georgics I.367, flammarum longos a tergo albescere tractus.
IV.22 Lines 13ff. were printed as one paragraph, with a period after tractu, and 22 is indented. Thus this highly effective epic simile is misleadingly distributed over two paragraphs with a full stop after its first part.
IV.26 That “outlines” is here the correct translation of formas is shown by picturarum vulgus inane in the next line (the sketches have not yet been filled in). Vulgus inane is used, in a very different sense, by Statius, Thebais I.94.
IV.34 Plurima imago appears at Vergil, Aeneid II.369 and Martial, Epigrams I.lxx.6.
IV.36 At Bellum Civile VIII.371 Lucan wrote terra tumebit.
IV.37 Cf. Ovid, Fasti IV.644, ager luxuriabat and Martial, Epigrams XI.viii, luxuriosus ager.
IV.40 Possibly Addison was echoing Lucan, Bellum Civile IX.126, dispersit in oras (also at the end of a hexameter line).
IV.41 Diriguit is such a common misspelling of deriguit that it cannot safely be regarded as an printer’s error.
IV.43 For alliigat artus cf. Germanicus, Aratea 294, Seneca, Hercules Furens 1079, Oedipus 182, and Lucan, Bellum Civile IV.289f. (the first three examples are at line-end).
IV.46 An adaptation of Vergil, Aeneid VI.497, et truncas inhonesto vulnere naris.
IV.47 Addison may have been thinking of Statius, Thebais VI.821f., informe sepulcro / corpus.
IV.49 Suggested, perhaps, by Ovid, Metamorphoses IV.386, erigite huc artus.
IV50 Likewise, imagine tota may have been sutested by Metamorphoeses VI.586 and XIII.546.
IV.52f. Addison actually writes “if your face can tolerate,” but what does this mean? Thus these words seem to have been interpreted by his admirer, the young Walter Savage Landor. In the twelfth Latin poem in The Poems of Walter Savage Landor (1795), in recalling the pleasures of his time at Rugby, he wrote of boys telling each other scary stories:

nec operta stratis
Ora, cum longas timidasque ducit
Fabula noctes.

These lines can best be translated nor open eyes under blankets, when a tale produces long, frightened nights. Landor praised Addison’s Latin poetry in a prose essay contained in the same volume.
IV.53f. Cf. Lucretius II.150, lumenque serenum.
IV.57 For ore with forms of spiro cf. Lucretius II.705 and Statius, Thebais II.132.
IV.59 Vergil uses mutatus ab illo at Aeneid II.274 (also at the end of a hexameter line).
IV.63 For lex or leges fatorum, cf. the Vergilian Ciris 199, Tibullus III.iv.47, Seneca, Thyestes 74, Lucan, Bellum Civile VIII.568, and Statius, Achilleis I.685.
IV65 It is not quite clear what the sun is smaller than — the moon, or Christ Himself? Or just smaller than it normally appears?
IV.67 For vulnusque infixum cf. Vergil, Aeneid IV.689.
IV.68 Addison may have been thinking of Seneca, Oedipus 857, Ferrum per ambos tenue transactum pedes / ligabat artus, although it is more likely that the transacti ferri here is the lance that penetrated Jesus’ side.
IV.69 For umbrae felices cf. Seneca, Hercules Furens 796.
IV.72 For pueri, innuptaeque puellae cf. Vergil, Aeneid VI.307, Georgics IV.476, and Statius, Silvae I.i.12 (all these examples likewise occupy the second half of a hexameter line).
IV.74f. Cf. intonat aether at Aeneid VIII.239.
IV.77 Cf. pectore fervet at Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto III.ix.22.
IV.79 An echo of Ovid, Metamorphoses XIII.945, praecordia sensi (also at the end of the line).
IV.83 At Aeneid IX.734 Vergil has agnoscunt faciem (also at the beginning of the line).
IV.85 Coll. Magd. Fundator written in the margin. The College of Mary Magdalene, Oxon., was founded by William Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester, in 1459. Cf. Aeneid III.490, sic oculos, sic ille manus, sic ora ferebat.
IV.88 For irati numinis cf. Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto II.ii.109, Medicamina Faciei Femineae 83, and Tibullus
IV.89 Since the phrase also occurs at line-end, possibly it is relevant to cite Ovid, Amores II.viii.15, defixit ocellos.
IV.90 For quin age (always at the beginning of the line), cf. Vergil, Eclogue III.52, Georgics IV.329, Ovid, Heroides xiv.57, Statius, Achilleis I.949, Silvae III.i.154, and Thebais I.260. For commixtis igne tenebris (also occupyng the second half of a line) cf. Aeneid VIII.255.
IV.99f. Ensem fulmineum appears at Vergil, Aeneid IV.479, IX.441, Lucan, Bellum Civile 239, and Statius, Thebais X.271. In the first three of these examples it is distributed over two lines precisely as here.
IV.103 Aethere alto is a familiar classical phrase: Vergil, Aeneid IV.574 VI.436, VII.25, IX.644, Georgics IV.78, Ovid, Fasti II.131, Metamorphoses I.80, II.204, IV.623, X.720, Lucan, Bellum Civile, VII.447, VII.839, Statius, Thebais X.73.
IV.104 At Metamorphoses II.774 Ovid has suspiria ducit and at Met. I.656 suspiriia ducis, both at the end of the hexameter line.
IV.110 At lxvi.59 Catullus writes vario lumine.
IV.112 Gloria formae is used at the Vergilian Culex, 408 (also at line-end).

V This poem was printed on pp. 187 - 9.
V.1ff. These lines expland on Vergil, Aeneid XII.710, ut vacuo patuerunt aequore campi. Ovid, Amores III.v.5f. may also have been laid under contribution:

area gramineo suberat viridissima prato,
umida de guttis lene sonantis aquae.

V.7f. A lawn roller.
V.8 Cf. Vergil, Georgics IV.12, surgentis atterat herbas.
V.10 It seems slightly improbable that the balls were oiled to make them roll better: would this help? More likely Addison is describing them as being waxed, or possibly varnished.
V.13 Incisa notis is found at Horace, Odes IV.viii.13.
V.16 Diversa placet comes from Ovid, Metamorphoses I.260.
V.19 Accingitur armis is used at Vergil, Aeneid VI.184 (also at line-end).
V.20f. A small ball is rolled out on the green, serving as a target. Then each competitor strives to place his ball nearest to it (although facing the risk of having his ball knocked away by a later bowl), and as the number of balls clustered around the target grows greater each successive bowler’s task becomes more difficult. For the rest of the poem Addison writes as if it were simply a matter of each man competing on his own behalf, but lines 18f. suggest that somehow the participants are divided into two teams.
V.21 Forms of lego with vestigia are found at Ovid, Metamorphoses III.17, Lucan, Bellum Civile VIII.210, Statius, Silvae II.iii.22, and Thebais IX.171.
V.23 For exiguum orbem cf. Ovid, Heroides IV.80.
V.24 Radit iter is used by Vergil, Aeneid V.170 and 217, both times at the beginning of the line.
V.31 Cf. motus languescere at Lucretius III.1040.
V.33 The words imminet orbi are found at the end of Ovid, Metamorphoses II.7.
V.34 For segnis dexterae cf. Ovid, Tristia V.vii.19 and Statius, Silvae I.ii.65. For honos / honor with forms of servo cf. Vergil, Aeneid V.601, VII.3, Martial, Epigrams VIII.lxxx.5, and Statius, Thebais IX.705.
V.42f. Coeptum iter is an Ovidian phrase: Ars Amatoria III.360, Fasti I.188, Metamorphoses II.598, and Ps.- Ovid, Nux 182.
V.47 Inclinata recumbit comes from Vergil, Aeneid XII.59.
V.48 And intendit vires is suggested by Seneca, Phaedra 417f.
V.52 The comparison is with a chariot team bursting forth from the starting-gate at Olympus and running so quickly that the buildings it passes appear to the driver to be flying. It was probably suggested by Ovid, Heroides XVIII.166, ut celer Eleo carcere missus equus, but cf. also Tibullus I.4.32 and Lucan, Bellum Civile I.294.
V.53 Axe citato comes from Juvenal i.60.
V.57 Addison may have been thinking of Horace, Odes I.xiii.4, fervens difficili bile tumet iecur. Fortuna is called acerba at Ovid, Heroides xv.59, and cf. Lucan, Bellum Civile VII.649, fortunam damnare suam.
V.58 A comically bathetic misappropriation of Vergil, Eclogue v.23, atque deos atque astra vocat crudelia mater.
V.59 Aditumque patentem is suggested by Vergil, Aeneid IX.683 (cf. also the Vergilian Aetna 163).
V.60 And partoque honore by Aen. V.229.
V.61f. At first sight these two lines might strike the reader as redundant, but turba designates hitherto unmentioned spectators, and socii the victor’s fellow competitors. For line 61 cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses XII.214, festaque confusa resonabat regia turba, and Seneca, Hercules Furens 150, turbaque circa confusa sonat .
V.65f. Cf. Vergil, Eclogue ii.8, umbras et frigora captant.

VI Edward Hannes M. D. [d. 1710] of Christ Church was the University Reader of Chemistry. He contributed to at least two Oxford commemorative anthologies, on the death of Charles II (1685) and on William’s return from Ireland (1690): Bradner, op. cit. 208f. This poem appears on p. 199 - 201. Meter: Alcaic stanzas.
VI.1 An adaptation of Horace, Odes I.xxiv.13, Threicio blandius Orpheo.
VI.2 Vocale carmen comes from Ovid, Metamorphoses XI.317. For forms of duco with carmen / carmina cf. Propertius and 85 and Ovid, Tristia I.xi.18.
VI.4 For umbris with forms of revoco cf. Martial, Epigrams IV.xvi.5 and XI.v.13.
VI.5f. I. e., you convert prose into poetry. For solutos pedes as prose cf. Tibullus III.vii.36, Statius, Silvae II.vii.22 and V.iii.160.
VI.9 Eripe te morae is taken from Horace, Odes III.xxix.5.
VI.10 Cf. line 16 of the same poem, sollicitam explicuere frontem, and for the thought of this stanza, Horace, Sermones II.ii.125, explicuit vino contractae seria frontis.
VI.13 For plena pocula cf. Lucretius VI.950, Vergil, Georgics IV.378, Ovid Amores I.xv.36, Fasti III.301, and Metamorphoses IX.238.
VI.22f. Cf. poem I.92, in venis ebullit vividus humor.
VI.26 This line was written long after Harvey’s demonstration of the circulation of the blood. Addison perhaps had read Robert Grove’s 1685 poem Carmen de Circuitu Sanguinis (for which see Bradner, op. cit. 216).
VI.32 Cf. Lucretius III.656, reliquias animai.
VI.33 Here fabulae = “phantoms,” as at Horace, Odes I.iv.16.
VI.37 For vita with forms of decurro cf. Ovid, Tristia III.iv.22, Propertius II.xv.41, Seneca, Oedipus 891, and Juvenal ix.126.

VII This poem appears on pp. 243 - 6.
VII.1 This line is a close adaptation of Vergil, Georgics IV.3, admiranda tibi levium spectacula rerum.
VII.5f. This sentence lacks a main verb; one can only assume we are supposed to read compita [sunt].
VII.8 Cf. complere sedilia at Horace, Ars Poetica 205.
VII.11 Subtrahitur because in the Roman theater curtains were lowered rather than raised.
VII.12ff. A number of vertical strings hang from the front of the puppets’ stage so as to disguise the ones operating the marionettes. For angustos aditus cf. Vergil, Georgics IV.35.
VII.15 Cf. Addison’s poem IV.11f., velamine moenia crasso / Squallent obducta, et rudioribus illita fucis and also lines 91f. of the same poem, stagnantia fuco / Moenia.
VII.17f. Cf. Juvenal i.85f., quidquid agunt homines, uotum, timor, ira, voluptas, / gaudia, discursus, nostri farrago libelli est.
VII.18 Plebecula is used at Horace, Epistulae II.i.186 and Perseus iv.6. For rauca voce cf. Martial XIII.iii.15.
VII.19 If not exactly Punch (as stated by Bradner, op. cit. 223), this character may at least be reckoned as Punch’s ancestor.
VII.20 For fibula vestem at the end of the hexameter line cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses II.412, VIII.318 and Vergil, Aeneid IV.139 (also fibula vestit at Martial, Epigrams VII.lxxxii.1).
VII.21 Errantia lumina appears at Propertius III.xiv.27.
VII.24 For miratur turba cf. Vergil, Aeneid VII.813.
VII.25 Because he is larger the others he can strike them without fear of retaliation; to be sure, since he is a hunchback, one of his arms could be longer than the other — but what advantage would this provide upon which he could rely?
VII.28 For res agitur in this theatrical sense, cf. Horace, Ars Poetica 179, aut agitur res in scaenis aut acta refertur. For solleni pompa cf. Vergil, Aeneid V.53.
VII.31f. For protervo ore cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses XIV.63.
VII.32 Cf. Met. I.556, oscula dat ligno; refugit tamen oscula lignum.
VII.33f. In the book these two lines are printed as a separate paragraph. For membra fatigant cf. Lucretius III.491 (also at line-end).
VII.35 Spectabilis auro is an Ovidian phrase: Heroides ix.127, xiii.57, Metamorphoses VI.166 (all at the end of the line). For this and the following line more generally, cf. Vergil, Aeneid XII.126, ductores auro volitant ostroque superbi.
VII.37 Cf. festas luces at Horace, Odes
VII.40 Vergil, Aeneid I.291 is aspera tum positis mitescent saecula bellis:
VII.43 Addison was possibly recalling Aen. III.515, sidera cuncta notat tacito labentia caelo. Note also the echo of the description of faeries at III.157, Laetitiae penitus vacat.
VII.44ff. The same faeries and faery rings mentioned in Addison’s poem III.158f.
VII.49 Tenera is a standard epithet for herba in classical poetry. In Ovid’s Metamorphoses alone it is used at II.851, III.23, and XV.14.
VII.51 For bella, horrida bella cf. Aeneid XI.96.
VII.52 Arma cient appears at Statius, Thebais XI.487, also at the beginning of the line.
VII.56 Cf. hastas protendunt at Aeneid XI.605 and hastam protenderat at Statius, Thebais IX.90. Fulgentia arma is a common phrase in classical poetry: in the Aeneid, for example, it appears at II.749, VI.217, 861, X.550, XI.6, 188, and XII.275.
VII.57 This appears to describe a door (possibly a frame-and-door contraption specially built for the purpose) slammed offstage to create sound effects. So too were the firecrackers employed. For minaeque ingentes cf. Ovid, Heroides xii.208.
VII.60 Cf. Vergil, Aeneid IX.666, sternitur omne solum telis.
VII.61 Cf. Lucan, Bellum Civilis IV.258, civilis crimine belli (also at the end of the line).

VIII Thomas Burnet, Master of Charterhouse [1635? - 1715], was the author of, inter alia, a geological treatise entitled Telluris Theoria Sacra (published in 1681 with an English translation eight years later; a digitized photographic reproduction of the 1694 Amsterdam edition is available here, and one of the 1697 London edition here). According to Burnet’s theory (as summarized by the article in the D. N. B.), the earth was originally constructed like an egg. When its shell was crushed by the Deluge, its internal waters burst out, and the fragments of the shell formed mountains. This poem appears on pp. 284 - 6. It is written in Alcaic stanzas. (In academic contexts, the title dominus belonged to anybody who had been admitted to the B. A. degree.)
VIII.1 Cf. Horace, Odes, carminis alite.
VIII.2 And ib. III.xxv.17, nil parvum aut humili modo.
VIII.5 Burnet was no atomist. Rather, the phrase rerum semina is meant to suggest that Burnet reveals Natures’ secrets to his generation, just as Lucretius had for his contemporaries.
VIII.6ff. The mass of the world is divided into the estranged components of sea and land. The idea comes from Horace, Odes I. iii.21ff.:

nequiquam deus abscidit
prudens oceano dissociabili

VIII.13 Ingens fragor is found at Vergil, Aeneid VIII.527, XII.724, Ovid, Metamorphoses XI.507, and Statius, Thebais III.669.
VIII.16 For suppositas undas cf. Ovid, Heroides ii.133.
VIII.17 Medius liquor appears at Horace, Odes III.iii.46.
VIII.22 Solis imago is found at Ovid, Metamorphoses XIV.768, XV.785, Ibis 73, and Lucan, Bellum Civile V.446.
VIII.24 Cf. Vergil, Aeneid VII.8f., nec candida cursus / luna negat, splendet tremulo sub lumine pontus, and Ovid, Heroides xviii.59, luna fere tremulum praebebat lumen eunti.
VIII.29 Ferrea pectora appears at Juvenal vii.150.
VIII.30 For timido pede cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses IV.100 and Propertius III.xv.25.
VIII.32ff. Periodically the world reverts to its original egg-like state.
VIII.33 Lucretius had contemplated a similar event (V.545f.): quippe cadunt toti montes magnoque repente / concussu late disserpunt inde tremores. Vergil wrote fragmine montis at Aeneid IX.569 and X.698.
VIII.34 Vultum with forms of sumo is found at Ovid, Tristia V.viii.17, Juvenal iii.105, and Statius, Silvae
VIII.36 Cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses III.331, forma prior rediit.
VIII.38 For saevit hyems cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses XIII.709 and Statius, Silvae I.iv.121.
VIII.41 Athos is a conspicuous Greek mountain.
VIII.43 Cf. Lucan, Bellum Civile I.215, perque imas serpit valles.
VIII.45 For coeli moenia cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses II.401.
VIII.49 For aequa tellus cf. the Vergilian Elegiae in Maecenatem ii.159.
VIII.54 Perhaps suggested by Lucan, Bellum Civile X.183, mundique capacior hospes.

IX Printed in an 1689 Oxford anthology of gratulatory poetry on the accession of William and Mary.
IX.1 Cf. Vergil, Eclogue i.14, hic inter densas corylos, and ib. ii.3, tantum inter densas, umbrosa cacumina, fagos.
IX.2 Cf. ib. vii.5, et cantare pares et respondere parati., and ib. v.1, Cur non, Mopse, boni quoniam conuenimus ambo.
IX.3 For Dicamus laudes cf. dicere laudes at ib. vi.6. Cf. also heroum laudes at ib. iv.6.
IX.6 For munera laudum cf. Aeneid VIII.273 (also at line-end).
IX.7 Dederint because the task of restoring public tranquility in the wake of the Glorious Revolution that had ousted James II was not yet complete. Quies is often given the epithet placida in classical poetry: in Vergil, at Aeneid I.249, I.691, IV.5, V.836, IX.187, and Ciris 343.
IX8 Cf. Vergil, Eclogue i.5, formosam resonare doces Amaryllida silvas.
IX.9 They have condescended to accept the proferred throne of a troubled England, and to accept responsibility for repairing the nation. The line was evidently suggested by Lucan, Bellum Civile VIII.528, tu, Ptolemaee, potes Magni fulcire ruinam.
IX.10 Cf., perhaps, fragile …cicuta at Vergil, Eclogue v.85.
IX.11 The maxim is quoted from Tibullus II.x.6.
IX.13 Obviously a secularized version of the injunction from the marriage service in the Book of Common Prayer, “whom God hath joined together no let no man rend asunder.” In the book Amor is capitalized: in view of the common tendency of the time to capitalize common nouns, one cannot be sure whether Addison meant love in the abstract, or substituted the pagan god Amor for the God of the Church of England (which might strike some contemporary readers as faintly blasphemous).
IX.14 Addison was possibly thinking of Ovid, Fasti IV.723, alma Pales, faveas pastoria sacra canenti.
IX.15 More certainly, he was thinking of Horace, Odes - 12:

inbellisque lyrae Musa potens vetat
laudes egregii Caesaris et tuas
culpa deterere ingeni.

IX.16 The Muses were not Phoebus’ actual sisters, but sisters devoted to Phoebus’ arts.
IX.24 In search of the crown, William sailed from the Netherlands in November 1688. After James II had been ousted and the arrangements for their accession made, Mary crossed over from the Hague in February of the following year.
IX.26 For Arcades omnes at line-end cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses III.210.
IX.27 Agni are called teneri in Vergil’s Eclogues at i.8 and iii.103.
IX.31 Cf. haedique petulci at Vergil, Georgics IV.10
IX.35 England, Scotland, and Ireland.
IX36 Cf. Vergil, Aeneid XI.441, haud ulli veterum virtute secundus.
IX.38 Although this topos has a history that can be traced back to Alcmaeon’s Parthenion, Addison probably derived it from Horace, Odes I.xii.46 - 8:

micat inter omnis
Iulum sidus, velut inter ignis
luna minores.

IX.42 Cf. Vergil, Eclogue iii.101, idem amor exitium pecori pecorisque magistro.

X This poem was written for a 1690 Oxford gratulatory anthology issued on the occasion of William III’s return from Ireland, where he had defeated the combined forces of Tyrconnell’s rebel Irish, James II and the Jacobites, and troops furnished by Louis XIV, at the Battle of the Boyne and elsewhere. He landed in England on September 6. Addison’s English To the King was written to celebrate the same occasion.
X.1ff. Before William III took a firm hand, Tyrconnell’s revolt had thrown Ireland into chaos, and historians do write of the desolation described below.
X.4ff. Addison means the kind of English colonists in Ireland who stood by William and were beseiged by the rebels at Londonderry.
X.5 Cf. Vergil, Aeneid II.92, adflictus vitam in tenebris luctuque trahebam.
X.6 The picture is evidently suggested by Lucan’s of the neglect of Italian agriculture during the Civil War, Bellum Civile I.23, (sc. Hesperia) horrida quod dumis multosque inarata per annos. Cf. also Vergil, Aeneid IV.527f. aspera dumis / rura.
X.9 The French and the Jacobites.
X.14 For venturae…ruinae cf. Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto III.ii.11.
X.15f. The text of these two lines is, to one degree or another, defective. Even if we can accept the indicative senserat in the apodosis of a condition contrary to fact, minor appears to make no sense. I would imagine that Addison wrote something like prius and the idea is that Ireland would not have come to the point it required such harsh treatment, had it experienced the discipline of William’s rule at an earlier point.
X.17 English negligence had let Ireland’s affairs slide into anarchy.
X.19 sopitos suscitat ignes comes from Aeneid V.743.
X.22 Cf. Seneca, Hercules Furens 181, durae peragunt pensa sorores.
X.23 Cf. Aeneid VI.413, gemuit sub pondere cumba.
X.24ff. This description of William’s victories seems to be sufficiently impressionistic that it would be impractical to attempt to identify allusions to very many specific events. The first two lines probably refer to the first phase of the campaign, when the king’s arrival in Ulster forced the Jacobites to retreat down to the Boyne. Mention of a bog in 29 points to the Battle of the Boyne, where both sides were challenged by the difficulties of the marshy land.
Cf. corripit hostis at Aeneid XII.302 (also at line-end).
X.30 Cf. Aeneid II.26, ergo omnis longo soluit se Teucria luctu.
X.32f. Such, at any rate, was the reaction of Protestant Ulstermen.
X.36ff. Evidently this passage is a eulogy of George Villiers, first Duke of Buckingham [1628 - 1687]. If so, it is written with tongue set firmly in cheek. The Duke was rumored to have died in a squalid inn, he was notable for his “policy of sacrificing the interests of the church to the political exigiences of the moment ” (D. N. B.), and the pomp with which his embalmed corpse lay in state in the Abbey excited adverse comment. Buckingham was a courtier, not a soldier, but he had commanded the Royalist forces in the east during the uprising of 1650.
X.39 Exulibus dis of course refers to the exiled Anglican followers of Charles II during the Commonwealth.
X.40 Cf. Aeneid VI.403, Troius Aeneas, pietate insignis et armis.
X.42 For Heu pietas! heu prisca fides! cf. Aeneid VI.878.
X.44 A half line in imitation of the incomplete lines in the Aeneid.
X.46 Cf. Aeneid II.777f., non haec sine numine divum / eveniunt.
X.47 For aspera fata cf. Aen. VI.882, Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto, and Statius, Thebais I.174.
X.49 For Aemula…virtus cf. Horace, Epodes xvi.5 and Lucan, Bellum Civile I.120.
X.50 I decus i nostrum comes from Aeneid VI.546.
X.55 Cf., perhaps, Ps. - Seneca, Hercules Oetaeus 1629f., cadens latam sui / duxit ruinam.
X.51 William had first fought the French at Seneffe, in 1674.
X.56 Cf. Aeneid VI.135, insano iuvat indulgere labori.
X.58 For frontis honores at the end of the hexameter line cf. Statius, Silvae I.ii.113.
X.60 Cf. si mens non laevua fuisset at Vergil, Eclogue i.16 and Aeneid II.54.
X.63 Cf., perhaps, Seneca, Troades 540, gregem paternum ducit ac pecori imperat.
X.61 James’ second wife was the Catholic Mary of Modena.

XI.9 The Salic Law debarred women from inheriting the crown of France.

XII.3 Prince Eugene of Savoy, commander of the imperial forces in the War of the Spanish Succession, and his principal opponent, the French general Louis Joseph, Duc de Vendôme.
XII.4 Here the Teutons are England’s Dutch allies. In the following line, “the Basque” simply means the Spanish.

XIII In this epigram, obviously, Addison gloats over the discomfiture of Louis XIV.

XV This poem of course refers to the situation at the end of Book IV of the Aeneid, where Anna attends to her sister Dido’s funeral after her suicide.